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Sample records for alcohol ignition interlock devices

  1. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    PubMed

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-09-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  2. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    PubMed

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  3. Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism.

    PubMed

    Willis, C; Lybrand, S; Bellamy, N

    2004-10-18

    An ignition interlock device is part of a multi-dimensional programme aimed at reducing recidivism in convicted drink drivers. To operate a vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device, the driver must first provide a breath specimen. If the breath alcohol concentration of the specimen exceeds the predetermined level, the vehicle will not start. As a measure to reduce circumvention of the device (i.e. someone else blows into the mouthpiece), random retests are required while the vehicle is running. Other components of the drink driving programme include information seminars for the driver and downloading data from the device's data logger, which logs all test attempts and records all passes, warnings and failures. To systematically assess the effectiveness of ignition interlock programmes on recidivism rates of drink drivers, by examining rates of recidivism while the ignition interlock device was installed in the vehicle and after removal of the device. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was searched, in addition to relevant electronic databases and the Internet. Controlled trials in which offenders have been charged with drink driving and have either been sentenced to participate in an ignition interlock programme or the usual punishment (either licence suspension or some form of treatment programme). This study was not restricted by language or status of publication. One randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ten controlled trials were identified, and also three ongoing trials. Data regarding recidivism while the interlock is installed in the vehicle; after the interlock has been removed from the vehicle and total recidivism during the study were extracted and entered into analyses using RevMan. The RCT showed that the interlock programme was effective while the device was installed in the vehicle; relative risk 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.63). Controlled trials support this conclusion, with a general trend - in both first-time and repeat

  4. An evaluation of Nova Scotia's alcohol ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward G M; Mainegra Hing, Marisela; Robertson, Robyn D

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol ignition interlock programs for offenders aim to reduce recidivism among convicted drink drivers. This study presents an evaluation of Nova Scotia's interlock program implemented in 2008 in order to assess its effectiveness to reduce impaired driving and to help identify areas for improvement. Data used include conviction and crash records of individual participants; provincial monthly counts of alcohol-related charges, convictions and fatal and serious crashes; and interlock logged events. Methods used include descriptive statistics, survival analysis, time series and logistic regression analysis. With respect to specific deterrence (i.e., preventing recidivism) there was a 90% reduction in recidivism among voluntary participants since participation in the interlock program and a 79% reduction after these participants exited from the program. With respect to general deterrence (i.e., referring to a preventative effect on the entire population of drivers in Nova Scotia) there were temporary decreases in the numbers of alcohol-related charges (13.32%) and convictions (9.93%) and a small significant decrease in the number of fatal and serious injury alcohol-related crashes, following the implementation of the program. The evidence suggests the interlock program was better at preventing harm due to alcohol-impaired driving than the alternative of not using the interlock program. Recommendations were formulated supporting the continuation of the interlock program in Nova Scotia.

  5. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... requirements. Is the current set point of 0.025 grams of alcohol per 210 Liters of air (g/dL) appropriate or...-safe, False-negative, False-positive, High end and Low end. NHTSA also proposes to add three terms... of alcohol in a given amount of breath, expressed in weight per volume (w/v) based upon grams...

  6. Program design for incentivizing ignition interlock installation for alcohol-impaired drivers: The Ontario approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracey; Byrne, Patrick A; Bhatti, Junaid A; Elzohairy, Yoassry

    2016-10-01

    Drinking and driving is a major risk factor for traffic injuries. Although ignition interlocks reduce drinking and driving while installed, several issues undermine their implementation including delayed eligibility for installation, low installation once eligible, and a return to previous risk levels after de-installation. The Canadian province of Ontario introduced a "Reduced Suspension with Ignition Interlock Conduct Review" Program, significantly changing pre-existing interlock policy. The Program incentivizes interlock installation and an "early" guilty plea. It also attempts to reduce long-term recidivism through behavioural feedback and compliance-based removal. This evaluation is the first in assessing Program impact. Ontario drivers with a first time alcohol-impaired driving conviction between July 1, 2005 and November 25, 2014 comprised the study cohort. Longitudinal analyses, using interrupted time series and Cox regression, were conducted in which exposure was the Program and the outcomes were ignition interlock installation (N=30,200), pre-trial elapsed time (N=30,200), and post-interlock recidivism (N=9326). After Program implementation, installation rates increased by 54% and pre-trial elapsed time decreased by 146 days. Results suggest no effect on post-interlock recidivism. Through an incentive-based design, this Program was effective at addressing two commonly cited barriers to interlock implementation- delayed eligibility for installation and low installation once eligible. Results reveal that installation rates are responsive not only to incentivization but also to other external factors, thus presenting an opportunity for policy makers to find unique ways to influence interlock uptake, and thereby, to extend their deterrent effects to a larger subset of the population. This study is one of the few that do not rely on proxy measures of installation rate. Copyright © 2016 Crown. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of ignition interlock license restrictions on drivers with multiple alcohol offenses: a randomized trial in Maryland.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, K H; Rauch, W J; Baker, E A; Williams, A F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation sought to test the effectiveness of a statewide ignition interlock license restriction program for drivers with multiple alcohol-related traffic offenses. METHODS: A total of 1387 multiple offenders eligible for license reinstatement were randomly assigned to participate in an ignition interlock program (experimental group) or in the conventional postlicensing treatment program (control group). The arrest rates of these 2 groups for alcohol traffic offenses were compared for 1 year during the ignition interlock license restriction program and for 1 year after unrestricted driving privileges were returned. RESULTS: Participation in the interlock program reduced offenders' risk of committing an alcohol traffic violation within the first year by about 65%. The alcohol traffic violation rate during the first year was significantly less for participants in the interlock program (2.4%) than for those in the control group (6.7%). However, there was no statistically significant difference between these groups in the second year, after the interlock license restriction was lifted. CONCLUSIONS: Ignition interlock license restriction programs are effective at reducing recidivism among drivers with multiple alcohol offenses, at least while the restriction is in effect. PMID:10553391

  9. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  10. Detection of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in the blood of drivers in an alcohol ignition interlock program

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Jones, Joseph; Lewis, Douglas; Jones, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective The rate of failed interlock blood alcohol concentration (BAC) tests is a strong predictor of recidivism post-interlock and a partial proxy for alcohol use. Alcohol biomarkers measured at the start of an interlock program are known to correlate well with rates of failed BAC tests over months of interlock use. This study evaluates two methods of measuring low blood levels of the biomarker PEth (phosphatidylethanol). PEth is a 100% alcohol specific biomarker and strongly intercorrelated with several independent indicators of drinking driving risk, including 8 other biomarkers, 3 psychometric assessments, and the rate of failed interlock BAC tests during many months of interlock use. Does a more sensitive method of measuring PEth at program entry detect drinking even among those who subsequently log no failed interlock tests? Methods In a sample of 281 driver blood samples, PEth was measured by both high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) in order to compare sensitivity and accuracy. The average rate of failed interlock BAC tests was the criterion measure for marker sensitivity. LCMSMS, calibrated to detect low levels of drinking as a possible measure of abstinence violation, was judged relative to the standard HPLC assay for PEth measured up to 4 µmol/L. Results The two methods showed a good quantitative relationship (r2>.86). LCMSMS detected positive PEth levels in samples that were below the limit of detection of the HPLC method. PEth measured by LCMSMS was positive for a higher proportion of DUI offenders who logged zero failed interlock BAC tests than were detected by HPLC. Conclusion Although HPLC is the widely used standard for measuring PEth in clinical alcoholism samples, the LCMSMS method, when calibrated to detect trace amounts of the major component of PEth, can detect abstinence levels of alcohol near zero intake and still correlate strongly with other indicators related to

  11. Ignition Interlock Laws: Effects on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes, 1982-2013.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Tung, Gregory; Shulman-Laniel, Juliana; Hardy, Rose; Rutkow, Lainie; Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of preventable mortality in the U.S., leading to more than 10,000 fatalities in 2013. Ignition interlocks, or alcohol-sensing devices connected to a vehicle's ignition to prevent it from starting if a driver has a predetermined blood alcohol content (BAC) level, are a promising avenue for preventing alcohol-involved driving. This study sought to assess the effects of laws requiring ignition interlocks for some or all drunk driving offenders on alcohol-involved fatal crashes. A multilevel modeling approach assessed the effects of state interlock laws on alcohol-involved fatal crashes in the U.S. from 1982 to 2013. Monthly data on alcohol-involved crashes in each of the 50 states was collected in 2014 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Random-intercept models accounted for between-state variation in alcohol-involved fatal crash rates and autocorrelation of within-state crash rates over time. Analysis was conducted in 2015. State laws requiring interlocks for all drunk driving offenders were associated with a 7% decrease in the rate of BAC >0.08 fatal crashes and an 8% decrease in the rate of BAC ≥0.15 fatal crashes, translating into an estimated 1,250 prevented BAC >0.08 fatal crashes. Laws requiring interlocks for segments of high-risk drunk driving offenders, such as repeat offenders, may reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes after 2 years of implementation. Ignition interlock laws reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Increasing the spread of interlock laws that are mandatory for all offenders would have significant public health benefit. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a program to motivate impaired driving offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Blackman, K O; Tippetts, A S; Marques, P R

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 alcohol ignition interlocks, which prevent a drinking driver from operating a vehicle, are in use in the United States and Canada. Currently available studies indicate that interlocks reduce impaired driving recidivism while on the vehicle. However, in the United States, the practical effectiveness of these devices is limited because few offenders are willing to install them in order to drive legally. This paper reports on a study of a court policy that created a strong incentive for impaired driving offenders to install interlocks by making penalties (e.g., jail or electronically monitored house arrest) the alternative to the interlock. Comparison of the recidivism rates of offenders subject to this policy with offenders in similar, nearby courts not using interlocks indicated that the policy was producing substantial reductions in DUI recidivism.

  13. Evaluation of a program to motivate impaired driving offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Blackman, Kenneth O; Tippetts, A Scott; Marques, Paul R

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 alcohol ignition interlocks, which are designed to prevent the operation of a vehicle if the driver has been drinking, are in use in the US and Canada. Ignition interlock programs are also being initiated in Sweden and Australia. The best-controlled studies that are currently available suggest that ignition interlocks are effective in reducing impaired driving recidivism while on the vehicle. However, in the US, the practical effectiveness of these devices is limited because only a small number of offenders are willing to install them in order to drive legally. This paper reports on a study of a court policy that created a strong incentive for impaired driving offenders to install interlocks by making traditional penalties, such as jail or electronically monitored house arrest, the alternative to participation in an interlock program. Comparison of the recidivism rates of offenders subject to this policy with offenders in similar, nearby courts, not using interlocks, indicated that the policy was producing substantial reductions in DUI recidivism.

  14. An evaluation of the Swedish ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Bo

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish alcohol ignition interlock program for driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders, both first-time as well as multiple offenders, was launched as a pilot project in 1999. It is a volunteer program and differs in some respects from other programs: It covers a period of 2 years, it includes very strict medical regulations entailing regular checkups by a physician, it does not require a prior period of hard suspension, and it focuses strongly on changes in alcohol habits. Records from the 5 years prior to the offence showed that DWI offenders are generally in a high-risk category long before their offense, with a four to five times higher accident rate (road accidents reported by the police) and a three to four times higher rate of hospitalization due to a road accident. Only 12% of the eligible DWI offenders took part in the program and, of these, 60% could be diagnosed as alcohol dependent or alcohol abusers. During the program, alcohol consumption is monitored through self-esteem questionnaires (AUDIT) and five different biological markers. Our data show a noticeable reduction in alcohol consumption among the interlock users. This, combined with the high rate of compliance with the regulations, probably accounts for the fact that there was no case of recidivism during the program. Preliminary findings also suggest a reduction in the annual accident rate for interlock users while in the program. It still is too early to draw any conclusions concerning the rate of recidivism after completion of the program due to an insufficient amount of data for analysis. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are so promising that the program will now be expanded to cover all of Sweden as well as to include all driver's license categories.

  15. An evaluation of the Swedish ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Bo

    2003-06-01

    The Swedish alcohol ignition interlock program for driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders, both first-time as well as multiple offenders, was launched as a pilot project in 1999. It is a volunteer program and differs in some respects from other programs: It covers a period of 2 years, it includes very strict medical regulations entailing regular checkups by a physician, it does not require a prior period of hard suspension, and it focuses strongly on changes in alcohol habits. Records from the 5 years prior to the offence showed that DWI offenders are generally in a high-risk category long before their offense, with a four to five times higher accident rate (road accidents reported by the police) and a three to four times higher rate of hospitalization due to a road accident. Only 12% of the eligible DWI offenders took part in the program and, of these, 60% could be diagnosed as alcohol dependent or alcohol abusers. During the program, alcohol consumption is monitored through self-esteem questionnaires (AUDIT) and five different biological markers. Our data show a noticeable reduction in alcohol consumption among the interlock users. This, combined with the high rate of compliance with the regulations, probably accounts for the fact that there was no case of recidivism during the program. Preliminary findings also suggest a reduction in the annual accident rate for interlock users while in the program. It still is too early to draw any conclusions concerning the rate of recidivism after completion of the program due to an insufficient amount of data for analysis. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are so promising that the program will now be expanded to cover all of Sweden as well as to include all driver's license categories.

  16. The alcohol interlock: an underutilized resource for predicting and controlling drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes evidence presented during the Third Annual Ignition Interlock Symposium at Vero Beach, Florida, 29 October 2002. The ignition interlock prevents a car from starting when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. We review some of our prior work as well as introduce previously unpublished results to demonstrate the manner in which the data recorded by the alcohol ignition interlock device can serve as an advance predictor of future driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol risks. Data used in this current report represent approximately 2,200 ignition interlock users from Alberta, Canada, and about 8,000 interlock users from Quebec, Canada; the Alberta data set contained 5.5 million breath tests and the Quebec data 18.8 million breath tests. All tests are time and date stamped and this information was used to characterize patterns of BAC and vehicle use, and the relationship between BAC elevations and DUI offenses that accumulated after the interlock was removed from the vehicles. Findings from Cox regression (Marques et al., 2003) show that BAC elevations > .02-.04% are more potent predictors of repeat DUI (p < .0001) than even prior DUI (p < .006), usually found to be the strongest indicator of driver risk. Prior DUI obviously has no use for scaling the risk of first-time offenders. Drivers who are both multiple offenders and who have more than a few elevated interlock BAC tests are much more likely to repeat DUI. The timing and pattern of elevated BAC tests provided during the time drivers were required to use an alcohol ignition interlock device are remarkably similar on both a daily basis and an hourly basis when the interlock programs from the two provinces are compared directly. Both provinces had higher rates of elevated tests on Saturday and Sunday, and the fewest elevated tests on Tuesdays. The absolute rate of elevated tests is similar despite the two provinces adhering to different interlock lockout points (.02% Quebec; .04

  17. The alcohol interlock: an underutilized resource for predicting and controlling drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes evidence presented during the Third Annual Ignition Interlock Symposium at Vero Beach, Florida, 29 October 2002. The ignition interlock prevents a car from starting when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. We review some of our prior work as well as introduce previously unpublished results to demonstrate the manner in which the data recorded by the alcohol ignition interlock device can serve as an advance predictor of future driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol risks. Data used in this current report represent approximately 2,200 ignition interlock users from Alberta, Canada, and about 8,000 interlock users from Quebec, Canada; the Alberta data set contained 5.5 million breath tests and the Quebec data 18.8 million breath tests. All tests are time and date stamped and this information was used to characterize patterns of BAC and vehicle use, and the relationship between BAC elevations and DUI offenses that accumulated after the interlock was removed from the vehicles. Findings from Cox regression show that BAC elevations >.02-.04% are more potent predictors of repeat DUI (p<.0001) than even prior DUI (p<.006), usually found to be the strongest indicator of driver risk. Prior DUI obviously has no use for scaling the risk of first-time offenders. Drivers who are both multiple offenders and who have more than a few elevated interlock BAC tests are much more likely to repeat DUI. The timing and pattern of elevated BAC tests provided during the time drivers were required to use an alcohol ignition interlock device are remarkably similar on both a daily basis and an hourly basis when the interlock programs from the two provinces are compared directly. Both provinces had higher rates of elevated tests on Saturday and Sunday, and the fewest elevated tests on Tuesdays. The absolute rate of elevated tests is similar despite the two provinces adhering to different interlock lockout points (.02% Quebec;.04% Alberta). Charts tracking

  18. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future. PMID:26259002

  19. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future.

  20. Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock BAC Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520

  1. Ethylglucuronide in hair is a top predictor of impaired driving recidivism, alcohol dependence, and a key marker of the highest BAC interlock tests.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Yegles, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the predictive and comparative significance of ethyl glucuronide measured in head hair (hEtG) for estimating risks associated with alcohol-impaired driving offenders. Earlier work compared different alcohol biomarkers for estimating rates of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) tests logged during 8 months of interlock participation. These analyses evaluate the comparative performance of several alcohol markers including hEtG and other markers, past driver records, and psychometric assessment predictors for the detection of 4 criteria: new driving under the influence (DUI) recidivism, alcohol dependence, and interlock record variables including fail rates and maximal interlock BACs logged. Drivers charged with alcohol impairment (DUI) in Alberta, Canada (n = 534; 64% first offenders, 36% multiple offenders) installed ignition interlock devices and consented to participate in research to evaluate blood-, hair-, and urine-derived alcohol biomarkers; sit for interviews; take psychometric assessments; and permit analyses of driving records and interlock log files. Subject variables included demographics, alcohol dependence at program entry, preprogram prior DUI convictions, postenrollment new DUI convictions, self-reported drinking assessments, morning and overall rates of failed interlock BAC tests, and maximal interlock BAC readings. Recidivism, dependence, high BAC, and combined fail rates were set as criteria; other variables were set as predictors. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (A') estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Additional analyses were conducted on baseline hEtG levels. Driver performance and drinking indicators were evaluated against the standard hEtG cutoff for excessive drinking at (30 pg/mg) and a higher criterion of 50 pg/mg. HEtG splits were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney rank statistic. HEtG emerged as a top overall predictor for discriminating new recidivism events that

  2. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... impact technical innovation and State programs. Other, more technical, issues were also raised. NHTSA.... Guardian added that this proposed restriction would limit ``innovation in product development and... meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service,...

  3. The impact of mandatory versus voluntary participation in the Alberta ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R; Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S

    2003-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of subsequent driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions at least so long as the interlock device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others merely offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily participate in an interlock program. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which voluntary interlock participants are more or less successful in terms of subsequent recidivism than those for whom interlock program participation has been mandated. The issue was addressed using data from the interlock program in Alberta, Canada, which provides for both mandatory and voluntary participation. The recidivism experience of voluntary and mandatory interlock participants was examined both during and after the period of interlock installation. Cox regression revealed that, after controlling for (or equating) the number of prior DWI offenses, the survival rates of DWI offenders who were ordered to participate in the interlock program did not differ from those of voluntary participants. These results suggest that further use of mandatory interlock programs should be just as successful as voluntary programs when offenders share characteristics with those studied in Alberta.

  4. A note on the effectiveness of the house-arrest alternative for motivating DWI offenders to install ignition interlocks.

    PubMed

    Roth, Richard; Marques, Paul R; Voas, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of ignition interlocks at reducing drunk driving has been limited by the ability of driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders to avoid court orders to install the devices. In a pilot program in New Mexico, four Santa Fe County judges imposed home confinement (via electronic monitoring bracelets) on offenders who claimed to have no car or no intention to drive. Interlock installation rates for Santa Fe County were compared with all other counties in New Mexico over a 2-year program and 2-year post-program period. During the two program years, 70% of the drivers convicted of DWI in Santa Fe County installed interlocks, compared to only 17% in the other counties, but when the program was terminated, the Santa Fe installation rate fell by 18.8 percentage points. Mandating the alternative sanction of house arrest led to the highest reported interlock installation rate for DWI offenders. Impaired driving is a substantial expense to employers, particularly when it bars driving that interferes with employment. Interlocks provide a method of protecting the public while permitting the offender to drive sober. This study was directed at increasing interlock use by DWI offenders.

