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Sample records for alcohol hand rub

  1. Virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand rub disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro; Ayaki, Masahiko

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the virucidal activity of commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products against coxsackievirus A7, B5, feline calicivirus F9, and human adenovirus type 3, type 7, type 8 using susceptible cell lines, Vero cells, CRFK cells, and A549 cells. Fifteen tested hand rub products were ethanol (EtOH) for disinfection (Japanese Pharmacopoeia Grade), two EtOH-based products, one povidone iode-containing product, one alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride-containing product, six benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing products, and four chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG)-containing products. Some active ingredients (BAK, benzetonium chloride, and CHG) were diluted with EtOH to make 0.5% and 0.2% solutions. Virus inactivation rates were calculated after contact with each hand rub product for 10 or 60 seconds. Of the hand rub products tested, only the povidone iode-based product showed antiviral activity superior to that of EtOH against all the strains. EtOH solutions of active ingredients (0.2% and 0.5%) also showed decreased antiviral activity. In conclusion, antiviral activity of all the commercially available alcohol-based hand rub products except that containing povidone idode was dependent on their active ingredients. The povidone idode-containing hand rub product kept its effectiveness even after the dilution with EtOH. Although alcohol-based hand rub products are convenient and suitable for the control of some microbes, they are not generally recommended for the control of viral infections. PMID:22451431

  2. Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, H

    2001-08-01

    This report describes three different investigations undertaken to demonstrate the advantage of fluid alcoholic hand disinfectants. In the first study, the skin compatibility of Sterillium, a liquid alcoholic rub-in hand disinfectant was compared with that of Hibiscrub, a water-based handwashing antiseptic. Using various parameters such as image analysis of removed squames (D-squames), skin roughness or transepidermal water loss, Hibiscrub was found to be significantly inferior to Sterillium. Hibiscrub caused skin irritation in 15 volunteers who could not complete the test. In a second study, the microbicidal efficacy of Sterillium and Hibiscrub was tested in surgical hand disinfection. The microbial reduction by Sterillium was significantly greater than that of Hibiscrub, immediately after application as well as after the surgical procedure. In a third study, certain alcoholic gels were tested according to the EN 1500 'hygienic hand disinfection'. None of the gels tested passed the EN 1500 within 30s. However, Sterillium met the EN 1500 requirement within 30s. We conclude that Sterillium is superior to Hibiscrub in terms of skin tolerance and microbicidal efficacy in surgical hand disinfection. It is also superior to alcoholic gels. PMID:11759022

  3. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  4. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  5. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene. PMID:25366919

  6. Can intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs lead to passive alcoholization?

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m(3) per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  7. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  8. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis. PMID:21316990

  9. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB).1 After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. Results: All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P < 0.0001) and 3 h (P < 0.0001) after disinfection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among immediate post-values (P < 0.005). Septicidine was significantly the least effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Conclusions: Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice. PMID:25878700

  10. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shintre, Milind S; Gaonkar, Trupti A; Modak, Shanta M

    2006-09-01

    Healthcare workers are required to disinfect the hands several times a day using hand disinfectants, which leads to chronic hand exposure to high levels of antimicrobials contained in the disinfectants, which could compromise the skin integrity. This problem may be addressed by developing hand disinfectants containing synergistic combinations of small amounts of antimicrobials and other agents. The synergistic effect of farnesol and essential oils with several antimicrobials was studied in vitro to select an effective antimicrobial system in preservative concentration for use in healthcare hand rub. Farnesol and lemon oil showed synergistic activity against S. aureus, in combination with benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride, but not with other antimicrobials studied. All essential oils studied showed synergy with benzethonium chloride against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. An alcohol-based healthcare hand rub (ZBF hand rub) containing this unique synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride was then developed and its efficacy as a healthcare hand rub was evaluated in human volunteers according to the US FDA-TFM protocol using Serratia marcescens as a marker organism. The ZBF hand rub showed a 3.22 log(10) reduction in the microbial count after the first application and a 5.49 log(10) reduction after the tenth application in vivo and exceeds the US FDA-TFM criteria for healthcare hand rub. The ZBF hand rub did not irritate the hands when tested on human volunteers when applied 10 times everyday for five consecutive days. The ZBF hand rub exhibits more than 5.5 log(10) reduction in the microbial count within 15s and more than 2.8 log(10) reduction in the two types of viruses tested within 30s in vitro. When evaluated in an in vitro pig skin model, the ZBF hand rub shows better prolonged activity (20-35 min post-application) against transient bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) compared to other alcohol-based hand rubs. These

  11. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  12. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  13. Provision and consumption of alcohol-based hand rubs in European hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Schwab, F; Gastmeier, P; Pittet, D; Zingg, W; Sax, H; Gastmeier, P; Hansen, S; Grundmann, H; van Benthem, B; van der Kooi, T; Dettenkofer, M; Martin, M; Richet, H; Szilágyi, E; Központ, O E; Heczko, P B; Holmes, A; Kyratsis, Y; Ahmad, R; Allegranzi, B; Magiorakos, A; Cookson, B; Wu, A W

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene is considered to be the most effective way of preventing microbial transmission and healthcare-associated infections. The use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHRs) is the reference standard for effective hand hygiene. AHR consumption is a valuable surrogate parameter for hand hygiene performance, and it can be easily tracked in the healthcare setting. AHR availability at the point of care ensures access to optimal agents, and makes hand hygiene easier by overcoming barriers such as lack of AHRs or inconvenient dispenser locations. Data on AHR consumption and availability at the point of care in European hospitals were obtained as part of the Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) study, a framework 7 project funded by the European Commission. Data on AHR consumption were provided by 232 hospitals, and showed median usage of 21 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 9-37 mL) per patient-day (PD) at the hospital level, 66 mL/PD (IQR 33-103 mL/PD) at the intensive-care unit (ICU) level, and 13 mL/PD (IQR 6-25 mL/PD) at the non-ICU level. Consumption varied by country and hospital type. Most ICUs (86%) had AHRs available at 76-100% of points of care, but only approximately two-thirds (65%) of non-ICUs did. The availability of wall-mounted and bed-mounted AHR dispensers was significantly associated with AHR consumption in both ICUs and non-ICUs. The data show that further improvement in hand hygiene behaviour is needed in Europe. To what extent factors at the national, hospital and ward levels influence AHR consumption must be explored further. PMID:26417851

  14. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  15. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  16. Evaluation of the bactericidal efficacy of three different alcohol hand rubs against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, K E; Denyer, S P; Hosein, I K; Williams, G J; Maillard, J-Y

    2011-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of three alcohol hand rubs (AHRs) against Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test method and investigated the residual activity of AHRs and the effect of mechanical rubbing. A much longer contact time was required for the AHRs to achieve a bactericidal effect using the ex vivo test (between 10 and >20 min) compared with the in vitro test. Mechanical rubbing was found to increase the efficacy of the AHR compared to a rubbing control. Since the AHRs had no residual activity, the bactericidal effect achieved using the ex vivo test with contact times greater than the evaporation times (15 s) is unlikely to be achieved in practice. In view of such findings it is unlikely that AHRs are able to achieve a significant bactericidal effect (≥4 log(10) reduction) in practice, suggesting that contamination on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) may not be reduced enough to overcome the risk of cross-contamination and healthcare-associated infection. Since the AHRs had no residual effect they would be unable to prevent recolonisation of the hands of HCWs. PMID:21130519

  17. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  18. [Study of the bacterial reduction effects of dry hand rubbing without disinfectant].

    PubMed

    Hira, Daichi; Ogawa, Midori; Ishii, Tatsuya; Gono, Kaishi; Sakamoto, Takuro; Yamamura, Sohei; Masumoto, Naoya; Yasutomi, Masamichi; You, Chunlin; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2014-03-01

    Handwashing is the most basic method of preventing infection. Hand rubbing with an alcohol-based handrub, is the most efficient and popular method. We found in several case studies that 3 minutes of dry hand rubbing without any disinfectant decreases the number of hand bacteria. In this study of 54 samples taken from 47 test subjects, we tried to determine how effectively this method decreases hand bacterial numbers. Except for 12 samples that were indeterminate, the number of hand bacteria in 36 (85.7%) out of 42 samples decreased. The average rate of decrease was 49.4% and the maximum rate was 98.3%. Although the most effective duration of dry hand rubbing varied among individuals, we estimated that 2 minutes is optimal. As dry hand rubbing without disinfectants decreases hand bacteria, we suggest that it can be an effective alternate method in emergency situations when water, soap or disinfectants are unavailable. PMID:24633181

  19. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol. PMID:17719131

  20. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  1. Recommendations and requirements for soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel; Christiansen, Bärbel; Exner, Martin; Martiny, Heike; Sorger, Arno; Suchomel, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    chemicals and cleaning products. It must be possible to reprocess the dispenser and all of its permanent parts by applying machine based thermal disinfection at an A(0)-value of minimum 60 (e.g. 80°C/1 minute). Automatically portioning dispensers shall not fail during 200 hubs. The maximal allowed failure rate shall not exceed 1% (2 out of 200 consecutive hubs). A dispenser used for alcohol based hand rubs must allow keeping the alcohol concentration constant over a time period of 3 months. The maximum acceptable decrease in the concentration of the alcohol shall not exceed 5%. Liquid soap and hand rub dispensers with single-use pumps, ideally already mounted on the cartridge and to be discharged with the empty cartridge, are preferable. If pumps are used on the next consecutive cartridge, the manufacturer must provide the user with a detailed introduction for cleansing and reprocessing before further use. Because of forensic reasons it is recommended to place a good readable sign on the dispenser indicating e.g. "Apply alcohol based hand rubs only on the hand! Do not drink, avoid spraying into the eye or application on mucous membranes". It is regarded as an additional benefit, if the dispenser is able to document the consumption of hand rub or the frequency of hubs either mechanically or electronically. PMID:22558037

  2. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    PubMed

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value <0.01). Both substances evaluated clinically were also tested in vitro for virucidal efficacy against Human rhinovirus2 (HRV2) using a standardized assay. Both tested substances were poor within the contact time used in the hand-cleaning test. In conclusion, thorough and conventional hand washing with water and soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes. PMID:22246844

  3. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Below, Harald; Bieber, Nora; Kampf, Guenter; Toma, Cyril D; Huebner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A), 85% (hand-rub B) and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w). For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A), 630 mg (B), and 358 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.9% (C). After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A), 1542 mg (B), and 477 mg (C). The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A), 1.1% (B), and 0.5% (C). The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min), after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes). Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe. PMID:17927841

  4. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-10-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  5. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data

  6. Education of hand rubbing technique to prospective medical staff, employing UV-based digital imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Szilágyi, László; Demeter-Iclănzan, Annamária; Haidegger, Tamás; Wéber, György

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess the hand hygiene performance of medical students. Hand rubbing technique was evaluated by employing innovative UV-light-based imaging technology, identifying patterns and trends in missed areas after applying WHO's six-step protocol. This specially designed hand hygiene education and assessment program targeted 1,344 medical students at two distant sites in Central Europe. Students were introduced to a short video, presenting the basics of hand hygiene, and then received further demonstration from professional trainers, focusing on the correct execution of WHO's six-step technique. To verify the acquired skill, participants rubbed their hands with UV-marked alcohol-based solution. Digital images of the hands were recorded under UV light, followed by computer evaluation and assessment. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to the participants showing missed areas on their hands. The statistical analysis of missed spots was based on retrospective expert-driven manual evaluation. Significant difference in rubbing quality was found between female and male participants [35.3% (CI 95%: 33-38%) versus 29.0% (CI 95%: 27-31%), p < 0.001], dominant and non-dominant hands [43.4% (CI 95%: 39-48%) versus 34.9% (CI 95%: 32-38%), p = 0.002], and various zones of the hands' dorsal side. Based on the participants' feedback and the evaluation of the infection control specialists, it can be stated that the identification of typically missed patterns and the instant visual feedback have a vital role in improving the hand hygiene technique of prospective medical staff. PMID:27352974

  7. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  8. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  9. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  10. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  11. 27 CFR 20.118 - Rubbing alcohol general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubbing alcohol general-use formula. 20.118 Section 20.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND...

  12. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  13. Surgical hand disinfection with a propanol-based hand rub: equivalence of shorter application times.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ostermeyer, C; Heeg, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub at application times shorter than 3 min. The bacterial pre-value was obtained from the finger tips (prEN 12791). Subjects treated their hands with the reference procedure (n-propanol, 60%) for 3 min or the product (crossover design). Sterillium was applied for 3, 2, 1.5 and 1 min. Four other preparations were tested for 1 min. Post-values (immediate effect) were taken from one hand, and the other hand was gloved for 3h. After the gloves were removed, the second post-value was taken (sustained effect). Sterillium was more effective than the reference procedure at 3, 2 and 1.5 min (immediate and sustained effect). The immediate effect after 1 min was significantly lower [mean log(10) reduction factor (RF): 1.91+/-0.90 vs. 2.52+/-0.95; P=0.001], whereas the sustained effect was not (mean RF: 1.81+/-1.06 vs. 2.05+/-1.14; P=0.204). All other preparations failed the efficacy requirement at 1 min for both the immediate and sustained effect. Using 2 x 3 mL Sterillium for a total of 1.5 min for surgical hand disinfection was at least as effective as the 3-min reference disinfection. PMID:15749318

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of liquid crystal alignment on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Hong, Seok-Cheol; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Goto, Tomohisa; Shen, Y. R.

    2000-10-01

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy and second-harmonic generation have been used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and adsorbed 8CB liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. Strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxylike mechanism.

  15. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth. PMID:20034947

  16. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol. PMID:27617614

  17. [Effects of hand hygiene on feline calicivirus inactivation and removal as norovirus surrogate treated with antiseptic hand rubbing, wet wipes, and functional water].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohji; Hayashi, Yukinao; Akiba, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Yayoi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kai, Akemi; Yamada, Sumio; Sakai, Sachi; Hara, Motonobu

    2007-05-01

    As a preventive action plan against gastroenteritis caused by the Norovirus (NV), we studied hand hygiene effects using with three hand rubbing products, four wet wipe products, and two functional water types using Feline Calicivirus as a Norovirus surrogate. After treatment using antiseptic hand rubbing products containing chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium, and povidone-iodine, high inactivation detected by TCID50 was observed compared to products containing povidone-iodine, although no difference was seen in viral removal measured by the amount of viral genome copies in real-time-PCR. Among wet wipes soaked in chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium, benzoic acid and PHMB, two groups showed viral inactivation and removal. Two products were more effective for functional water, viral decrease was seen in rinsing in running electrolyzed acid water and handwashing by soap. Results underscore the importance of selection in hand washing metheds (alternative soap and also) in preventing viral gastroenteritis. PMID:17564112

  18. Ethanol in pre-surgical hand rubs: concentration and duration of application for achieving European Norm EN 12791.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, M; Rotter, M

    2011-03-01

    In Europe, ethanol is a common active agent in hand rub formulations and nowadays it is also recommended in guidelines for hand hygiene published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by the World Health Organization. However, data on the range of concentrations and durations of application providing a basis for passing the efficacy test of the European norm EN 12791 are still lacking. Therefore, the bactericidal efficacy of rubbing clean hands with pure ethanol in volume concentrations of 95%, 85% or 75% during 3 min was compared with that of the reference procedure of EN 12791 employing n-propanol 60% v/v for 3 min, immediately and 3h after disinfection. Ethanol 85% was also tested at a 5 min application. A Latin-square design was used with 20 randomly allotted volunteers. Whereas the mean immediate bacterial reductions caused by ethanol at concentrations of 75% (log RF 1.68) and 95% (log RF 2.70) were significantly less efficacious compared to that of the reference (log RF 3.27), at 85% they were not significantly less active with both applications, 3 and 5 min (log RFs 2.90 and 3.12, respectively). Three hours after antisepsis, the bacterial reduction on the gloved hand was only significantly less efficacious than that of the reference when 75% ethanol was used. It is concluded that ethanol-based hand rubs have a good chance of meeting the EN 12791 requirements if their ethanol concentration is >75% v/v but <95% v/v and if they are applied for at least 3 min. PMID:21190755

  19. In vitro-in vivo sequence studies as a method of selecting the most efficacious alcohol-based solution for hygienic hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaino, M J; Herruzo, I

    2010-05-01

    The use of alcohol-based hand rubs serves to reduce hospital-acquired infections. Many products of this type are now on offer and it is essential to know how to rank their efficacy. A sequence of tests is proposed here to compare any given new alcohol-based solution against the reference solution (60% 2-isopropyl-alcohol) with 30 s of contact time: (i) in vitro (with pig skin as carrier) testing of >30 species of microorganism; (ii) in vitro assessment of residual efficacy (after 30 min of drying); (iii) in vivo study of transient microbiota (modification of the EN 1500 standard procedure) using four ATCC strains; (iv) in vivo study of resident hand microbiota. After performing the in vitro evaluation of seven alcohol-based hand rubs, the two most efficacious (chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol and mecetronium- alcohol) were chosen and studied, comparatively with the reference solution (60% isopropyl alcohol), in vitro (for chemical sustainability on the skin) and in vivo (against transient and resident microbiota). Chlorhexidine-quac-alcohol proved to be significantly superior to mecetronium-alcohol or the reference solution in all tests, except against resident microbiota for which the improvement was not statistically significant. PMID:19624506

  20. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and acceptability of an alcohol-based hand rinse with two alcohol-based hand gels during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Barbut, Frédéric; Maury, Eric; Goldwirt, Laurianne; Boëlle, Piérre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Aman, Rubina; Rossi, Beatrice; Offenstadt, Georges

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the antibacterial efficacy of handrubbing with an alcoholic rinse (AHRR) and two different alcoholic gels (AHRG) in reducing hand contamination under practical use conditions. We wanted to assess the acceptability of the three products and to determine the effect of each product on overall hand hygiene compliance. A prospective alternating time-series clinical trial was performed in a medical intensive care unit. The study was divided into three six-week periods (P1, P2, P3). Handrubbing was achieved with Sterillium rinse (AHRR) during P1, sterillium gel(AHRG-1) during P2 and Manugel Plus (AHRG-2) during P3. Pre- and post-rubbing hand contaminations were assessed immediately after a direct contact with a patient, using the glove juice technique. Health care workers (HCWs) evaluated the acceptability of the products through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Compliance of HCWs with hand hygiene was assessed during the three periods. We studied 242 handrubbing opportunities. The mean reduction factor (expressed as the Log(10) CFU/mL) of the AHRR, AHRG-1 and AHRG-2 were 1.28+/-0.95, 1.29+/-0.84 and 0.51+/-0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Assessment of the three products by HCWs indicated that AHRR and AHRG-1 were significantly better accepted than AHRG-2. The overall compliance of HCWs to hand hygiene was better when gel was available. Under practical use conditions, AHRG-1 and AHRR were more effective than AHRG-2, although all were claimed to pass the European standard EN1500. In vivo trials are essential to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of products for handrubbing. PMID:17513011

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  2. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, Katrin; Meyer, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Rödger, Hans-Joachim; Hintzpeter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall risk of hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics to become contaminated with bacterial spores throughout the production process and the subsequent in-use period, hence posing a public health risk. Methods: Microbiological assessment of primary packaging material was carried out and long-term survival of bacterial spores in alcohol was assessed using sporulated B. subtilis ATCC 6633 as a standard. In-use contamination of alcohol-based formulations was tested by repeated use over 12 months under practical conditions and microbiological and physico-chemical data were determined. Results: Among 625 containers analyzed, 542 did not yield any microbial growth. Median colony count for aerobic spore-forming bacteria was 0.2 cfu/10 ml container content. No anaerobic spore-forming bacteria were detected. Additionally, long-term survival of bacterial spores in aliphatic C2–C3 alcohols revealed 1-propanol to reduce the number of spores most effectively, with 2-propanol and ethanol having a somewhat less pronounced impact. In-use tests did not detect any microbial contamination or change in the physicochemical properties of the tested products over 12 months. Conclusions: Our data reveals that state-of-the-art production processes of alcohol-based hand rubs and antiseptics can be regarded safe. Primary packaging material and use were not found to pose a significant contamination risk as far as bacterial spores are concerned. Based on the data from this study, a microbial limit of <1 cfu/10 ml can be suggested as a quality-control threshold for finished goods to ensure high quality and safe products. PMID:24327945

  3. Texture Rubbings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    As hands-on environmental observers, children use printing to save and share "treasures" they find. In this article, the author shares thoughts which are based on observing what children find valuable and worth saving, and the printmaking processes used to "lift" images from their finds.

  4. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  5. New non-alcoholic formulation for hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Giachetti, Daniela; Miraldi, Elisabetta; Figura, Natale

    2014-04-01

    Hand washing is considered as the single most important strategy to prevent infections. World health organization (WHO) defines hand hygiene as a primary issue of personal care with particular reference to hospital personnel and health facility workers. In this work, we investigated a new combination for hand disinfection as an alternative to alcohol-based and chlorhexidine products. The new combination of 5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) and copper sulphate pentahydrate (CS) was tested upon different bacterial species that normally colonize hands, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MR S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis, multidrug resistant S. epidermidis (MDR S. epidermidis), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and three clinical isolates: MR S. aureus, MDR S. epidermidis, and an E. coli strain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices, and fractional bactericidal concentration (FBC) indices were evaluated. Ethanol 70% V/V, isopropanol 60% V/V, and 4% w/V chlorhexidine solution were used as reference hand disinfectants. Copper sulphate pentahydrate was very effective against all tested microorganisms: The MIC and MBC for CS ranged from 781 mg/l against S. pyogenes to 12500 mg/l against E. coli strains and C. albicans. In addition, PCA exhibited a good antimicrobial activity, in particular, against S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae. The combination of CS and PCA showed a strong synergistic effect and all FIC indices were ≤0·500. The combination of CS and PCA were more effective than ethanol 70% V/V and isopropanol 60% V/V. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the new formulation possesses peculiar features such as residual activity and moisturizing effect. This work identifies a new strategy for hand disinfection. PMID:24090970

  6. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  7. Compressor seal rub energetics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverty, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The rub mechanics of compressor abradable blade tip seals at simulated engine conditions were investigated. Twelve statistically planned, instrumented rub tests were conducted with titanium blades and Feltmetal fibermetal rubstrips. The tests were conducted with single stationary blades rubbing against seal material bonded to rotating test disks. The instantaneous rub torque, speed, incursion rate and blade temperatures were continuously measured and recorded. Basic rub parameters (incursion rate, rub depth, abradable density, blade thickness and rub velocity) were varied to determine the effects on rub energy and heat split between the blade, rubstrip surface and rub debris. The test data was reduced, energies were determined and statistical analyses were completed to determine the primary and interactive effects. Wear surface morphology, profile measurements and metallographic analysis were used to determine wear, glazing, melting and material transfer. The rub energies for these tests were most significantly affected by the incursion rate while rub velocity and blade thickness were of secondary importance. The ratios of blade wear to seal wear were representative of those experienced in engine operation of these seal system materials.

  8. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  9. Rub tolerant shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Jr., Charles H. (Inventor); Lenahan, Dean T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A seal structure between first and second relatively moveable members for preventing gas flow in the space between the members and transverse to their general direction of motion is disclosed. The seal structure includes a plurality of substantially parallel strips within 30.degree. of normal to the radial plane generally containing these first and second relatively moveable members. The strips are thin and closely spaced and arranged so that one strip edge is attached to the first member and another edge is free to resiliently deflect when in rubbing contact with the second member.

  10. The Effects of Surgical Hand Scrubbing Protocols on Skin Integrity and Surgical Site Infection Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Mehigan, Sinead

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review aimed to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence regarding the effect of surgical-scrub techniques on skin integrity and the incidence of surgical site infections. Databases searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central. Our review was limited to eight peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials and two nonrandomized controlled trials published in English from 1990 to 2015. Comparison models included traditional hand scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine against alcohol-based hand rubbing, scrubbing with a brush versus without a brush, and detergent-based antiseptics alone versus antiseptics incorporating alcohol solutions. Evidence showed that hand rubbing techniques are as effective as traditional scrubbing and seem to be better tolerated. Hand rubbing appears to cause less skin damage than traditional scrub protocols, and scrub personnel tolerated brushless techniques better than scrubbing using a brush. PMID:27129749

  11. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  12. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  13. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  14. Second-hand drinking may increase support for alcohol policies: New results from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Harms of second-hand smoke motivated tobacco control legislation. Documenting the effects of harms from others’ drinking might increase popular and political will for enacting alcohol policies. We investigated the individual-level relationship between having experienced such harms and favoring alcohol policy measures, adjusting for other influences. Design and Methods We used the landline sample (n = 6957) of the 2010 National Alcohol Survey, a computer assisted telephone interview based on a random household sample in US states. Multi-variable regression models adjusted for personal characteristics including drinking pattern (volume and heavy drinking) investigated the ability of six harms from other drinkers to predict a 3-item measure of favoring stronger alcohol policies. Results Adjusting for demographics and drinking pattern, number of harms from others’ drinking predicted support for alcohol policies (P < 0.001). In a similar model, family- and aggression-related harms, riding with a drunk driver and being concerned about another’s drinking all significantly influenced alcohol policy favorability. Discussion Although cross-sectional data cannot assure a causal influence or directionality, the association found is consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing harms from others’ drinking (experienced by a majority) makes one more likely to favor alcohol policies. Other things equal, women, racial/ethnic minorities, lower income individuals and lighter drinkers tend to be more supportive of alcohol controls and policies. Conclusions Studies that estimate the impact of harms from other drinkers on those victimized are important and now beginning. Next we need to learn how such information could affect decision makers and legislators. PMID:24761758

  15. Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Alyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in…

  16. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. PMID:24209795

  17. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. [SURGICAL HAND WASHING: HANDSCRUBBING OR HANDRUBBING].

    PubMed

    Santacatalina Mas, Roser; Peix Sagues, Ma Teresa; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Claramunt Jofre, Marta; López López, Alba; Salas Marco, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The importance of protocols for preoperative antisepsis of the hands is given by the risk of transferring bacteria from the hands of the surgical team to the patient during surgery and it is relationship with infection of surgical wound site (SSI). Careful surgical scrub reduces the number of bacteria on the skin, but does not eliminate them completely, remaining transient microorganisms on hands after the surgical scrub. There fore if micropuncture in surgical gloves occurs, the correct preoperative preparation of hands and double gloving will be essential to reduce the risk of bacterial transmission to patients. The protocols for surgical hand antisepsis are two: Surgical scrub with antiseptic soap (hand scrubbing). Surgical scrub by rubbing alcohol (handrubbing). The hand antisepsis by rubbing with an alcohol solution has proved to be significantly more effective compared to soap solutions. We must also see that in surgical hand antisepsis with soap, you must rinse them with water. And often hospitals' taps and keys are contaminated by Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeuinosa. PMID:27101645

  19. Blade Tip Rubbing Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary A.; Clough, Ray C.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical model was constructed to predict the magnitude of stresses produced by rubbing a turbine blade against its tip seal. This model used a linearized approach to the problem, after a parametric study, found that the nonlinear effects were of insignificant magnitude. The important input parameters to the model were: the arc through which rubbing occurs, the turbine rotor speed, normal force exerted on the blade, and the rubbing coefficient of friction. Since it is not possible to exactly specify some of these parameters, values were entered into the model which bracket likely values. The form of the forcing function was another variable which was impossible to specify precisely, but the assumption of a half-sine wave with a period equal to the duration of the rub was taken as a realistic assumption. The analytical model predicted resonances between harmonics of the forcing function decomposition and known harmonics of the blade. Thus, it seemed probable that blade tip rubbing could be at least a contributor to the blade-cracking phenomenon. A full-scale, full-speed test conducted on the space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump Whirligig tester was conducted at speeds between 33,000 and 28,000 RPM to confirm analytical predictions.

  20. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group. PMID:11885342

  1. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation. PMID:23921290

  2. Impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer intervention on the spread of viruses in homes.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Akrum H; Carlino, Sheri; Edmonds, Sarah; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the movement of a virus throughout a household and the impact of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) on reducing the movement and exposure of the virus to household members. Bacterial virus MS-2 was used as the surrogate for human enteric and respiratory viruses. Seven households with families having at least two children in the age range of 2-18 living in the home were used in this study. The hands of one adult family member were contaminated with 1 × 10(8). MS-2 bacteriophage in each home. After 8 h, the hands of each family member (10 fingers) and 20 frequently touched fomites were sampled to determine baseline contamination without intervention. Within 8 h, MS-2 was detected on all of the family member's hands and most of the fomites. The intervention consisted of providing the families in all selected homes with bottles of an ABHS, which were placed in the kitchen, bathrooms, and nurseries. Smaller individual bottles were provided for each family member greater than 12 years old to place in purses, pockets, backpacks, etc. The families were instructed to use the ABHS one time or three times during the day. For one and three uses, a statistically significant reduction of virus on un-inoculated and inoculated hands of ~99% occurred within 8 h. Similar reductions occurred on fomites throughout the households (97-99%). These results demonstrate that the use of an ABHS can significantly reduce transfer of a virus to the hands, and to the commonly touched surfaces within the household. PMID:24728950

  3. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  4. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    PubMed

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  5. Closing the hand hygiene gap in the postanesthesia care unit: a body-worn alcohol-based dispenser.

    PubMed

    Petty, William Clayton

    2013-04-01

    Clinicians who work in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), operating room (OR), and intensive care unit (ICU) have a greater opportunity to cross-contaminate patients because of high workloads and frequent patient contact events. Much progress has been made to increase hand hygiene compliance with the introduction of alcohol-based wall, bedside, and pocket dispensers. The introduction of body-worn alcohol-based dispensers to anesthesia and ICU providers has been shown to decrease ICU hospital-acquired infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias, and decrease contamination of the anesthesia workplace. Body-worn alcohol-based dispensers are an improvement in ergonomics, especially for those working in high intensity areas. The unit worn on the belt or scrubs waist is readily accessible, can be activated with one hand, and can be a vital tool to close the gap for hand hygiene. PMID:23522268

  6. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can

  7. Partial rotor-to-stator rub demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, R.

    1985-01-01

    A rotor radial rub typically occurs in seals or at a blade tip or shroud when there is insufficient clearance, high vibration, or the shaft equilibrium position has been displaced to effectively limit the clearance (eccentricity). There are two extreme cases of radial rubs: full annular rub, when the rotor maintains continuous contact with the seal, etc.; and a partial rub, when the contact occurs during a fraction of the precession period. They both involve similar physical phenomena such as friction and modification of stiffness. In partial rubs with consecutive impacts, a significant average value of radial force is generated. This results in shaft average displacement in the direction opposite the rub location. The rotor rig demonstrates the characteristics of a partial lateral rub of varying severity and location. These characteristics include: (1) subharmonic components as a function of rotative speed/first balance resonance ratio and radial force; (2) higher harmonic content as a function of severity; (3) increased average rotor stiffness resulting in increased first balance resonance speed; and (4) change in overall orbital pattern as a sum of the unbalance response (1x) and subharmonic response (1nx).

  8. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Pittet, Didier

    2002-12-01

    The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included. PMID:12461507

  9. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  10. Impact of Perceived Second-Hand Consequences Related to Alcohol Use on College Students' Drinking Behavior Intent: A Test of Feasibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew; Reis, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the impact of a group discussion about second-hand consequences of alcohol use on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results reveal that intervention group participants reported intent to limit themselves to fewer drinks per drinking occasion and fewer drinks per week.…

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  12. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOILED Duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED! OTHERWISE, USE HANDRUB Duration of the entire procedure: 40-60 seconds 1 a 1 b 2 012 Apply a palmful of the product in a cupped hand, covering all surfaces; Rub hands palm to palm; ...

  13. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choojin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  14. Structural Color Painting by Rubbing Particle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-01-01

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings. PMID:25661669

  15. A Reality Rub Interview: "Out for Blood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecser, Frank A.; Martin, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the goals of Reality Rub Life Space Crisis Intervention, and provides the transcript of an interview with a troubled youth to illustrate the way the intervention techniques works. Goals include correcting interpersonal distortions and misperceptions; identifying defenses; and connecting behavior, feelings, stressful events, and…

  16. 7 CFR 51.1220 - Leaf or limb rub injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf or limb rub injury. 51.1220 Section 51.1220... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1220 Leaf or limb rub injury. “Leaf or limb rub injury” means that the scarring is not smooth, not light colored, or aggregates...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. Sum-Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of a Rubbed Polymer Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Hong, Seok-Cheol; Goto, Tomohisa; Shen, Y. R.

    1999-05-01

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy has been used to probe the chain orientation of polyvinyl alcohol at the surface after rubbing. The distribution function of the chain orientation is determined quantitatively. The orientational order parameter of the chains deduced from the distribution matches well with that of a liquid crystal monolayer deposited on the polymer, proving that the polymer surface can align a liquid crystal film through orientational epitaxy.

  20. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not available it is okay to air dry your hands. Pat your skin rather than rubbing to avoid chapping and cracking. If you use a disposable towel, throw it in the trash. Remember: If soap and ... ...

  1. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  3. Digital imaging for the education of proper surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Nagy, Melinda; Lehotsky, Akos; Szilágyi, László

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the undesirable result of a treatment in a hospital, or a health care service unit, not related to the patient's original condition. Despite the evolution of medicine, fundamental problems with hand hygiene remain existent, leading to the spread of nosocomial infections. Our group has been working on a generic solution to provide a method and apparatus to teach and verify proper hand disinfection. The general idea is to mark the skin surfaces that were sufficiently treated with alcoholic hand rub. Digital image processing is employed to determine the location of these areas and overlay it on the segmented hand, visualizing the results in an intuitive form. A non-disruptive ultraviolet marker is mixed to a commercially available hand rub, therefore leaving the original hand washing workflow intact. Digital images are taken in an enclosed device we developed for this purpose. First, robust hand contour segmentation is performed, then a histogram-based formulation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed for the classification of clean versus dirty regions, minimizing the processing time of the images. The method and device have been tested in 3 hospitals in Hungary, Romania and Singapore, on surgeons, residents, medical students and nurses. A health care professional verified the results of the segmentation, since no gold standard is available for the recorded human cases. We were able to identify the hand boundaries correctly in 99.2% of the cases. The device can give objective feedback to medical students and staff to develop and maintain proper hand disinfection practice. PMID:22003751

  4. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  5. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ▿

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  6. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Development and marketing authorisation.

    PubMed

    Stengele, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A 2005 survey showed that there are at least four legal product classifications for hand disinfectants in the European Union: medicinal products, biocidal products, cosmetics and medical devices. An internationally harmonized classification does not exist. The regulatory status of those products is defined at national level. In order to assure compliance with the regulations these four classifications provide different levels of official surveillance varying from product-specific marketing authorisations and production site audits to the obligation to just work in accordance with certain general guidelines. Biocidal product regulations cover eco-toxicological and toxicological aspects, but do not very much address to the customers' quality and efficacy expectations. In contrast, the medicinal product legislation is the most ambitious one claiming quality, safety, efficacy, and an independent benefit risk-assessment by an authority. In respect of ambition, the two remaining product categories--cosmetics and medical devices--rank between the both classifications mentioned above. For medical devices, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to make sure the products meet defined essential requirements regarding quality, safety and performance and to have an appropriate quality assurance system implemented under third party control. For cosmetics there are some legal restrictions, but within these it is the sole responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the products are safe and fulfil their claims. This paper describes one way out of this increasingly complex situation, the definition of a single quality standard meeting the users' expectations as well as all legal requirements regardless of the specific sales country. This international quality standard for products would take priority over any individual national standard, to the benefit of users. PMID:18994682

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  9. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care. PMID:27236515

  10. Skin care: an essential component of hand hygiene and infection control.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Linda

    Skin care is an important component of hand hygiene and also infection prevention education programmes relating to hand hygiene (Bissett, 2007a,b). Hand hygiene is the term commonly used to describe hand washing using plain soap or antiseptic soaps and hand rubbing using waterless antiseptic products or alcohol-based products. The importance of effective hand hygiene is well documented (Larson, 1997; Boyce et al, 2002; Horton and Parker, 2002) and can be achieved by following the six-step technique used for hand washing as illustrated by the Royal College of Nursing (2000). During hand washing, hand soaps not only remove soils, but also the natural oils that protect the skin. This can vary depending on the frequency of hand washing, the temperature of the water and the ability of the soap to be rinsed from the surface of the hands (Starobin, 2007). This article aims to examine the evidence available to enable healthcare staff to make an informed decision on the importance of following a skin care regime to reduce the risk of bacterial loading on the hands caused by damaged skin. This would consequently lead to an improvement in hand hygiene efficacy. PMID:18026035

  11. Hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care associated infections are more predominant in developing countries where Hand hygiene compliance is associated with so many factors. However, these factors have not been studied so far in the study area. This study sought to determine Hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013 in Gondar University Hospital. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 405 health care providers. Standardized questionnaire and world health organization observational checklist was used to collect the data. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model was used to summarize the result. Results A total of 405 study participants were interviewed and observed with a response rate of 96.4%. Good Hand hygiene compliance of healthcare providers was found to be 16.5%. Having knowledge about hand hygiene compliance, (AOR = 3.80, 95% CI 1.60, 8.97), getting training (AOR = 2.60, 95% Cl 1.21, 5.62), the presence of individual towel/tissue paper (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.03, 3.56) presence of alcohol based hand rub for Hand hygiene compliance (AOR = 6.58, 95% CI 2.67, 16.22) and knew the presence of infection prevention committees (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.23, 5.37) were significantly associated with hand hygiene compliance. Conclusions Hand hygiene compliance among health care providers in Gondar University Hospital was found to be low. It is better to give training on Hand hygiene compliance and provide Alcohol based hand rub and individual towel or tissue paper for hand hygiene compliance. PMID:24479696

  12. The Snowball Blizzard Incident: A Reality Rub Life Space Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.; Pinciotti, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on Reality Rub Interview, one type of Life Space Interview (LSI), effective intervention strategy for use during crisis work with troubled students. Presents actual Reality Rub Interview, used with students who have "social blindness, social myopia, and tunnel vision" and who, when upset, misinterpret words and behaviors of others.…

  13. Field experiences with rub induced instabilities in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggin, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Rotordynamic instability problems are not uncommon in high speed industrial turbomachinery. One type of the many destabilizing forces that can occur is caused by a rub between the stationary and rotating parts. Descriptions are given of several cases of rub induced instabilities. Included in the descriptions are the conditions at onset, the whirl frequency and direction, and the steps taken to eliminate the problem.

  14. Order parameters of the liquid crystal interface layer at a rubbed polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Li; Tohyama, Takeshi; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Uchida, Tatsuo

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, the liquid crystal (LC) order parameters of the interface layers at rubbed polymer surfaces were studied. The LC films in this study were made with either polyvinyl alcohol or polyimide and the test LCs were filled into wedge-shaped cells for various measurements. The real distribution of order parameters from LC bulk to the interface was obtained by measuring the anisotropic infrared absorbance of sample films. It was found that the order parameters start to decrease where the LC layer thickness is smaller than 10nm, and the order parameter of LC monolayer at the rubbed polymer surface is only 1/3-1/2 of that of the LC bulk even in a strong rubbing condition. When the temperature was increased to the transition point, the LC interface layer (excluding the adsorption monolayer) completed the phase transition while the bulk layer remained in LC phase. This was a further evidence that the order parameter of the interface layer is lower than that of the bulk.

  15. Simulation of casing vibration resulting from blade-casing rubbing and its verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.

    2016-01-01

    In order to diagnose effectively the blade-casing rubbing fault, it is very much necessary to simulate the casing vibration correctively and study the casing signals' characteristics under blade-casing rubbing. In this paper, the casing vibrations in aero-engine resulting from the blade-casing rubbing are simulated. Firstly, an improved aero-engine blade-casing rubbing model is introduced, in which, the effects of the number of blades and changes in the rotor-stator clearance on rubbing forces are considered, the improved rubbing model can simulate rubbing faults for various rubbing conditions, including single-point, multi-point, local-part, and complete-cycle rubbing on the casing and rotor. Secondly, the rubbing model was applied to the rotor-support-casing coupling model, and the casing acceleration responses under rubbing faults are obtained using the time integration approach, which combines the Newmark-β method and an improved Newmark-β method that is a new explicit integral method named the Zhai method. Thirdly, an aero-engine rotor tester with the casings was used to carry out rubbing experiments for single-point rubbing on the casing and complete-cycle rubbing on the rotor, the simulation result was found to agree well with the experimental values, and the improved blade-casing rubbing model was fully verified. Finally, other rubbing faults were simulated for various rubbing conditions and their rubbing characteristics were analyzed.

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. Influence of rubbing on rotor dynamics, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.; Franklin, Wesley D.; Hayashida, Robert D.; Kingsley, Lori M.; Curry, Arthur E.

    1989-01-01

    The results of analytical and experimental research on rotor-to-stationary element rubbing in rotating machines are presented. A characterization of physical phenomena associated with rubbing, as well as a literature survey on the subject of rub is given. The experimental results were obtained from two rubbing rotor rigs: one, which dynamically simulates the space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP), and the second one, much simpler, a two-mode rotor rig, designed for more generic studies on rotor-to-stator rubbing. Two areas were studied: generic rotor-to-stator rub-related dynamic phenomena affecting rotating machine behavior and applications to the space shuttle HPFTP. An outline of application of dynamic stiffness methodology for identification of rotor/bearing system modal parameters is given. The mathematical model of rotor/bearing/seal system under rub condition is given. The computer program was developed to calculate rotor responses. Compared with experimental results the computed results prove an adequacy of the model.