  5. A Note on the Effectiveness of the House-Arrest Alternative for Motivating DWI Offenders to Install Ignition Interlocks

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Richard; Marques, Paul R.; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Problem The effectiveness of ignition interlocks at reducing drunk driving has been limited by the ability of driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders to avoid court orders to install the devices. Methods In a pilot program in New Mexico, four Santa Fe County judges imposed home confinement (via electronic monitoring bracelets) on offenders who claimed to have no car or no intention to drive. Interlock installation rates for Santa Fe County were compared with all other counties in New Mexico over a 2-year program and 2-year post-program period. Results During the two program years, 70% of the drivers convicted of DWI in Santa Fe County installed interlocks, compared to only 17% in the other counties, but when the program was terminated, the Santa Fe installation rate fell by 18.8 percentage points. Summary Mandating the alternative sanction of house arrest led to the highest reported interlock installation rate for DWI offenders. Impact on Industry Impaired driving is a substantial expense to employers, particularly when it bars driving that interferes with employment. Interlocks provide a method of protecting the public while permitting the offender to drive sober. This study was directed at increasing interlock use by DWI offenders. PMID:19945556

  6. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOEpatents

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  7. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  8. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  9. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  10. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  11. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  12. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    DOEpatents

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  13. Requiring suspended drunk drivers to install alcohol interlocks to reinstate their licenses: effective?

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, S. Scott; Fisher, Deborah; Grosz, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate a new method being used by some states for motivating interlock installation by requiring it as a prerequisite to reinstatement of the driver’s license. Design The driving records of Florida DWI offenders convicted between July 2002 and June 2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of offenders subject to the interlock requirement who installed interlocks. Setting Most driving-while-impaired (DWI) offenders succeed in avoiding state laws requiring the installation of a vehicle alcohol interlock. Participants A total of 82 318 Florida DWI offenders. Findings Due to long periods of complete suspension when no driving was permitted and the failure to complete all the requirements imposed by the court, only 21 377 of the 82 318 offenders studied qualified for reinstatement, but 93% of those who qualified did install interlocks to be reinstated. Conclusions Because of the lengthy license suspensions and other barriers that the offenders face in qualifying for reinstatement, it is not clear that requiring a period on the interlock as a prerequisite to reinstating will greatly increase the current installment rate. PMID:20528811

  14. Requiring suspended drunk drivers to install alcohol interlocks to reinstate their licenses: effective?

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Tippetts, S Scott; Fisher, Deborah; Grosz, Milton

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate a new method being used by some states for motivating interlock installation by requiring it as a prerequisite to reinstatement of the driver's license. The driving records of Florida DWI offenders convicted between July 2002 and June 2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of offenders subject to the interlock requirement who installed interlocks. Most driving-while-impaired (DWI) offenders succeed in avoiding state laws requiring the installation of a vehicle alcohol interlock. A total of 82 318 Florida DWI offenders. Due to long periods of complete suspension when no driving was permitted and the failure to complete all the requirements imposed by the court, only 21 377 of the 82 318 offenders studied qualified for reinstatement, but 93% of those who qualified did install interlocks to be reinstated. Because of the lengthy license suspensions and other barriers that the offenders face in qualifying for reinstatement, it is not clear that requiring a period on the interlock as a prerequisite to reinstating will greatly increase the current installment rate.

  15. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  16. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  17. Devices and methods for in-situ combustion ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shallcross, D C

    1989-10-01

    One of the most important tasks during a fireflood is to ensure the ignition of the oil-bearing stratum efficiently and safely. Many different devices have been developed and employed to achieve this aim. The target zone may ignite spontaneously upon injection of an oxygen-containing gas without the aid of special equipment. Alternatively, ignition may be hastened or enhanced by the use of gas-fired downhole burners, catalytic heaters, electric downhole heaters, or other, chemical means. Other methods involve increasing the reactivity of the formation contents by doping the stratum with compounds that ignite and burn more readily than the reservoir oil. This report surveys the range of ignition methods and devices that have been developed and applied in the field. Not only are successful ignition systems discussed, but also those designs that failed to ignite a formation. In discussing the various techniques, factors considered include reliability, specialized equipment and material requirements, and safety. Another consideration is whether a system or device may be easily reused if ignition is not successful on the first attempt. The use of oxidizing gases than air is also discussed. 108 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Multi-point laser ignition device

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Dustin L.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2017-01-17

    A multi-point laser device comprising a plurality of optical pumping sources. Each optical pumping source is configured to create pumping excitation energy along a corresponding optical path directed through a high-reflectivity mirror and into substantially different locations within the laser media thereby producing atomic optical emissions at substantially different locations within the laser media and directed along a corresponding optical path of the optical pumping source. An output coupler and one or more output lenses are configured to produce a plurality of lasing events at substantially different times, locations or a combination thereof from the multiple atomic optical emissions produced at substantially different locations within the laser media. The laser media is a single continuous media, preferably grown on a single substrate.

  19. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  20. Neutral pumping rates for a next step tokamak ignition device

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral pumping rates are calculated for pump-limiter and divertor options of a next step tokamak ignition device using a method that accounts for the coupled effects of neutral transport and plasma transport. For both pump limiters and divertors the plasma flow into the channel surrounding the neutralizer plate is greatly reduced by the neutral recycling. The fraction of this flow that is pumped can be large (>50%) but in general is dependent on the particular geometry and plasma conditions. It is estimated that pumping speeds greater than or approximately 10/sup 5/ L/s are adequate for the exhaust requirements in the pump-limiter and the divertor cases.

  1. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Igniters and Safe and Arm Device Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    currenk is applied to the squibs which ignite the pyrogen motor. Hot gases from the pyrogen motor exhaust up the blast tube to the rocket motor...acts as a back- up in case of failure of the primary ignition spark plug. The hot gas igniter has a burn-time of 80 to 100 milliseconds. It consists of...Reliability The data collected todate indicates two separate character- istics effecting the reliability of igniters and safe and arm devices. The first

  2. Laser interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Steven D; Mcintyre, Dustin L

    2015-01-13

    A method and device for providing a laser interlock having a first optical source, a first beam splitter, a second optical source, a detector, an interlock control system, and a means for producing dangerous optical energy. The first beam splitter is optically connected to the first optical source, the first detector and the second optical source. The detector is connected to the interlock control system. The interlock control system is connected to the means for producing dangerous optical energy and configured to terminate its optical energy production upon the detection of optical energy at the detector from the second optical source below a predetermined detector threshold. The second optical source produces an optical energy in response to optical energy from the first optical source. The optical energy from the second optical source has a different wavelength, polarization, modulation or combination thereof from the optical energy of the first optical source.

  3. Levels and Types of Alcohol Biomarkers in DUI and Clinic Samples for Estimating Workplace Alcohol Problemsa

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  4. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context.

  5. 49 CFR 236.807 - Signal, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal, interlocking. 236.807 Section 236.807..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.807 Signal, interlocking. A roadway signal which governs movements into or within interlocking limits. ...

  6. 49 CFR 236.807 - Signal, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, interlocking. 236.807 Section 236.807..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.807 Signal, interlocking. A roadway signal which governs movements into or within interlocking limits. ...

  7. 49 CFR 236.807 - Signal, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal, interlocking. 236.807 Section 236.807..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.807 Signal, interlocking. A roadway signal which governs movements into or within interlocking limits. ...

  8. 49 CFR 236.807 - Signal, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal, interlocking. 236.807 Section 236.807..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.807 Signal, interlocking. A roadway signal which governs movements into or within interlocking limits. ...

  9. 49 CFR 236.807 - Signal, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, interlocking. 236.807 Section 236.807..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.807 Signal, interlocking. A roadway signal which governs movements into or within interlocking limits. ...

  10. Laser Ignition Device and Its Application to Forestry, Fire and Land Management

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Waterworth

    1987-01-01

    A laser ignition device for controlled burning of forest logging slash has been developed and successfully tested. The device, which uses a kilowatt class carbon dioxide laser, operates at distances of 50 to 1500 meters. Acquisition and focus control are achieved by the use of a laser rangefinder and acquisition telescope. Additional uses for the device include back...

  11. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  12. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  13. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  17. Device and method for frictionally testing materials for ignitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Shaw, R. C.; Dixon, D. S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Test apparatus for determining ignition characteristics of various metal in oxidizer environments simulating operating conditions for materials is invented. The test apparatus has a chamber through which the oxidizing agent flows, and means for mounting a stationary test sample therein, a powered, rotating shaft in the chamber rigidly mounts a second test sample. The shaft is axially movable to bring the samples into frictional engagement and heated to the ignition point. Instrumentation connected to the apparatus provides for observation of temperatures, pressures, loads on and speeds of the rotating shaft, and torques whereby components of stressed oxygen systems can be selected which will avoid accidental fires under working conditions.

  18. An improved prototype ignition suppression device for underground electrical face cutting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Luzik, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    An improved ignition suppression device was investigated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The device, developed by the Industrial Safety Division, is designed to be installed on the boom of a continuous mining machine and would function to suppress frictionally induced methane ignitions in the face areas of underground coal mines. It was anticipated that the basic device could be modified to accommodate other types of electrical face cutting equipment with minimal design changes. Ultraviolet (UV) detection is used to sense the developing fireball and suppression is achieved by explosively rupturing steel canisters filled with an extinguishing agent. Canisters are enclosed in specially designed baffled mufflers which serve to abate high impulse noise and afford protection against roof falls and other physical abuse. The devices proved successful in suppressing simulated frictional ignitions in a limited number of gallery tests incorporating a mock-up cutter head of a continuous mining machine.

  19. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  20. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  1. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  2. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  3. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  4. 49 CFR 236.772 - Machine, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machine, interlocking. 236.772 Section 236.772 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Machine, interlocking. An assemblage of manually operated levers or other devices for the control...

  5. Interim report on the assessment of engineering issues for compact high-field ignition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-04-01

    The engineering issues addressed at the workshop included the overall configuration, layout, and assembly; limiter and first-wall energy removal; magnet system structure design; fabricability; repairability; and costs. In performing the assessment, the primary features and characteristics of each concept under study were reviewed as representative of this class of ignition device. The emphasis was to understand the key engineering areas of concern for this class of device and deliberately not attempt to define an optimum design or to choose a best approach. The assessment concluded that compact ignition tokamaks, as represented by the three concepts under study, are feasible. A number of critical engineering issues were identified, and all appear to have tractable solutions. The engineering issues appear quite challenging, and to obtain increased confidence in the apparent design solutions requires completion of the next level of design detail, complemented by appropriate development programs and testing.

  6. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  7. Evaluating 3D printing to solve the sample-to-device interface for LRS and POC diagnostics: example of an interlock meter-mix device for metering and lysing clinical urine samples.

    PubMed

    Jue, Erik; Schoepp, Nathan G; Witters, Daan; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-05-21

    This paper evaluates the potential of 3D printing, a semi-automated additive prototyping technology, as a means to design and prototype a sample-to-device interface, amenable to diagnostics in limited-resource settings, where speed, accuracy and user-friendly design are critical components. As a test case, we built and validated an interlock meter-mix device for accurately metering and lysing human urine samples for use in downstream nucleic acid amplification. Two plungers and a multivalve generated and controlled fluid flow through the device and demonstrate the utility of 3D printing to create leak-free seals. Device operation consists of three simple steps that must be performed sequentially, eliminating manual pipetting and vortexing to provide rapid (5 to 10 s) and accurate metering and mixing. Bretherton's prediction was applied, using the bond number to guide a design that prevents potentially biohazardous samples from leaking from the device. We employed multi-material 3D printing technology, which allows composites with rigid and elastomeric properties to be printed as a single part. To validate the meter-mix device with a clinically relevant sample, we used urine spiked with inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A downstream nucleic acid amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) confirmed there was no statistically significant difference between samples metered and mixed using the standard protocol and those prepared with the meter-mix device, showing the 3D-printed device could accurately meter, mix and dispense a human urine sample without loss of nucleic acids. Although there are some limitations to 3D printing capabilities (e.g. dimension limitations related to support material used in the printing process), the advantages of customizability, modularity and rapid prototyping illustrate the utility of 3D printing for developing sample-to-device interfaces for diagnostics.

  8. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.

  9. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.750 Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions... manually, and which are so interconnected by means of electric circuits that their movements must...

  10. Device to ignite fuel injected in a rapidly flowing gaseous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle-Laboure, G.J.P.; Buisson, M.F.B.; Linstrumelle, R.B.; Pachot, J.C.

    1984-06-26

    An open ended enclosure has a tubular conduit extending axially within it and is provided with both an electric spark plug and a catalytic ignition member in the annular region of the enclosure outside the tubular conduit.

  11. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  12. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  13. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  14. Ignitability test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.

  15. Administrative Reinstatement Interlock Programs: Florida, a 10-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Grosz, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocks reduce driving-under-the-influence (DUI) recidivism by 64%, but offenders resist installing them, preferring to risk driving while their driver’s licenses are revoked. One method of motivating offenders to install an interlock is require it for reinstatement of their driver’s license. This report updates an earlier evaluation of the administrative reinstatement interlock program (ARIP) procedure implemented in Florida in 2002. Method Driver records and interlock program records covering 120,000 DUI offenders were followed over 10 years. The flow through the sanction system—conviction, reinstatement, interlock program, and postinterlock period—is described. Logistical regression was used to identify the characteristics of offenders who installed interlocks, and survival analysis was used to evaluate the recidivism of offenders in the various stages in the ARIP. Results At any given time, approximately one third of the convicted offenders were serving their license-revocation periods. Half of the offenders who completed their revocation periods remain unqualified for reinstatement because they do not fulfill other requirements. ARIP offenders who do qualify for reinstatement and install interlocks have lower recidivism rates while the devices are on their vehicles. Conclusions After 10 years, Florida’s ARIP is a mature system that succeeds in forcing all offenders in the program who qualify for reinstatement to install an interlock for at least 6 months. However, half of all offenders who complete their mandatory revocation period are either unable to, or choose not to, qualify for reinstatement. PMID:23442206

  16. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices (58 FR 48705). DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2010. FOR... Administration (NHTSA) published the Standards for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified...

  17. Stabilization and steering of a parabolic laser thermal thruster with an ignition device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharring, Stefan; Hoffmann, Daniela; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Röser, Hans-Peter

    2009-12-01

    High energy pulses of a CO 2 laser are focused in a parabolic mirror yielding to a laser-supported detonation. The generated thrust acting on the reflector as a bell nozzle is studied in multiple pulse free flight experiments with respect to axial, lateral and angular momentum coupling. The employment of an ignition pin on the reflector's axis of symmetry lowering the ignition threshold by several orders of magnitude is found to provide for a reproducible detonation process. The axial momentum coupling of each pulse is analyzed with respect to initial lateral offset and tilt during the flight. High speed analyses of recorded flights indicate that lateral momentum components occur re-centering the thruster on the beam. Thrust vector steering can be realized by tilt of the ignition pin inside the thruster, thus shifting the detonation. A design model of a laser-driven rocket including a remotely accessible steering gear was developed and tested successfully.

  18. Report on Investigation of Alcohol Combustion Associated Wear in Spark Ignition Engines, Mechanisms and Lubricant Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    investigated four - alcohol -containing fuels: pure methanol , pure ethanol, methanol in unleaded gaso- line, and ethanol in unleaded gasoline (gasohol...testing indicated that pure alcohol fuels reduced the buildup of engine .. deposits. Also neat methanol greatly increased engine wear rates at engine...results from reactions between methanol combustion products and the cast-iron cylinder liner, where the presence of liquid methanol in the combustion

  19. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... number, and the time of the test; (4) Distinguishes alcohol from acetone at the 0.02 alcohol... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment...

  1. FUEL ELEMENT INTERLOCKING ARRANGEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1963-01-01

    This patent relates to a system for mutually interlocking a multiplicity of elongated, parallel, coextensive, upright reactor fuel elements so as to render a laterally selfsupporting bundle, while admitting of concurrent, selective, vertical withdrawal of a sizeable number of elements without any of the remaining elements toppling, Each element is provided with a generally rectangular end cap. When a rank of caps is aligned in square contact, each free edge centrally defines an outwardly profecting dovetail, and extremitally cooperates with its adjacent cap by defining a juxtaposed half of a dovetail- receptive mortise. Successive ranks are staggered to afford mating of their dovetails and mortises. (AEC)

  2. Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents research efforts made in three different phases with the objective of improving the fuel economy of and reducing exhaust emissions from conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines, which are widely employed in two-wheel transportation in India. A review concerning the existing two-stroke engine technology for this application is included. In the first phase, a new scavenging system was developed and tested to reduce the loss of fresh charge through the exhaust port. In die second phase, the following measures were carried out to improve the combustion process: (1) using an in-cylinder catalyst, such as copper, chromium, and nickel, in the form of coating; (2) providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber, either by depositing thin ceramic material or by metal inserts; (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. Based on the effectiveness of the above measures, an optimized design was developed in the final phase to achieve improved performance. Test results indicate that with an optimized two-stroke SI engine, the maximum percentage improvement in brake thermal efficiency is about 31%, together with a reduction of 3400 ppm in hydrocarbons (HC) and 3% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over the normal engine (at 3 kW, 3000 rpm). Higher cylinder peak pressures (3-5 bar), lower ignition delay (2-4{degrees}CA){degrees} and shorter combustion duration (4-10 {degrees}CA) are obtained. The knock-limited power output is also enhanced by 12.7% at a high compression ratio (CR) of 9:1. The proposed modifications in the optimized design are simple, low-cost and easy to adopt for both production and existing engines.

  3. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Troy; Diamond, J. S.; McDowell, D.; Nicklaus, D.; Prieto, P. S.; Semenov, A.

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of a fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.

  4. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked...

  5. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked...

  6. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked...

  7. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked...

  8. 49 CFR 236.820 - Switch, interlocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, interlocked. 236.820 Section 236.820 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, interlocked. A switch within the interlocking limits the control of which is interlocked...

  9. Interlocked DNA topologies for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valero, Julián; Lohmann, Finn; Famulok, Michael

    2017-05-12

    Interlocked molecular architectures are well known in supramolecular chemistry and are widely used for various applications like sensors, molecular machines and logic gates. The use of DNA for constructing these interlocked structures has increased significantly within the current decade. Because of Watson-Crick base pairing rules, DNA is an excellent material for the self-assembly of well-defined interlocked nanoarchitectures. These DNA nanostructures exhibit sufficient stability, good solubility in aqueous media, biocompatibility, and can be easily combined with other biomolecules in bio-hybrid nano-assemblies. Therefore, the study of novel DNA-based interlocked systems is of interest for nanotechnology, synthetic biology, supramolecular chemistry, biotechnology, and for sensing purposes. Here we summarize recent developments and applications of interlocked supramolecular architectures made of DNA. Examples illustrating that these systems can be precisely controlled by switching on and off the molecular motion of its mechanically trapped components are discussed. Introducing different triggers into such systems creates molecular assemblies capable of performing logic gate operations and/or catalytic activity control. Interlocked DNA-based nanostructures thus represent promising frameworks for building increasingly complex and dynamic nanomachines with highly controllable functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol-Mediated Resistance-Switching Behavior in Metal-Organic Framework-Based Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Hong; Shi, Wenxiong; Zhang, Weina; Yu, Jiancan; Chandran, Bevita K; Cui, Chenlong; Zhu, Bowen; Liu, Zhiyuan; Li, Bin; Xu, Cai; Xu, Zhiling; Li, Shuzhou; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-07-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn increasing attentions as promising candidates for functional devices. Herein, we present MOF films in constructing memory devices with alcohol mediated resistance switching property, where the resistance state is controlled by applying alcohol vapors to achieve multilevel information storage. The ordered packing mode and the hydrogen bonding system of the guest molecules adsorbed in MOF crystals are shown to be the reason for the alcohol mediated electrical switching. This chemically mediated memory device can be a candidate in achieving environment-responsive devices and exhibits potential applications in wearable information storage systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  12. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  13. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, William J.; Andrews, Larry A.; Boney, Craig M.; Chow, Weng W.; Clements, James W.; Merson, John A.; Salas, F. Jim; Williams, Randy J.; Hinkle, Lane R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) program at Sandia National Labs. One watt laser diodes have been characterized for use with a single explosive actuator. Extensive measurements of the effect of electrostatic discharge (ESD) pulses on the laser diode optical output have been made. Characterization of optical fiber and connectors over temperature has been done. Multiple laser diodes have been packaged to ignite multiple explosive devices and an eight element laser diode array has been recently tested by igniting eight explosive devices at predetermined 100 ms intervals.

  14. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  15. Triply interlocked covalent organic cages.

    PubMed

    Hasell, Tom; Wu, Xiaofeng; Jones, James T A; Bacsa, John; Steiner, Alexander; Mitra, Tamoghna; Trewin, Abbie; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-09-01

    Interlocked molecules comprise two or more separate components that are joined by 'mechanical' rather than covalent bonds. In other words, these molecular assemblies cannot be dissociated without the cleavage of one or more chemical bonds. Although recent progress has enabled the preparation of such topologies through coordination or templating interactions, three-dimensional interlocked covalent architectures remain difficult to prepare. Here, we present a template-free one-pot synthesis of triply interlocked organic cages. These 20-component dimers consist of two tetrahedral monomeric cages each built from four nodes and six linkers. The monomers exhibit axial chirality, which is recognized by their partner cage during the template-free interlocking assembly process. The dimeric cages also include two well-defined cavities per assembly, which for one of the systems studied led to the formation of a supramolecular host-guest chain. These interlocked organic molecules may prove useful as part of a toolkit for the modular construction of complex porous solids and other supramolecular assemblies.

  16. Cold start fuel/air mixture supply device for spark ignition internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.E.D.

    1984-06-05

    A combined accelerator pump and cold start fuel/air mixture supply device has an automatic throttle valve in a mixture supply passage, a fuel control valve controlling flow of fuel drawn into the passage through an inlet upstream of the throttle valve, and an air valve upstream of the fuel inlet. A primary spring tends to seat the air valve. A light, secondary spring urges a plunger against the air valve to augment the load of the primary spring for a predetermined time interval after the engine begins to run under its own power. A valve in a pipe opens automatically at the end of the predetermined time interval to apply engine inlet manifold depression to the end of the plunger remote from the air valve and thereby to separate the plunger from the air valve so that only the primary spring acts on the air valve.

  17. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine and so interconnected by means of mechanical and/or electric locking that their movements must...

  18. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine and so interconnected by means of mechanical and/or electric locking that their movements must...

  19. Exposure interlock for oscilloscope cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.; Stainback, J. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An exposure interlock has been developed for oscilloscope cameras which cuts off ambient light from the oscilloscope screen before the shutter of the camera is tripped. A flap is provided which may be selectively positioned to an open position which enables viewing of the oscilloscope screen and a closed position which cuts off the oscilloscope screen from view and simultaneously cuts off ambient light from the oscilloscope screen. A mechanical interlock is provided between the flap to be activated to its closed position before the camera shutter is tripped, thereby preventing overexposure of the film.

  20. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... three consecutive identical copies of a result) of each breath test; (2) Assigns a unique number to each... confirmation tests? 40.231 Section 40.231 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests? (a...

  1. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... three consecutive identical copies of a result) of each breath test; (2) Assigns a unique number to each... confirmation tests? 40.231 Section 40.231 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests? (a...

  2. Delayed spontaneous perforation of polyvinyl alcohol membrane-Covered atrial septal defect closure devices.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Fabien; Roule, Vincent; Beygui, Farzin

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous device closure has become the first choice for secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) closure when feasible in case of favorable anatomy. The Ultrasept II ASD occluder® device (Cardia Inc, Eagan, MN) is made of two nitinol disc frames covered with polyvinyl alcohol membranes, a synthetic polymer with a large application in the biomedical field. Four relatively early malfunctions of the polyvinyl alcohol membrane were observed in a series of six consecutive patients treated with ASD Ultrasept II closure device in our institution. Operators have to be aware of this apparently rare complication that is likely to be underestimated, associated with such devices. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 49 CFR 236.753 - Limits, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limits, interlocking. 236.753 Section 236.753 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Limits, interlocking. The tracks between the opposing home signals of an interlocking. ...

  4. 49 CFR 236.753 - Limits, interlocking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limits, interlocking. 236.753 Section 236.753 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Limits, interlocking. The tracks between the opposing home signals of an interlocking. ...

  5. Ignitability test method. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine functional performance of initiating devices, the NASA's Langley Research Center's novel ignitability research on percussion primers has been expanded in 1989 to include measurements of function time, the evaluation of six primer lots (five types), and the determination of the effects of the military cold-temperature requirement of -65 F and primer output closure disks. This test method, a major improvement over the prior primer output test methods, fully met all objectives, while showing a significant amount of ignition variability.

  6. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  7. Emission characterization of an alcohol/diesel-pilot fueled compression-ignition engine and its heavy-duty diesel counterpart. Final report, August 1980-August 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes results from emissions testing of a prototype diesel engine, developed by Volvo Truck Corporation of Sweden, which uses pilot injection of diesel fuel for compression ignition of alcohol fuel injection for main combustion. In addition to this dual-fuel engine, emission testing was also conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine of similar design. Both engines were tested over the 1979 13-mode FTP, or shorter versions of this modal test, and over the 1984 Transient FTP as well as an experimental bus cycle. The dual-fuel engine was characterized with methanol, ethanol and ethanol with 30 percent water (wt %). An oxidation catalyst was also used with methanol and ethanol. Emission characterization included regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOX) along with total particulate, unburned alcohols, individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, and odor. The particulate matter was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, sulfate content, C, H, S, metal content, and soluble organic fraction. The soluble organic fraction was studied by determining its elemental composition (C,H,S,N), boiling point distribution, BaP content, relative make-up of polar compounds, and bioactivity by Ames testing.

  8. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER, AUXILIARY INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER, AUXILIARY INTERLOCKING BUILDING, AND POWER SUBSTATION - Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower, Adjacent to AMTRAK railroad tracks in block bounded by Howard Street, Jones Falls Expressway, Maryland Avenue & Falls Road, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Building a resistance to ignition testing device for sunglasses and analysing data: a continuing study for sunglasses standards.

    PubMed

    Magri, Renan; Masili, Mauro; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Ventura, Liliane

    2017-09-21

    Sunglasses popularity skyrocketed since its advent. The ongoing trend led to the creation of standards to protect consumers from injuries and secondary hazards due to spectacles use. In Brazil, the corresponding standard is NBR ISO 12312-1:2015 and since there is no mandatory testing, evaluating sunglasses performance provides an insight into compliance with the standard. In a continuing revision of sunglasses standards requirements, resistance to ignition is one of the concerns, since sunglasses should be protected from burning into flames at a pre-determined temperature, which may protect user of getting their sunglasses into flames if some, cigarette sparks reaches the spectacles, as an example. This paper describes the building of a resistance to ignition system and the results of 410 samples that have been tested accordingly to ISO 12312-1. The procedure is in accordance with the resistance to ignition test. It consists of heating a steel rod to 650 °C and pressing it against the sample surface for 5 s, with a force equivalent to the rod weight. For carrying out the assessments, we have build resistance to ignition testing system and assured the testing requirements of the standard. The apparatus has an electrical furnace with a temperature acquisition circuit and electronic control that maintains the temperature of the steel rod at 650 °C. A linear actuator was designed for the project to drive the steel rod vertically and pressing it against the sunglasses samples. The control system is composed by a Freescale development board FRDM-KL25Z with an ARM Cortex-M0 embedded. We have also provided a LabView PC interface for acquiring, displaying, and storing data as well as added a physical control panel to the equipment for performing the evaluations. We assessed 410 sunglasses frames at the built apparatus, where the 410 lenses came out to be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the ignition to resistance test. Out of the 410 tested frames, 50

  10. NIF Ignition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    particles created by the DT fusion reaction ) at an ion temperature of about 10 keV. Reaching these conditions is primarily controlled by the implosion...confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2010, including the use of beryllium targets. 14. SUBJECTTERMS 15. NUMBER OF...itigation ............................................................................ 37 3.6 D iagnostics

  11. 76 FR 42767 - Management Officials Interlocks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Management Officials Interlocks AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is soliciting...: Management Officials Interlocks. OMB Number: 1550-0051. Form Number: N/A. Description: OTS uses the requested...

  12. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions...

  13. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions...

  14. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions...

  15. 49 CFR 236.750 - Interlocking, automatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interlocking, automatic. 236.750 Section 236.750 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, automatic. An arrangement of signals, with or without other signal appliances, which functions...

  16. Ignition patterns & prescribed fire behavior in southern pine stands

    Treesearch

    Ragnar W. Johansen

    1987-01-01

    As an aid to forest managers who use or contemplate using aerial ignition techniques in their prescribed burning programs, a study was designed to evaluate the magnitude of the differences that could occur depending on whether lines of fire were used (ignited by a helitorch) or a spot-fire technique was used (ignited by aerial ignition devices). Six experimental fires...

  17. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  18. Catalytic Microtube Rocket Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Devices that generate both high energy and high temperature are required to ignite reliably the propellant mixtures in combustion chambers like those present in rockets and other combustion systems. This catalytic microtube rocket igniter generates these conditions with a small, catalysis-based torch. While traditional spark plug systems can require anywhere from 50 W to multiple kW of power in different applications, this system has demonstrated ignition at less than 25 W. Reactants are fed to the igniter from the same tanks that feed the reactants to the rest of the rocket or combustion system. While this specific igniter was originally designed for liquid methane and liquid oxygen rockets, it can be easily operated with gaseous propellants or modified for hydrogen use in commercial combustion devices. For the present cryogenic propellant rocket case, the main propellant tanks liquid oxygen and liquid methane, respectively are regulated and split into different systems for the individual stages of the rocket and igniter. As the catalyst requires a gas phase for reaction, either the stored boil-off of the tanks can be used directly or one stream each of fuel and oxidizer can go through a heat exchanger/vaporizer that turns the liquid propellants into a gaseous form. For commercial applications, where the reactants are stored as gases, the system is simplified. The resulting gas-phase streams of fuel and oxidizer are then further divided for the individual components of the igniter. One stream each of the fuel and oxidizer is introduced to a mixing bottle/apparatus where they are mixed to a fuel-rich composition with an O/F mass-based mixture ratio of under 1.0. This premixed flow then feeds into the catalytic microtube device. The total flow is on the order of 0.01 g/s. The microtube device is composed of a pair of sub-millimeter diameter platinum tubes connected only at the outlet so that the two outlet flows are parallel to each other. The tubes are each

  19. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  20. 12 CFR 303.249 - Management official interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management official interlocks. 303.249 Section... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.249 Management official interlocks. (a) Scope. This section contains the... interlock pursuant to the Depository Institutions Management Interlocks Act (12 U.S.C. 3207), section 13...

  1. Thermal Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  2. Interlocking egg-crate type grid assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kast, S.J.

    1985-03-15

    Disclosed is an interlocking egg-crate hexagonal grid for supporting a nuclear fuel pin in a hexagonal array. The grid is formed from strips bent at an angle of about 120/sup 0/ at each vertex. Over some faces of each hexagonal cell the strips are coplanar but are arranged, by stacking interlocking, to avoid any double thickness of metal in that plane. Springs and dimples are formed in the faces of each cell to hold the fuel pin substantially centered.

  3. Interlocking egg-crate type grid assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kast, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is an interlocking egg-crate hexagonal grid for supporting a nuclear fuel pin in a hexagonal array. The grid is formed from strips bent at an angle of about 120.degree. at each vertex. Over some faces of each hexagonal cell the strips are coplanar but are arranged, by stacking and interlocking, to avoid any double thickness of metal in that plane. Springs and dimples are formed in the faces of each cell to hold the fuel pin substantially centered.

  4. The Feasibility of Assessing Alcohol Use among College Students Using Wireless Mobile Devices: Implications for Health Education and Behavioural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Darren; Cremeens, Jennifer; Usdan, Stuart; Martin, Ryan J.; Arriola, Kimberly J.; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of using wireless mobile devices (MDs) to collect daily alcohol information among college students, in particular examining feasibility in the context of costs associated with the use of wireless MDs. This study reports on practical aspects of using MDs to collect alcohol data, including compliance,…

  5. The Feasibility of Assessing Alcohol Use among College Students Using Wireless Mobile Devices: Implications for Health Education and Behavioural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Darren; Cremeens, Jennifer; Usdan, Stuart; Martin, Ryan J.; Arriola, Kimberly J.; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of using wireless mobile devices (MDs) to collect daily alcohol information among college students, in particular examining feasibility in the context of costs associated with the use of wireless MDs. This study reports on practical aspects of using MDs to collect alcohol data, including compliance,…

  6. PBS machine interlocks using EWMA.

    PubMed

    Clasie, Benjamin M; Kooy, Hanne M; Flanz, Jacob B

    2016-01-07

    Delivery of pencil beam scanning (PBS) requires the on-line measurement of several beam parameters. If the measurement is outside of specified tolerances and a binary threshold algorithm is used, the beam will be paused. Given instrumentation and statistical noise such a system can lead to many pauses which could increase the treatment time. Statistical quality control methods are typically used on manufacturing lines to monitor a process and give early detection of a gradual problem and stop the process if a deviation is statistically significant. These methods can be used to develop a more intuitive algorithm for (PBS) delivery systems that is robust and safe and leads to decreased treatment times. The Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control scheme monitors deviations in beam properties which are averaged over a specified number of measurements with greater weight applied to the more recent ones. Simulation of an EWMA-style algorithm safely detected shifts in random and systematic delivery errors without false alarms. Binary and EWMA methods can be combined for improved reliability without sacrificing patient safety. In the EWMA method, the mean of a beam property can be related to systematic uncertainties and the standard deviation can be related to random uncertainties. This method allows one to have separate interlock levels for each type of uncertainty and to detect systematic trends.

  7. PBS machine interlocks using EWMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasie, Benjamin M.; Kooy, Hanne M.; Flanz, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of pencil beam scanning (PBS) requires the on-line measurement of several beam parameters. If the measurement is outside of specified tolerances and a binary threshold algorithm is used, the beam will be paused. Given instrumentation and statistical noise such a system can lead to many pauses which could increase the treatment time. Statistical quality control methods are typically used on manufacturing lines to monitor a process and give early detection of a gradual problem and stop the process if a deviation is statistically significant. These methods can be used to develop a more intuitive algorithm for (PBS) delivery systems that is robust and safe and leads to decreased treatment times. The Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control scheme monitors deviations in beam properties which are averaged over a specified number of measurements with greater weight applied to the more recent ones. Simulation of an EWMA-style algorithm safely detected shifts in random and systematic delivery errors without false alarms. Binary and EWMA methods can be combined for improved reliability without sacrificing patient safety. In the EWMA method, the mean of a beam property can be related to systematic uncertainties and the standard deviation can be related to random uncertainties. This method allows one to have separate interlock levels for each type of uncertainty and to detect systematic trends.

  8. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  9. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  10. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  11. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  12. Plasma Igniter for Reliable Ignition of Combustion in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A plasma igniter has been developed for initiating combustion in liquid-propellant rocket engines. The device propels a hot, dense plasma jet, consisting of elemental fluorine and fluorine compounds, into the combustion chamber to ignite the cold propellant mixture. The igniter consists of two coaxial, cylindrical electrodes with a cylindrical bar of solid Teflon plastic in the region between them. The outer electrode is a metal (stainless steel) tube; the inner electrode is a metal pin (mild steel, stainless steel, tungsten, or thoriated-tungsten). The Teflon bar fits snugly between the two electrodes and provides electrical insulation between them. The Teflon bar may have either a flat surface, or a concave, conical surface at the open, down-stream end of the igniter (the igniter face). The igniter would be mounted on the combustion chamber of the rocket engine, either on the injector-plate at the upstream side of the engine, or on the sidewalls of the chamber. It also might sit behind a valve that would be opened just prior to ignition, and closed just after, in order to prevent the Teflon from melting due to heating from the combustion chamber.

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476 Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems. The inspections and tests prescribed in §§...

  16. 49 CFR 236.476 - Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.476 Section 236.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Inspection and Tests § 236.476 Interlocking inspections and tests applicable to traffic control systems. The inspections and tests prescribed in §§...

  17. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426 Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems. The rules and instructions prescribed...

  18. 49 CFR 236.426 - Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... traffic control systems. 236.426 Section 236.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Rules and Instructions § 236.426 Interlocking rules and instructions applicable to traffic control systems. The rules and instructions prescribed...

  19. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Alcohol screening devices (ASDs), including devices that test specimens of oral fluids or breath, must be... of each breath test; (2) Assigns a unique number to each completed test, which the collector and... or that has passed its expiration date. (3) For ASDs that test breath specimens and meet EBT...

  20. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Alcohol screening devices (ASDs), including devices that test specimens of oral fluids or breath, must be... of each breath test; (2) Assigns a unique number to each completed test, which the collector and... or that has passed its expiration date. (3) For ASDs that test breath specimens and meet EBT...

  1. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  2. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  3. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  4. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated microfluidic devices for high-performance microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Belder, Detlev; Deege, Alfred; Kohler, Frank; Ludwig, Martin

    2002-10-01

    The channels of microfluidic glass chips have been coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Applied for microchip electrophoresis, the coated devices exhibited a suppressed electroosmotic flow and improved separation performance. The superior performance of PVA-coated channels could be demonstrated by electrophoretic separations of labeled amines and by video microscopy. While a distorted sample zone is injected using uncoated channels the application of PVA-coated channels results in an improved shape of the sample zone with less band broadening. Applying PVA-coated microchips for the separation of amines labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 even sub-second separations, utilizing a separation length of only 650 microm, could be obtained, while this was not possible using uncoated devices. By using PVA-coated devices rather than an uncoated chip a threefold increase in separation efficiencies could be observed. As the electroosmotic flow (EOF) was suppressed, the anionic compounds were detected at the anode whereas the dominant EOF in uncoated devices resulted in an effective mobility to the cathode. Besides improved separation performance another important feature of the PVA-coated channels was the suppressed adsorption of fluorescent compounds in repetitive runs which results in an improved robustness and detection sensitivity. Applying PVA-coated channels, rinsing or etching steps could be omitted while this was necessary for a reliable operation of uncoated devices.

  5. Tactile-direction-sensitive and stretchable electronic skins based on human-skin-inspired interlocked microstructures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Hong, Jaehyung; Lee, Youngsu; Ha, Minjeong; Jung, Youngdo; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Sung Youb; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2014-12-23

    Stretchable electronic skins with multidirectional force-sensing capabilities are of great importance in robotics, prosthetics, and rehabilitation devices. Inspired by the interlocked microstructures found in epidermal-dermal ridges in human skin, piezoresistive interlocked microdome arrays are employed for stress-direction-sensitive, stretchable electronic skins. Here we show that these arrays possess highly sensitive detection capability of various mechanical stimuli including normal, shear, stretching, bending, and twisting forces. Furthermore, the unique geometry of interlocked microdome arrays enables the differentiation of various mechanical stimuli because the arrays exhibit different levels of deformation depending on the direction of applied forces, thus providing different sensory output patterns. In addition, we show that the electronic skins attached on human skin in the arm and wrist areas are able to distinguish various mechanical stimuli applied in different directions and can selectively monitor different intensities and directions of air flows and vibrations.