  18. Quantitative impact of direct, personal feedback on hand hygiene technique.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Á; Szilágyi, L; Ferenci, T; Kovács, L; Pethes, R; Wéber, G; Haidegger, T

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of targeting hand hygiene technique using a new training device that provides objective, personal and quantitative feedback. One hundred and thirty-six healthcare workers in three Hungarian hospitals participated in a repetitive hand hygiene technique assessment study. Ultraviolet (UV)-labelled hand rub was used at each event, and digital images of the hands were subsequently taken under UV light. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to participants, showing missed areas on their hands. The rate of inadequate hand rubbing reduced from 50% to 15% (P < 0.001). However, maintenance of this reduced rate is likely to require continuous use of the electronic equipment. PMID:26136103

  19. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ∼9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P < 0.01) to tomatoes than did dicing with bare hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P < 0.05). These results highlight that both glove use and adequate hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  20. Rub failure signature analysis for large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengjia, He; Yudi, Sheng; Liangsheng, Qu

    1990-09-01

    In many cases rub failure in large rotating machinery may produce noise in certain bandwidths known as coloured noise. It is difficult to diagnose rub failure between rotating and stationary parts using only ordinary FFT spectra or autoregressive spectra. In this paper, a new technique combining principal components analysis and autoregressive spectra (PCAT) is introduced. This technique can reasonably estimate the spectra and determine the chief characteristic parameter of the coloured noise. A successful example of rub failure analysis given in this paper shows that PCAT is an efficient method for use with large rotating machinery.

  1. Influence of rubbing on rotor dynamics, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.; Franklin, Wesley D.; Hayashida, Robert D.; Kingsley, Lori M.; Curry, Arthur E.

    1989-01-01

    Rotor dynamic behavior depends considerably on how much the specific physical phenomena accompanying rotor rubbing against the stator is involved. The experimental results of rotor-to-stator rubbing contact are analyzed. The computer code is described for obtaining numerical calculations of rotor-to-stator rubbing system dynamic responses. Computer generated results are provided. The reduced dynamic data from High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP) hot fire test are given. The results provide some significant conclusions. Information is provided on the electronic instrumentation used in the experimental testing.

  2. The response of turbine engine rotors to interference rubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for the direct integration of a rotor dynamics system experiencing a blade loss induced rotor rub. Both blade loss and rotor rub were simulated on a rotor typical of a small gas turbine. A small change in the coefficient of friction (from 0.1 to 0.2) caused the rotor to change from forward to backward whirl and to theoretically destroy itself in a few rotations. This method provides an analytical capability to study the susceptibility of rotors to rub induced backward whirl problems.

  3. Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by health care workers.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S A; Foster, C L; Hedderwick, S A; Kauffman, C A

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine differences in microflora on the nails of health care workers (HCWs) wearing artificial nails compared with control HCWs with native nails and to assess the effect on these microflora of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Cultures were obtained from 21 HCWs wearing artificial nails and 20 control HCWs before and after using antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Before cleansing with soap, 86% of HCWs with artificial nails had a pathogen (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, or yeasts) isolated, compared with 35% of controls (P=.003); a similar difference was noted before hand cleansing with gel (68% vs. 28%; P=.03). Significantly more HCWs with artificial nails than controls had pathogens remaining after hand cleansing with soap or gel. Of HCWs with artificial nails, only 11% cleared pathogens with soap compared with 38% with gel. Of control HCWs, only 14% cleared with soap compared with 80% with gel. Artificial acrylic fingernails could contribute to the transmission of pathogens, and their use by HCWs should be discouraged. PMID:11170943

  4. Evaluation of two different hand hygiene procedures during routine patient care.

    PubMed

    Eksi, F; Mehli, M; Akgun, S; Bayram, A; Balci, I; Aydin, N

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing (HW) and hand washing plus rubbing with an alcohol-based solution (HWR) on numbers of total and transient flora colonies on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) during routine patient care was assessed. Samples were collected, using a standard bag broth technique, from the hands of 154 HCWs, before and immediately after carrying out a hand hygiene procedure. The numbers of total and transient flora colonies per plate were counted and transient pathogens were identified. A significant statistical difference between ward speciality was detected with respect to the isolation rate of transient flora. Transient hand flora were recovered from 25.3% of HCWs before carrying out the hand hygiene procedure. With respect to the disappearance and prevention of regrowth of transient flora after hand hygiene, the HWR technique was significantly more effective than HW. In conclusion, a disinfectant should be added to the hand washing process to achieve optimum protection against nosocomial infections in routine hospital practice. PMID:21227014

  5. Quality of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and their regulatory status. Production, sales and post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    A high standard of hand hygiene is achieved by developing, producing and distributing hand disinfectants compliant with the German law for medicinal products. This ensures optimal protection of patients and staff from infections. In addition all local requirements are automatically fulfilled independent of the place within which the product is being used. It is shown that continuous improvement can be stimulated by intensive cooperation between the customer and supplier to ensure that customer expectations are met. PMID:18994683

  6. A prospective multicenter study evaluating skin tolerance to standard hand hygiene techniques.

    PubMed

    Chamorey, Emmanuel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Dandine, Marc; Veyres, Patricia; Negrin, Nadine; Vandenbos, Frederic; Duval, Marie-Josée; Lambert, Sylvain; Mazzoni, Laëtitia; Chapuis, Viviane; Bodokh, Isaac; Sacleux, Paul

    2011-02-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the dryness and irritation of the hands in health care facilities, and to evaluate whether that disinfection with an alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is better tolerated than classic handwashing with mild soap and water. Our study was conducted in 9 sites in the summer and winter. A team of investigators evaluated dryness and irritation. This study takes into account most of the individual and environmental risk factors (age, sex, use of a protective agent, constitutional factors, personal factors, external factors, institution, function, and number of consecutive working days). The results from the 1932 assessments collected show that traditional handwashing is a risk factor for dryness and irritation, whereas the use of ABHR causes no skin deterioration and might have a protective effect, particularly in intensive use. These results provide a strong argument to counter the rear-guard resistance to the use of ABHRs. PMID:20650547

  7. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  8. Hand hygiene assessment in the workplace using a UV lamp.

    PubMed

    Škodová, Manuela; García Urra, Fernando; Gimeno Benítez, Alfredo; Jiménez Romano, Maria Ramona; Gimeno Ortiz, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of the hand hygiene (HH) technique of healthcare workers (HCW) in real conditions, without previous education or training. All 705 participants did the World Health Organization sequence for HH correctly, but only 9.5% actually achieved the highest rating (ie, all hand areas with hand rub distribution). PMID:26297523

  9. Simulated Tip Rub Testing of Low-Density Metal Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary acoustic studies have indicated that low-density, open-cell, metal foams may be suitable acoustic liner material for noise suppression in high by-pass engines. Metal foam response under simulated tip rub conditions was studied to assess whether its durability would be sufficient for the foam to serve both as a rub strip above the rotor as well as an acoustic treatment. Samples represented four metal alloys, nominal cell dimensions ranging from 60 to 120 cells per inch (cpi), and relative densities ranging from 3.4 to 10 percent. The resulting rubbed surfaces were relatively smooth and the open cell structure of the foam was not adversely affected. Sample relative density appeared to have significant influence on the forces induced by the rub event. Acoustic responses of various surface preparations were measured using a normal incidence tube. The results of this study indicate that the foam s open-cell structure was retained after rubbing and that the acoustic absorption spectra variation was minimal.

  10. Orthogonal orientation of chromonic liquid crystals by rubbed polyamide films.

    PubMed

    Mcguire, Aya; Yi, Youngwoo; Clark, Noel A

    2014-05-19

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) have drawn attention for applications to organic electronics and optical films as well as biological materials. Understanding the alignment mechanism of CLCs is important for those applications. Using a polarized transmission optical microscope, we observe the optical texture, dichroism, and birefringence of CLC films of sunset yellow (SSY) confined by polyamide (nylon) films that are rubbed with a brush. The films align with the stacks of SSY molecules oriented, surprisingly, perpendicular to the rubbing direction. We propose that this alignment is stabilized by molecular interaction between the stretched nylon chains and molecular grooves of the SSY stacks rather than elastic energy of the CLCs due to surface topography induced by the rubbing. PMID:24470318

  11. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of >or=160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log(10) reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log(10) reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log(10) reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log(10) compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  12. Rotor vibration caused by external excitation and rub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, O.; Takagi, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    For turbomachinery with low natural frequencies, considerations have been recently required for rotor vibrations caused by external forces except unbalance one, such as foundation motion, seismic wave, rub and so forth. Such a forced vibration is investigated analytically and experimentally in the present paper. Vibrations in a rotor-bearing system under a harmonic excitation are analyzed by the modal technique in the case of a linear system including gyroscopic effect. For a nonlinear system a new and powerful quasi-modal technique is developed and applied to the vibration caused by rub.

  13. Four multifaceted countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011: impact on compliance to hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Costers, M; Viseur, N; Catry, B; Simon, A

    2012-01-01

    Four consecutive one-month campaigns were organised to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011. The campaigns included a combination of reminders in wards, educational sessions for healthcare workers, promotion of alcohol-based hand rub use, increasing patient awareness, and audits with performance feedback. Prior and after each one month intervention period, the infection control teams measured hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation using a standardised observation roster. A total of 738,367 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed over the four campaigns. Compliance with hand hygiene significantly increased from 49.6% before to 68.6% after the intervention period for the first, from 53.2% to 69.5% for the second, from 58.0% to 69.1% for the third, and from 62.3% to 72.9% for the fourth campaign. The highest compliance rates were consistently observed in paediatric units. Compliance rates were always markedly lower among physicians than nurses. After patient contact and body fluid exposure risk, compliance rates were noticeably higher than before patient contact and performing aseptic procedures. We conclude that repeated countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene result in positive long-term outcomes. However, lower compliance rates among physicians compared with nurses, before patient contact, and before performing aseptic procedures remain challenges for future campaigns. PMID:22587957

  14. 17. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. FIVEROLL RUB DELIVERY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1978. FIVE-ROLL RUB DELIVERY ON A. JENKS & SON FINISHER CARD; THE DELIVERY IS CONSISTENT WITH MANUFACTURE C. 1845-1855; FROM RIGHT FRONT OF OSCILLATING MECHANISM. - Watkins Mill, County Highway MM, Lawson, Ray County, MO

  15. An Australian Response to Michael Bérubé

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Raelene

    2016-01-01

    This article supports Bérubé's conclusion regarding the intellectual health of humanities scholarship. However, it argues that the case of "contingent faculty"--or academics with short-term or casual contracts--is in many respects different in Australia to the situation he outlines for the US. Whilst a variety of funding pressures have…

  16. New brine saturation technique for the extraction of light filth from rubbed sage, paprika, and corn meal: intralaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C C

    1979-05-01

    A new and widely applicable technique for the isolation of light filth from food has been developed. It includes a simple alcohol defatting followed by a brine saturation of the product by heating and cooling and a subsequent trapping of the filth elements with olive oil and tap water. The methods circumvent the use of hazardous and expensive solvents and lengthy defatting and/or pre-treatment procedures. In an intralaboratory study, recoveries of elytral squares and rodent hair fragments added to paprika, rubbed sage, and corn meal ranged from 95.8 to 100%. PMID:479086

  17. Polarized XANES studies on the mechanical rubbing effect of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and its model compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, K.; Mitsumoto, R.; Araki, T.; Ouchi, Y.; Seki, K.

    1995-02-01

    The structural change of the evaporated perfluorotetracosane (PFT) n-CF 3 (CF 2) 22CF 3 and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) (CF 2) n films by the mechanical rubbing process was examined with use of XANES spectroscopy. In the PTFE film the chains were almost parallel to the surface and were uniaxially realigned along the rubbing direction, while in the PFT film the chains after evaporation were oriented normal to the surface, and this orientation was hardly affected by the rubbing process. The chains of the PFT evaporated on the rubbed PTFE film aligned along the rubbing direction.

  18. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. Methods A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. Results In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. Conclusions We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 Source of funding The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare. PMID:22243622

  19. Modeling multi-scale resource selection for bear rub trees in northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan Henderson, Matthew J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Carlson, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    Both black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos) are known to rub on trees and other objects, producing a network of repeatedly used and identifiable rub sites. In 2012, we used a resource selection function to evaluate hypothesized relationships between locations of 887 bear rubs in northwestern Montana, USA, and elevation, slope angle, density of open roads and distance from areas of heightened plant-productivity likely containing forage for bears. Slope and density of open roads were negatively correlated with rub presence. No other covariates were supported as explanatory variables. We also hypothesized that bear rubs would be more strongly associated with closed roads and developed trails than with game trails. The frequencies of bear rubs on 30 paired segments of developed tracks and game trails were not different. Our results suggest bear rubs may be associated with bear travel routes, and support their use as “random” sampling devices for non-invasive spatial capture–recapture population monitoring.

  20. Rotor-to-stator rub vibration in centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, J. J.; Qi, Q. M.

    1985-01-01

    One example of excessive vibration encountered during loading of a centrifugal compressor train (H type compressor with HP casing) is discussed. An investigation was made of the effects of the dynamic load on the bearing stiffness and the rotor-bearing system critical speed. The high vibration occurred at a "threshold load," but the machine didn't run smoothly due to rubs even when it had passed through the threshold load. The acquisition and discussion of the data taken in the field as well as a description of the case history which utilizes background information to identify the malfunction conditions is presented. The analysis shows that the failures, including full reverse precession rub and exact one half subharmonic vibration, were caused by the oversize bearings and displacement of the rotor center due to foundation deformation and misalignment between gear shafts, etc. The corrective actions taken to alleviate excessive vibration and the problems which remain to be solved are also presented.

  1. Bilateral Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Caused by Eye Rubbing.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Alfonso; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Carlomusto, Laura; Savastano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a particular condition of a 52-year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed. Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Over a 4-year observational period, his visual acuity decreased to 12/20 in the right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations. An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma. PMID:26483667

  2. Improving Hand Hygiene Practices in a Rural Hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Holmen, Ian C; Seneza, Celestin; Nyiranzayisaba, Berthine; Nyiringabo, Vincent; Bienfait, Mugisha; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance among physicians and nurses in a rural hospital in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. DESIGN This study was a quasi-experimental design divided into 4 phases: (1) preparation of materials and acquisition of the hospital administration's support, (2) baseline evaluation, (3) intervention, and (4) follow-up evaluation. SETTING A 160-bed, non-referral hospital in Gitwe, Rwanda PARTICIPANTS A total of 12 physicians and 54 nurses participated in this study. METHODS The intervention consisted of introducing locally produced alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR); educating healthcare workers (HCWs) on proper HH practice; providing pocket-sized ABHR bottles for HCWs; placing HH reminders in the workplace; and surveying HCWs at surrounding health centers regarding HH compliance barriers. Hand hygiene infrastructure, compliance, and knowledge were assessed among physicians and nurses using baseline observations and a follow-up evaluation survey. RESULTS Overall, HH compliance improved from 34.1% at baseline to 68.9% post intervention (P.05). CONCLUSION Hand hygiene campaigns using WHO methods in SSA have been implemented exclusively in large, referral hospitals. This study shows that an HH program using the WHO tools successfully improved HH in a low-income, rural hospital in SSA. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:834-839. PMID:27040124

  3. A test procedure for evaluating surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Babb, J R; Davies, J G; Ayliffe, G A

    1991-06-01

    A technique for assessing the immediate and prolonged efficacy of surgical scrubs and alcoholic hand rubs is described. A mean baseline count is obtained from all volunteers and logarithmic reductions in resident skin flora immediately after one or more applications, and after wearing gloves for 3 h, are measured. Loose-fitting surgical gloves are used for sampling resident flora. Preparations were applied using a standard technique for 2 min, apart from one test with 70% isopropanol (IPA) in which the application time was 30 s. Two studies are described, one of which compared four chlorhexidine scrubs, and the second 70% IPA, 7.5% povidone-iodine scrub, 2% triclosan cleanser and unmedicated bar soap. In spite of their constituent similarity, the four chlorhexidine scrubs varied considerably in efficacy and user acceptability. A 2 min application of 70% IPA was the most effective treatment, and gave log10 reductions of 1.65 for immediate and 1.58 for prolonged effect. This was marginally more effective than a 30 s application, but the difference was not significant. 'Hibiscrub' was the most effective aqueous formulation and gave reductions of 1.01 for immediate effect and 1.16 for prolonged effect. The test described could be used by reference centres and manufacturers to assess the efficacy of new and existing surgical hand disinfection formulations. PMID:1679446

  4. Final Report. The Role of RUB (related to ubiquitin) Family of Proteins in the Hormone Response

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, Judy

    2013-03-22

    The Rub pathway is a conserved protein modification pathway. RUB (called Rubp1 in budding yeast, Nedd8 in animals and RUB in plants) is a ubiquitin-like 76-amino acid protein. It covalently attaches to protein using an enzymatic machinery analogous to the enzymes that attach ubiquitin to its substrate proteins. However, the nature of the complement of Rub-modified proteins in organisms was not clear. From bioinformatics analyses, one can identify a Rub activating enzymes and Rub conjugating enzymes. However, in many cases, their biochemical properties were not described. In DOE-funded work, we made major advances in our understanding of the Rub pathway in yeast and plants, work that is applicable to other organisms as well. There is a multi-subunit enzyme called SCF in all eukaryotes. The SCF consists of several subunits that serve as a scaffold (the cullin, SKP and RBX subunits) and one subunit that interacts with the substrate. This cullin protein (called Cdc53p in yeast and CULLIN 1 in plants and animals) was a known Rub target. In this work, we identified additional Rub targets in yeast as the other cullin-like proteins Cul3p and Rtt101p. Additionally we described the conservation of the Rub pathway because plant RUB1 can conjugated to yeast Cdc53p- in yeast. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized the Rub activating enzymes and showed that they are not biochemically equivalent. We also showed that the Rub pathway is essential in plants and characterized plants with reduced levels of rub proteins. These plants are affected in multiple developmental processes. We discovered that they over-produce ethylene as dark-grown seedlings. We characterized a mutant allele of CULLIN1 in Arabidopsis with impaired interaction with RBX and showed that it is unstable in vivo. We used our knowledge of monitoring protein degradation to map the degradation determinants in a plant transcription factor. Finally, we took a mass spectrometric approach to identify

  5. Numerical analysis of a rub-impact rotor-bearing system for hydraulic generating set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. K.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, vibration characteristics of a rub-impact rotor-bearing system excited by unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) for hydraulic generating set are investigated. The rubbing model used consists of the radial elastic impact and the tangential Coulomb friction. Through numerical calculation, the excitation current, eccentricity are used as the control parameters, investigating their effect on the rub-impact rotor-bearing system, by bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps, trajectories, and frequency spectrums. Various nonlinear phenomena, including period-one, period-five, quasi-period and chaotic motions, are induced and the system stability is obviously influenced due to the UMP. In addition, it is found that the large eccentricity that exceeds to a certain extent may lead to the full annular rubbing from the partial rubbing. The results can provide some theoretical references for the safety operation and rub-impact fault diagnosis of the hydraulic generating set.

  6. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  7. Reliability Sensitivity for ROTOR-STATOR Systems with Rubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Wen, B. C.; Liu, Q. L.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the dynamic equations of the Jeffcott rotor-stator model with imbalance, the reliability sensitivity of the rotor-stator systems with rubbing is examined. A statistical fourth moment method is developed to determine the first four moments of system response and state function. The distribution function of the system state function is approximately determined by the standard normal distribution functions using the Edgeworth series technique. The reliability and reliability sensitivity are obtained and the effect on reliability and reliability sensitivity of shaft stiffness and damping, stator stiffness and damping, radial clearance and stator radial stiffness is studied. Numerical results are also presented and discussed.