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  7. Dynamic Molecular Invasion into Multiply Interlocked Catenane.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Ito, Ryohei; Ogino, Sayaka; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kentaro

    2017-09-14

    A multiply interlocked catenane with a novel molecular topology was synthesized; a phthalocyanine bearing four peripheral crown ethers was quadruply interlocked with a cofacial porphyrin dimer bridged with four alkylammonium chains. The supramolecular conjugate has two nanospaces surrounded by a porphyrin, a phthalocyanine, and four alkyl chains to accommodate guest molecules. Because the phthalocyanine is movable along the alkyl chains, it acts as an adjustable wall, permitting the invasion of large molecules to the nanospaces without spoiling the affinity of the association. The dynamic molecular invasion allowed the intercalation of dianionic porphyrins into both the nanospaces with a high affinity. A photometric titration experiment revealed the two-step inclusion phenomenon. The multiply interlocked catenane complexed with three Cu2+ ions, and the spin-spin interaction was switched off by the intercalation of dianionic porphyrins. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  9. [Interlocking medullary nailing. Indications, technic with a new guiding instrument. Analysis of the 1st 50 operations].

    PubMed

    Berentley, G

    1976-01-01

    After a review of Küntsher's intramedullary nailing, the author resumed the informations about the interlocking medullary nail and its technique. A new device, as a guide instrument for easier application of the transverse bolts was constructed on the basis of authors concept. Using the new technique and guide instrument X-ray television controll is not necessary for placing the bolts in their right places through a small incision. The time of operation and the risk of infection was also diminished by the new technique. The indications for the interlocking medullary nailing have been completed by the author with the pathologic fractures. The first 50 cases, treated by the new technique of the interlocking medullary nailing are analysed and a few cases are reported in detail. Good results have been obtained as regards both the bone union and the functional results. Based on the good results the new technique of the interlocking medullary nailing is recommended by the author.

  10. 3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower and electric relay station. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  11. An analytical hierarchical model explaining the robustness and flaw-tolerance of the interlocking barb-barbule structure of bird feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav; Kovalev, Alexander; Li, Zhiyong; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Feathers can fulfill their aerodynamic function only if the pennaceous vane forms an airfoil stabilized by robust interlocking between barbules. Thus, revealing the robustness of the interlocking mechanical behavior of the barbules is very important to understand the function and long-term resilience of bird feathers. This paper, basing on the small- and large-beam deflection solutions, presents a hierarchical mechanical model for deriving the critical delamination conditions of the interlocking barbules between two adjacent barbs in bird feathers. The results indicate a high robustness and flaw-tolerant design of the structure. This work contributes to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of the robust interlocking barb-barbule structure of the bird feather, and provides a basis for design of feather-inspired materials with robust interlocking mechanism, such as advanced bio-inspired micro-zipping devices.

  12. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-07

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  13. 23 CFR 1200.23 - Impaired driving countermeasures grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... combination of alcohol and drugs or that enact alcohol ignition interlock laws. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— 24-7 sobriety program means a State law or program that authorizes a State court or a... device, or by an alternative method approved by NHTSA. Alcohol means wine, beer and distilled...

  14. 23 CFR 1200.23 - Impaired driving countermeasures grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... combination of alcohol and drugs or that enact alcohol ignition interlock laws. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— 24-7 sobriety program means a State law or program that authorizes a State court or a... device, or by an alternative method approved by NHTSA. Alcohol means wine, beer and distilled...

  15. Interlocked molecules: Moving into another dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournel-Marotte, Karine; Coutrot, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    Molecular daisy-chain structures are typically made up of two interlocked components and can exhibit muscle-like contraction and extension in one dimension. Zinc-based multicomponent systems that can operate in two and three dimensions have now been designed and synthesized.

  16. Design Considerations for the Diode-pumped Laser Ignition Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Design Considerations for the Diode - pumped Laser Ignition Project by Jeffrey O. White ARL-TN-0526 January 2013...Design Considerations for the Diode - pumped Laser Ignition Project Jeffrey O. White Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...August 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Design Considerations for the Diode - pumped Laser Ignition Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  18. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  19. Sustained-arc ignition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    Process results in long-duration sparks which allow leaner, cleaner combustion. Procedure is not limited by available energy-storage devices and can produce continuous spark of as long duration as desired for optimum engine operation and pollution reduction. System can be modified to operate on engines not using distributor points and can be used with conventional Kettering ignitions.

  20. Accelerated hypergolic ignition with lowering of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, S.P.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Prabhakaran, C. . Faculty of Explosives and Applied Chemistry)

    1994-06-01

    Hypergolic liquid fuels known to undergo cationic polymerization at the preignition stage with red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) as oxidizer have been found to exhibit synergistic hypergolic ignition at zero and subzero temperatures. This accelerated ignition with lowering of temperature has been ascribed to negative activation energy usually associated with most cationic polymerization systems. The best ignition was obtained with blends of fuels consisting of norbornadiene and furfuryl alcohol which underwent strong cationic polymerization with protonic acids and possibly Diels-Alder addition to each other.

  1. Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

  2. Retrograde femoral interlocking nail in complex fractures.

    PubMed

    Anup, Khare; Mehra, M M

    2002-06-01

    Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in 35 different cases of combination of complex femoral fractures. We performed this procedure in fractures of femoral shaft associated with fracture neck femur, pathological fractures of proximal third of femur with trochanteric pathology, ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia in polytrauma cases with multiple other injuries, in highly obese patients with fracture shaft femur. This technique was also used in cases of pregnancy with fracture shaft femur and in unstable pelvic fracture or dislocation hip associated with fracture shaft femur. Operative technique involved with retrograde insertion of un-reamed, non-cannulated custom made nail through entrance portal in intercondylar notch was applied for fixation of the shaft femur fracture. The other associated fracture around hip was stabilized separately using suitable implant according to type of fracture. In cases of ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia, femur was stabilized by retrograde interlocking nail and tibia was stabilized by antigrade interlocking nail through same incision at the same sitting. The case was followed up for three years; the average union time was 12 to 18 weeks. Out of 35 cases, 31 cases regained full knee movement. Out of the remaining 4 cases, 2 cases could regain up to 90 degrees of movement, these were old fractures and non-cooperative patients. In one case, patellofemoral arthritis was developed because of an operative error where a nail was not put inside the articular surface. Mal-union was observed in an early case of the series and implant failure was nil. Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in complex fracture problems. Multiple fractures of long bones can be stabilized in one stage, preventing multiple operations at different stages in polytraumatized patients. This resulted in early recovery, lesser hospital stay, and early rehabilitation of patient with good results and is

  3. Interlocking Intramedullary Nails in Fracture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiao; Wang, Jing Rong; Hong, Shi Dong; Xin, Feng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate interlocking intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 68 adult patients (for a total of 95 fractures) with isolated long-bone fractures who were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails between January 2010 and January 2012. The patients were followed for 18 months to observe the healing of the fracture, time, and the occurrence of complications in the shoulder, knee, and hip joint functions. After about a follow-up period of 26.2 months (range 18-39 months), all cases obtained bony union. The mean time to fracture union was 5.2 months. Cases of knees and hip joint functions of the femoral or tibial fracture and shoulder functions of the humeral fractures were observed. The interlocking intramedullary nails may be considered as an alternative method for isolated diaphyseal fractures of the extremities. The advantages of this method include small operative scars, reliable fixations, better fracture healings, and fewer complications.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  5. Miniature laser ignited bellows motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfro, Steven L.; Beckman, Tom M.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature optically ignited actuation device has been demonstrated using a laser diode as an ignition source. This pyrotechnic driven motor provides between 4 and 6 lbs of linear force across a 0.090 inch diameter surface. The physical envelope of the device is 1/2 inch long and 1/8 inch diameter. This unique application of optical energy can be used as a mechanical link in optical arming systems or other applications where low shock actuation is desired and space is limited. An analysis was performed to determine pyrotechnic materials suitable to actuate a bellows device constructed of aluminum or stainless steel. The aluminum bellows was chosen for further development and several candidate pyrotechnics were evaluated. The velocity profile and delivered force were quantified using an non-intrusive optical motion sensor.

  6. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  7. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  8. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  9. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  10. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  11. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. Effects of an enrichment device on voluntary alcohol consumption on single-housed rats.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Harvey E; Esperon, Leonardo; Peris, Joanna

    2008-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of an enrichment device (that is, a polyurethane bone) on the voluntary consumption of ethanol containing gel by single-housed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per group) were exposed for 4 d to each of the following 3 treatments: access to a new synthetic bone and ethanol gel for 1 h daily (treatment 1); a new bone was left in the cage for 24 h, with access to ethanol gel for 1 h daily (treatment 2); and both the bone and ethanol gel remained in the cage for 24 h (treatment 3). Average alcohol consumption over 4 d was 0.86 +/- 0.13, 0.99 +/- 0.13, and 5.19 +/- 0.37 g/kg in the absence of the bone for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 1.00 +/- 0.13, 0.620 +/- 0.07, and 5.55 +/- 0.38 g/kg with the bone for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively; none of these values differed significantly with regard to presence of the bone. During treatment 1, time spent with the synthetic bone was highest on the first 2 d, which altered the rate of ethanol consumption but not the total amount of ethanol consumed. During treatments 2 and 3, the rate and amount of ethanol consumption were comparable to basal levels. We conclude that adding an enrichment device that rats can chew and manipulate does not alter ethanol gel consumption. If used, environmental enrichment techniques should be evaluated during the research planning stages to avoid unintended alterations in the response to variables of interest.

  16. Expanding the scope of the anion templated synthesis of interlocked structures.

    PubMed

    Spence, Graeme T; Beer, Paul D

    2013-02-19

    Nature achieves impressively strong and selective complexation of small molecule anions through the elaborate binding sites of sophisticated proteins. Inspired by these examples, we have developed an anion templation strategy for the synthesis of mechanically interlocked host structures for anion recognition applications. Upon removal of the discrete anionic templating species, such host systems possess unique, three-dimensional, geometrically restrained cavities containing convergent hydrogen bond donor atoms. Such structures exhibit high affinity binding selectivity toward complementary anions. This Account describes recent advances in this anion templation meth odology, demonstrating the versatility and scope of this approach, and progressing to more diverse architectures. Specifically, we have prepared an expansive range of interlocked hosts with enhanced anion recognition properties, such as the ability to operate effectively in competitive aqueous media. We have produced these structures through the utilization of a new anion templated amide condensation synthetic method and through the incorporation of a range of different anion binding motifs, such as groups capable of effective solution-phase halogen bonding interactions. Importantly, direct comparisons between halogen bonding and hydrogen bonding systems reveal impressively magnified anion recognition properties for halogen bonding interlocked host systems. We have also employed the anion templation strategy successfully to construct selective electrochemical and luminescent anion sensors, as well as architectures of increasing complexity, such as a triply interlocked capsule and a handcuff catenane. The synthesis of these latter examples presents greater challenges; however, such molecules offer additional applications in higher order recognition and sensing and in switchable molecular devices. Having established anion templation as a viable synthetic route to interlocked architectures, we have used this

  17. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other Regulations... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The...

  18. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other Regulations... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. The...

  19. Ignitor with stable low-energy thermite igniting system

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Munger, Alan C.

    1991-02-05

    A stable compact low-energy igniting system in an ignitor utilizes two components, an initiating charge and an output charge. The initiating charge is a thermite in ultra-fine powder form compacted to 50-70% of theoretical maximum density and disposed in a cavity of a header of the ignitor adjacent to an electrical ignition device, or bridgewire, mounted in the header cavity. The initiating charge is ignitable by operation of the ignition device in a hot-wire mode. The output charge is a thermite in high-density consoladated form compacted to 90-99% of theoretical maximum density and disposed adjacent to the initiating charge on an opposite end thereof from the electrical ignition device and ignitable by the initiating charge. A sleeve is provided for mounting the output charge to the ignitor header with the initiating charge confined therebetween in the cavity.

  20. 20. VIEW OF NEWER 7LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF NEWER 7-LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT TO ORIGINAL INTERLOCKING MACHINE, THIRD FLOOR - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Interlocking Nailing Versus Interlocking Plating in Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sophia; Martin, Heiner; Ulmar, Benjamin; Döbele, Stefan; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan; Richter, Martinus; Pompach, Martin; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation with a plate is deemed to represent the gold standard of surgical treatment for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Standard plate fixation is usually placed through an extended lateral approach with high risk for wound complications. Minimally invasive techniques might avoid wound complications but provide limited construct stability. Therefore, 2 different types of locking nails were developed to allow for minimally invasive technique with sufficient stability. The aim of this study was to quantify primary stability of minimally invasive calcaneal interlocking nail systems in comparison to a variable-angle interlocking plate. After quantitative CT analysis, a standardized Sanders type IIB fracture model was created in 21 fresh-frozen cadavers. For osteosynthesis, 2 different interlocking nail systems (C-Nail; Medin, Nov. Město n. Moravě, Czech Republic; Calcanail; FH Orthopedics SAS; Heimsbrunn, France) as well as a polyaxial interlocking plate (Rimbus; Intercus GmbH; Rudolstadt, Germany) were used. Biomechanical testing consisted of a dynamic load sequence (preload 20 N, 1000 N up to 2500 N, stepwise increase of 100 N every 100 cycles, 0.5 mm/s) and a load to failure sequence (max. load 5000 N, 0.5 mm/s). Interfragmentary movement was detected via a 3-D optical measurement system. Boehler angle was measured after osteosynthesis and after failure occurred. No significant difference regarding load to failure, stiffness, Boehler angle, or interfragmentary motion was found between the different fixation systems. A significant difference was found with the dynamic failure testing sequence where 87.5% of the Calcanail implants failed in contrast to 14% of the C-Nail group (P < .01) and 66% of the Rimbus plate. The highest load to failure was observed for the C-Nail. Boehler angle showed physiologic range with all implants before and after the biomechanical tests. Both minimally invasive interlocking nail systems

  2. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian

    2015-12-28

    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  3. Electrical Arc Ignition Testing for Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle; Gallus, Timothy; Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Materials and Processes Branch requested that NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) perform testing for the Constellation Program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition of materials that could be in close proximity to batteries. Specifically, WSTF was requested to perform wire-break electrical arc tests to determine the current threshold for ignition of generic cotton woven fabric samples with a fixed voltage of 3.7 V, a common voltage for hand-held electrical devices. The wire-break test was developed during a previous test program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition inside the Extravehicular Mobility Unit [1].

  4. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  5. 6. Detail of northeast corner of Shell Interlocking Tower, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of northeast corner of Shell Interlocking Tower, showing ornamental east concrete beltcourse and tower shield with bronze numerals. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  6. 12 CFR 711.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 711.4 Section 711.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 711.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The prohibitions of § 711.3 do not apply in the case of any one or more of the following organizations or to a...

  7. 12 CFR 711.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 711.4 Section 711.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 711.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The prohibitions of § 711.3 do not apply in the case of any one or more of the following organizations or to a...

  8. 12 CFR 711.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 711.4 Section 711.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 711.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The prohibitions of § 711.3 do not apply in the case of any one or more of the following organizations or to a...

  9. 21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking Tower after construction, 1909. Photographic copy of photograph published in Railway Age Gazette, February 4, 1910. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  10. 12 CFR 196.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 196.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The prohibitions of... served by a management official of another credit union; (d) A depository organization that does not do... in any part of the United States; (ii) The service would lead to substantial conflicts of interest...

  11. 5. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower to southwest, showing east and north facades. Relay station is on far left. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  12. 11. General view of Shell Interlocking Tower, west and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. General view of Shell Interlocking Tower, west and south facades, view from railroad grade, looking northeast. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  13. 14. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower, north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. General oblique view of Shell Interlocking Tower, north and west facades, showing over head catenary tower and bridge at right. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  14. 4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built into slope of railroad right-of-way. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  15. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-11-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format.

  16. Radiation protection design philosophy for a door interlock system for shared room remote afterloading brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, M K; Gillies, B A; McParland, C S

    1995-12-01

    A single remote afterloading system can sometimes be used for the radiation treatment of two or more patients in separate rooms simultaneously. This configuration poses certain radiation protection problems, especially in a busy clinic where some of the treatment rooms have to be used for other non-radiation related patients even though not all radiation treatments have been completed. In this report we describe a door interlock system that has been designed to allow for radiation protection purposes during radiation treatment but is disabled when the radiation treatment is completed--with enough safeguard built in to prevent accidental bypass of the interlock. In addition, the quality control procedures of the radiation monitor devices for these treatment rooms are described. These radiation protection procedures could be generalized to other remote afterloading systems.

  17. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  18. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  19. Alcohol-impaired driving in the United States: contributors to the problem and effective countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Susan A

    2012-09-01

    To review the effectiveness of current countermeasures in alcohol-impaired driving. This article provides an overview of the contributors to the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States and reviews the effectiveness of alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures. Many effective countermeasures have been used during the past few decades both to deter drivers from driving when they are over the legal limit for alcohol and to discourage driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders from reoffending once they have been caught and convicted. In recent years, greater attention has been given to the problem of "hardcore" drinking drivers, a term coined to refer to those who repeatedly drive with high blood alcohol concentrations and are resistant to changing their behavior. Although such individuals are a legitimate target for attention, focusing predominantly on this group will result in missed opportunities to address a large portion of alcohol-impaired driving crashes. This article provides a review of the primary countermeasures that have been used to reduce alcohol-impaired driving and summarizes evidence for their effectiveness. It asks the question of where, in an environment of limited resources, attention should be focused. General deterrent approaches, such as frequent and highly publicized sobriety checkpoints, have the greatest potential to save lives and should be the mainstay of state and local efforts. Specific deterrent approaches, aimed at deterring DWI offenders from reoffending, such as alcohol ignition interlocks, should be applied to all apprehended drivers, whatever their drinking history. Evidence suggests that they could benefit from them. In the future, advanced in-vehicle technologies that would prevent vehicles from being driven when their drivers are over the legal limit may hold the key to drastically reducing the alcohol-impaired driving problem.

  20. Power connect safety and connection interlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A power connect safety and connection interlock system is shown for use with inverters and other DC loads (16) which include capacitor filter banks (14) at their DC inputs. A safety circuit (20) operates a spring (26) biased, solenoid (22) driven mechanical connection interference (24) which prevents mating and therefore electrical connection between the power contactor halves (11, 13) of the main power contacts (12) until the capacitor bank is safely precharged through auxiliary contacts (18). When the DC load (16) is shut down, the capacitor bank (14) is automatically discharged through a discharging power resistor (66) by a MOSFET transistor (60) through a discharging power resistor (66) only when both the main power contacts and auxiliary contacts are disconnected.

  1. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Functions of Reconfigurable Interlocked DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Cecconello, Alessandro; Willner, Itamar

    2016-04-27

    Interlocked circular DNA nanostructures, e.g., catenanes or rotaxanes, provide functional materials within the area of DNA nanotechnology. Specifically, the triggered reversible reconfiguration of the catenane or rotaxane structures provides a means to yield new DNA switches and to use them as dynamic scaffolds for controlling chemical functions and positioning functional cargoes. The synthesis of two-ring catenanes and their switchable reconfiguration by pH, metal ions, or fuel/anti-fuel stimuli are presented, and the functions of these systems, as pendulum or rotor devices or as switchable catalysts, are described. Also, the synthesis of three-, five-, and seven-ring catenanes is presented, and their switchable reconfiguration using fuel/anti-fuel strands is addressed. Implementation of the dynamically reconfigured catenane structures for the programmed organization of Au nanoparticle (NP) assemblies, which allows the plasmonic control of the fluorescence properties of Au NP/fluorophore loads associated with the scaffold, and for the operation of logic gates is discussed. Interlocked DNA rotaxanes and their different synthetic approaches are presented, and their switchable reconfiguration by means of fuel/anti-fuel strands or photonic stimuli is described. Specifically, the use of the rotaxane as a scaffold to organize Au NP assemblies, and the control of the fluorescence properties with Au NP/fluorophore hybrids loaded on the rotaxane scaffold, are introduced. The future prospectives and challenges in the field of interlocked DNA nanostructures and the possible applications are discussed.