  8. Assessment of hand hygiene techniques using the World Health Organization's six steps.

    PubMed

    Arias, Ariadna V; Garcell, Humberto G; Ochoa, Yagdeline R; Arias, Katiana F; Miranda, Fernando R

    2016-01-01

    The quality of hand hygiene was evaluated via direct observation for compliance with the six recommended World Health Organization steps. A total of 2497 HH opportunities, of which 1573 (63.0%) were hand rubs, were monitored over a five month period. Compliance was higher in nurses compared with physicians and auxiliaries and in steps 1 and 2 for hand rubs as well as the first three steps of hand washing, with lower rates after these steps. Rubbing of the thumbs and fingertips achieved the lowest rates of compliance in both HH types. A combination of the five recommended moments and six steps and staff education is recommended to improve the quality of hand hygiene. PMID:26707705

  9. Measurement of transient surface temperatures during rubbing using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Tau; Yu, Jianwei; Yu, Xiaofen

    2013-10-01

    Infrared thermometer could provide IR radiance information to get the corresponding temperature as the machine is working. But the emissivity coefficient, which converts IR radiance to temperature, would vary with change of surface properties during rubbing, and this would bring dynamic error in measurement. In this study, we introduced a special tester, in the side of which compact IR thermometer are mounted. The thermometer enables us to measure contact surface temperature directly during tests of a rotating ring and a flat block which had a laser diode fixed under its contact surface. Based on Kirchhoff theory, the calculate model of the spectral emissivity is constructed. The normal emissivity at target region are measured through trigonometric ray consisted of InGaAsP laser source, PbSe detector and objective surface. So the temperature value from the IR thermometer could be corrected dynamically according to the real-time emissivity. The structure and the principle of the apparatus are described. The key technologies and the corresponding solution methods are briefly discussed. The error due to the rapid variations of emissivity value with change in contact conditions was shown, and it must be taken into consideration in radiometric temperature measurement in rubbing and could be especially useful in the verification of friction surface temperature predictions.

  10. Effects of different rub models on simulated rotor dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Tomko, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a direct integration, transient response rotor dynamics computer code, the response of turbine engine rotors to two different blade tip - seal interference rub models was studied. The first model, an abradable seal rub model, is based on an energy-loss-per-unit-volume theory (applicable to a ceramic turbine blade tip seal). The second, a smearin model, is based on viscous hydrodynamic theory (applicable to a metallic blade tip seal). The results from these two models were compared with those from a previously studied model based on dry friction theory. The abradable model was very senitive to small changes in the energy per unit volume, and once a threshold was exceeded, the rotor went into a backward whirl. The amplitude seemed to grow without limit. This was similar to the dry friction model when the coefficient of friction exceeded a particular threshold. The smearing model was not as sensitive to small changes in the viscosity, but a threshold viscosity was found. When it was exceeded, the rotor went into backward whirl, but the amplitude seemed to grow to a finite limit.

  11. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  12. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  13. Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins.

    PubMed

    Meunier, H; Petit, O; Deneubourg, J-L

    2008-02-01

    In their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). Fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. The aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to determine the processes involved in its synchronization. For this purpose, we designed a set of experiments where white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) were presented with onions (Allium cepa) that they use to fur rub. We conducted a detailed kinetic study of fur rubbing behavior to determine if its synchronization is the consequence of simultaneous responses of different individuals to the same stimulus or if, on the contrary, there is a real collective phenomenon where individuals respond to conspecific behavior. Our results reveal that fur rubbing is a collective behavior with a mimetic underlying mechanism. If fur rubbing with onions (a plant with antifungal and repellent properties) allows capuchins to treat their fur against parasites or pathogens, its synchronization would optimize the treatment by acting as a group barrier to ectoparasite propagation. PMID:17823917

  14. Rotor-to-stator Partial Rubbing and Its Effects on Rotor Dynamic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Franklin, Wesley D.; Hayashida, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from experimental and analytical studies on rotor to stationary element partial rubbings at several locations and their effects on rotor dynamic responses are presented. The mathematical model of a rubbing rotor is given. The computer program provides numerical results which agree with experimentally obtained rotor responses.

  15. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  16. Nanomachining by rubbing at ultrasonic frequency under controlled shear force.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Mikio

    2011-03-01

    This study proposes a new method of proximal-probe machining that uses a rubbing process by introducing concentrated-mass (CM) cantilevers. At the second resonance of the CM cantilever vibration, the tip site of the cantilever becomes a node of the standing deflection wave because of the sufficient inertia of the attached concentrated mass. The tip makes a cyclic motion that is tangential to the sample surface, not vertical to it, as in a tapping motion. This lateral tip motion that is selectively excited by CM cantilevers was effective for the material modification of a sample due to the friction between the tip and the sample. Imaging and nanomachining under controlled shear force were demonstrated by means of the modified cantilever and a normal atomic force microscope. We were able to write a micron-sized letter "Z" having a line width of 30-100 nm on a resin surface. PMID:21449337

  17. Transient rotor dynamic rub phenomena - Theory and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Montaque, G.; Palazzolo, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops an implicit integration scheme for transient rotor dynamic rub prediction and includes a correlation study with actual test results. A Nordsieck-like numerical integration scheme is applied directly to the second-order equations of motion. The assumption that forces and torques on the rotor are functions of the position and velocity at the point of application and its nearest neighbor is made in order to make the computational time proportional to the number of elements in the rotor dynamics model rather than the cube of the number. The test rig consists of a turbine driven, flexible shaft supported by squeeze film dampers. The blade loss event occurs due to collision of a balance bolt on one of the disks with a high speed plunger. The rotor is seen to spiral outward and contact against a stationary assemblage of seal shoes.

  18. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

  19. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Baker, G Ross; Gardam, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hawthorne effect, or behaviour change due to awareness of being observed, is assumed to inflate hand hygiene compliance rates as measured by direct observation but there are limited data to support this. Objective To determine whether the presence of hand hygiene auditors was associated with an increase in hand hygiene events as measured by a real-time location system (RTLS). Methods The RTLS recorded all uses of alcohol-based hand rub and soap for 8 months in two units in an academic acute care hospital. The RTLS also tracked the movement of hospital hand hygiene auditors. Rates of hand hygiene events per dispenser per hour as measured by the RTLS were compared for dispensers within sight of auditors and those not exposed to auditors. Results The hand hygiene event rate in dispensers visible to auditors (3.75/dispenser/h) was significantly higher than in dispensers not visible to the auditors at the same time (1.48; p=0.001) and in the same dispensers during the week prior (1.07; p<0.001). The rate increased significantly when auditors were present compared with 1–5 min prior to the auditors’ arrival (1.50; p=0.009). There were no significant changes inside patient rooms. Conclusions Hand hygiene event rates were approximately threefold higher in hallways within eyesight of an auditor compared with when no auditor was visible and the increase occurred after the auditors’ arrival. This is consistent with the existence of a Hawthorne effect localised to areas where the auditor is visible and calls into question the accuracy of publicly reported hospital hand hygiene compliance rates. PMID:25002555

  20. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... the toilet or container. Clean the spout with rubbing alcohol and a cotton ball or gauze. Close the ... hands. Clean the end of the tube with rubbing alcohol and a cotton ball or gauze. Clean the ...

  1. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands before touching your pierced ears. Applying rubbing alcohol also can help keep germs away. With an adult's help, soak a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol and apply it to both sides of the ...

  2. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  4. Brush seal low surface speed hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-06-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  5. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1992-08-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  6. Brush seal low surface speed hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-01-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  7. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-10-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping', and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  8. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1992-01-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  9. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-01-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping', and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  10. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity and user acceptability of the hand disinfectant agent Sterillium Gel.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Rudolf, M; Labadie, J-C; Barrett, S P

    2002-10-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand gels has been shown to be significantly less than liquid hand rubs probably because of a lower concentration of alcohol. Sterillium Gel is the first hand gel with 85% ethanol. Its antimicrobial efficacy and user acceptability was studied. Bactericidal activity was tested according to prEN 12054 against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (suspension test) and EN 1500 (15 volunteers; four replicates), fungicidal activity according to EN 1275 against Candida albicans and spores of Aspergillus niger (suspension test) and tuberculocidal activity against Mycobacterium terrae using the DGHM suspension test. Virucidal activity was determined in suspension tests based on reduction of infectivity with and without interfering substances (10% fetal calf serum; 0.3% erythrocytes and 0.3% bovine serum albumin). Ninety-six healthcare workers in hospitals in France and the UK used the gel for four weeks and assessed it by filling out a questionnaire. The gel was bactericidal (a reduction factor of > 10(5)-fold), tuberculocidal (reduction factor > 10(5)) and fungicidal (reduction factor > 10(4)) in 30 s. Irrespective of interfering substances the gel inactivated orthopoxvirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in 15 s, adenovirus in 2 min, poliovirus in 3 min and papovavirus in 15 min by a factor of > 10(4)-fold. Rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus were inactivated in 30 s (without interfering substances). Under practical use conditions it was as effective in 30 s as the reference alcohol in 60 s. Most users described the tackiness, aggregation, skin feeling after use and smell as positive or acceptable. A total of 65.6% assessed the new gel to be better than a comparator irrespective of its type (gel or liquid). Overall Sterillium Gel had a unique spectrum of antimicrobial activity. It is probably the first alcohol-based hand gel to pass EN 1500 in 30 s. Due to the

  11. Effectiveness of Liquid Soap and Hand Sanitizer against Norwalk Virus on Contaminated Hands▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengbo; Yuen, Yvonne; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moe, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Disinfection is an essential measure for interrupting human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission, but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants due to the absence of a practicable cell culture system for these viruses. The purpose of this study was to screen sodium hypochlorite and ethanol for efficacy against Norwalk virus (NV) and expand the studies to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial liquid soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer for the inactivation of NV on human finger pads. Samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) both with and without a prior RNase treatment. In suspension assay, sodium hypochlorite concentrations of ≥160 ppm effectively eliminated RT-qPCR detection signal, while ethanol, regardless of concentration, was relatively ineffective, giving at most a 0.5 log10 reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA. Using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard finger pad method and a modification thereof (with rubbing), we observed the greatest reduction in genomic copies of NV cDNA with the antibacterial liquid soap treatment (0.67 to 1.20 log10 reduction) and water rinse only (0.58 to 1.58 log10 reduction). The alcohol-based hand sanitizer was relatively ineffective, reducing the genomic copies of NV cDNA by only 0.14 to 0.34 log10 compared to baseline. Although the concentrations of genomic copies of NV cDNA were consistently lower on finger pad eluates pretreated with RNase compared to those without prior RNase treatment, these differences were not statistically significant. Despite the promise of alcohol-based sanitizers for the control of pathogen transmission, they may be relatively ineffective against the HuNoV, reinforcing the need to develop and evaluate new products against this important group of viruses. PMID:19933337

  12. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID

  13. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

  14. Determination of the Rubbing Location in a Multi-Disk Rotor System by Means of Dynamic Stiffness Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, F.; LU, W.

    2001-11-01

    The rotor-to-stator rub is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. Previous research has provided enough tools to judge the existence of this fault. However, it is still a difficult task to detect the rubbing position in a multi-disk rotor system. In this paper, the stiffness is considered as variable and the rub-impact effect is included in this dynamic stiffness. Based on simulation data the least-square method is used to identify the dynamic stiffness at different positions along the rotor. It is found that the dynamic stiffness at the position where the rub-impact occurs is increasing as the rubbing develops and this stiffness at other positions shows very little change. The damping coefficients have similar trends. This method is found to be very effective in detecting the rubbing position.

  15. Head Rubbing and Licking Reinforce Social Bonds in a Group of Captive African Lions, Panthera leo

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male–male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female–female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care. PMID:24023806

  16. A floating right heart thrombus in transit across tricuspid valve causing an endocardial friction rub

    PubMed Central

    Kanjirakadavath, Babu; Krishnan, M.N.; Vinayakumar, D.; Raju, Deepak; Nithin, P.G.; Rajesh, K.F.; Sreekumar, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    We report a 42-year-old lady on combined oral contraceptive pills with deep venous thrombosis and mild pulmonary embolism, who developed shock, while being treated with heparin. On auscultation, there was an unexpected loud, superficial, squeaky, triphasic friction rub over the left lower parasternal area. Simultaneous echocardiogram revealed a large serpiginous, freely floating mass in right atrium, prolapsing freely to right ventricular inlet across the tricuspid valve. The endocardial friction rub persisted for about 24 h as long as the thrombus was intracardiac and disappeared when the thrombus disappeared from right heart, occluding the proximal left pulmonary artery. She died due to shock awaiting surgery. We highlight that such a rub in a patient with deep venous thrombosis, though rare, may be an important clue to impending pulmonary embolism. PMID:23993010

  17. Effects of imidization and rubbing of polyimides on their surface free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borycki, Jerzy; Okulska-Bozek, Malgorzata

    2002-06-01

    According to classical method polyimides were obtained in two-step polycondensation process via 10% solutions of poly(amic acid)s in dimethylformamide (DMF). Poly(amic acid)s were synthesized from chosen tetracarboxylic acids dianhydrides: pyromellitic (PMDA), 4,4'- (hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic (6FDA), 4,4'- oxydiphthalic (ODPA) and aromatic diamines: 4,4'- oxydianiline (ODA), 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD), 4,4'- ethylenedianiline (DAB), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), 4-methyl-1,3-phenylenediamine (MMPD) and 2,3,5,6- tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DAD) in the first step of this reaction. The indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass plates or glass plates were spin-coated with the poly(amic acid)s solutions and dried. The polyimide layers were prepared by gradual heating in various temperatures (100 degree(s)C, 150 degree(s)C, 180 degree(s)C, 200 degree(s)C, 220 degree(s)C and 250 degree(s)C). The degree of imidization was estimated by means of IR spectroscopy. Obtained PI layers were mechanically modified by rubbing. Three various rubbing materials were used: cotton, silk and chamois leather. Surface free energy and its components of polymer layers were evaluated on the basis of their wet ability by standard liquids (diiodomethane, 1- bromonaphthalene, formamide, ethylene glycol, water). It was found that decrease of intensity of rubbing process yields to increase of contact angle for each of rubbing materials. Polyimide layers rubbed with chamois leather were characterized by the best wet ability. The rubbing process increase surface free energy of tested polyimide films.

  18. Using the Six Sigma Process to Implement the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Hand Hygiene in 4 Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Noel E; Woods, Susan S; Bonello, Robert S; Clutter, Kay; Ellingson, LeAnn; Harris, Mary Ann; Livingston, Barbara K; Bagian, James P; Danko, Linda H; Dunn, Edward J; Parlier, Renee L; Pederson, Cheryl; Reichling, Kim J; Roselle, Gary A; Wright, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings was issued in 2002. In 2003, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) established complying with the CDC Guideline as a National Patient Safety Goal for 2004. This goal has been maintained through 2006. The CDC's emphasis on the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) rather than soap and water was an opportunity to improve compliance, but the Guideline contained over 40 specific recommendations to implement. OBJECTIVE To use the Six Sigma process to examine hand hygiene practices and increase compliance with the CDC hand hygiene recommendations required by JCAHO. DESIGN Six Sigma Project with pre-post design. PARTICIPANTS Physicians, nurses, and other staff working in 4 intensive care units at 3 hospitals. MEASUREMENTS Observed compliance with 10 required hand hygiene practices, mass of ABHR used per month per 100 patient-days, and staff attitudes and perceptions regarding hand hygiene reported by questionnaire. RESULTS Observed compliance increased from 47% to 80%, based on over 4,000 total observations. The mass of ABHR used per 100 patient-days in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) increased by 97%, 94%, and 70%; increases were sustained for 9 months. Self-reported compliance using the questionnaire did not change. Staff reported increased use of ABHR and increased satisfaction with hand hygiene practices and products. CONCLUSIONS The Six Sigma process was effective for organizing the knowledge, opinions, and actions of a group of professionals to implement the CDC's evidence-based hand hygiene practices in 4 ICUs. Several tools were developed for widespread use. PMID:16637959

  19. P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS --- a rubbing binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Snodgrass, C.

    2014-07-01

    disruption is a possible interpretation [15-17]: the peaks of activity would represent the effects of centrifugal landslides and surface readjustments. We propose another process [17]: we suggest that P5 is a small, quasi-contact binary, whose components are either occasionally touching, or settling together into a full-contact binary. The object would then release dust liberated by these repeated low velocity impact, or rather rubbing between its components. Sharma [19] studied the equilibrium of rubble-pile binaries, and concluded that many stable solutions exist for contact and near-contact objects, with a range of prolateness for both components and for a range of shear resistance of the rubble pile. In other words, such an object, if it can be formed, can be stable. Descamp [20] reviewed observations of known binaries in the context of the Roche systems, i.e. fully synchronized binary objects in fluid equilibrium. Several objects appear to be contact binaries, including some very small objects in the same size range as P5, e.g., 2002 NY_40 and 2005 CR_37. Radar observations [21] showed that (69230) Hermes is a fully synchronized binary, with components only slightly larger than P5 (630 and 560 m), separated by a few radii (1200 m). While their formation process is not known, these observations suggest that small, fully synchronized contact binaries do exist. In the case of P5, this hypothesis can be tested observationally, as the 3^{rd} Kepler law indicates that the rotation period of the system should be of several hours, while a rotationally disrupted object should have a period of around 2 h or less. In the mean time, this idea is submitted to ACM.

  20. Rubbing effect on surface morphology and thermoelectric properties of TTF-TCNQ thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, E.; Hayashi, K.; Shinano, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kajitani, T.

    2010-05-01

    Thin films of tetrathiofulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ), a typical organic material of charge transfer salts, were prepared on glass substrates by evaporation using TTF-TCNQ powder. The rubbing effect on the surface morphology and thermoelectric properties was studied. TTF-TCNQ films exhibited a bush-like disordered growth on the as-received glass substrate, whereas those on the rubbed glass substrate had extremely flat surfaces tiled with small rectangular TTF-TCNQ single crystals. Due to the ordered alignment of TTF-TCNQ tiles, improvement in the electrical conductivity and enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient were achieved.

  1. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  2. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  3. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  4. Bilateral anterior chamber intraocular lenses dislocation in a patient with habitual eye rubbing.

    PubMed

    Poh, E P; Fariza, N Nor; Mariam, I

    2005-08-01

    A 61-year-old Chinese man presented with bilateral posteriorly dislocated anterior chamber intraocular lenses (AC IOLs) one year after successful vitrectomy, removal of bilateral dislocated mature cataractous lenses and AC IOLs implantation. A thorough clinical evaluation revealed habitual eye rubbing as the only possible cause. PMID:16379196

  5. An experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out to address issues related to the observed cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the high pressure fuel pump (HPFP) in the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME). Thermal shock experiments were carried out using a jet specimen with geometry similar to the knife edge geometry. These tests demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates. Alternative materials were also experimentally evaluated. These tests provide information which can be used to design improved labyrinth seals for the HPFP of the SSME. In particular, plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than aluminum alloy seals used at present from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding of the titanium alloy knife edges was also found to improve rub performance compared with the untreated baseline knife edge material.

  6. A Reality Rub Crisis Intervention: "I Wish There Was a Law against Belts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.; Techet, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Presents Life Space Interview (LSI) or Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) with second-grade student from threatening home environment. Uses Reality Rub Intervention Interview, focusing on five variations: distorted perceptions, tunnel vision, faulty thinking, avoidance, and alibi. Describes incident that led to intervention, interview itself,…

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  8. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  9. Increase of ionic conductivity in the microporous lithosilicate RUB-29 by Na-ion exchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-H.; Senyshyn, A.; Paulmann, C.

    2007-12-01

    The ionic conductivity in the zeolite-like lithosilicate RUB-29 (Cs 14Li 24[Li 18Si 72O 172]·14H 2O [S.-H. Park, J.B. Parise, H. Gies, H. Liu, C.P. Grey, B.H. Toby, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122 (2000) 11023-11024]) increases via simple ion-exchange processes, in particular when Na cations replace a part of Cs + and Li + of the material. The resulting ionic conductivity value of 3.2×10 -3 S cm -1 at 885 K is about two orders higher than that for the original material [S.-H. Park, J.B. Parise, M.E. Franke, T. Seydel, C. Paulmann, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., in print ( doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.03.040 available online since April 19, 2007)]. The structural basis of a Na +-exchanged RUB-29 sample (Na-RUB-29) at 673 K could be elucidated by means of neutron powder diffraction. Rietveld refinements confirmed the replacement of Na + for both parts of Cs and Li cations, agreeing with idealized cell content, Na 8Cs 8Li 40Si 72O 172. As a result of the incorporation of Na + in large pores, the number of Li + vacancies in dense Li 2O-layers of the structure could increase. This can be one of the main reasons for the improved conductivity in Na-RUB-29. In addition, mobile Na cations may also contribute to the conductivity in Na-RUB-29 as continuous scattering length densities were found around the sites for Na in difference Fourier map.

  10. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  11. The hammer QSD-quick stop device for high speed machining and rubbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. T.; James, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A quick stop device (QSD) was designed for use in orthogonal machining and rubbing experiments. QSD's are used to obtain chip root samples that are representative of the deformation taking place during dynamic (actual) cutting conditions. These 'frozen' specimens are helpful in examining the plastic deformation that occurs in the regions of compression and shear which form the chip; the secondary shear at the tool-chip interface; and the nose ploughing/flank rubbing action which operates on the newly machined surface. The Hammer QSD employs a shear pin mechanism, broken by a flying hammer, which is traveling at the same velocity as the workpiece. The device has been successfully tested up to 6000 sfpm (30.48 m/sec).

  12. Growth Process of Vacuum Deposited Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films on Rubbing-Treated Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofuji, Masato; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Omote, Kazuhiko; Hoshi, Hajime; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2003-12-01

    Surface morphology, crystal lattice spacings and crystallite size of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films grown on rubbed surfaces were probed at different stages of growth, by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The films consisted of many slender crystallites extending along the rubbing direction, due to the α-type columnar structure along the same direction. AFM revealed that the aspect ratio of crystal domains increases as the films grow, implying a change in the ratio of crystal growth rates in the two different directions parallel to the substrates. XRD demonstrated marked differences in the two intercolumnar directions. The molecular spacing is expanded in the thickness direction at the initial stage of growth, while it remains constant throughout the growth in the lateral (c-axis) direction. The crystallite size in the thickness direction is always comparable to the film thickness, while the size in the c-axis direction shows no change.

  13. Turbine Engine Stability/Instability With Rub Forces Axisymmetric Rotor-Support Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, Vicente; Lawrence, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The stability/instability condition of a turbine rotor with axisymmetric supports is determined in the presence of gyroscopic loads and rub-induced destabilizing forces. A modal representation of the turbine engine is used, with one mode in each of the vertical and horizontal planes. The use of non-spinning rotor modes permits an explicit treatment of gyroscopic effects. The two linearized modal equations of motion of a rotor with axisymmetric supports are reduced to a single equation in a complex variable. The resulting eigenvalues yield explicit expressions at the stability boundary, for the whirl frequency as well as the required damping for stability in the presence of the available rub-induced destabilization. Conversely, the allowable destabilization in the presence of the available damping is also given.

  14. Lateral and Torsional Vibrations of a Two-disk Rotor-stator System with Axial Contact/Rubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qian; Zhang, Kunpeng

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of a rotor system with axial contact/rub events between the disks and stator are investigated by numerical simulations. The coupled equations of lateral and torsional motions of rotor and the lateral motion of disk are established. Numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the lateral and torsional vibrations for both two-disk contact/rubs and one disk contact/rubs. Bifurcation diagrams, orbits, phase portraits, amplitude- frequency spectra and Poincaré maps are adopted to demonstrate the dynamical behaviors of the system. The results show that though both the lateral and torsional vibrations can reflect the influences of contact/rubs on rotor dynamics, the spectrum analyses of the torsional vibrations are more suitable to determine straight the extent of their effect.

  15. Research on variational mode decomposition and its application in detecting rub-impact fault of the rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxue; Markert, Richard; Xiang, Jiawei; Zheng, Weiguang

    2015-08-01

    Multi-component extraction is an available method for vibration signal analysis of rotary machinery, so a novel method of rubbing fault diagnosis based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) is proposed. VMD is a newly developed technique for adaptive signal decomposition, which can non-recursively decompose a multi-component signal into a number of quasi-orthogonal intrinsic mode functions. The equivalent filtering characteristics of VMD are investigated, and the behavior of wavelet packet-like expansion is first found based on fractional Gaussian noise via numerical simulations. VMD is then applied to detect multiple rubbing-caused signatures for rotor-stator fault diagnosis via numerical simulated response signal and practical vibration signal. A comparison has also been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of identifying the rubbing-caused signatures by using VMD, empirical wavelet transform (EWT), EEMD and EMD. The analysis results of the rubbing signals show that the multiple features can be better extracted with the VMD, simultaneously.

  16. Mineral oil extraction of light filth from rubbed sage: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Holtgreve, N D

    1978-07-01

    An improved method has been developed for extracting light filth in rubbed sage. The method is similar to 44.A04 and 44.A05, except the light filth is isolated by using 20% isopropanol with mineral oil. Collaborative results show that the proposed method yielded better recoveries than the present official first action method. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:681262

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  20. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  1. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  2. Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

    Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

  3. An overlooked mandibular-rubbing behavior used during recruitment by the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda.

    PubMed

    Roux, Olivier; Billen, Johan; Orivel, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In Oecophylla, an ant genus comprising two territorially dominant arboreal species, workers are known to (1) use anal spots to mark their territories, (2) drag their gaster along the substrate to deposit short-range recruitment trails, and (3) drag the extruded rectal gland along the substrate to deposit the trails used in long-range recruitment. Here we study an overlooked but important marking behavior in which O. longinoda workers first rub the underside of their mandibles onto the substrate, and then--in a surprising posture--tilt their head and also rub the upper side of their mandibles. We demonstrate that this behavior is used to recruit nestmates. Its frequency varies with the rate at which a new territory, a sugary food source, a prey item, or an alien ant are discovered. Microscopy analyses showed that both the upper side and the underside of the mandibles possess pores linked to secretory glands. So, by rubbing their mandibles onto the substrate, the workers probably spread a secretion from these glands that is involved in nestmate recruitment. PMID:20126536

  4. An Overlooked Mandibular-Rubbing Behavior Used during Recruitment by the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Olivier; Billen, Johan; Orivel, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In Oecophylla, an ant genus comprising two territorially dominant arboreal species, workers are known to (1) use anal spots to mark their territories, (2) drag their gaster along the substrate to deposit short-range recruitment trails, and (3) drag the extruded rectal gland along the substrate to deposit the trails used in long-range recruitment. Here we study an overlooked but important marking behavior in which O. longinoda workers first rub the underside of their mandibles onto the substrate, and then—in a surprising posture—tilt their head and also rub the upper side of their mandibles. We demonstrate that this behavior is used to recruit nestmates. Its frequency varies with the rate at which a new territory, a sugary food source, a prey item, or an alien ant are discovered. Microscopy analyses showed that both the upper side and the underside of the mandibles possess pores linked to secretory glands. So, by rubbing their mandibles onto the substrate, the workers probably spread a secretion from these glands that is involved in nestmate recruitment. PMID:20126536

  5. A finite element-based algorithm for rubbing induced vibration prediction in rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Mehdi; Alvandi, Mehdi; Mba, David; Jamali, Jalil

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, an algorithm is developed for more realistic investigation of rotor-to-stator rubbing vibration, based on finite element theory with unilateral contact and friction conditions. To model the rotor, cross sections are assumed to be radially rigid. A finite element discretization based on traditional beam theories which sufficiently accounts for axial and transversal flexibility of the rotor is used. A general finite element discretization model considering inertial and viscoelastic characteristics of the stator is used for modeling the stator. Therefore, for contact analysis, only the boundary of the stator is discretized. The contact problem is defined as the contact between the circular rigid cross section of the rotor and “nodes” of the stator only. Next, Gap function and contact conditions are described for the contact problem. Two finite element models of the rotor and the stator are coupled via the Lagrange multipliers method in order to obtain the constrained equation of motion. A case study of the partial rubbing is simulated using the algorithm. The synchronous and subsynchronous responses of the partial rubbing are obtained for different rotational speeds. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to the initial clearance, the stator stiffness, the damping parameter, and the coefficient of friction. There is a good agreement between the result of this research and the experimental result in the literature.

  6. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  7. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  8. Clinical Issues-June 2016.

    PubMed

    Wood, Amber; Ogg, Mary J; Chambers, Kerrie

    2016-06-01

    Use of alcohol (ethanol)-based hand rubs (ABHRs) during pregnancy Key words: alcohol, ethanol, hand rub, ABHR, hand sanitizer. Working when experiencing a shingles infection Key words: shingles, varicella, zoster, employee health. Cleaning rigid containers Key words: rigid container, container, instrument pan. PMID:27234800

  9. On blade/casing rub problems in turbomachinery: An efficient delayed differential equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgac, Nejat; Zalluhoglu, Umut; Kammer, Ayhan S.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative pathway in studying the ubiquitous blade/casing rub problem in turbomachinery. Bladed disks interfere with the stationary shroud (casing) for a variety of reasons, such as axial offsets, thermal expansions. Both components being compliant, time-varying interface characteristics, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the rub forces make this dynamics very complex to model and analyze. The main idea in this paper originates from the conjecture that this dynamics is inherently akin to internal machining operation which also deals with compliant cutters (blades) but relatively more rigid workpiece (casing). This analogy directs our attention to the fact that the blade/casing impingement dynamics manifests a 'regenerative mechanism' which is impregnated with time delays. The ensuing time-delayed system (TDS) can be stable, which is ideal. If it is unstable, however, the interference amplitudes between the blade and the casing grow, and the nonlinear effects become dominant. If the components survived the exercise, this evolution would reach a limit-cycle behavior. Existing literature indicates that this limit cycle mode is the common state of operation in most modern-day turbomachinery. Consequently, the state-of-the-art research effort is focused on minimizing its amplitude to alleviate the destructive levels of fatigue effect. In this article we consider a different perspective in looking at these problems, by proposing the conditions to achieve stable rub interference. For this, a recent mathematical tool of the authors' group called the Cluster Treatment of Characteristic Roots (CTCR) is deployed. CTCR declares the complete stability outlook of such time-delayed systems in the space of the operational and design parameters. We show how this new capability can assist the design process of the blade-casing interface. Simulations, relevant stability observations and comparisons with a peer technique are provided for some case studies to

  10. STOPFLU: is it possible to reduce the number of days off in office work by improved hand-hygiene?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute infectious diseases are major causes of short periods of days off from work, day care and school. These diseases are mainly caused by viruses and hands have a key role in their transmission. Thus, hypothetically, they can be controlled with means of intensified hand hygiene. In this study we aim to elucidate the effect of acute infectious diseases on the work contribution in common office work and study the influence of improved hand hygiene on possible reduction of infectious disease episodes and days off from work due to acute infectious diseases. Design The voluntary participants have been recruited from six companies in the Helsinki region. The designated 21 study clusters were identified as operationally distinct working units each containing at least 50 people. The clusters were matched and randomized based on results of a pre-trial contagion risk survey. Improved hand hygiene is being executed with guided hand-washing with soap and water in one intervention arm and with alcohol based hand rubbing disinfectant in the other. Participants in both arms have received guidance on how to avoid infections and how to implement contagion stopping habits. A control arm is acting as before regarding hand hygiene. Data collection for evaluation of the efficacy of the interventions is based on self-reporting through weekly electronic reports. The questionnaire is enquiring about possible respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms during the preceding week, and requests a daily report of presence of symptoms and working capacity. Etiology of the symptoms is not searched for individually, but contribution of different viruses is evaluated by sentinel surveillance, where occupational health clinics located in the premises of the participating companies collect specimens from employees visiting the clinic. Common causative agents of the diseases are being searched for using real-time PCR techniques. The duration of the intervention will be 16 months. Primary

  11. Cao Gío (coin rubbing). Vietnamese attitudes toward health care.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, G W; Dang, V V

    1980-12-19

    Cao gío is the Vietnamese practice of rubbing the skin with a coin to alleviate various common symptoms of illness. The back, neck, head, shoulder, and chest are common sites of application. Although mimicking the lesions of trauma, it is not a harmful procedure, and no complications are known. A survey of 50 Vietnamese living in the United States since 1975 and 1976 has shown marked distrust of American Physicians, owing largely to actual or perceived criticism of cao gío. Acceptance of cao gío as a valid cultural practice will facilitate compliance and adequate medical follow-up. PMID:7441861

  12. Brine saturation technique for extraction of light filth from rubbed and ground sage: intralaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C C

    1981-05-01

    An intralaboratory study was made of a new and widely applicable technique for isolating light filth from rubbed and ground sage. The technique eliminated the hazardous, costly, and lengthy pretreatment and isolation procedures of the current methodology and resulted in considerably better recoveries. Overall recovery of all filth elements introduced as spikes was 99.3% on the first trapping. The basic principle of the procedure is product saturation with brine, followed by trapping of the filth elements from tap water with oliver oil. PMID:7240080

  13. Enhanced rotor modeling tailored for rub dynamic stability analysis and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    New methods are presented that allow straightforward application of complex nonlinearities to finite element based rotor dynamic analyses. The key features are: (1) the methods can be implemented with existing finite element or dynamic simulation programs, (2) formulation is general for simple application to a wide range of problems, and (3) implementation is simplified because nonlinear aspects are separated from the linear part of the model. The new techniques are illustrated with examples of inertial nonlinearity and torquewhirl which can be important in rubbing turbomachinery. The sample analyses provide new understanding of these nonlinearities which are discussed.

  14. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. [space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; Kennedy, F. E.; Schulson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  15. Analytical and experimental investigation of rubbing interaction in labyrinth seals for a liquid hydrogen fuel pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, F.X.; Kennedy, F.E.; Schulson, E.M.

    1984-08-01

    Cracking of the titanium knife edges on the labyrinth seals of the liquid hydrogen fuel pump in the Space Shuttle main engine is considered. Finite element analysis of the thermal response of the knife edge in sliding contact with the wear ring surface shows that interfacial temperatures can be quite high and they are significantly influenced by the thermal conductivity of the surfaces in rubbing contact. Thermal shock experiments on a test specimen similar to the knife edge geometry demonstrate that cracking of the titanium alloy is possible in a situation involving repeated thermal cycles over a wide temperature range, as might be realized during a rub in the liquid hydrogen fuel pump. High-speed rub interaction tests were conducted using a representative knife edge and seal geometry over a broad range of interaction rates and alternate materials were experimentally evaluated. Plasma-sprayed aluminum-graphite was found to be significantly better than presently used aluminum alloy seals from the standpoint of rub performance. Ion nitriding the titanium alloy knife-edges also improved rub performance compared to the untreated baseline.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation on the sudden unbalance and rub-impact in rotor system caused by blade off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cun; Zhang, Dayi; Ma, Yanhong; Liang, Zhichao; Hong, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Blade loss from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, and as a consequence leads to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic characteristics. The paper focuses on the theoretical study on the sudden unbalance and rub-impact caused by blade loss, in particular investigates the response of the rotor on a rotor test rig with sudden unbalance and rub-impact device designed respectively. The results reveal that the sudden unbalance will induce impact effect on the rotor, and critical speed frequency is excited in frequency spectrum. Meantime, the impact effect is more obvious for the rotor operating above critical speed. The influence of rub-impact is considered as additional constraint to the rotor, analyzed by the theory of time-varying system for the first time, and the results are evaluated by experimental tests. The study shows that great attention should be paid to the dynamical design for the overhung rotor system, additional constraint and corresponding analysis method in rub-impact need to be intensively studied.

  17. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  18. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  20. Preparation of ZIF-8 membranes supported on macroporous carbon tubes via a dipcoating-rubbing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingyin; Zhang, Xiongfu; Liu, Haiou; Wang, Tonghua; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, a new dipcoating-rubbing method (DCRM) was developed to seed the surface of a macroporous carbon tube with a mixture of graphite and ZIF-8 nanoparticles. A continuous and low-defect ZIF-8 membrane was well formed on the seeded carbon tube by solvothermal growth. The DCRM involved a two-step process including first dipcoating a thin layer of the composite of graphite and ZIF-8 nanoparticles on the carbon surface and then rubbing the layer to form a stable seed layer. The graphite in the composite acting as binding agent could have two functions: (1) anchoring the ZIF-8 seeds onto the carbon surface; (2) smoothing the coarse surface of the macroporous carbon tube, thus forming a high quality ZIF-8 membrane. The as-prepared membrane was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and single gas permeation and was proved to be continuous and low-defect. The ideal selectivity of H2/CH4 is 7.9 with a H2 permeance of 7.15×10-8 mol Pa-1 s-1 m-2, which is higher than its corresponding Knudsen diffusion value. We could therefore expect the ZIF-8 membrane supported on macroporous tubular carbon to achieve a high selectivity of H2 over CH4 through a molecular sieving effect.

  1. Orientations of Chromonic Liquid Crystals by Imprinted or Rubbed Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Youngwoo; McGuire, Aya; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    A variety of novel alignment effects of chromonic liquid crystal phases of sunset yellow (SSY)/water, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG)/water, and their mixtures by thiol-ene polymer films topographically imprinted with linear channels are observed using polarizing optical microscopy. Nematic DSCG and SSY at low concentration and their nematic mixtures orient with the long axes of stacked chromonic aggregates on average parallel to the channels, that is, with the molecular planes normal to the channel axis. On the contrary, nematic SSY in contact with the rubbed polyimide films orients with the long axes on average in-plane perpendicular to the rubbing direction, arguably, due to a tongue-groove interaction between SSY and the stretched PI chains. Furthermore, multi-stable alignments are observed in SSY solutions of sufficiently high concentration, including preferential in-plane orientation of the long axes of the aggregates parallel to, perpendicular to, and 45° rotated from the channels. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR 1207606, NSF MRSEC grant DMR 0820579, and NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate programs.

  2. Radial liquid crystal alignment based on circular rubbing of a substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Di; Ying-Guey Fuh, Andy; Liu, Cheng-Kai; Cheng, Ko-Ting

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a simple method to produce radial liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers using circular rubbing of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) films. The produced layer can be used for fabricating axially symmetric homogeneous-radial, homeotropic-radial and radial-radial LC alignment devices by combining a rubbed PVK-coated substrate with another one with a desired LC alignment layer. The transmittance-voltage curves of the fabricated LC devices at various positions are measured to examine the uniformity of the alignment effect. Additionally, the PVK film does not absorb visible light, and can be operated at high temperatures.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  4. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  5. The impact of rubbing fabric type on surface roughness and tribological properties of some semi-alicyclic polyimides evaluated from atomic force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of some polyimides (PI) prepared from a flexible and alicyclic dianhydride, in combination with aromatic diamines was investigated in detail before and after rubbing with two types of fabric: cotton velvet (CV) and cellulose diacetate velvet (CDV). Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the correlation between rubbing-induced grooves in PI film and size/flexibility of textile fibers. For both samples surface isotropy decreased appreciatively with 91% after patterning since the appearance of ordered nanostructures in the direction of rubbing. The angular spectra reveal the generation of a surface anisotropy after rubbing process and a higher surface regularity and uniformity when using CV. This result is confirmed by decrease of texture direction index with 75% and of surface texture aspect ratio with 89%. These parameters together with the rubbing fiber characteristics are key factors in controlling liquid crystal alignment on patterned PI surfaces.

  6. Comparison between rinse and crush-and-rub sampling for aerobic bacteria recovery from broiler hatching eggs after sanitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared surface and deep eggshell aerobic bacteria recovered by rinse and crush-and-rub sampling methods for commercial hatching eggs after treatment with sanitizers. Eggs were arranged into 5 treatments consisting of No-treatment, Water, and three sanitizers. Sanitizers were Hydrogen ...

  7. Present Practices and Background to Teaching and Learning at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamtso, Deki; Maxwell, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In Bhutan relatively few studies at the higher education level have been done and fewer still reported in international journals. This pilot study highlights the present practices and culture of teaching and learning at one of the teacher education colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). It looks broadly across the issues of…

  8. Comparison between Rinse and Crush-and-Rub Sampling for Aerobic Bacteria Recovery from Hatching Eggs after Sanitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared surface and deep eggshell aerobic bacteria recovered by rinse and crush-and-rub sampling methods for commercial hatching eggs after treatments with sanitizers. Eggs were arranged into 5 treatments consisting of three sanitizers, Water, and No-treatment. Sanitizers were Hydrogen...

  9. Flexo-dielectro-optical spectroscopy of PDLC films modified by nano-rubbed PTFE layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Lidia T.

    2016-02-01

    The electro-optical (EO) response of planar single layers of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites of relatively large nematic microdroplets modified by layers of teflon (PTFE), was studied. The PDLC films were prepared from liquid crystal E7 and photopolymer NOA-65 in cells assembled with parallel or orthogonal PTFE-covered glass plates. The influence of nanostructured PTFE polymer nanolayers on both the polarized and depolarized component of laser light transmitted through PDLC cells of both geometry of layer rubbing directions was determined. Flexo-dielectro-optical spectroscopy in the range of 10 Hz - 1 kHz was applied to examine the amplitude-frequency EO modulation by PTFE-modified PDLCs in dependence on the applied alternating-current electric field. Specific fall-downs in the frequency spectra of the first and second harmonic EO modulation by PTFE-modified PDLCs were observed, that could be tuned by the driving electric field.