  2. Reviewed approach to defining the Active Interlock Envelope for Front End ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.

    2015-09-24

    To protect the NSLS-II Storage Ring (SR) components from damage from synchrotron radiation produced by insertion devices (IDs) the Active Interlock (AI) keeps electron beam within some safe envelope (a.k.a Active Interlock Envelope or AIE) in the transverse phase space. The beamline Front Ends (FEs) are designed under assumption that above certain beam current (typically 2 mA) the ID synchrotron radiation (IDSR) fan is produced by the interlocked e-beam. These assumptions also define how the ray tracing for FE is done. To simplify the FE ray tracing for typical uncanted ID it was decided to provide the Mechanical Engineering group with a single set of numbers (x,x’,y,y’) for the AIE at the center of the long (or short) ID straight section. Such unified approach to the design of the beamline Front Ends will accelerate the design process and save valuable human resources. In this paper we describe our new approach to defining the AI envelope and provide the resulting numbers required for design of the typical Front End.

  3. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing.

  4. The Overview of the National Ignition Facility Distributed Computer Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagin, Lawrence

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a layered architecture of 300 front-end processors (FEP) coordinated by supervisor subsystems including automatic beam alignment and wavefront control, laser and target diagnostics, pulse power, and shot control timed to 30 ps. FEP computers incorporate either VxWorks on PowerPC or Solaris on UltraSPARC processors that interface to over 45,000 control points attached to VME-bus or PCI-bus crates respectively. Typical devices are stepping motors, transient digitizers, calorimeters, and photodiodes. The front-end layer is divided into another segment comprised of an additional 14,000 control points for industrial controls including vacuum, argon, synthetic air, and safety interlocks implemented with Allen-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The computer network is augmented asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) that delivers video streams from 500 sensor cameras monitoring the 192 laser beams to operator workstations. Software is based on an object-oriented framework using CORBA distribution that incorporates services for archiving, machine configuration, graphical user interface, monitoring, event logging, scripting, alert management, and access control. Software coding using a mixed language environment of Ada95 and Java is one-third complete at over 300 thousand source lines. Control system installation is currently under way for the first 8 beams, with project completion scheduled for 2008.

  5. 33 CFR 159.129 - Safety: Ignition prevention test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety: Ignition prevention test. 159.129 Section 159.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... prevention test. (a) Components of a device that are a potential ignition source in an explosive atmosphere...

  6. 33 CFR 159.129 - Safety: Ignition prevention test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety: Ignition prevention test. 159.129 Section 159.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... prevention test. (a) Components of a device that are a potential ignition source in an explosive atmosphere...

  7. 33 CFR 159.129 - Safety: Ignition prevention test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety: Ignition prevention test. 159.129 Section 159.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... prevention test. (a) Components of a device that are a potential ignition source in an explosive atmosphere...

  8. 33 CFR 159.129 - Safety: Ignition prevention test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety: Ignition prevention test. 159.129 Section 159.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... prevention test. (a) Components of a device that are a potential ignition source in an explosive atmosphere...

  9. Recent progress on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes work done on the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), both at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and at other fusion laboratories in the United States. The goal of CIT is to reach ignition in a tokamak fusion device in the mid-1990's. Scientific and engineering features of the design are described, as well as projected cost and schedule.

  10. Remote control flare stack igniter for combustible gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Device has been designed and developed for igniting nonrecoverable combustible gases and sustaining combustion of gases evolving from various gas vent stacks. Igniter is superior to existing systems because of simplicity of operation, low cost fabrication, installation, operational and maintainability features, and excellent reliability in all phases of required operations.

  11. Interlocked DNA nanostructures controlled by a reversible logic circuit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Lohmann, Finn; Famulok, Michael

    2014-01-01

    DNA nanostructures constitute attractive devices for logic computing and nanomechanics. An emerging interest is to integrate these two fields and devise intelligent DNA nanorobots. Here we report a reversible logic circuit built on the programmable assembly of a double-stranded (ds) DNA [3]pseudocatenane that serves as a rigid scaffold to position two separate branched-out head-motifs, a bimolecular i-motif and a G-quadruplex. The G-quadruplex only forms when preceded by the assembly of the i-motif. The formation of the latter, in turn, requires acidic pH and unhindered mobility of the head-motif containing dsDNA nanorings with respect to the central ring to which they are interlocked, triggered by release oligodeoxynucleotides. We employ these features to convert the structural changes into Boolean operations with fluorescence labelling. The nanostructure behaves as a reversible logic circuit consisting of tandem YES and AND gates. Such reversible logic circuits integrated into functional nanodevices may guide future intelligent DNA nanorobots to manipulate cascade reactions in biological systems. PMID:25229207

  12. Interlocked DNA nanostructures controlled by a reversible logic circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Lohmann, Finn; Famulok, Michael

    2014-09-17

    DNA nanostructures constitute attractive devices for logic computing and nanomechanics. An emerging interest is to integrate these two fields and devise intelligent DNA nanorobots. Here we report a reversible logic circuit built on the programmable assembly of a double-stranded (ds) DNA [3]pseudocatenane that serves as a rigid scaffold to position two separate branched-out head-motifs, a bimolecular i-motif and a G-quadruplex. The G-quadruplex only forms when preceded by the assembly of the i-motif. The formation of the latter, in turn, requires acidic pH and unhindered mobility of the head-motif containing dsDNA nanorings with respect to the central ring to which they are interlocked, triggered by release oligodeoxynucleotides. We employ these features to convert the structural changes into Boolean operations with fluorescence labelling. The nanostructure behaves as a reversible logic circuit consisting of tandem YES and AND gates. Such reversible logic circuits integrated into functional nanodevices may guide future intelligent DNA nanorobots to manipulate cascade reactions in biological systems.

  13. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  14. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  15. B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.85. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Determining the correct methods for remedial maintenances is crucial to recovering and maintaining efficient ICP performance. T...

  17. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. The clogging rate is a function of pavement type, traffic loading, surrounding physical environment and maintenance treatments. ...

  18. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERLOCKING RAIL CONNECTION AT FREE END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERLOCKING RAIL CONNECTION AT FREE END OF MOVING LEAF - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Seddon Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  19. 34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 190.40. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  20. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. The clogging rate is a function of pavement type, traffic loading, surrounding physical environment and maintenance treatments. ...

  1. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Determining the correct methods for remedial maintenances is crucial to recovering and maintaining efficient ICP performance. T...

  2. Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. 9. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING PIPING FOR INTERLOCKING AND SIGNALLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING PIPING FOR INTERLOCKING AND SIGNALLING SYSTEM - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  4. 40. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 19.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  5. 39. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 19.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  6. 38. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Shell Interlocking Circuit Breaker Gantry & Substation. New Rochelle, Westchester Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 19.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  7. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  9. DETAIL OF STANDARD INTERLOCKING MACHINE OPERATING LEVERS. LOCKING MECHANISM IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF STANDARD INTERLOCKING MACHINE OPERATING LEVERS. LOCKING MECHANISM IS BELOW FLOOR. BOXES BEHIND SOME LEVERS HOUSE ELECTRICAL CONTACTS FOR SIGNALS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  10. Cyclic Behavior of Mortarless Brick Joints with Different Interlocking Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Peng; Lin, Kun; Zhao, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The framed structure infilled with a mortarless brick (MB) panel exhibits considerable in-plane energy dissipation because of the relative sliding between bricks and good out-of-plane stability resulting from the use of interlocking mechanisms. The cyclic behaviors of MB are investigated experimentally in this study. Two different types of bricks, namely non-interlocking mortarless brick (N-IMB) and interlocking mortarless brick (IMB), are examined experimentally. The cyclic behavior of all of the joints (N-IMB and IMB) are investigated in consideration of the effects of interlocking shapes, loading compression stress levels and loading cycles. The hysteretic loops of N-IMB and IMB joints are obtained, according to which a mechanical model is developed. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is employed to describe the shear failure modes of all of the investigated joints. A typical frictional behavior is observed for the N-IMB joints, and a significant stiffening effect is observed for the IMB joints during their sliding stage. The friction coefficients of all of the researched joints increase with the augmentation of the compression stress level and improvement of the smoothness of the interlocking surfaces. An increase in the loading cycle results in a decrease in the friction coefficients of all of the joints. The degradation rate (DR) of the friction coefficients increases with the reduction in the smoothness of the interlocking surface. PMID:28773291

  11. Nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism for minimally invasive surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Zuo, Siyang; Masamune, Ken; Liao, Hongen; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a nonmagnetic rigid and flexible outer sheath with pneumatic interlocking mechanism using flexible toothed links and a wire-driven bending distal end. The outer sheath can be switched between rigid and flexible modes easily depending on surgical scenes, and the angle of its distal end can be controlled by three nylon wires. All components of flexible parts are made of MRI-compatible nonmagnetic plastics. We manufactured the device with 300-mm long, 16-mm outer diameter, 7-mm inner diameter and 90-mm bending distal end. Holding power of the device in rigid mode was maximum 3.6 N, which was sufficient for surgical tasks in body cavity. In vivo experiment using a swine, our device performed smooth insertion of a flexible endoscope and a biopsy forceps into reverse side of the liver, intestines and spleen with a curved path. In conclusion, our device shows availability of secure approach of surgical instruments into deep cavity.

  12. Low profile thermite igniter

    SciTech Connect

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1991-03-05

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  13. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

  14. Studies on Pre-Ignition Reactions of Hydrocarbon-Based Rocket Fuels Hypergolic with Red Fuming Nitric Acid as Oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Suresh G.; Bagalkote, Vrushali S.

    2010-06-01

    Carene, norbornadiene, ethylidene norbornene, and furfuryl alcohol exhibit hypergolic ignition with red fuming nitric acid as oxidizer. Carene, when blended with norbornadiene, ethylidene norbornene, and furfuryl alcohol in appropriate proportions, exhibits synergistic hypergolic ignition with further decrease in ignition delay. In order to understand the probable mechanism of hypergolic ignition and synergy in ignition, various pre-ignition reactions have been studied by quenching the reactions and analyzing the intermediate products by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Based on the product analysis, the probable schemes of reactions have been proposed. Oxidation, nitration, and cationic polymerization appear to be the important pre-ignition reactions taking place simultaneously that are responsible for hypergolic ignition.

  15. Investigating antennas as ignition aid for automotive HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, A.; Engelhardt, M.; Bienholz, S.; Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Groeger, S.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ignition of mercury-free high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps for car headlights. Due to safety reasons, these lamps need to have a fast run-up phase which is ensured, amongst other things, by a high Xe pressure of roughly 15 bar (cold) in the discharge vessel. The high Xe pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with former mercury-containing automotive HID lamps or low-pressure lamps used for general-lighting applications. The increase in ignition voltage can be limited if the electric field in front of the electrodes is raised by an uplifting of the electrical conductivity along the outer wall of the inner bulb either by a conductive layer on its surface or by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within the outer bulb. This paper considers on the one hand conventional antennas deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and on the other hand a combination of these antennas with a DBD within the outer-bulb operated in 100 mbar Ar as ignition aids. In both cases the antenna potential and antenna width are varied. Additionally, the effects of antenna thickness and antenna material are investigated. The ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission during ignition are measured on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, for the very first time, the ignition process is recorded in four consecutive intensified charge-coupled device images using a high-speed camera system with a time resolution in the range of nanoseconds. It was found that antennas strongly reduce the ignition voltage of automotive HID lamps. Active antennas reduce the ignition voltage significantly more than passive antennas, proportional to the conductance of the antenna. Combining conventional antennas with an outer-bulb discharge reduces the ignition voltage from 19 kV without any ignition aid to the intrinsic ignition voltage of the lamp below 10 kV, in the best case.

  16. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  17. Tests of an experimental slash ignition unit

    Treesearch

    James L. Murphy; Harry E. Schimke

    1965-01-01

    A prototype ignition package containing an incendiary powder and designed for slash and brush burning jobs showed some promise, but the unit tested was not superior to such conventional devices as fusees, diesel backpack type flamethrowers, Very pistols, and drip torches.

  18. Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Chen; Vinayak Kabadi

    1997-10-31

    We established a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boilers. Specifically, we determined the ignition mechanism of pulverized-coal particles under various conditions of particle size, coal type, and freestream oxygen concentration. We also measured the ignition rate constant of a Pittsburgh #8 high-volatile bituminous coal by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process. The model, called Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition, was developed previously by our group to interpret conventional drop-tube ignition experiments, and was modified to accommodate the present study.

  19. Ignition regimes in rapid compression machines

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Kevin p; Goldsborough, S. Scott; ihme, matthias

    2015-08-01

    A rapid compression machine is an experimental apparatus used to study ignition chemistry at conditions that are relevant to internal combustion engines and gas turbines. However, due to the operating characteristics of these devices, heat transfer effects and inhomogeneous ignition events can be encountered. Hence, this paper develops a combustion regime diagram, which incorporates these effects in order to better understand physical in uences on the measurements. This diagram employs familiar Damkohler number and Reynolds number scaling, and seeks to provide an operational guide for rapid compression machine experiments. This diagram is compared to experimental data and good agreement is found.

  20. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  1. Heat energy of various ignition sparks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsbee, F B; Loeb, L B; Fonseca, E L

    1920-01-01

    This report describes a method developed at the Bureau of Standards for measuring the total energy liberated as heat in a spark gap by an ignition system. Since this heat energy is obtained from the electromagnetic energy stored in the windings of the magneto or coil, it is a measure of the effectiveness of the device as an electric generator. Part 2 gives the results of measurements in absolute units of the total heat supplied to a spark gap by ignition systems of different types operating at various speeds, under conditions substantially equivalent to those in the cylinder of a high-compression aviation engine.

  2. Ignition of Fuel Sprays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    bidisperse distribution, k = 2. For a continuous size distribution such as Rosin - Rammler distribution [15], k will be infinite and the summation in Eq...with do = 50 microns. In Figure 2, the ignition time delays are plotted versus the overall equivalence ratios for decane fuel. Note that for the...ignition-delay plots in Figures 1-4, we could have plotted ignition energies, but the conclusions would be the same. 15.0 ~~~Q( ,) .._ 10.0 A - do - 100

  3. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  4. Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A dual-pulse laser (DPL) technique has been demonstrated for generating laser-induced sparks (LIS) to ignite fuels. The technique was originally intended to be applied to the ignition of rocket propellants, but may also be applicable to ignition in terrestrial settings in which electric igniters may not be suitable.

  5. Paper-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators Made of Stretchable Interlocking Kirigami Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changsheng; Wang, Xin; Lin, Long; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-26

    The development of stretchable energy generation devices is indispensable for achieving stretchable, self-powered electronic systems. In this paper, a type of highly stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators made from conventional, inelastic materials such as paper is presented. It exploits a rationally designed interlocking kirigami structure and is capable of harvesting energy from various types of motions such as stretching, pressing, and twisting owing to the shape-adaptive thin film design. Energy harvested from the as-fabricated devices has been used for powering an LCD screen and lighting LED arrays. Furthermore, the paper-based devices have also been demonstrated for self-powered acceleration sensing and self-powered sensing of book opening and closing. This work introduces traditional kirigami into the development of stretchable triboelectric nanogenerators and verifies its promising applications in both power generation and self-powered sensing.

  6. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, S.; Siegmund, T.; Cipra, R. J.; Bolton, J. S.

    2015-04-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms.

  7. Thermonuclear microdetonation macron accelerator for impact ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-03-01

    It is proposed to replace the expensive ~150 kJ petawatt laser as a means for the fast ignition of a highly compressed dense DT target by a small flyer plate propelled to high velocities by a thermonuclear microdetonation ignited at one end of a super-pinch. It appears that this can most efficiently be done with the previously proposed modification of the dense plasma focus device, adding a high voltage relativistic electron beam emitting diode inside the coaxial plasma focus discharge tube, igniting at the end of the plasma focus pinch column a thermonuclear detonation wave, propagating in the axial direction and accelerating at the end of the pinch a flyer plate to a velocity of 103 km s-1.

  8. A fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.; Rakowsky, E. L.; Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition has been found to be feasible using a system without stored energy and with the complete absence of electrical energy and wiring. The fluidic ignitor is based on a two component aerodynamic resonance heating device called the pneumatic match. Temperatures in excess of 600 C were generated in closed resonance tubes which were excited by a free air jet from a simple convergent nozzle. Using nitrocellulose interface material, ignition of boron potassium nitrate was accomplished with air supply pressures as low as 45 psi. This paper describes an analytical and experimental program which established a fluidic rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source.

  9. A fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchese, V. P.; Rakowsky, E. L.; Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fluidic sounding rocket motor ignition has been found to be feasible using a system without stored energy and with the complete absence of electrical energy and wiring. The fluidic ignitor is based on a two component aerodynamic resonance heating device called the pneumatic match. Temperatures in excess of 600 C were generated in closed resonance tubes which were excited by a free air jet from a simple convergent nozzle. Using nitrocellulose interface material, ignition of boron potassium nitrate was accomplished with air supply pressures as low as 45 psi. This paper describes an analytical and experimental program which established a fluidic rocket motor ignition system concept incorporating a pneumatic match with a simple hand pump as the only energy source.

  10. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  11. Unusually high sound absorption in topological interlocking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Yuri; Molotnikov, Andrey; Carlesso, Mateus

    2015-04-01

    Topological interlocking materials are a new class of architectured materials, which have a range of unusual mechanical and acoustic properties. We present a novel approach for combating noise pollution based on the concept of topological interlocking. Specifically, we propose to segment monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks and show experimentally that this leads to a spectacular increase of the sound absorption coefficient over that in the original material, as exemplified by ceramics. Measurements of the airflow resistance confirmed the primary role of segmentation in enhancing sound absorption capability of the material in the audible frequency range. The absorption coefficient was further boosted by design of the material itself. The new material design proposed poses some interesting challenges to theory of sound wave propagation in heterogeneous media.

  12. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    PubMed

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  13. Direct spark ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, R.A.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a direct spark ignition system having a gas burner, an electrically operable valve connected to the burner to admit fuel thereto, a gated oscillator having a timing circuit for timing a trial ignition, a spark generator responsive to the oscillator for igniting fuel emanating from the burner, and a flame sensor for sustaining oscillations of the oscillator while a flame exists at the burner. The spark generator has an inverter connected to a low voltage dc source and responsive to the oscillator for converting the dc voltage to a high ac voltage, a means for rectifying the high ac voltage, a capacitor connected to the rectifying means for storing the rectified high voltage, an ignition coil in series between the storage capacitor and a switch, and a means for periodically turning on the switch to produce ignition pulses through the coil. The ignition system is powered from the dc source but controlled by the oscillator. An improvement described here is wherein the inverter is comprised of a step-up transformer having its primary winding connected in series with the dc source and a common emitter transistor having its collector connected to the primary winding. The transistor has its base connected to be controlled by the oscillator to chop the dc into ac in the primary winding, and a diode connected between the storage capacitor and the collector of the transistor, the diode being poled to couple into the capacitor back EMF energy when the transistor is turned off.

  14. Molded composite pyrogen igniter for rocket motors. [solid propellant ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.; Lucy, M. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A lightweight pyrogen igniter assembly including an elongated molded plastic tube adapted to contain a pyrogen charge was designed for insertion into a rocket motor casing for ignition of the rocket motor charge. A molded plastic closure cap provided for the elongated tube includes an ignition charge for igniting the pyrogen charge and an electrically actuated ignition squib for igniting the ignition charge. The ignition charge is contained within a portion of the closure cap, and it is retained therein by a noncorrosive ignition pellet retainer or screen which is adapted to rest on a shoulder of the elongated tube when the closure cap and tube are assembled together. A circumferentially disposed metal ring is provided along the external circumference of the closure cap and is molded or captured within the plastic cap in the molding process to provide, along with O-ring seals, a leakproof rotary joint.