  10. Brine saturation technique for extraction of light filth from rubbed, ground, and whole sage: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C C

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of light filth from the 3 commercial forms of sage was studied collaboratively. It incorporates a simple isopropanol defatting, followed by saturation of the product with brine by alternately heating and cooling, and subsequent trapping of filth from tap water with olive oil. This method circumvents the use of hazardous, expensive solvents and more time-consuming pretreatment procedures. Overall recoveries were 92.1% for rodent hair and 78.7% for insect fragments on clean, easy-to-read papers. An additional blending step was necessary to obtain satisfactory recovery of rodent hair fragments from whole sage. The method has been adopted official first action for light filth in rubbed and ground sage only. PMID:4055634

  11. Mineral oil extraction of light filth from rubbed sage: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Colliflower, E J; Thrasher, J J

    1979-05-01

    The official methods for extracting light filth from rubbed sage, 44.D08--44.D10, specifies a hot isopropanol pretreatment and flotation from cooled dilute isopropanol with mineral oil to extract light filth. The method gives good recoveries, but occasionally excessive interfering plant material is extracted along with the filth elements. A new method has been developed in which chloroform is used for pretreatment instead of isopropanol, and Tween 80-EDTA is added twice rather than once. This method has given consistently cleaner filter papers and better recoveries for rodent hairs, 85 vs. 79%, and for elytral squares, 95 vs. 84%. The new method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:479084

  12. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  13. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.]. PMID:27018604

  14. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  15. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  16. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  17. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  18. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  19. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  20. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  1. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing. PMID:21067683

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  3. Tribological Behavior of Babbitt Alloy Rubbing Against Si3N4 and Steel Under Dry Friction Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xianbing; Chen, Yinxia

    2016-03-01

    The tribological behavior of Babbitt alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball with various sliding speeds at dry friction condition was investigated. It was found that B88 alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball possesses a low sliding wear resistance at dry friction. The wear rate is above 10-4 mm3/Nm, and the friction coefficient is from 0.2 to 0.4. At low sliding speed of 0.05-0.1 m/s, the mainly wear mechanisms are microgroove and fatigue wear, while at high sliding speed of 0.5 m/s, the wear mechanisms depend on plastic deformation and delamination. The high wear rate indicates that it is needed to prevent Babbitt alloy from working at dry friction conditions, while the low friction coefficient suggests that it is not easy to the occurrence of cold weld.

  4. Wash Your Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the ... specific questions. More Information CDC's Handwashing Work Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Water-related Hygiene Hand Hygiene to Help Prevent Flu ...

  5. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  6. Relaxation times and energy barriers of rubbing-induced birefringence in glass-forming polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, K. P.; Qin, Zongyi; Yang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The relaxations of rubbing-induced birefringence (RIB) in several glass-forming polymers, including polycarbonate and polystyrene (PS) derivatives with various modifications to the phenyl ring side group, are studied. Significant relaxations of RIB are observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature T g . The relaxation times span a wide range from ˜ 10 s to probably geological time scale. Physical aging effects are absent in the RIB relaxations. The model proposed for the interpretation of RIB in PS describes well the RIB relaxations in all the polymers investigated here. The energy barriers are of the order of a few hundred kJ/mol and decrease with decreasing temperature, in opposition to the trend of Vogel-Fulcher form for polymer segmental relaxations above T g . The relaxation behaviors of different polymers are qualitatively similar but somewhat different in quantitative details, such as in the values of the saturated birefringence, the shape of the initial barrier density distribution functions, the rates of barrier decrease with decreasing temperature, and the dependence of relaxation times on temperature and parameter ξ , etc. The RIB relaxations are different from any of the other relaxations below T g that have been reported in the literature, such as dielectric relaxations or optical probe relaxations. A microscopic model for the relaxations of RIB is much desired.

  7. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A. Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R. G.; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A.; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C. PMID:27180956

  8. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A. Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R. G.; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A.; Liu, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C.

  9. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R G; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C. PMID:27180956

  10. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  11. Anchoring strength of o-, m-, and p-methyl red-dye-doped nematics on rubbed and unrubbed polyimide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, David; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Potuzko, Marci

    2011-10-01

    It is demonstrated that the photoinduced gliding of the easy axis for nematics doped with various azo dyes on rubbed polyimide involves the formation of a second easy axis on the polyimide surface. While some azo dyes, such as disperse orange 3, do not exhibit large surface induced nonlinear effects, other dyes, such as methyl red, do. The amount of reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide is determined by the relative anchoring strengths of the easy axis formed from adsorbed dye and that formed from rubbing. One question of interest is what is the source of the anchoring strength? In this paper, we discuss the formation of easy axes via the photo-induced adsorption of azo dye. We will compare the anchoring strengths between dyed nematic liquid crystals and the easy axes formed by photoinduced adsorption of three isomers of the methyl red azo dye, ortho, meta, and para, as well as disperse orange 3. We will also discuss the impact of the carboxyl group position in the dye molecule on the anchoring strength.

  12. The Relationship of Pretilt Angle and Chemical Structure of Rubbed Organo-Soluble Side-Chain Polyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian K.; Bai, F.; Bai, Z.; Ge, J.; Sun, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Harris, Frank W.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2000-03-01

    This work is concerned with the relationship between the properties of the pretilt angles and chemical structure of the alignment layer for a series of novel organo-soluble side-chain polyimides developed at The University of Akron. The polyimides were spin cast on ITO glass substrates and mechanically rubbed with a velvet cloth. Liquid crystal display cells were constructed with an anti-parallel geometry using 10μm glass spacers and filled with the nematic liquid crystal mixture E7. The pretilt angle, which is defined as the angle between the liquid crystal director and the substrate, was measured using the magnetic null method. Various side-chain polyimide films were prepared and pretilt angles were determined employing identical processing conditions. In general, polyimides containing long flexible aliphatic side-chains (no. carbons >12) resulted in high pretilt angles (>20^o) however over time the pretilt shifted to a homeotropic alignment (i.e. 90^o to the substrate). The stability of the pretilt angles was improved when polyimide copolymers were used. Further enhancement of the stability was achieved by crosslinking the system prior to rubbing. Liquid crystal like side-chains (cyanobiphenol and biphenol based) resulted in stable pretilt angles ranging from 20 to 40^o for a spacer length of six carbons. Several surface techniques were used to study the effect of rubbing, including; atomic force microscopy, surfaced enhanced Raman scattering, and contact angle.

  13. Pointing and pantomime in wild apes? Female bonobos use referential and iconic gestures to request genito-genital rubbing.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Moscovice, Liza R

    2015-01-01

    Referential and iconic gesturing provide a means to flexibly and intentionally share information about specific entities, locations, or goals. The extent to which nonhuman primates use such gestures is therefore of special interest for understanding the evolution of human language. Here, we describe novel observations of wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus) using referential and potentially iconic gestures to initiate genito-genital (GG) rubbing, which serves important functions in reducing social tension and facilitating cooperation. We collected data from a habituated community of bonobos at Luikotale, DRC, and analysed n = 138 independent gesture bouts made by n = 11 females. Gestures were coded in real time or from video. In addition to meeting the criteria for intentionality, in form and function these gestures resemble pointing and pantomime-two hallmarks of human communication-in the ways in which they indicated the relevant body part or action involved in the goal of GG rubbing. Moreover, the gestures led to GG rubbing in 83.3% of gesture bouts, which in turn increased tolerance in feeding contexts between the participants. We discuss how biologically relevant contexts in which individuals are motivated to cooperate may facilitate the emergence of language precursors to enhance communication in wild apes. PMID:26358661

  14. Pointing and pantomime in wild apes? Female bonobos use referential and iconic gestures to request genito-genital rubbing

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Moscovice, Liza R.

    2015-01-01

    Referential and iconic gesturing provide a means to flexibly and intentionally share information about specific entities, locations, or goals. The extent to which nonhuman primates use such gestures is therefore of special interest for understanding the evolution of human language. Here, we describe novel observations of wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus) using referential and potentially iconic gestures to initiate genito-genital (GG) rubbing, which serves important functions in reducing social tension and facilitating cooperation. We collected data from a habituated community of bonobos at Luikotale, DRC, and analysed n = 138 independent gesture bouts made by n = 11 females. Gestures were coded in real time or from video. In addition to meeting the criteria for intentionality, in form and function these gestures resemble pointing and pantomime–two hallmarks of human communication–in the ways in which they indicated the relevant body part or action involved in the goal of GG rubbing. Moreover, the gestures led to GG rubbing in 83.3% of gesture bouts, which in turn increased tolerance in feeding contexts between the participants. We discuss how biologically relevant contexts in which individuals are motivated to cooperate may facilitate the emergence of language precursors to enhance communication in wild apes. PMID:26358661

  15. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  16. Reconstruction of the paleohydrological setting of the Rub Al Khali, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M.; Sultan, M.; Sefry, S.; Ahmed, M.; AboAbdallah, M.; Chouinard, K.; Krawczyk, M.

    2013-12-01

    Underlying the vast deserts of the Rub Al Khali (RAK) is one of the largest aquifer systems of the arid world, the Rub Al Khali Aquifer System (RAKAS) of the Arabian Peninsula. This aquifer extends for some 650,000 km2 in the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula in southern Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and United Arab Emirates. With the exception of a few settlements at the outskirts of the desert, the RAK remains largely uninhabited and underdeveloped because of its harsh climatic conditions and its largely inaccessible terrain. The RAK encompasses the largest dune fields on Earth, with some dunes reaching hundreds of meters high. These problems together with a lack of understanding of the area's groundwater potential have hindered plans for its development. We are presenting the results of a preliminary integrated investigation, involving geochemical, isotopic, field, and remote sensing data that addresses the origin and evolution of the groundwater of the RAKAS. We are investigating the paleohydrological setting of the RAK by examining the spatial relations between plaeochannel networks, paleolakes, deep-seated faults, and sapping features. The following was accomplished so far: (1) radiocarbon model ages for 14 groundwater samples collected from wells in the western portion of the RAK ranged from 1,400 to 30,600 years before present indicating that groundwater was deposited in previous wet climatic periods; (2) Landsat 8, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), OrbView, and Ikonos imagery were used to map the distribution of paleolakes and to delineate sapping features ; (3) deep seated subvertical faults were identified from geologic and aeromagnetic maps, (4) surface elevations prior to dune encroachment were extracted from SRTM data by identifying dune free areas, extracting their digital elevations, and applying interpolation techniques to the extracted elevations; (5) channel networks were generated using standard stream

  17. Alcohol Fuel Production for Vocational Students: Secondary, Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Burkhalter, Wayne

    In order to help bring about the potential for alcohol production by the farming community, Navarro College (Texas) has developed this curriculum for secondary and postsecondary levels in alcohol fuel production. The alcohol fuel curriculum consists of five modules for use in practical hands-on vocational programs. The curriculum is designed to…

  18. [The prevalence of cardiovascular pathology in alcoholism patients].

    PubMed

    Artemchuk, A F

    2000-01-01

    ECG was made in 336 patients with alcoholism that were admitted in a special hospital for alcoholic patients during one year. 146 patients were examined in the state of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, after its arrest and in stress. A prevalence of ECG changes well as stability of such alterations, prognostic criteria for a further course of both alcoholism and cardiovascular pathology were determined. A correlation was established between the cardiovascular changes on the one hand the age of the patients and the type of a course of alcoholism on the other hand. PMID:11026131

  19. Find a Hand Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  20. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of hand fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  1. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR In Schools Hands-Only CPR Community CPR Tracker AED Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE ...

  2. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  3. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  4. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  5. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  6. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  7. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  8. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  9. Removable hand hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Robert D. (Inventor); Hauer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hand hold utilizes joining mechanisms which comprises two different mounting brackets that are permanently fastened to a supporting structure. A slide plate is disposed at one end of the hand rail or hand hold which mates with one of the mounting brackets. A securing member is disposed at the opposite end of the hand rail/hand hold which connects with the other mounting bracket by means of a locking device. The slide plate has a central tapered tongue with two matching slots disposed on each side thereof.

  10. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  11. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  12. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  13. Polar and azimuthal alignment of a nematic liquid crystal by alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers: effects of chain-length and mechanical rubbing.

    PubMed

    Malone, Stephanie M; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2008-09-01

    Alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on oxide substrates are commonly used as liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers. We have studied the effects of alkyl chain length, photolytic degradation, and mechanical rubbing on polar and azimuthal LC anchoring. Both gradient surfaces (fabricated using photolytic degradation of C18 SAMs) and unirradiated SAMs composed of short alkyl chains show abrupt transitions from homeotropic to tilted alignment as a function of degradation or chain length. In both cases, the transition from homeotropic to tilted anchoring corresponds to increasing wettability of the SAM surfaces. However, there is an offset in the critical contact angle for the transition on gradient vs unirradiated SAMs, suggesting that layer thickness is more relevant than wettability for LC alignment. Mechanical rubbing can induce azimuthal alignment along the rubbing direction for alignment layers sufficiently near the homeotropic-to-planar transition. Notably, mechanical rubbing causes a small but significant shift in the homeotropic-to-tilted transition, e.g., unrubbed C5 SAMs induce homeotropic anchoring, but the same surface after rubbing induces LC pretilt. PMID:18686979

  14. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  15. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Sethi, N T

    2008-10-01

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS) is a terminology used to describe a specific complication affecting patients with diabetes mellitus in the tropics. The syndrome encompasses a localized cellulitis with variable swelling and ulceration of the hands to progressive, fulminant hand sepsis, potentially fatal. Since this syndrome is less recognized it is often under-reported. Authors present two cases of TDHS and emphasize on aggressive glycemic control and surgical therapy to prevent potential crippling or fatal complications. PMID:20165601

  16. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  17. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  18. Improving high-resistance state uniformity and leakage current for polyimide-based resistive switching memory by rubbing post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Wen-Luh; Wu, Chi-Chang; Lin, Li-Min; Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Ke-Luen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a polyimide (PI) thin film is synthesized as a resistive switching layer for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) applications. The experimental results on polyimide thickness show that the Schottky effect between the interface of polyimide and metal thin films is the dominant mechanism in the high-resistance state (HRS). We, therefore, propose a rubbing post-treatment to improve the device performance. Results show that the uniformity and leakage of the memory in the HRS, as well as the power consumption in the low-resistance state (LRS), are improved. The power density of the set process is less than half after the rubbing post-treatment. Moreover, the power density of the reset process can be markedly decreased by about two orders of magnitude. In addition, the rubbed ReRAM exhibits a stable storage capability with seven orders of magnitude ION/IOFF current ratio at 85 °C.

  19. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  20. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  1. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. [The hand and rheumatism].

    PubMed

    Lioté, F; Chicheportiche, V

    1997-01-01

    The hand is a major site of musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical features to be studied include the patient's age and sex, pain, stiffness, range of motion of the various joints of the wrists and hands, soft tissue swelling (particularly tendons sheaths), bone excrescences, skin changes. Radiological abnormalities in the hands, if any, may confirm the clinical diagnosis. The main features of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, erosive degenerative changes, Südeck syndrome, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, etc., are reviewed. PMID:9810076

  4. Facial and Hand Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M.; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

  5. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  7. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  9. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  10. Versatile impact hand tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodil, E. R.

    1968-01-01

    Improved cartridge-actuated impact hand tool includes a common power head and four attachments to punch holes, drive forced entry fasteners, hammer, and shear. The attachments are self-contained and easily fitted to the power head assembly.

  11. Arthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hand and wrist arthritis. (Note: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements. These compounds may cause negative interactions with other medications. Always consult your doctor before taking dietary supplements.) ...

  12. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  13. Towards a global alcohol policy: alcohol, public health and the role of WHO.

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, D. H.; Monteiro, M.; Room, R.; Saxena, S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 the World Health Assembly declared alcohol-related problems to be among the world's major health concerns. Since then, alcohol consumption has risen in developing countries, where it takes a heavy toll. Alcohol-related problems are at epidemic levels in the successor states of the Soviet Union and are responsible for 3.5% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. Substantial evidence exists of the relationship between the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption on the one hand and the incidence of alcohol-related problems on the other. Over the past 20 years, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of public policies involving, for example, taxation and restrictions on alcohol availability, in reducing alcohol-related problems. In the wake of rapid economic globalization, many of these policies at national and subnational levels have been eroded, often with the support of international financial and development organizations. Development agencies and international trade agreements have treated alcohol as a normal commodity, overlooking the adverse consequences of its consumption on productivity and health. WHO is in a strong position to take the lead in developing a global alcohol policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related problems, providing scientific and statistical support, capacity-building, disseminating effective strategies and collaborating with other international organizations. Such leadership can play a significant part in diminishing the health and social problems associated with alcohol use. PMID:10885168

  14. Polarized XANES studies on the rubbed polyimide for liquid crystal alignment; new applicability to the tribology of the polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Y.; Mori, I.; Sei, M.; Ito, E.; Araki, T.; Ishii, H.; Seki, K.; Kondo, K.

    1995-02-01

    The surface structure of rubbed polyimides, which is responsible for the homogeneous alignment of liquid crystal molecules, was examined with use of polarized XANES spectroscopy. Our first experiment was conducted on the odd-even effect of BPDA- Cn (bipenyl-3,3‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic dianhydride/ n-alkyl diamine) type polyimide; BPDA- Cn type polyimide with even number alkylene chain induces a large LC pretilt angle and the one with odd number alkylene chain does almost 0 degree LC pretilt angle. XANES spectra have successfully revealed the surface-structure difference between odd- and even-number BPDA polyimides, one is trans-cisoid type and the other is trans-transoid type, respectively.

  15. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  16. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  17. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  18. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  19. Portable hand hold device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  20. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  1. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 113.Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 210.External pharmaceuticals, not U.S.P. or N.F. 220.Rubbing alcohols. 410.Disinfectants, insectides, fungicides, and...

  2. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  3. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Wrist Injuries: A Brief Literature Update HAND Journal HAND , the official Journal of AAHS HAND is the official peer-reviewed Journal of AAHS, featuring articles written by clinicians worldwide ...

  4. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  5. Learning "Hands On."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Janice T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a computer teacher's incorporation of hand-held computer technology into her third- and fifth-grade students' study of acid rain. The project successfully brought two grade levels together for cross-grade research, provided an opportunity for classroom teachers and technology specialists to work collaboratively, and enhanced students'…

  6. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Momcilović, Dragan; Prokes, Bela; Janjić, Zlata

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25%) in their active age (84.44%). These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%). By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%). After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%). Data concerning education and trainig for operating agricultural machines (96.38%--patients without training) and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures) are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, inclulding public health services and media. Use of contempoarary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking. PMID:16526250

  7. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  8. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Arnie

    2003-01-01

    Describes steps schools can take to provide cleaner and safer washrooms. Emphasizes hand-washing to battle germs and asserts that creating a comfortable and user-friendly washroom is a critical and often overlooked aspect for encouraging better hygiene habits. (EV)

  9. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  10. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  11. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  12. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  13. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  14. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  15. Antimicriobial resistance patterns of colonizing flora on nurses' hands in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Heather A.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of an alcohol-based handrub for health care worker hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hand hygiene product and skin condition on the antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing hand flora among nurses. Methods Colonizing hand flora of 119 nurses working in 2 neonatal intensive care units was compared during a 22-month crossover study using alcohol handrub or antiseptic soap. Results Altogether, 1442 isolates from 834 hand cultures (mean, 7 cultures/nurse) were obtained. In 3 of 9 regression analyses modeling for resistant staphylococcal flora, the use of antiseptic soap was a significant predictor of resistance, and nurses with damaged skin were 2.79 times more likely to carry Staphylococcus warneri isolates resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion Hand hygiene product and skin condition may influence resistance patterns of hand flora of care providers. PMID:17482994

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  17. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  18. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  20. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  1. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    blood rate. More recent studies suggest that the explanation to keep is more related to the lower gastric metabolism in women (lower ADH activity), than the difference of gastric volume or alcohol hepatic oxidation. Regarding to comorbidity, in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey, 65% of women, versus 44% of men, with abuse and/or dependence to alcohol had at least one another life-time psychiatric disorder (mainly depression and anxiety disorders), compared to 36% of the overall women of the studied sample. On the other hand, the alcohol dependence is, more often than in men, secondary to other psychiatric disorders, essentially depressive episodes, but less associated to antisocial behaviours. Among the different etiopathogenic factors involved in the alcohol dependence occurrence, genetic factors seem to have a determinant impact. According to the previous family, separation/adoption and twins studies performed, genetic factors could explain 50 to 60% of the alcoholism vulnerability in both men and women. In this context, and whereas we assist to the development of etiopathogenic models with new therapeutic perspectives in alcohol dependence, it seems necessary not to neglect female alcoholism specificities. PMID:12506262

  2. [Nicotine abusing in adult children of alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Suwała, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA) are people who were raised in families abusing alcohol where one of the parents (or both) was addicted to alcohol and where alcohol was the main problem affecting all areas of life. It is estimated that in Poland adult population consists of ACA in 35-40%. Those people represent higher risk of addiction to psychoactive substances, most of all alcohol, but also nicotine. Higher addiction propensity among ACA is a result of their personality's features consisting so called "ACA syndrome". The goal of the study was to determine nicotine addiction frequency and assessment of self-propensity to addiction in chosen ACA group, gathered in three abstinent clubs for alcoholics in Warsaw. Nicotine addiction frequency among the study group members was 58.4% and alcohol addiction frequency was 21.2%. Strong nicotine addiction represented 49.2% of smokers. Men more often than women were addicted to nicotine (0.67 vs. 0.52), on the other hand women were more often than men alcohol addicts (0.18 vs. 0.15). All smokers and nicotine addicts (assessment by HIS test) were aware of their addiction. In relation to initial addiction diagnosis by CAGE test regarded higher percentage of people than it resulted from study group self-assessment (21.2% vs. 16.8). Professional psychotherapy for ACA did not influence substantially the nicotine addiction frequency in the study group. PMID:21360917

  3. Combination hand rejuvenation procedures.

    PubMed

    Shamban, Ava T

    2009-01-01

    Although the hands age at the same rate as the face, the aging process differs and requires a combination treatment approach for optimal rejuvenation. Photoaging causes epidermal changes such as lentigines, actinic keratoses, fine wrinkles, and crepe-like textural change. Thinning of the dermis and subcutaneous fat occurs as a result of both ultraviolet light exposure and intrinsic aging. This process can lead to a skeletal appearance of the hands, with prominent veins and bulging tendons. The combination approach addresses all of these issues, employing lasers, intense pulsed light devices, fractional devices, fillers, peels, vein sclerotherapy, and an effective at-home skin care program as indicated for individual needs and concerns. PMID:19825471

  4. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okpara, TC; Ezeala-Adikaibe, BA; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  5. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okpara, T C; Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Omire, O; Nwonye, E; Maluze, J

    2015-01-01

    Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence. A diagnosis of TDHS in a patient with hyperosmolar state was made. She was managed accordingly and subsequently underwent aggressive debridement and desloughing. Two fingers were amputated and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. PMID:27057390

  6. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  7. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  8. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries.