  15. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER AND POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER AND POWER SUBSTATIONS - Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower, Adjacent to AMTRAK railroad tracks in block bounded by Howard Street, Jones Falls Expressway, Maryland Avenue & Falls Road, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Mechanically interlocked molecules incorporating cucurbituril and their supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kimoon

    2002-03-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules incorporating cucurbituril (CB[6]) as a molecular 'bead' and their supramolecular assemblies are described. An efficient synthesis of 1D, 2D and 3D polyrotaxanes with high structural regularity and molecular necklaces has been achieved by a combination of self-assembly and coordination chemistry. The functional aspects of these interlocked molecules and their supramolecular assemblies, including molecular machines and switches based on [2]rotaxanes, a 2D polyrotaxane with large cavities and channels, pseudorotaxane-terminated dendrimers, and interaction of pseudorotaxanes containing polyamines and CB[6] with DNA are also described.

  17. Fiduciary duties of interlocking directors within a nonprofit health system.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Nathan; Jarzab, Christine M

    2005-01-01

    In response to regulatory and financial pressures, entities participating in the healthcare industry have joined with others in order to maintain, even improve, their market positions. In the non-profit sector of the industry, partnerships, mergers, and acquisitions have included arrangements whereby some corporate partners have interlocking directors. After review of the fiduciary duties of care and loyalty owed by corporate board members, and their application to traditional performance and conflict of interest situations, the authors address two scenarios raising interlocking director issues.

  18. Investigation of Al/CuO multilayered thermite ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicollet, Andréa; Lahiner, Guillaume; Belisario, Andres; Souleille, Sandrine; Djafari-Rouhani, Mehdi; Estève, Alain; Rossi, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The ignition of the Al/CuO multilayered material is studied experimentally to explore the effects of the heating surface area, layering, and film thickness on the ignition characteristics and reaction performances. After the description of the micro-initiator devices and ignition conditions, we show that the heating surface area must be properly calibrated to optimize the nanothermite ignition performances. We demonstrated experimentally that a heating surface area of 0.25 mm2 is sufficient to ignite a multilayered thermite film of 1.6 mm wide by a few cm long, with a success rate of 100%. A new analytical and phenomenological ignition model based on atomic diffusion across layers and thermal exchange is also proposed. This model considers that CuO first decomposes into Cu2O, and then the oxygen diffuses across the Cu2O and Al2O3 layers before reaching the Al layer, where it reacts to form Al2O3. The theoretical results in terms of ignition response times confirm the experimental observation. The increase of the heating surface area leads to an increase of the ignition response time and ignition power threshold (go/no go condition). We also provide evidence that, for any heating surface area, the ignition time rapidly decreases when the electrical power density increases until an asymptotic value. This time point is referred to as the minimum response ignition time, which is a characteristic of the multilayered thermite itself. At the stoichiometric ratio (Al thickness is half of the CuO thickness), the minimum ignition response time can be easily tuned from 59 μs to 418 ms by tuning the heating surface area. The minimum ignition response time increases when the bilayer thickness increases. This work not only provides a set of micro-initiator design rules to obtain the best ignition conditions and reaction performances but also details a reliable and robust MicroElectroMechanical Systems process to fabricate igniters and brings new understanding of phenomena

  19. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9 Section 212.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the...

  20. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9 Section 212.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the...

  1. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9 Section 212.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the...

  2. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9 Section 212.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the...

  3. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9 Section 212.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the...

  4. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  5. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  6. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  7. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  8. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  9. Existence and accessibility of igniting states in a tokamak inferred from its performance in tritiumless discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, U.R.; Minardi, E.

    1988-09-01

    The conditions for the existence and accessibility of ignited or subignited deuterium-tritium states are discussed in terms of the performance of the thermonuclear device in tritiumless discharges. The discussion includes the effects of the thermal instability of both the marginally igniting states and the nonstationary states in the start-up phase. These effects are an integral part of the problem of the accessibility to ignition under reliable conditions. Typical examples taken from the next generation of igniting tokamaks are discussed. The necessity of allowing sufficient excursion of the plasma column for a stable drive to ignition by feedback on the vertical field is underlined.

  10. Acquisition, data retrieval, interlock and control systems for the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Baltador, C.; Barbato, P.; Baseggio, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Laterza, B.; Migliorato, L.; Molon, F.; Moro, G.; Ravarotto, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Patton, T.; Recchia, M.; Taliercio, C.; Veltri, P.

    2017-08-01

    The NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization, phase 1) experiment is a versatile test bench with goal of delivering a negative hydrogen beam current of 135mA accelerated to -60kV and divided into 9 beamlets. NIO1 is operated by Consorzio RFX and INFN in the framework of the activities aimed at the enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams for plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. For the NIO1 device an Acquisition, Data Retrieval, Interlock and Control (ADRIC) system was realised. The present paper gives a detailed description of the overall structure of ADRIC, which integrates together the various components; the single parts are also described, particularly highlighting the adoption of novel equipment. A special asset of this system is its flexibility when adding new components.

  11. B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower; Howard Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower; Howard Street Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.85 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. Interlocked fabric and laminated fabric Kevlar 49/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a novel interlocked fabric reinforced Kevlar 49/epoxy composite has been measured and compared to those of a laminated Kevlar 49 fabric composite (which served as a reference material). Both composites were 5.0 mm thick, contained the same 50% in-plane fiber volume fraction and were fabricated in a similar manner using the same Dow DER 332 epoxy, Jeffamine T403-hardened resin system. The reference material (Material 1) was reinforced with seven plies of Dupont style 1033 Kevlar 49 fabric. A photomicrograph of a section polished parallel to one of the fiber directions is shown. The interlocked fabric was designed and woven for Sandia National Laboratories by Albany International Research Co., Dedham, MA. The main design criterion was to duplicate a sewn through-the-thickness fabric used in preliminary studies. The interlocked fabric composite (Material 2) contains roughly 4% by volume of through-the-thickness fiber reinforcement for the purpose of improving interlaminar strength. A photomicrograph of a section showing the warp-aligned binder yarns interlocking the six fabric plies together is shown. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  13. How Does Learning Intent Affect Interlocking Directorates Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Michele; Caiazza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Literature on board interlocks agrees that these inter-organizational ties are effective channels to exchange information and share knowledge. However, studies that consider the nature and the amount of knowledge that firms exchange are still relatively absent. Filling this gap, this paper aims to identify four types of mechanisms that…

  14. How Does Learning Intent Affect Interlocking Directorates Dynamic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Michele; Caiazza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Literature on board interlocks agrees that these inter-organizational ties are effective channels to exchange information and share knowledge. However, studies that consider the nature and the amount of knowledge that firms exchange are still relatively absent. Filling this gap, this paper aims to identify four types of mechanisms that…

  15. Charging/Safety-Interlock Connection For Capacitor Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrically controlled mechanical interlock apparatus prevents connection of bank of capacitors to battery or other dc power supply until capacitors precharged to nearly full supply voltage. Precharge eliminates excessive inrush current, which damages capacitors, wires, or connectors. Circuit in apparatus also discharges capacitors after power turned off or capacitors disconnected from power supply.

  16. End-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide squares.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Lang; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng; Tang, Jinkui

    2017-03-09

    A rare end-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide square was self-assembled using a ditopic Schiff-base (H2L) and NaN3 as ligands. Obvious ferromagnetic interaction and a record anisotropy barrier of 152(4) K among lanthanide azido-bridged SMMs in a zero dc field were observed.

  17. Description of a system for interlocking elevated temperature mechanical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Poulter, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Long term mechanical creep and fatigue testing at elevated temperatures requires reliable systems with safeguards to prevent destruction of equipment, loss of data and negative environmental impacts. Toward this goal, a computer controlled system has been developed and built for interlocking tests run on elevated temperature mechanical test facilities. Sensors for water flow, water pressure, water leakage, temperature, power and hydraulic status are monitored to control specimen heating equipment through solid state relays and water solenoid valves. The system is designed to work with the default interlocks present in the RF generators and mechanical tests systems. Digital hardware consists of two National Instruments 1/0 boards mounted in a Macintosh IIci computer. Software is written in National Instruments LabVIEW. Systems interlocked include two MTS closed loop servo controlled hydraulic test frames, one with an RF generator and one with both an RF generator and a quartz lamp furnace. Control for individual test systems is modularized making the addition of more systems simple. If any of the supporting utilities fail during tests, heating systems, chill water and hydraulics are powered down, minimizing specimen damage and eliminating equipment damage. The interlock control is powered by an uninterruptible power supply. Upon failure the cause is documented in an ASCII file.

  18. Bio-inspired interfacial strengthening strategy through geometrically interlocking designs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Yao, Haimin; Ortiz, Christine; Xu, Jinquan; Dao, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Many biological materials, such as nacre and bone, are hybrid materials composed of stiff brittle ceramics and compliant organic materials. These natural organic/inorganic composites exhibit much enhanced strength and toughness in comparison to their constituents and inspires enormous biomimetic endeavors aiming to synthesize materials with superior mechanical properties. However, most current synthetic composites have not exhibited their full potential of property enhancement compared to the natural prototypes they are mimicking. One of the key issues is the weak junctions between stiff and compliant phases, which need to be optimized according to the intended functions of the composite material. Motivated by the geometrically interlocking designs of natural biomaterials, here we propose an interfacial strengthening strategy by introducing geometrical interlockers on the interfaces between compliant and stiff phases. Finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the strength of the composite depends strongly on the geometrical features of interlockers including shape, size, and structural hierarchy. Even for the most unfavorable scenario when neither adhesion nor friction is present between stiff and compliant phases, the tensile strength of the composites with proper interlocker design can reach up to 70% of the ideal value. The findings in this paper would provide guidelines to the improvement of the mechanical properties of current biomimetic composites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  20. 58. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 71.90. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 59. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 71.90. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 60. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Fair Street Interlocking & circuit breaker gantry. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 71.90. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. Description of a system for interlocking elevated temperature mechanical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, D. T.; Poulter, G. A.

    1995-07-01

    Long term mechanical creep and fatigue testing at elevated temperatures requires reliable systems with safeguards to prevent destruction of equipment, loss of data, and negative environmental impacts. Toward this goal, a computer controlled system has been developed and built for interlocking tests run on elevated temperature mechanical test facilities. Sensors for water flow, water pressure, water leakage, temperature, power, and hydraulic status are monitored to control specimen heating equipment through solid state relays and water solenoid valves. The system is designed to work with the default interlocks present in the RF generators and mechanical tests systems. Digital hardware consists of two National Instruments I/O boards mounted in a Macintosh IIci computer. Software is written in National Instruments LabVIEW. Systems interlocked include two MTS closed loop servo controlled hydraulic test frames, one with an RF generator and one with both an RF generator and a quartz lamp furnace. Control for individual test systems is modularized making the addition of more systems simple. If any of the supporting utilities fail during tests, heating systems, chill water, and hydraulics are powered down, minimizing specimen damage and eliminating equipment damage. The interlock control is powered by an uninterruptible power supply. Upon failure the cause is documented in an ASCII file.

  4. Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

    1987-06-01

    During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

  5. Time-dependent simulations of a Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D.P.; Bateman, G.

    1988-05-01

    Detailed simulations of the Compact Ignition Tokamak are carried out using a 1-1/2-D transport code. The calculations include time-varying densities, fields, and plasma shape. It is shown that ignition can be achieved in this device if somewhat better than L-mode energy confinement time scaling is possible. We also conclude that the performance of such a compact, short-pulse device can depend greatly on how the plasma is evolved to its flat-top parameters. Furthermore, in cases such as the ones discussed here, where there is not a great deal of ignition margin and the electron density is held constant, ignition ends if the helium ash is not removed. In general, control of the deuterium--tritium density is equivalent to burn control. 48 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Development, qualification, and delivery of a hydrogen burnoff igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogen burnoff igniter, a pyrotechnic device used to burn off excess hydrogen gas near the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle, was designed, fabricated, and qualified. Characteristics of the burnoff igniter include a function time of 8 + or - 2 seconds, a minimum three foot flame length at maximum output, and hot particles projected 15 feet when fired directly into or perpendicular to a 34.5 knot wind. The three foot flame length was considered to be of questionable importance, since the hot particles are the media for igniting the hydrogen. Flame temperature is greater than 1500 F.

  7. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-03-15

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing toxic agents. High quality Prussian blue nanocubes with no or little coordinated water were generated simultaneously. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was thus functionalized by Prussian blue nanocubes via chemical bonding to form a kind of interlocked microstructure with high stability and good conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg(-1), with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance catalysis towards electroreduction of H2O2 with a high sensitivity of 1.5Acm(-2)M(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ignitability test method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Bailey, James W. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for testing ignitability of an initiator includes a body having a central cavity, an initiator holder for holding the initiator over the central cavity of the body, an ignition material holder disposed in the central cavity of the body and having a cavity facing the initiator holder which receives a measured quantity of ignition material to be ignited by the initiator. It contains a chamber in communication with the cavity of the ignition material and the central cavity of the body, and a measuring system for analyzing pressure characteristics generated by ignition of the ignition material by the initiator. The measuring system includes at least one transducer coupled with an oscillograph for recording pressure traces generated by ignition.

  9. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  10. Interlock system for machine protection of the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-02-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developed. The beam service started this year after performing the beam commissioning. If the very sensitive and essential equipment is to be protected during machine operation, a machine interlock system is required, and the interlock system has been implemented. The purpose of the interlock system is to shut off the beam when the radio-frequency (RF) and ion source are unstable or a beam loss occurs. The interlock signal of the KOMAC linac includes a variety of sources, such as the beam loss, RF and high-voltage converter modulator faults, and fast closing valves of the vacuum window at the beam lines and so on. This system consists of a hardware-based interlock system using analog circuits and a software-based interlock system using an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC). The hardware-based interlock system has been fabricated, and the requirement has been satisfied with the results being within 10 µs. The software logic interlock system using the PLC has been connected to the framework of with the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) to integrate a variety of interlock signals and to control the machine components when an interlock occurs. This paper will describe the design and the construction of the machine interlock system for the KOMAC 100-MeV linac.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145... Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145... Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145... Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145... Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches,...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 23.1145 Section 23.1145... Accessories § 23.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control and shut off each ignition circuit... the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c) Each group of ignition switches,...

  16. IGNITION HARDENING OF CELLULOSIC MATERIALS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Similar ignition response measurements were made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid ... borax , and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal/sq cm/sec. Above this value, transient ignition would

  17. DTRA National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    DTRA National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) ___________________________________ JSR-08- 800 September 29...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DTRA National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...only). 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT JASON was asked to address the utility of the National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) to the Defense Threat

  18. Ignition Kinetics in Fuels Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    2 . 3 . Experimental and...ignition, we have conducted a systematic study on the ignition of the four isomers of butene , namely 1- butene , cis- 2 - butene , trans- 2 - butene , and... butene , 2 - butenes and isobutene. The ignitability of cis- 2 - butene and trans- 2 - butene cannot be compared because the difference between their

  19. Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Kabadi, V.

    1997-05-01

    We are proposing to establish a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boiler. Specifically, our aims are to determine the ignition mechanism, which is either homogeneous or heterogeneous, of pulverized coal particles under various condition of particle size, coal type, freestream oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Furthermore, we will measure the ignition rate constants of various coals by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process.

  20. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Blewer, R.S.

    1990-12-11

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose. 2 figs.

  1. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David A.; Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Blewer, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  2. Diversionary device

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    A diversionary device has a housing having at least one opening and containing a non-explosive propellant and a quantity of fine powder packed within the housing, with the powder being located between the propellant and the opening. When the propellant is activated, it has sufficient energy to propel the powder through the opening to produce a cloud of powder outside the housing. An igniter is also provided for igniting the cloud of powder to create a diversionary flash and bang, but at a low enough pressure to avoid injuring nearby people.

  3. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  4. PETN ignition experiments and models.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Michael L; Wente, William B; Kaneshige, Michael J

    2010-04-29

    Ignition experiments from various sources, including our own laboratory, have been used to develop a simple ignition model for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The experiments consist of differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, beaker tests, one-dimensional time to explosion tests, Sandia's instrumented thermal ignition tests (SITI), and thermal ignition of nonelectrical detonators. The model developed using this data consists of a one-step, first-order, pressure-independent mechanism used to predict pressure, temperature, and time to ignition for various configurations. The model was used to assess the state of the degraded PETN at the onset of ignition. We propose that cookoff violence for PETN can be correlated with the extent of reaction at the onset of ignition. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating metal deformation produced from detonators encased in copper as well as comparing postignition photos of the SITI experiments.

  5. Laser ignition of pulverized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Narato, Kiyoshi; Ito, Kazuyuki . Hitachi Research Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    The authors present a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coal. A dilute stream of particles is dropped into a laminar, upward-flow wind tunnel with a quartz test section. The gas stream is not preheated. A single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser is focused through the tunnel and ignites the fuel. The transparent test section and cool walls allow for optical detection of the ignition process. In this article they describe the experiment and demonstrate its capabilities by observing the ignition behavior of spherical, amorphous-carbon particles and two coal: an anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal. The ignition behaviors of the carbon spheres and the anthracite are as expected for heterogeneous ignition, while the mechanism of the bituminous coal is uncertain. Calculations are also presented to describe the physical behavior of a laser-heated particle, and the heat transfer and chemistry of heterogeneous ignition.

  6. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    SciTech Connect

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  7. Metal-organic frameworks with dynamic interlocked components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukotic, V. Nicholas; Harris, Kristopher J.; Zhu, Kelong; Schurko, Robert W.; Loeb, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes have been studied in solution as examples of rudimentary molecular switches and machines, but in this medium, the molecules are randomly dispersed and their motion incoherent. As a strategy for achieving a higher level of molecular organization, we have constructed a metal-organic framework material using a [2]rotaxane as the organic linker and binuclear Cu(II) units as the nodes. Activation of the as-synthesized material creates a void space inside the rigid framework that allows the soft macrocyclic ring of the [2]rotaxane to rotate rapidly, unimpeded by neighbouring molecular components. Variable-temperature 13C and 2H solid-state NMR experiments are used to characterize the nature and rate of the dynamic processes occurring inside this unique material. These results provide a blueprint for the future creation of solid-state molecular switches and molecular machines based on mechanically interlocked molecules.

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  9. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    PubMed

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-02

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods.

  10. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements.

  11. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-08-09

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  12. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  13. 116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT PENSTOCK 52 IN THE FALL OF 1926. THE PILES FOR SUPPORTING THE HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS OF THE NEW FOREBAY APRON ARE IN PLACE BETWEEN THE NEW SHEET PILING AND THE FOREBAY WALL. VISIBLE BEYOND THE NEW SHEET PILING IS THE TIMBER SHEET PILING DRIVEN IN 1903 BY VON SCHON TO PREVENT WASHOUTS. (1006) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. Interlock and control systems for a sector at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, N.

    1993-09-09

    This report describes some basic elements of the various Interlock and Control Systems associated with the Front Ends and Beamlines. Some systems serve only the Front Ends; other serve both the Front Ends and the Beamlines, while the Experimental Controls are for the Beamlines only. Specific system requirements and design specifications are not in the scope of this report. They will be presented in the descriptions of the Experimental Floor Personnel Safety System (XF-PSS or, more often, PSS) and Equipment Protection System (XF-EPS or EPS), which will expand on the overview presented here. The main focus here is on the PSS and EPS in the context of their interactions and interface to the Storage Ring Access Control Interlock System (ACIS), and Ring Controls. The other systems are only mentioned to make the cross section complete. This paper is the first in series of three reports that jointly provide a full description of sector interlocks. The second report describes the PSS, and the third -- the EPS.

  15. Neutral beam interlock system on TFTR using infrared pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.

    1986-06-01

    Although the region of the TFTR vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite titles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm/sup 2/ the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200/sup 0/C within 250 ms and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock system based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of approx.30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900 nm pyrometer which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The pyrometer interlock system is designed to interrupt each of the twelve ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold settable in the range of 500 to 2300/sup 0/C. A description of the pyrometer interlock system and its performance will be presented.

  16. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  17. Variable stiffness sandwich panels using electrostatic interlocking core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-04-01

    Structural topology has a large impact on the flexural stiffness of a beam structure. Reversible attachment between discrete substructures allows for control of shear stress transfer between structural elements, thus stiffness modulation. Electrostatic adhesion has shown promise for providing a reversible latching mechanism for controllable internal connectivity. Building on previous research, a thin film copper polyimide laminate has been used to incorporate high voltage electrodes to Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sandwich structures. The level of electrostatic holding force across the electrode interface is key to the achievable level of stiffness modulation. The use of non-flat interlocking core structures can allow for a significant increase in electrode contact area for a given core geometry, thus a greater electrostatic holding force. Interlocking core geometries based on cosine waves can be Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machined from Rohacell IGF 110 Foam core. These Interlocking Core structures could allow for enhanced variable stiffness functionality compared to basic planar electrodes. This novel concept could open up potential new applications for electrostatically induced variable stiffness structures.

  18. Interlocking circumareolar suture with undyed polyamide thread: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Salgarello, Marzia; Visconti, Giuseppe; Barone-Adesi, Liliana

    2013-10-01

    In plastic breast surgery, the interlocking areolar suture has gained wide popularity since its introduction in 2007 by Hammond and colleagues. The interlocking circumareolar suture plays its role in the setting of circumareolar excisions to achieve a durable areola shaping and to prevent scar widening/hypertrophy and areola spreading/distortion. This study retrospectively reviewed 49 breasts that underwent interlocking suture after July 2011 for both aesthetic and reconstructive indications. For the suturing, 3-0 undyed polyamide thread with a straight cutting needle (Dafilon; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) was used. This suture material was preferred to Gore-Tex reported by Hammond and colleagues because it is undyed without any microporous configuration, more wieldy, and less expensive. All 49 breasts showed good results in terms of areola shaping and diameter control as well as good scar quality during a mean follow-up period of 12 months (range 2-18 months) (Fig. 2). No infection, suture extrusion, skin fistula, or granuloma were experienced. The suture was not visible at all, and the patients did not report its palpability. However, at careful examination, the thread resulted slightly palpable.

  19. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-03-21

    An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study.

  20. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  1. Igniter electrode life control

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.C.

    1985-10-07

    The prevention of electrode material erosion by undercutting in the outer electrode shell of igniter electrodes of jet engine ignition systems is prevented by the application of an electrical insulation coating. The coating is applied to the surface of the outer electrode shell which faces the ceramic insulation around the center electrode where erosion patterns are known to occur. The insulation material is selected from electrical insulation substances such as oxides of aluminum, tungsten, magnesium, beryllium or zirconium by choosing a non-porous electrical-insulating substance with thermal-expansion characteristics approximately equalling those of the outer electrode shell. Since a typical outer electrode shell is composed of 446 stainless steel, an optimum choice for the electrical insulation coating is Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ deposited with a coating thickness of between 5 and 10 mils.

  2. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  3. Interlock systems using programmable sequence controllers and a monitoring system of the Photon Factory beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satow, Yoshinori; Ito, Kenji; Kosuge, Takashi

    1989-07-01

    Fully utilizing programmable sequence controllers, interlock systems for the Photon Factory beamlines were newly designed and constructed for providing the reliable and versatile control logic that is required for beamline characteristics. The systems, accommodated with radiation safety and vacuum interlock logic as well as protection logic for various components against heat and radiation damage, are in operation on eight beamlines. A centralized monitoring system, to which all interlock systems for the beamlines are connected through optical fiber links, was constructed for simultaneously monitoring the operation status of the interlock systems. Individual operations of each interlock system are also controlled by the monitoring system. Log data collected by the monitoring system are summarized and analyzed in order to provide the necessary information for smooth and safe operation as well as for further improvements of the beamlines. The interlock and the monitoring systems are described along with operational remarks.

  4. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  5. Solution-Phase Dynamic Assembly of Permanently Interlocked Aryleneethynylene Cages through Alkyne Metathesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Yu, Chao; Long, Hai; Du, Ya; Jin, Yinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-08

    Highly stable permanently interlocked aryleneethynylene molecular cages were synthesized from simple triyne monomers using dynamic alkyne metathesis. The interlocked complexes are predominantly formed in the reaction solution in the absence of any recognition motif and were isolated in a pure form using column chromatography. This study is the first example of the thermodynamically controlled solution-phase synthesis of interlocked organic cages with high stability.

  6. 14 CFR 27.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ignition switches. 27.1145 Section 27.1145... switches. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition switches. 25.1145 Section 25.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  9. 14 CFR 27.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition switches. 27.1145 Section 27.1145... switches. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ignition switches. 25.1145 Section 25.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  11. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1145 Ignition switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (c...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  14. 14 CFR 27.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ignition switches. 27.1145 Section 27.1145... switches. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 27.1145 Section 27.1145... switches. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  17. 14 CFR 29.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignition switches. 29.1145 Section 29.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  18. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignition switches. 25.1145 Section 25.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  19. 14 CFR 27.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignition switches. 27.1145 Section 27.1145... switches. (a) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control. (b) Each group of ignition switches, except ignition switches for...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ignition switches. 25.1145 Section 25.1145... switches. (a) Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. (b) There must be means to quickly shut off all ignition by the grouping of switches or by a master ignition control....

  1. A CAD-E Approach to a Ball Rotor Safe and Arming Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    densities 6 3 MS05A3 fuze 23 4 Rotor detent safety ’ interlock used in single safe fuze 24 S Spin detent used in dual safe S&A device 25 6 Rotor ball...3). This device with a single safety interlock (fig. 4) was placed into fuze parts nor- mally fitted to 20 mm, 40 mm and 57 mm high-velocity...projectiles. During the second phase, a double interlock (figs. 5,6) was added to the device and it was installed in a 57 mm round with the components from

  2. Ignition dynamics of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.; Asay, B.W.; Brewster, M.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The laser ignition of the explosives HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}), {delta}-phase HMX, PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane, 2.5% BDNPA/BDNPF), TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F) and aged PBX 9502 has been conducted with the intent to compare the relative sensitivities of those explosives and to investigate the effect of beam profile, binder addition, and porosity. It has been found that there was little difference between a gaussian beam and a top hat profile on the laser ignition of HMX. The authors observe that the addition of binder in the amounts present in PBX 9501 resulted in longer ignition delays than that of HMX. In contrast to HMX, the addition of binder to TATB in PBX 9502 shows no measurable effect. Porosity effects were considered by comparing the ignition of granular HMX and pressed HMX pellets. Porosity appears to increase ignition delay due to an increased effective absorption scale and increased convective heat loss. This porosity effect also resulted in longer ignition delays for {delta}-phase HMX than for {beta}-phase HMX. In order to simulate ignition in voids or cracks, the standard ignition experiment was modified to include a NaCl window placed at variable distances above the sample surface. When ignition experiments were performed at 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} a critical gap distance was observed of 6 {+-} 0.4 mm below which ignition was severely inhibited. This result underscores the importance of gas phase processes in ignition and illustrates that conditions can exist where simple ignition criteria such as surface temperature is inadequate.

  3. Asymptotic Techniques in Ignition Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    conduction, until the exothermic reaction leads to a thermal runaway at a finite ignition time. Since the heat conductivity of the wire is often very large...Large activation energy asymptotics have been very useful in describing thermal ignition with different tyres of heating mechanisms. These methods...good agreement with the results of numerical integra- tions. -2- Thermal runaway leading to ignition is a strongly dependent function of temperature

  4. Recent advances in polymer solar cells: realization of high device performance by incorporating water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers as electrode buffer layer.

    PubMed

    He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2014-02-01

    This Progress Report highlights recent advances in polymer solar cells with special attention focused on the recent rapid-growing progress in methods that use a thin layer of alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymers as key component to obtain optimized device performance, but also discusses novel materials and device architectures made by major prestigious institutions in this field. We anticipate that due to drastic improvements in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens up new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency, and many novel device structures will emerge as suitable architectures for developing the ideal roll-to-roll type processing of polymer-based solar cells.

  5. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G. )

    1994-10-05

    In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-[ital Z] pushers which contain the radiation, we point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity, and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an atractive alternative. [copyright] 1994 [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  9. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    PubMed

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  10. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R P

    2009-12-01

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  11. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; Hammel, Bruce A.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Callahan, Debra A.; Town, Richard P. J.

    2010-05-15

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of one-dimensional simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as two-dimensional simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  12. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  13. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  14. Stable three-dimensional metallic carbon with interlocking hexagons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Jena, Puru

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of 3D metallic carbon that is stable under ambient conditions has been a long-standing dream. We predict the existence of such phases, T6- and T14-carbon, consisting of interlocking hexagons. Their dynamic, mechanical, and thermal stabilities are confirmed by carrying out a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Unlike the previously studied K4 and the simple cubic high pressure metallic phases, the structures predicted in this work are stable under ambient conditions. Equally important, they may be synthesized chemically by using benzene or polyacenes molecules. PMID:24191020

  15. The Autoignition of Cyclopentane in an Ignition Quality Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillen, Donna Post

    2012-08-01

    Cyclopentane is a flammable hydrocarbon being considered as a working fluid for waste heat recovery applications using Organic Rankine Cycles with direct evaporators. A postulated failure mode consisting of a pinhole leak in a heat exchanger tube raises safety concerns because of autoignition of the working fluid. The ignition delay time of cyclopentane was measured using an Ignition Quality Test device (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). Hot vitiated air was used to simulate turbine exhaust gas. Experiments were conducted in accordance with ASTM D6890 (with exception to charge pressure and temperature) to determine ignition delay of the fuel at atmospheric pressure for vitiated air (13.3% oxygen). The test matrix encompassed equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and chamber temperatures ranging from 673 K to 823 K to establish a set of ignition delay curves. The ignition delay time was observed to decrease with increasing temperature and equivalence ratio. For the cases tested, no ignition was observed at temperatures at or below 723 K or at an equivalence ratio of 0.5.

  16. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  17. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Edward I.

    2016-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear bum in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm3-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIP's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY20l0 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  18. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  19. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  20. Tokamak and RFP ignition requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma model is applied to calculate numerically transport- confinement (n{tau}{sub E}) requirements and steady-state operation tokamak. The CIT tokamak and RFP ignition conditions are examined. Physics differences between RFP and tokamaks, and their consequences for a DT ignition machine, are discussed. The ignition RFP, compared to a tokamak, has many physics advantages, including ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, low ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits), and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f{sub RAD} {approximately} 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic fields, larger aspect ratios, and smaller plasma cross sections translate into significant cost reductions for both ignition and power reactor. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present confinement scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. The 4-MA ZTH was expected to extend the n{tau}{sub E} transport scaling data three order of magnitude above ZT-40M results, and if the present scaling held, to achieve a DT-equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q=1. A basecase RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ignition process in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, W

    1936-01-01

    This report analyzes the heating and vaporization process of fuel droplets in a compression-ignition engine on the basis of the theory of similitude - according to which, the period for heating and complete vaporization of the average size fuel drop is only a fraction of the actually observed ignition lag. The result is that ignition takes place in the fuel vapor air mixture rather than on the surface of the drop. The theoretical result is in accord with the experimental observations by Rothrock and Waldron. The combustion shock occurring at lower terminal compression temperature, especially in the combustion of coal-tar oil, is attributable to a simultaneous igniting of a larger fuel-vapor volume formed prior to ignition.

  2. Experimental study of self-ignition and smoldering of moist cellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, O. ); Karim, G.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that the self-ignition and smoldering characteristics of cellulosic materials, as exemplified by cotton fibers, when subjected to convective low-velocity heated air stream were studied experimentally at atmospheric pressure. The effects of the content of moisture in the raw cotton on its ignition delay and smolder front propagation rates were established. Some comparative tests were also conducted on dry cotton samples containing instead of moisture, various concentrations of n-hexane or an alcohol mixture.

  3. 33 CFR 159.129 - Safety: Ignition prevention test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety: Ignition prevention test. 159.129 Section 159.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.129 Safety:...

  4. 46 CFR 111.91-1 - Power, control, and interlock circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power, control, and interlock circuits. 111.91-1 Section 111.91-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... circuits. Each electric power, control, and interlock circuit of an elevator or dumbwaiter must meet ASME...

  5. 46 CFR 111.91-1 - Power, control, and interlock circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power, control, and interlock circuits. 111.91-1 Section 111.91-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... circuits. Each electric power, control, and interlock circuit of an elevator or dumbwaiter must meet ASME...

  6. 46 CFR 111.91-1 - Power, control, and interlock circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power, control, and interlock circuits. 111.91-1 Section 111.91-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... circuits. Each electric power, control, and interlock circuit of an elevator or dumbwaiter must meet ASME...

  7. 46 CFR 111.91-1 - Power, control, and interlock circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power, control, and interlock circuits. 111.91-1 Section 111.91-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... circuits. Each electric power, control, and interlock circuit of an elevator or dumbwaiter must meet ASME...

  8. 46 CFR 111.91-1 - Power, control, and interlock circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power, control, and interlock circuits. 111.91-1 Section 111.91-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... circuits. Each electric power, control, and interlock circuit of an elevator or dumbwaiter must meet ASME...

  9. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  10. Mechanics of Multiscale Energy Dissipation in Topologically Interlocked Materials-11.1 STIR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    static loading. Topologically interlocked materials are assemblies of platonic solid shaped unit elements. These structures transfer loads under...Pasternak, Topological interlocking of platonic solids: a way to new materials and structures, Philosophical Magazine Letters, 83 (2003) 197-203. [5

  11. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located. ...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located. ...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located. ...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.58 - Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59, XX-51-60 and XX-51-61). 1242.58 Section 1242.58... Operating signals and interlockers, operating drawbridges, highway crossing protection (accounts XX-51-59..., interlockers, drawbridges and highway crossings are located. ...

  15. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  16. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  17. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  18. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  19. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  20. 12 CFR 250.411 - Interlocking relationships between member bank and variable annuity insurance company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interlocking relationships between member bank and variable annuity insurance company. 250.411 Section 250.411 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... Interpretations of Section 32 of the Glass-Steagall Act § 250.411 Interlocking relationships between member bank...

  1. Optical screw-wrench for interlocking 2PP-microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Zyla, G.; Ksouri, S. I.; Esen, C.; Ostendorf, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) has emerged as a powerful platform for processing three-dimensional microstructures with high resolution. Furthermore, by adding nanoparticles of different materials to the photopolymer the microstructures can be functionalized, e.g. magnetic or electric properties can be adjusted. However, to combine different functions within one microstructure or to manufacture complex microsystems, assembling techniques for multiple 2PP written building blocks are required. In this paper a qualitative approach for assembling microstructures utilizing optical forces is presented. Therefore, screw and nut shaped microstructures are produced by 2PP-technique and screwed together using a holographic optical tweezer (HOT). The interlocking structures are trapped and rotated into each other to cause connection. In this paper the used parameters and possible designs of the interlocking connection are discussed. These findings provide not only the assembling of building blocks to complex microstructures, rather different functionalized 2PP-microstructures can be combined by simply screwing them together with the use of optical forces.

  2. Radiation-free drill guidance in interlocking of intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Diotte, Benoit; Fallavollita, Pascal; Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is a technically demanding procedure which involves an excessive amount of x-ray acquisitions; one study lists as many as 48 to successfully complete the procedure. In this work, a novel low cost radiation-free drilling guide is designed to assist surgeons in completing the distal locking procedure without any x-ray acquisitions. Using an augmented reality fluoroscope that coregisters optical and x-ray images, we exploit solely the optical images to detect the drilling guide in order to estimate the tip position in real-time in x-ray. We tested over 200 random drill guide poses showing a mean tip-estimation error of 1.72 +/- 0.7mm which is significantly robust and accurate for the interlocking. In a preclinical study on dry bone phantom, three expert surgeons successfully completed the interlocking 56 out of 60 trials with no x-ray acquisition for guidance and an average time of 2 min.

  3. Mechanically Interlocked Molecules Assembled by π–π Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Barin, Gokhan; Coskun, Ali; Fouda, Moustafa M. G.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2012-02-28

    The beauty and utility of interlocked architectures have been making their way relentlessly into chemistry in the form of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) for almost half a century now. Few would challenge the assertion that the emergence of template-directed synthetic protocols has aided and abetted the facile and efficient construction of MIMs compared with the statistical approaches employed while the field was still in its infancy. To date, a panoply of MIMs has been created in the wake of emerging recognition motifs and the template-directed synthetic protocols they have forged. Among these motifs, those dependent on π–π stacking in the form of donor–acceptor interactions have played an important role in the increasingly rapid development of the field. The few integrated systems that have so far emerged based on this class of MIMs demonstrate their ability to act as active components in many potential applications. This review focuses on the progress which has been accomplished during the past decade involving MIMs comprising aromatic π–π stacking interactions. While progress has been remarkable, opportunities still abound for MIMs assembled by π–π recognition.

  4. The Ignition Target for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, L J; Moses, E I; Carlisle, K; Kilkenny, J

    2007-03-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility presently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for performing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density (HED) science. When completed in 2009, NIF will be able to produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light for target experiments that will create conditions of extreme temperatures (>10{sup 8} K), pressures (10-GBar) and matter densities (> 100 g/cm{sup 3}). A detailed program called the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been developed to enable ignition experiments in 2010, with the goal of producing fusion ignition and burn of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel mixture in millimeter-scale target capsules. The first of the target experiments leading up to these ignition shots will begin in 2008. Targets for the National Ignition Campaign are both complex and precise, and are extraordinarily demanding in materials fabrication, machining, assembly, cryogenics and characterization. An overview of the campaign for ignition will be presented, along with technologies for target fabrication, assembly and metrology and advances in growth and x-ray imaging of DT ice layers. The sum of these efforts represents a quantum leap in target precision, characterization, manufacturing rate and flexibility over current state-of-the-art.

  5. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter devices...

  6. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter devices...

  7. 16 CFR § 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. Â... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter devices...

  8. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter devices...

  9. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter devices...

  10. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R J

    2009-10-06

    This paper describes current efforts to develop a plastic ablator capsule design for the first ignition attempt on the National Ignition Facility. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve ignition probabilities comparable to those with other candidate ablators, beryllium and high-density carbon, are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are discussed.

  11. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickes, R. W., Jr.; Grubelich, M. C.; Hartman, J. K.; McCampbell, C. B.; Churchill, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    A conventional NSI (NASA Standard Initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  12. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B.; Churchill, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  13. Emergency ignition shutoff system

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, L.R. Jr.

    1987-01-13

    An emergency shut-off mechanism is described for a racing car having a roll bar framework forming a driver's cage. The mechanism comprises, in combination, a toggle switch wired in series with an ignition switch of the car, the toggle switch being mounted on a dashboard of the car, one end of a flexible cord being connected to the toggle switch, and an ''L''-shaped conduit affixed to the driver's cage through which the cord slidably extends. A snap hook is affixed to an opposite end of the cord and a ring is affixed to a rear portion of a driver's helmet for detachable attachment to the snap hook. The conduit extends from the dashboard to a position rearward of a driver's seat and of the helmet. Sufficient movement of the helmet pulls the cord, thereby actuating the switch and shutting off the car.