    PubMed

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries. PMID:12867861

  9. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  10. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  11. Fluorescence Assay for Evaluating Microbicidal Activity of Hand Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gigosos, Rosa M.; Mariscal-Lopez, Eloisa; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    We developed a fluorescent β-d-glucuronidase activity (BGA)-based assay for detecting and quantifying Escherichia coli in samples to assess the biocide efficacy of hand antiseptics. The fluorescence level is proportional to the number of viable E. coli organisms present. We compared our assay results to those of the E. coli plate count method specified by the European standard for testing hygienic hand rub disinfectant products (EN1500). The plate count method requires excessive handling and materials and is not valid if the number of organisms per plate is too low or high for counting in many of the samples. We optimized the fluorescent assay based on the cleavage of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide by adding 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, a nonfluorogenic BGA substrate, to induce glucuronidase activity and reduce assay time. Furthermore, our method can be automated and eliminates the need for multiple dilutions. Fluorescence was temporally monitored, and the time required to reach a specific value of fluorescence was correlated with the initial number of viable E. coli organisms on the samples. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.82) between the E. coli counts by plate count and fluorescence methods. Reported effects in fluorescent BGA were compared to the EN1500 plate count method with five hand disinfectants. We found our method more advantageous, because it was as sensitive as the EN1500 method, requires less time to complete, and is less expensive and less laborious than conventional plating techniques. PMID:26276114

  12. “The 3/3 Strategy”: A Successful Multifaceted Hospital Wide Hand Hygiene Intervention Based on WHO and Continuous Quality Improvement Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gabriel; Berbel, Cristina; Tortajada, Purificación; Alarcia, Margarita; Coca, Roser; Gallemi, Gema; Garcia, Irene; Fernández, Mari Mar; Aguilar, Mari Carmen; Martínez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Background Only multifaceted hospital wide interventions have been successful in achieving sustained improvements in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Methodology/Principal Findings Pre-post intervention study of HH performance at baseline (October 2007– December 2009) and during intervention, which included two phases. Phase 1 (2010) included multimodal WHO approach. Phase 2 (2011) added Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) tools and was based on: a) Increase of alcohol hand rub (AHR) solution placement (from 0.57 dispensers/bed to 1.56); b) Increase in frequency of audits (three days every three weeks: “3/3 strategy”); c) Implementation of a standardized register form of HH corrective actions; d) Statistical Process Control (SPC) as time series analysis methodology through appropriate control charts. During the intervention period we performed 819 scheduled direct observation audits which provided data from 11,714 HH opportunities. The most remarkable findings were: a) significant improvements in HH compliance with respect to baseline (25% mean increase); b) sustained high level (82%) of HH compliance during intervention; c) significant increase in AHRs consumption over time; c) significant decrease in the rate of healthcare-acquired MRSA; d) small but significant improvements in HH compliance when comparing phase 2 to phase 1 [79.5% (95% CI: 78.2–80.7) vs 84.6% (95% CI:83.8–85.4), p<0.05]; e) successful use of control charts to identify significant negative and positive deviations (special causes) related to the HH compliance process over time (“positive”: 90.1% as highest HH compliance coinciding with the “World hygiene day”; and “negative”:73.7% as lowest HH compliance coinciding with a statutory lay-off proceeding). Conclusions/Significance CQI tools may be a key addition to WHO strategy to maintain a good HH performance over time. In addition, SPC has shown to be a powerful methodology to detect special causes in HH performance (positive

  13. Alcohol and the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Persson, J

    1991-01-01

    alcohol thus seem to be considerable. From available results it is, however, difficult to draw any definite conclusions about the clinical importance of many of the findings. Future research will need to study the relationship between, for example, the chronic morphologic changes, the absorptive dysfunction, and permeability alterations, on the one hand, and the gastrointestinal symptoms, the extraintestinal damage, and various deficiencies, on the other hand. PMID:2006395

  14. [Alcoholism and aging. 1. Epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira

    2003-09-01

    Demographic trends reveal the elderly to be the fastest growing segment of the population. Physicians can therefore anticipate to be faced with a growing number of older patients with alcohol-related problems. It is now being increasingly recognized that alcoholism does not only concern the young population, but can appear for the first time late in life. One third of older alcoholic people develop a problem with alcohol in later life, while the other two thirds grow older with the medical and psychosocial sequelae of early-onset alcoholism. In addition, as the number of the elderly increases, clinicians are more faced with patients who began drinking earlier in life and who continue to do so late on life. Furthermore, increasing age is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease and use of medication that may interact to amplify the effects of alcohol. Alcohol may cause or worsen chronic illnesses or symptoms such as insomnia, depression, and hypertension. On the other hand, older drinkers are therefore more likely to have adverse consequences of drinking at lower levels of alcohol consumption, and these consequences are likely to be more severe. In this paper, we review the prevalence of geriatric alcoholism, the drinking pattern seen in the elderly i.e., early vs. late onset alcoholism, and we expose the danger of alcohol problems underdiagnosis. In addition, we review the comorbidities associated with alcohol use and finally we discuss treatment options. PMID:15683955

  15. Rotordynamic analysis of asymmetric turbofan rotor due to fan blade-loss event with contact-impact rub loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sunil K.

    2013-04-01

    Loss of a blade from a running turbofan rotor introduces not only huge imbalance into the dynamical system rather it makes the entire rotor asymmetric as well. In a nonsymmetric rotor, the various terms of mass, gyroscopic and stiffness matrices also become time-dependent. In this paper, all the dynamical equations include the effect of the rotary inertia and gyroscopic moments as a result of both shaft bending as well as staggered blades flexing in-and-out of the plane of the disk. The governing equations also account for internal material damping in the shaft and the external damping in the support bearing system. In addition to the unbalance load at the disk location, the shaft may also be subjected to a torque and axial forces. Here, the fan blades are modeled as pre-twisted thin shallow shells. They have coupled flexural-torsional motion in the lateral out-of-plane direction as well as extensional degrees-of-freedom in the longitudinal spanwise direction of the blade airfoil. The effect of blade tip rub forces being transmitted to the shaft are analyzed in terms of the dynamic stability of the rotor, especially during windmilling.

  16. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide.

    PubMed

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting. PMID:26382419

  17. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T.; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting.

  18. The Influence of Temperature on the Frictional Behavior of Duplex-Coated Die Steel Rubbing Against Forging Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of die life under hot forging of brass alloys is considered vital from both economical and technical points of view. One of the best methods for improving die life is duplex coatings. In this research, the influence of temperature on the tribological behavior of duplex-coated die steel rubbing against forging brass was investigated. The wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk machine from room temperature to 700 °C; the pins were made in H13 hot work tool steel treated by plasma nitriding and by PVD coatings of TiN-TiAlN-CrAlN. The disks were machined from a two-phase brass alloy too. The results revealed that the friction coefficient of this tribosystem went through a maximum at 550 °C and decreased largely at 700 °C. Furthermore, the formation of Cr2O3 caused the reduction of friction coefficient at 700 °C. PVD coatings proved their wear resistance up to 550 °C, well above the working temperature of the brass forging dies.

  19. New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesh Serebiah, J.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thivakaran, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (°C) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37-43.5, 7.7-8.45, 5.4-6.8 and 11-31, respectively.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of multi-degrees of freedom system rotor-bearing system with coupling faults of rub-impact and crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhaohui; Zhou, Shihua; Li, Chaofeng; Wen, Bangchun

    2014-07-01

    Extensive studies on rotor systems with single or coupled multiple faults have been carried out. However these studies are limited to single-span rotor systems. A finite element model for a complex rotor-bearing system with coupled faults is presented. The dynamic responses of the rotor-bearing system are obtained by using the rotor dynamics theory and the modern nonlinear dynamics theory in connection with the continuation-shooting algorithm(commonly used for obtaining a periodic solution for a nonlinear system) for a range of rub-impact clearances and crack depths. The stability and Hopf instability of the periodic motion of the rotor-bearing system with coupled faults are analyzed by using the procedure described. The results indicate that the finite element method is an effective way for determining the dynamic responses of such complex rotor-bearing systems. Further for a rotor system with rub-impact and crack faults, the influences of the clearances are significantly different for different rub-impact stiffness. On the contrary, the influence of crack depths is rather small. The instability speeds of the rotor-bearing system increase due to the presence of the crack fault. The results obtained using the new finite element model, presented for computation and analysis of dynamic responses of the rotor-bearing systems with coupled faults, are in accordance with measurements in experiment. The formulations given can be used for diagnosis of faults, vibration control, and safe and stable operations of real rotor-bearing systems.

  1. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  2. A Chloroplast-Localized Rubredoxin Family Protein Gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutRUB) Increases NaCl and NaHCO3 Tolerance by Decreasing H2O2 Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Liu, Panpan; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2016-01-01

    Rubredoxin is one of the simplest iron–sulfur (Fe–S) proteins. It is found primarily in strict anaerobic bacteria and acts as a mediator of electron transfer participation in different biochemical reactions. The PutRUB gene encoding a chloroplast-localized rubredoxin family protein was screened from a yeast full-length cDNA library of Puccinellia tenuiflora under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress. We found that PutRUB expression was induced by abiotic stresses such as NaCl, NaHCO3, CuCl2 and H2O2. These findings suggested that PutRUB might be involved in plant responses to adversity. In order to study the function of this gene, we analyzed the phenotypic and physiological characteristics of PutRUB transgenic plants treated with NaCl and NaHCO3. The results showed that PutRUB overexpression inhibited H2O2 accumulation, and enhanced transgenic plant adaptability to NaCl and NaHCO3 stresses. This indicated PutRUB might be involved in maintaining normal electron transfer to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. PMID:27248998

  3. A Chloroplast-Localized Rubredoxin Family Protein Gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora (PutRUB) Increases NaCl and NaHCO₃ Tolerance by Decreasing H₂O₂ Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Panpan; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2016-01-01

    Rubredoxin is one of the simplest iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins. It is found primarily in strict anaerobic bacteria and acts as a mediator of electron transfer participation in different biochemical reactions. The PutRUB gene encoding a chloroplast-localized rubredoxin family protein was screened from a yeast full-length cDNA library of Puccinellia tenuiflora under NaCl and NaHCO₃ stress. We found that PutRUB expression was induced by abiotic stresses such as NaCl, NaHCO₃, CuCl₂ and H₂O₂. These findings suggested that PutRUB might be involved in plant responses to adversity. In order to study the function of this gene, we analyzed the phenotypic and physiological characteristics of PutRUB transgenic plants treated with NaCl and NaHCO₃. The results showed that PutRUB overexpression inhibited H₂O₂ accumulation, and enhanced transgenic plant adaptability to NaCl and NaHCO₃ stresses. This indicated PutRUB might be involved in maintaining normal electron transfer to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. PMID:27248998

  4. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  5. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  6. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  7. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  8. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  9. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  10. Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

  11. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  12. How better availability of materials improved hand-hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Azlz, Ann-Marie

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing infections. The annual NHS staff survey in England provides national and local data on how staff feel about working in the NHS. It also provides staff with the opportunity to give their views on the availability of hand-washing materials. The infection prevention and control team at an NHS trust decided a review was required on this issue. This review assessed the availability of hand-washing materials and alcohol handrub on wards and at ward entrances. Three community buildings and 31 wards were reviewed. The audit results showed the availability of hand-washing materials was good in 30 out of 34 areas. Staff on both wards and in the community buildings highlighted what other materials were required for hand hygiene, and steps were made to provide these. The audit allowed hand-hygiene practices to be benchmarked across the trust and increased staff awareness of improving hand hygiene. As a result of this audit, the hand-hygiene compliance score increased from 80% to 95%. PMID:23905226

  13. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  14. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Javier; Wärnberg, Julia; Nova, Esther; Díaz, Ligia E; Gómez-Martinez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2007-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that light to moderate amounts of polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverages like wine or beer could have health benefits. Scientists have long debated the effects of alcohol on immune function, showing on the one hand, that high doses of alcohol consumption can directly suppress a wide range of immune responses, and that alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence of a number of infectious diseases. On the other hand, moderate alcohol consumption seems to have a beneficial impact on the immune system compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence. Therefore, the link between alcohol consumption, immune response, as well as infectious and inflammatory processes remains not completely understood. With this in mind, it is important to realise that other factors, unrelated or indirectly related to immune function, like drinking patterns, beverage type, amount of alcohol, or gender differences, will affect the influence that alcohol consumption may have on the immune system. This review summarises published data describing the effects that light to moderate amounts of polyphenol-rich beverages like wine or beer seem to have on immunity in healthy adults. PMID:17922947

  16. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ...

  17. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  18. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  19. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  20. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  1. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  2. Computer control by hand gestures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemel, Intidhar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2015-12-01

    This work fits into the context of the interpretation of automatic gestures based on computer vision. The aim of our work is to transform a conventional screen in a surface that allows the user to use his hands as pointing devices. These can be summarized in three main steps. Hand detection in a video, monitoring detected hands and conversion paths made by the hands to computer commands. To realize this application, it is necessary to detect the hand to follow. A classification phase is essential, at the control part. For this reason, we resorted to the use of a neuro-fuzzy classifier for classification and a pattern matching method for detection.

  3. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  4. HandsFree TLCMS

    2004-07-30

    The HandsFreeTLCMS software is able to - control an x,y,z stage connected to the computer via USB interface - automatically form and maintain the liquid junction between a TLC plate and the sampling probe of a TLC/MS surface sampler unit - automatically accomplish multiple-lane scans over a TLC plate making able to sample the whole surface by a pre-defined, reproducible, automated method - analyze mass spectrometric data collected during the surface scans and make datafilesmore » those contain x,y coordinates of surface spots (collected during the surface scans) and the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at those spots to produce 3-dimensional plots later in external graphic programs. - produce and save greyscale or color 2D pictures where X and Y axises of the picture correspond to the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) range of the scanned surface area and the color of a pixel is determined by the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at that X,Y spot« less

  5. Prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  6. HandsFree TLCMS

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-30

    The HandsFreeTLCMS software is able to - control an x,y,z stage connected to the computer via USB interface - automatically form and maintain the liquid junction between a TLC plate and the sampling probe of a TLC/MS surface sampler unit - automatically accomplish multiple-lane scans over a TLC plate making able to sample the whole surface by a pre-defined, reproducible, automated method - analyze mass spectrometric data collected during the surface scans and make datafiles those contain x,y coordinates of surface spots (collected during the surface scans) and the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at those spots to produce 3-dimensional plots later in external graphic programs. - produce and save greyscale or color 2D pictures where X and Y axises of the picture correspond to the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) range of the scanned surface area and the color of a pixel is determined by the corresponding mass signal intensities (integrated over a pre-defined m/z range) at that X,Y spot

  7. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics. PMID:25532152

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  9. Kinetic and dynamic interaction of clobazam and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Taeuber, K.; Badian, M.; Brettel, H. F.; Royen, Th.; Rupp, W.; Sittig, W.; Uihlein, M.

    1979-01-01

    1 The present study was designed to investigate both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of clobazam and alcohol. 2 Eight healthy male volunteers participated in an intraindividual Latin square comparison of (a) clobazam 20 mg; (b) placebo; (c) alcohol + placebo; and (d) alcohol + clobazam 20 mg. Alcohol was administered orally in quantities individually calculated to yield serum alcohol concentrations of about 1000 μg/ml. The comparison of treatments (a) against (b) against (b) and (c) against (d) was double blind. Drug-free periods between the trials were 7 days. 3 Pharmacodynamic assessments were carried out before and 2, 3 and 5 h after administration using a series of tests of choice reaction performance, simple reaction time, two-hand coordination and body sway, together with self ratings, side-effects lists, vital signs and blood chemistry. 4 Blood samples were obtained before and 50, 100, 160, 220, 280, 340 and 1440 min after administration. Serum levels of clobazam and alcohol were determined by gas chromatography. 5 The dynamic results show significant differences between the alcohol and non-alcohol treatments and no significant difference either between clobazam and placebo, or between alcohol alone and alcohol + clobazam. Numerically, however, the detrimental effects of the combination were consistently stronger, indicating a possible pharmacodynamic interaction. 6 A pharmacokinetic interaction was found, as the serum clobazam levels were higher after combined administration of clobazam and alcohol than after clobazam alone. An enhanced absorption of clobazam and a reduced distribution volume may explain this finding which is comparable to findings obtained with diazepam and alcohol (Hayes et al., 1977). 7 It is concluded that combined ingestion of clobazam and alcohol is likely to be more hazardous than that of alcohol alone. PMID:35214

  10. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  11. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  12. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  14. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  15. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  16. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  17. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  18. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  19. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  2. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  3. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  4. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  5. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  6. Small volumes of n-propanol (60%) applied for 3 minutes may be ineffective for surgical hand disinfection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a trend in some countries to recommend the use of surgical hand disinfectants at volumes as low as 4 ml per application. Aim To determine whether the volume applied and hand size influence the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection. Methods Thirteen experiments, according to EN 12791, resulting in 269 datasets from 75 subjects were analyzed. Hands were first washed for one minute with soap. The pre-values were obtained by rubbing the finger tips in tryptic soy broth for one minute. Each subject treated his/her hands with n-propanol (60%, v/v), with as many portions as necessary to keep the hands wet for three minutes (6–12 ml). Bacterial post-values were taken from one hand (immediate effect); the other hand was gloved for three hours (sizes 7–9). The second post-value was taken when the glove was removed (3 h effect). Results The mean immediate log10 reduction of CFU was 2.56 ± 1.12. The glove size had no significant effect on the efficacy of disinfection (p = 0.182; ANOVA). However, a volume of 6 ml was significantly less effective than 9 ml for glove sizes of 7.5–8 (p < 0.05; Tukey post hoc analysis). The mean log10 reduction after 3 h was 2.12 ± 1.24. A volume of 6 ml was again significantly less effective than 12 ml for glove size 7 and than 9 ml for glove sizes 7.5–8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of small volumes of surgical hand disinfectant when using the EN 12791 reference procedure is likely to yield poor efficacy results, regardless of hand size. PMID:24822090

  7. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  8. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  9. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  10. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  11. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  12. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  15. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  16. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  17. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  19. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  20. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  1. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  2. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training. PMID:21096021

  3. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  4. [Influence of promotional material on hand hygiene in the safety culture of a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Molina-Cabrillana, J; Dorta-Hung, M E; Otero Sanz, L; Henández Vera, J R; Martín-Rodríguez, M M; García de Carlos, P

    2016-06-01

    In order to increase safety culture about hand hygiene by means of messages and reminders about its importance in preventing nosocomial infections, we developed a new set of materials in the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, constitued by two centres with 450 beds each and acredited for medical internal residents training. We hired a well-known caricaturist, who adapted the messages to the local way of speaking, by using characters that used to appear in his artwork in the local newspaper. Also, we continued to work with other graphic design professionals. We monitored adherence and consumption of products for hand rubbing. We noted an increase in both indicators in the following months after the implementation of this strategy. Moreover, we revised the infrastructures for hand hygiene, and were able to demonstrate improvements in most of the patient care areas. The material was well accepted by professionals, patients and visitors. No other interventions were made, so we think improvements can be attributable to this strategy in our setting. PMID:27157796

  5. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  6. Impact of Dyrk1A level on alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Renon, Marjorie; Legrand, Béatrice; Blanc, Etienne; Daubigney, Fabrice; Bokobza, Cindy; Mortreux, Marie; Paul, Jean-Louis; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Rouach, Hélène; Andreau, Karine; Janel, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Alcoholic liver diseases arise from complex phenotypes involving many genetic factors. It is quite common to find hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholic liver diseases, mainly due to deregulation of hepatic homocysteine metabolism. Dyrk1A, involved in homocysteine metabolism at different crossroads, is decreased in liver of hyperhomocysteinemic mice. Here, we hypothesized that Dyrk1A contributes to alcohol-induced hepatic impairment in mice. Control, hyperhomocysteinemic and mice overexpressing Dyrk1A were fed using a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with or without ethanol (5% v/v ethanol) for one month, and liver histological examination and liver biochemical function tests were performed. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and homocysteine levels were significantly decreased in mice overexpressing Dyrk1A compared to control mice with or without alcohol administration. On the contrary, the mean plasma alanine aminotransferase and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in hyperhomocysteinemic mice than that of control mice after alcohol administration. Paraoxonase 1 and CYP2E1, two phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, were found increased in the three groups of mice after alcohol administration. However, NQO1, a phase II enzyme, was only found increased in hyperhomocysteinemic mice after alcohol exposure, suggesting a greater effect of alcohol in liver of hyperhomocysteinemic mice. We observed positive correlations between hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity, Dyrk1A and ADH4 protein levels. Importantly, a deleterious effect of alcohol consumption on hepatic Dyrk1A protein level was found. Our study reveals on the one hand a role of Dyrk1A in ethanol metabolism and on the other hand a deleterious effect of alcohol administration on hepatic Dyrk1A level. PMID:27216978

  7. An evaluation, using computerized image analysis, of antimicrobial efficacy of an automatic hand washing machine with ultrasonic wave spraying.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Mitsuya, K; Asada, Y

    1993-10-01

    We studied the antimicrobial efficacy of hand washing with a quick-dry hand washing machine [TE-KIREIKI] employing ultrasonic wave spraying and its incidental alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E]. The subjects of this study were 10 males who had been instructed not to use any antimicrobial agent for the previous 2 weeks or any hand soap for the previous 5 hours. They pressed their palms on agar before and after washing their hands. After 48-hour incubation at 37 degrees C, the bacterial colonies grown on the agar were counted using the [ASPECT] image processing system. The colony count was expressed as the post-stamp versus pre-stamp percent (%) reduction. Two patterns of hand washing were examined in this study: [A] a 3-second hand wash using an alcohol-based product [AROKULIN-E] and [B] a 30-second hand wash using a nonmedicated detergent soap with running water in addition to hand washing by [A]. The percent (%) reduction after hand washing patterns [A] and [B] were 49.1% and 51.3%. These reduction rates indicated that these patterns did not eradicate bacteria from the hand surface. Therefore, we concluded that this quick-dry hand washing machine employing an ultrasonic wave spraying method combined with an alcohol-based product needs improvement. PMID:8277045

  8. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  9. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  10. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  11. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  12. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  13. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  14. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  15. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  16. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  17. The Work of the Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludick, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing Maria and Mario Montessori's reverence for the hand, Pat Ludick takes the reader into the wonder of the human body, mind, and spirit and across the planes of education, into the making of a whole personality and grounded intelligence that is ready for the adult world. Putting the hand front and center, she lyrically evolves an overview…

  18. The Left-Handed Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  19. Probing the Ordering of Semiconducting Fluorene-Thiophene Copolymer Surfaces on Rubbed Polyimide Substrates by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Pattison,L.; Hexemer, A.; Kramer, E.; Krishnan, S.; Petroff, P.; Fischer, D.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature-dependent alignment of semiconducting liquid crystalline fluorene-thiophene copolymer (F8T2) thin film surfaces was investigated using the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique. Partial electron yield spectra were recorded over a range of temperatures in order to observe directly the surface orientation as the polymer is heated and cooled through glass, crystal, and liquid crystal phases. In addition, samples annealed under varying processing conditions and quenched to room temperature were analyzed. The NEXAFS data show that (a) in thin F8T2 films at all temperatures the polymer backbone lies in the plane of the substrate, (b) the fluorene and thiophene rings are rotated randomly about the molecular axis, (c) orientation of the polymer backbone can be controlled using a rubbed polyimide alignment layer as a template for liquid crystal orientation, and (d) under proper annealing conditions there is strong temperature-dependent alignment of the copolymer main-chain axis to the rubbing direction which extends from the polyimide/F8T2 interface all the way to the F8T2 surface. The surface alignment does not disappear after annealing at temperatures {approx}30 K above the bulk nematic to isotropic transition.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  1. Audit of hand hygiene at Broadmoor, a high secure psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K

    2010-06-01

    Increased security measures at high secure psychiatric hospitals can complicate hand hygiene. This audit assessed the availability of appropriate hand hygiene equipment and the practice of good hand hygiene at Broadmoor Hospital using the local hand hygiene policy as the standard for comparison. A data collection tool used to audit the hand hygiene equipment on 23 wards in the hospital showed that there were significant deficits in the supply of hand hygiene equipment on the wards. In addition, a staff survey was conducted using a questionnaire designed to assess awareness, training and hand decontamination practice among nursing staff. This survey identified a need to increase awareness of the hand hygiene policy and the appropriate timing of hand decontamination procedures. As a result of the audit, appropriate equipment was ordered and the duties of infection prevention link nurses on each ward were made more explicit; namely, to check and order equipment for hand hygiene as necessary, to conduct regular reminder sessions of the hand decontamination procedure and to raise awareness of hand hygiene policy. Posters were also placed on wards in patient areas to increase awareness of hand hygiene among patients, and alcohol gel dispensers were introduced into nursing stations. Similar audits may prove beneficial at other psychiatric hospitals. PMID:20304525

  2. The hand of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  3. The hand of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Tracy L; Deane, Andrew S; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  4. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  5. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers. PMID:27296611

  6. Development of hand surgery: education of hand surgeons.

    PubMed

    Omer, G E

    2000-07-01

    An organized experience in the care of hand injuries and infections was not available until World War II, when military hand centers were established. Dr Sterling Bunnell was designated as a special civilian consultant to the Secretary of War. The surgeons in the military services during World War II became the nucleus of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH). Following World War II and the Korean War there was a major shift toward medical subspecialization, and the growth of surgery of the hand as a subspecialty parallels that trend. The ASSH initiated a coordinated effort to improve the educational experience, and in 1967 the ASSH Resident Training Committee was evaluating hand training programs. The ASSH developed a comprehensive program in continuing medical education, and received full accreditation from the American Medical Association Council on Medical Education. The American Medical Association has included hand surgery on its list of designated specialties since 1975. In 1973, the bylaws of the American Board of Medical Specialties were revised to provide special certification. The ASSH developed a proposal for a certificate of added qualification in surgery of the hand that was presented to the three primary boards (orthopaedic, plastic, surgery) and the ad hoc joint Committee on Surgery of the Hand was organized in 1982. An application for a certificate of added qualification in surgery was developed by the Joint Committee on Surgery of the Hand and approved by all three boards in 1985 and the ABMS in 1986. The first examination for the certificate of added qualification in surgery was held in 1989. PMID:10913201

  7. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  8. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  9. Applications of chemostratigraphy in Cretaceous sediments encountered in the North Central Rub' al-Khali Basin, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craigie, Neil W.

    2015-04-01

    The following study was undertaken on inorganic geochemical data acquired for 832 core and cuttings samples taken from Cretaceous sediments encountered in 11 wells in the North Central Rub' al-Khali Basin, Saudi Arabia. The study sections extend from Khafji Member at the base of the Wasia Formation to the basal part of the Aruma Formation. The principal objective of the study was to produce a chemostratigraphic scheme for these wells, though a comparison was also made with a previous lithostratigraphic scheme. Although ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) were used to acquire data for 50 elements, the chemostratigraphic scheme is based on changes in the following 'key' elements and ratios: Ca, Al, Zr, P/Y, Zr/P, Zr/Y, Zr/Nb, Mo and Zr. The scheme comprises a hierarchical order of five zones, 18 subzones and four divisions, with the zones labelled C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 in ascending stratigraphic order. The definition of these zones are mainly based on changes in Ca and Al reflecting variations in bulk lithology as a response to changes in base level. Zone C1 is dominated by elevated Al and low Ca concentrations and represents calcareous mudrocks deposited in a lagoonal-prodelta environment. An increase in base level led to the formation of highly calcareous rudistic limestones deposited in a shallow marine environment, with a further increase in base level resulting in the deposition of calcareous mudrocks with high Al values in zone C3. Zone C4 comprises rudistic limestones (with elevated Ca and low Al) deposited in shallow marine conditions, while C5 is dominated by calcareous mudrocks and argillaceous limestones deposited in a prodeltaic paleoenvironment. Although the definition of zones mainly relates to changes in base level/bulk lithology, more subtle changes in provenance are modelled using the P/Y, Zr/P, Zr/Y and Zr/Nb ratios which are used to define most subzones and

  10. Continued activity in P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS. Unexpected comet, rotational break-up, or rubbing binary asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O. R.; Boehnhardt, H.; Snodgrass, C.; Meech, K. J.; Deller, J.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Kuehrt, E.; Lowry, S. C.; Manfroid, J.; Micheli, M.; Mottola, S.; Opitom, C.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wainscoat, R.

    2014-03-01

    The object P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS was discovered in August 2013, displaying a cometary tail, but its orbital elements indicated that it was a typical member of the inner asteroid main belt. We monitored the object from 2013 August 30 until 2013 October 05 using the CFHT 3.6 m telescope (Mauna Kea, HI), the NTT (ESO, La Silla), the CA 1.23 m telescope (Calar Alto), the Perkins 1.8m (Lowell) and the 0.6 m TRAPPIST telescope (La Silla). We measured its nuclear radius to be r ≲ 0.25-0.29 km, and its colours g' - r' = 0.58 ± 0.05 and r' - i' = 0.23 ± 0.06, typical for an S-class asteroid, as expected for an object in the inner asteroid belt and in the vicinity of the Flora collisional family. We failed to detect any rotational light curve with an amplitude <0.05 mag and a double-peaked rotation period <20 h. The evolution of the tail during the observations was as expected from a dust tail. A detailed Finson-Probstein analysis of deep images acquired with the NTT in early September and with the CFHT in late September indicated that the object was active since at least late January 2013 until the time of the latest observations in 2013 September, with at least two peaks of activity around 2013 June 14 ± 10 d and 2013 July 22 ± 3 d. The changes of activity level and the activity peaks were extremely sharp and short, shorter than the temporal resolution of our observations (~1 d). The dust distribution was similar during these two events, with dust grains covering at least the 1-1000 μm range. The total mass ejected in grains <1 mm was estimated to be 3.0 × 106 kg and 2.6 × 107 kg around the two activity peaks. Rotational disruption cannot be ruled out as the cause of the dust ejection. We also propose that the components of a contact binary might gently rub and produce the observed emission. Volatile sublimation might also explain what appears as cometary activity over a period of 8 months. However, while main belt comets best explained by ice sublimation are found

  11. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  12. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  13. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  14. The Marble-Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V.

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the ‘Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration. PMID:24621793

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  17. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. PMID:27241383

  18. Your Health in Your Hands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the principle environmental/dietary factors related to diseases characteristic of developed countries. Suggests doubling fiber and starch, cutting sugar/salt in half, and cutting fat by one-third. Indicates that alcohol consumption, poor diet, drug abuse and lack of exercise are detrimental to good health. (JM)

  19. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  20. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  1. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  2. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  3. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  4. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  5. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  6. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  7. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  9. Surgical exposures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-11-01

    Surgical approaches to the hand are commonly executed in the treatment of fractures, ligament injuries, and less commonly in the resection of bony tumors. Careful design and execution of these surgical approaches translates into superior functional and aesthetic outcomes. We have provided a thorough review of commonly used approaches to the hand by evaluating each of these approaches in the context of core principles including safety, versatility, preservation of stability, and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:25440073

  10. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  11. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  12. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  14. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  15. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  16. Hand hygiene compliance in Penang, Malaysia: Human audits versus product usage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew Fong; Merican, Hassan; Nallusamy, Revathy; Ong, Loke Meng; Mohamed Nazir, Paa; Hamzah, Hafizah Binti; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology. PMID:26897697

  17. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  18. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  19. Isopropanol overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol overdose; Isopropyl alcohol overdose ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  20. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  1. Rub tolerance evaluation of two sintered NiCrAl gas path seal materials. [wear tests of gas turbine engine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Two strength level variations of sintered NiCrAl (about 40 percent dense), candidate high pressure turbine seal materials, were subject to rub tolerance testing against AM 355 steel blade tips. The high strength material (17 N/sq mm tensile strength) showed frictional and radial loads that were 20 to 50 percent higher than those measured for the low strength material (15.5 N/ sq mm tensile strength). Measured wear to the AM 355 blade tips was not significantly different for the two sintered NiCrAl seal materials. Wear of the sintered NiCrAl was characterized by material removal to a depth greater than the depth to which blade tips were driven into the seal, indicating self-erosion effects.

  2. Development of polymer optical waveguide-type alcohol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Junichi; Honma, Satoshi; Morisawa, Masayuki; Muto, Shinzo

    2008-03-01

    Recently, alcohols such as methanol and ethanol have a wide attention as important fuel in next generation. However, As is known, many alcohols have a toxic and explosive nature. To prevent accidents caused by alcohol, development of a safety and highly sensitive sensor is required strongly. In addition, it is desired to be simple and low-cost. So, in this paper, polymer waveguide-type optical alcohol sensors such as fiber-type and channel waveguide-type have been studied. In these sensor head, refractive index n II of cladding layer was set at slightly larger value than that of core (n I). Therefore, in the state without alcohol, the sensor head operate as a leaky waveguide. On the other hand in the state with alcohol, cladding polymer causes swelling and its refractive index becomes lower than n I in core. Based on this principle, large change in output light intensity occurs and detection of alcohol concentration becomes possible even for vapor phase alcohol. In the experiment using a fiber-type sensor with a core size of 0.25 mm, detection of 1% methanol vapor could easily be obtained. Furthermore, using a channel waveguide-type sensor head with a core size of about 50μm×40μm, large increase in sensitivity was observed.

  3. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  4. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  5. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  6. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  7. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  10. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  13. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  14. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  15. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  16. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  17. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  18. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  19. Snowblower injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, D P; Gorosh, J; Burke, E F; Singer, R M

    1997-12-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the records of 62 patients who sustained serious hand injuries caused by snowblowers between 1981 and 1990. Frequency of injuries to digits tended to correlate with length (i.e., middle, index, ring, or small finger or thumb). Damage to tendons did not seem to follow any particular pattern. The majority of victims sustained multiple digital involvement. Complete versus partial amputation followed the same length distribution as did injured digits. Most of the injuries occurred to the dominant hand. When patients were further questioned regarding the circumstances and events leading to their injury, a recurring pattern was found. Most patients described a wet, heavy snow having recently fallen. The majority of the patients who were injured by placing their hands into the exit chute admitted that they were aware the machine was running, but thought that they had a greater clearance to the rotating impeller blade. PMID:9413590

  20. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  1. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  2. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  3. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  4. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of...

  5. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    PubMed

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

  6. Predicting hand function after hemidisconnection.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hanna; Kudernatsch, Manfred; Pieper, Tom; Groeschel, Samuel; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Raffelt, David; Winkler, Peter; Holthausen, Hans; Staudt, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Hemidisconnections (i.e. hemispherectomies or hemispherotomies) invariably lead to contralateral hemiparesis. Many patients with a pre-existing hemiparesis, however, experience no deterioration in motor functions, and some can still grasp with their paretic hand after hemidisconnection. The scope of our study was to predict this phenomenon. Hypothesizing that preserved contralateral grasping ability after hemidisconnection can only occur in patients controlling their paretic hands via ipsilateral corticospinal projections already in the preoperative situation, we analysed the asymmetries of the brainstem (by manual magnetic resonance imaging volumetry) and of the structural connectivity of the corticospinal tracts within the brainstem (by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tractography), assuming that marked hypoplasia or Wallerian degeneration on the lesioned side in patients who can grasp with their paretic hands indicate ipsilateral control. One hundred and two patients who underwent hemidisconnections between 0.8 and 36 years of age were included. Before the operation, contralateral hand function was normal in 3/102 patients, 47/102 patients showed hemiparetic grasping ability and 52/102 patients could not grasp with their paretic hands. After hemidisconnection, 20/102 patients showed a preserved grasping ability, and 5/102 patients began to grasp with their paretic hands only after the operation. All these 25 patients suffered from pre- or perinatal brain lesions. Thirty of 102 patients lost their grasping ability. This group included all seven patients with a post-neonatally acquired or progressive brain lesion who could grasp before the operation, and also all three patients with a preoperatively normal hand function. The remaining 52/102 patients were unable to grasp pre- and postoperatively. On magnetic resonance imaging, the patients with preserved grasping showed significantly more asymmetric brainstem volumes than the patients who lost their grasping

  7. Toe-to-hand transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, M

    1980-07-01

    Toe-to-hand transfer was performed in 28 patients, involving 33 fingers, using microvascular technique. Of this number, 26 patients (31 fingers) had experienced trauma, and the remaining 2 patients (2 fingers) had a congenital deformity. The toew used for grafting were the great toe (1), the second tow (30), and third toe (2). Success was achieved in all cases, sensory recovery was good, and remarkable improvement was attained in function and cosmetic appearance. Metacarpal hand, amputation of thumb, and amputation thumb and three fingers were good indications for this procedure, which gave satisfactory aesthetic results, even in patients with amputation of single digits. PMID:7394050

  8. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  12. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  13. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  15. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  16. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  17. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  20. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  3. Were James Bond’s drinks shaken because of alcohol induced tremor?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Graham; Guha, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify James Bond’s consumption of alcohol as detailed in the series of novels by Ian Fleming. Design Retrospective literature review. Setting The study authors’ homes, in a comfy chair. Participants Commander James Bond, 007; Mr Ian Lancaster Fleming. Main outcome measures Weekly alcohol consumption by Commander Bond. Methods All 14 James Bond books were read by two of the authors. Contemporaneous notes were taken detailing every alcoholic drink taken. Predefined alcohol unit levels were used to calculate consumption. Days when Bond was unable to consume alcohol (such as through incarceration) were noted. Results After exclusion of days when Bond was unable to drink, his weekly alcohol consumption was 92 units a week, over four times the recommended amount. His maximum daily consumption was 49.8 units. He had only 12.5 alcohol free days out of 87.5 days on which he was able to drink. Conclusions James Bond’s level of alcohol intake puts him at high risk of multiple alcohol related diseases and an early death. The level of functioning as displayed in the books is inconsistent with the physical, mental, and indeed sexual functioning expected from someone drinking this much alcohol. We advise an immediate referral for further assessment and treatment, a reduction in alcohol consumption to safe levels, and suspect that the famous catchphrase “shaken, not stirred” could be because of alcohol induced tremor affecting his hands. PMID:24336307

  4. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  5. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome to ASSH.org Home of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is the oldest and most prestigious medical society dedicated to the hand and upper extremity. Our ...

  6. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  7. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs on hands varies by product. Washing with soap and water Place your hands together under water ( ... hands together for at least 20 seconds (with soap if possible). Wash all surfaces well, including wrists, ...

  8. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  9. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  10. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  11. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  12. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  13. Hand injury and electrical tools.

    PubMed

    Barton, A J

    1998-01-01

    This case study looks at an electrician who sustained two hand injuries due to tool use. The first injury was a ganglionic cyst in the right palm and the second was a cyst in the right thumb. Recommendations from The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) and his company's insurance company are included. PMID:24441209

  14. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  15. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  16. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  17. Firecracker injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, D N; Green, J A; Viglione, W

    2001-03-01

    Between September 1999 and April 2000, the Hand Unit at St George Hospital, Sydney, treated three young men with severe injuries caused by holding a lighted firecracker. These cases illustrate the typical injuries seen with this mechanism of injury. They highlight the dangers of these explosive devices and the potential to improve the laws relating to fireworks. PMID:11280694

  18. Venous lakes of the hands

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.M.; Hessel, S.J.; Joseph, R.B.; Bodell, L.S.

    1985-09-01

    Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon.

  19. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  20. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607