  14. Frictional ignition with coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews recent U.S. Bureau of Mine studies of frictional ignition of a methane-air environment by coal mining bits cutting into sandstone and the effectiveness of remedial techniques to reduce the likelihood of frictional ignition. Frictional ignition with a minim bit always involves a worn bit having a wear flat on the tip of the bit. The worn bit forms hot spots on the surface of the sandstone because of frictional abrasion. The hot spots then can ignite the methane-air environment. A small wear flat forms a small hot spot, which does not give ignition, while a large wear flat forms a large hot spot, which gives ignition. The likelihood of frictional ignition can be somewhat reduced by using a mushroom-shaped tungsten-carbide bit tip on the mining bit and by increasing the bit clearance angle; it can be significantly reduced by using a water spray nozzle in back of each bit, which is carefully oriented to direct the water spray onto the sandstone surface directly behind the bit and thereby cool the hot spots formed by the worn bit. A bit replacement schedule must be used to avoid the formation of a dangerously worn bit.

  15. The overall computer/mobile devices usage time is related to newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Liu, Fangfang; Fang, Liyun; Li, Chunlei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Chen, Xin; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-11-01

    The computer/mobile devices usage time (CMD-UT) is closely related to a sedentary lifestyle, which is an important risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). But their direct relationship remains unclear. We aimed to examine the relationship between CMD-UT and newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 7516 adults in Tianjin, China. The CMD-UT was collected via a questionnaire included five categories. NAFLD [with normal or elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels] was diagnosed by at least twice liver ultrasonography examinations and serum ALT concentrations (>41 U/L in males and >33 U/L in females). The prevalence of overall NAFLD, NAFLD with normal or elevated ALT levels was 18.2, 14.2, and 4.0%, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having overall NAFLD by increasing CMD-UT levels were 1.00 for <1 h/d, 1.58 (1.22-2.05) for 1-3 h/d, 1.58 (1.18-2.11) for 3-5 h/d, 1.65 (1.21-2.27) for 5-10 h/d, and 1.99 (1.29-3.05) for ≥10h/d (P-trend for CMD-UT levels = 0.02), respectively. Similar relations were observed with the use of NAFLD with normal or elevated ALT levels. The present study is the first to find that CMD-UT levels are independently associated with NAFLD. Key Messages The computer/mobile devices usage time levels are independently associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Ignition of Hydrogen Balloons by Model-Rocket-Engine Igniters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Nicholas T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for exploding hydrogen balloons as a classroom demonstration. Uses the method of igniting the balloons via an electronic match. Includes necessary materials to conduct the demonstration and discusses potential hazards. (SOE)

  17. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignition system. 33.37 Section 33.37... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system with at least two spark plugs for each...

  18. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition system. 33.37 Section 33.37... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system with at least two spark plugs for each...

  19. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system with at least two spark plugs for each cylinder and two separate electric circuits with separate sources of electrical energy, or have an ignition...

  20. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system with at least two spark plugs for each cylinder and two separate electric circuits with separate sources of electrical energy, or have an ignition...

  1. 14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system with at least two spark plugs for each cylinder and two separate electric circuits with separate sources of electrical energy, or have an ignition...

  2. Metal-organic and supramolecular architectures based on mechanically interlocked molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Isurika Rosini

    The focus of this work is on mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which have unusual physicochemical and mechanical properties with potential applications in nano-scale/molecular devices and high strength materials. Rotaxanes, for example, consist of an axle-like molecule threaded through a wheel-like molecule, with bulky groups at the two ends of the axle preventing the wheel from dissociating. The position of the wheel along the axle can be switched in a controllable and reversible manner by applying external stimuli, a feature that might lead to the next generation of computers. Molecularly woven materials (MWMs), another example of molecules with mechanically interlocked features, are predicted to be unprecedentedly strong while being lightweight and flexible. With the ultimate goal of achieving control over the functioning of molecular devices in the solid state, a variety of pseudorotaxane building blocks were prepared and characterized, including a novel, rare blue-colored motif. The temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly of pseudorotaxanes was exploited for the construction of single-wavelength colorimetric temperature sensors over a 100 °C window. Pseudorotaxanes based on aromatic crown ether wheels and disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridinium axles were converted into rotaxanes upon binding to metal complexes (zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt), and the formation of ordered crystalline arrays was studied in the solid state. The columnar organization of pseudorotaxanes by Hg2X6 2-- complexes (X = Cl, Br, I), leading to unprecedented dichroic (blue/red) rotaxane crystals, was demonstrated for the first time. From the crystal structures studied it became apparent that negatively charged metal complexes are needed for successful assembly with the positively charged pseudorotaxane units. To be able to use the more common, positively charged metal ions for rotaxane framework construction, neutral and negatively charged pseudorotaxanes were synthesized

  3. Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Falgenhauer, Elisabeth; Kopperger, Enzo; Pardatscher, Günther; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355 nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy. PMID:27492061

  4. Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Jonathan; Falgenhauer, Elisabeth; Kopperger, Enzo; Pardatscher, Günther; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-08-01

    Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355 nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy.

  5. A modified intramedullary nail interlocking design yields improved stability for fatigue cycling in a canine femur fracture model.

    PubMed

    Garlock, Adam N; Donovan, Jim; LeCronier, David J; Houghtaling, John; Burton, Stephen; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing has evolved to become the standard of care for most diaphyseal femoral and tibial fractures, as well as an expanding number of metaphyseal fractures. Owing to the unstable nature of some fractures, the intramedullary device may be subjected to significant stresses owing to a lack of solid cortical contact after nailing. In such cases, excessive interfragmentary motion (due to construct toggle) has been shown to occur. Such motion increases the likelihood of a non- or delayed-union. In the current study, two versions of a modified, angle stable interlocking design were subjected to fatigue testing in a segmental defect fracture model representing a canine femur. As a control, a third group of constructs were stabilized with a traditional nail that allowed a small amount of toggle. All constructs were subjected to 50,000 fatigue cycles representing 12 weeks of cage activity at physiologic levels of combined axial-torsional loading. Torsional testing pre- and post-fatigue revealed 4.6 +/- 1.3 degrees of toggle in the traditional nail and no toggle with the angle stable nail designs. The stable nails were also significantly stiffer in axial compression and torsion before and after cycling. These data indicate that the enhanced stability of the modified interlocking designs can be maintained throughout fatigue cycling in a challenging fracture model.

  6. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  7. An investigation of iron sulphide dust minimum ignition temperatures.

    PubMed

    Amyotte, Paul R; Soundararajan, Ranganathan; Pegg, Michael J

    2003-02-28

    An investigation of the ignition behaviour of iron sulphide dusts has been undertaken. Commercial samples of FeS and FeS(2) and mine samples of pyrrhotite and pyrite were tested for minimum ignition temperature (MIT) using a device known as the BAM oven. The mine samples were found to undergo a decrease in MIT as the mass mean particle diameter became smaller. Using available theoretical treatments, this experimental observation was interpreted as providing further evidence of the importance of heterogeneous combustion in the ignition of iron sulphide dusts. A dense cloud state was proven for the experimental apparatus used, and an alternate criterion for the boundary between a dilute and a dense dust cloud was proposed in terms of the number of dust particles present in the cloud.

  8. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  9. The National Ignition Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1994-06-16

    The mission of the National Ignition Facility is to achieve ignition and gain in ICF targets in the laboratory. The facility will be used for defense applications such as weapons physics and weapons effect testing, and for civilian applications such as fusion energy development and fundamental studies of matter at high temperatures and densities. This paper reviews the design, schedule and costs associated with the construction project.

  10. Fire ignition during laser surgery in pet rodents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laser surgery is an attractive alternative to other means of section device in terms of tissue inflammation and interaction, which has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine. Although accidental ignition during laser surgeries is sporadically reported in human medical literature, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first report regarding laser-dependent fire ignition during surgery in veterinary medicine. Case presentation Two rodents, a 13-month old, 27-gram, male pet mouse (Mus musculus) and a 1-year old, female Russian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), underwent surgical removal of masses with diode laser. During the surgical procedures fires ignited from the face masks. The mouse presented severe burns on the head and both forelimbs, it was hospitalized and approximately 2 months after surgery burns were resolved. The hamster presented severe burns on the face and the proximal regions of the body. At 72 hours from the accident the hamster was euthanized. Conclusion The present report suggests that fire ignition is a potential life-threatening complication of laser surgery in non-intubated rodents maintained under volatile anesthesia. High oxygen concentrations, the presence of combustible, and the narrowness of the surgical field with the face mask during laser surgery on rodents are risk factors for fire ignition. PMID:23009047

  11. Evaluating the ignition sensitivity of thermal battery heat pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Thermal batteries are activated by the ignition of heat pellets. If the heat pellets are not sensitive enough to the ignition stimulus, the thermal battery will not activate, resulting in a dud. Thus, to assure reliable thermal batteries, it is important to demonstrate that the pellets have satisfactory ignition sensitivity by testing a number of specimens. There are a number of statistical methods for evaluating the sensitivity of a device to some stimulus. Generally, these methods are applicable to the situation in which a single test is destructive to the specimen being tested, independent of the outcome of the test. In the case of thermal battery heat pellets, however, tests that result in a nonresponse do not totally degrade the specimen. This peculiarity provides opportunities to efficiently evaluate the ignition sensitivity of heat pellets. In this paper, a simple strategy for evaluating heat pellet ignition sensitivity (including experimental design and data analysis) is described. The relatively good asymptotic and small-sample efficiencies of this strategy are demonstrated.

  12. THE AUTOIGNITION OF CYCLOPENTANE IN AN IGNITION QUALITY TESTER

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-08-01

    Cyclopentane, a flammable hydrocarbon, is being considered as a working fluid for waste heat recovery applications using Organic Rankine Cycles with Direct Evaporators. A postulated failure mode consisting of a pinhole leak in a heat exchanger tube raises safety concerns due to autoignition of the working fluid. The ignition delay time (IDT) of cyclopentane was measured using an Ignition Quality Test™ (IQT™) device. Hot, vitiated air was used to simulate turbine exhaust gas (TEG). Experiments were conducted in accordance with ASTM D6890 (with exception to charge pressure and temperature) to determine ignition delay of the fuel at atmospheric pressure for vitiated air (13.3% oxygen). The test matrixencompassed equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and chamber temperatures ranging from 673 to 823 K to establish a set of ignition delay curves. IDT was observed to decrease with increasing temperature and equivalence ratio. For the cases tested, no ignition was observed at temperatures at or below 723 K or at an equivalence ratio of 0.5.

  13. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G; Edwards, M J; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S; Landen, O; London, R A; Michel, P A; Moody, J D; Milovich, J L; Schneider, M B; Thomas, C A; Town, R J; Warrick, A L; Weber, S V; Widmann, K; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; MacGowan, B J; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Nikroo, A

    2009-11-16

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  14. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  15. Final report for miniature laser ignited bellows motor

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, S.L.

    1994-02-18

    A miniature optically ignited actuation device has been demonstrated using a laser diode as an ignition source. This pyrotechnic driven motor provides between 4 and 6 lbs of linear force across a 0.090 inch diameter surface. The physical envelope of the device is 1/2 inch long and 1/8 inch diameter. This unique application of optical energy can be used as a mechanical link in optical arming systems or other applications where low shock actuation is desired and space is limited. An analysis was performed to determine pyrotechnic materials suitable to actuate a bellows device constructed of aluminum or stainless steel. The aluminum bellows was chosen for further development and several candidate pyrotechnics were evaluated. The velocity profile and delivered force were quantified using an non-intrusive optical motion sensor.

  16. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  17. Arc Detection and Interlock Module for the PEP II Low Level RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Tighe, R.; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    A new arc detection and interlock generating module for the SLAC PEP-II low-level RF VXI-based system has been developed. The system is required to turn off the RF drive and high voltage power supply in the event of arcing in the cavity windows, klystron window, or circulator. Infrared photodiodes receive arc signals through radiation resistant optical fibers. Gain and bandwidth are selectable for each channel to allow tailoring response. The module also responds to interlock requests from other modules in the VXI system and communicates with the programmable logic controller (PLC) responsible for much of the low-level RF system's interlock functionality.

  18. Effect of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and Prometheus devices on systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive agents in patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Evenepoel, Pieter; Elst, Ingrid Vander; Zeegers, Marcel; Zaman, Zahur; Verslype, Chris; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated, in a controlled manner, potential changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and the Prometheus system liver detoxification devices in a group of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Methods Eighteen patients (51.2 ± 2.3 years old; Child–Pugh score, 12.5 ± 0.2; Maddrey score, 63.1 ± 5.0; hepatic venous pressure gradient, 17.6 ± 0.9 mmHg) with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis were either treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) combined with MARS (n = 6) or Prometheus (n = 6) or were treated with SMT alone (n = 6) on three consecutive days (6 hours/session). Liver tests, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive substances were determined before and after each session. Results Groups were comparable for baseline haemodynamics and levels of vasoactive substances. Both MARS and Prometheus decreased serum bilirubin levels (P < 0.005 versus SMT), the Prometheus device being more effective than MARS (P = 0.002). Only MARS showed significant improvement in the mean arterial pressure (Δchange, +9 ± 2.4 mmHg versus -0.3 ± 2.4 mmHg with Prometheus and -5.2 ± 2.1 mmHg with SMT, P < 0.05) and in the systemic vascular resistance index (Δchange, +131.5 ± 46.2 dyne.s/cm5/m2 versus -92.8 ± 85.2 dyne.s/cm5/m2with Prometheus and -30.7 ± 32.5 dyne.s/cm5/m2 with SMT; P < 0.05), while the cardiac index and central filling remained constant. This circulatory improvement in the MARS group was paralleled by a decrease in plasma renin activity (P < 0.05), aldosterone (P < 0.03), norepinephrine (P < 0.05), vasopressin (P = 0.005) and nitrate/nitrite levels (P < 0.02). Conclusion The MARS device, and not the Prometheus device, significantly attenuates the hyperdynamic circulation in acute-on-chronic liver failure, presumably by a difference in removal rate of

  19. Effect of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system and Prometheus devices on systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive agents in patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Laleman, Wim; Wilmer, Alexander; Evenepoel, Pieter; Elst, Ingrid Vander; Zeegers, Marcel; Zaman, Zahur; Verslype, Chris; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated, in a controlled manner, potential changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and the Prometheus system liver detoxification devices in a group of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Eighteen patients (51.2 +/- 2.3 years old; Child-Pugh score, 12.5 +/- 0.2; Maddrey score, 63.1 +/- 5.0; hepatic venous pressure gradient, 17.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg) with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis were either treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) combined with MARS (n = 6) or Prometheus (n = 6) or were treated with SMT alone (n = 6) on three consecutive days (6 hours/session). Liver tests, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive substances were determined before and after each session. Groups were comparable for baseline haemodynamics and levels of vasoactive substances. Both MARS and Prometheus decreased serum bilirubin levels (P < 0.005 versus SMT), the Prometheus device being more effective than MARS (P = 0.002). Only MARS showed significant improvement in the mean arterial pressure (Deltachange, +9 +/- 2.4 mmHg versus -0.3 +/- 2.4 mmHg with Prometheus and -5.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg with SMT, P < 0.05) and in the systemic vascular resistance index (Deltachange, +131.5 +/- 46.2 dyne x s/cm5/m2 versus -92.8 +/- 85.2 dyne x s/cm5/m2 with Prometheus and -30.7 +/- 32.5 dyne x s/cm5/m2 with SMT; P < 0.05), while the cardiac index and central filling remained constant. This circulatory improvement in the MARS group was paralleled by a decrease in plasma renin activity (P < 0.05), aldosterone (P < 0.03), norepinephrine (P < 0.05), vasopressin (P = 0.005) and nitrate/nitrite levels (P < 0.02). The MARS device, and not the Prometheus device, significantly attenuates the hyperdynamic circulation in acute-on-chronic liver failure, presumably by a difference in removal rate of certain vasoactive

  20. The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber and room for 100 diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10'' bar; conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and planets. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules in 23-ns pulses of infrared light and over 16 kJ in 3.5 ns pulses at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper discusses NIF's current and future experimental capability, plans for diagnostics, cryogenic target systems, specialized optics for experiments, and potential enhancements to NIF such as multi-color laser operation and high-energy short pulse operation.

  1. The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H; Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2004-02-06

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter-diameter target chamber and room for 100 diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar; conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and planets. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules in 23-ns pulses of infrared light and over 16 kJ in 3.5-ns pulses at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper provides a detailed look the NIF laser systems, laser and optical performance, and results from recent laser commissioning shots. We follow this with a discussion of NIF's high-energy-density and inertial fusion experimental capabilities, the first experiments on NIF, and plans for future capabilities of this unique facility.

  2. The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G H; Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2004-06-03

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that, when completed in 2008, will contain a 192-beam, 1.8- Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter-diameter target chamber and room for 100 diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system and will provide a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's energetic laser beams will compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. Other NIF experiments will study physical processes at temperatures approaching 10{sup 8} K and 10{sup 11} bar; conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and planets. NIF has completed the first phases of its laser commissioning program. The first four beams of NIF have generated 106 kilojoules in 23-ns pulses of infrared light and over 16 kJ in 3.5- ns pulses at the third harmonic (351 nm). NIF's target experimental systems are being commissioned and experiments have begun. This paper provides a detailed look the NIF laser systems, laser and optical performance, and results from recent laser commissioning shots. We follow this with a discussion of NIF's high-energy-density and inertial fusion experimental capabilities, the first experiments on NIF, and plans for future capabilities of this unique facility.

  3. Dynamics of Igniting Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airoldi, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Coppi, Bruno

    2004-11-01

    A unique feature of the Ignitor experiment is that is designed to reach for the first time the conditions where the thermonuclear instability due to -particle heating can develop. We have investigated the means by which the instability can be controlled, including the injected plasma heating power, the deuterium/tritium concentrations, and the effects of the expected sawtooth oscillations driven by the plasma pressure gradient. An ad hoc version of the JETTO transport code [1] has been used with the deuterium and tritium densities evolving separately under independent inflows. The boundary conditions for the main ion diffusion equation include recycling that assures density conservation in the absence of external inflows. Different combinations of the inflows of the main ions and of the duration and values of the injected RF power are shown lead to a large range of possibilities, from the onset of ignition and of the thermonuclear instability to quasi-stationary burning plasmas with a fusion gain exceeding 10. [1] A. Airoldi and G. Cenacchi, Nuclear Fusion 41, 687 (1997)

  4. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  5. IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of

  6. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios.

  7. A flexible and highly sensitive strain-gauge sensor using reversible interlocking of nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Changhyun; Lee, Gil-Yong; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Sang Moon; Kim, Hong Nam; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Flexible skin-attachable strain-gauge sensors are an essential component in the development of artificial systems that can mimic the complex characteristics of the human skin. In general, such sensors contain a number of circuits or complex layered matrix arrays. Here, we present a simple architecture for a flexible and highly sensitive strain sensor that enables the detection of pressure, shear and torsion. The device is based on two interlocked arrays of high-aspect-ratio Pt-coated polymeric nanofibres that are supported on thin polydimethylsiloxane layers. When different sensing stimuli are applied, the degree of interconnection and the electrical resistance of the sensor changes in a reversible, directional manner with specific, discernible strain-gauge factors. The sensor response is highly repeatable and reproducible up to 10,000 cycles with excellent on/off switching behaviour. We show that the sensor can be used to monitor signals ranging from human heartbeats to the impact of a bouncing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface.

  8. A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Bosker, W M; Theunissen, E L; Conen, S; Kuypers, K P C; Jeffery, W K; Walls, H C; Kauert, G F; Toennes, S W; Moeller, M R; Ramaekers, J G

    2012-10-01

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and oral fluid devices are used to screen for driving impairment and roadside drug detection, respectively. SFST have been validated for alcohol, but their sensitivity to impairment induced by other drugs is relatively unknown. The sensitivity and specificity for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of most oral fluid devices have been low. This study assessed the effects of smoking cannabis with and without alcohol on SFST performance. Presence of THC in oral fluid was examined with two devices (Dräger Drug Test® 5000 and Securetec Drugwipe® 5). Twenty heavy cannabis users (15 males and 5 females; mean age, 24.3 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and the sensitivity of two oral fluid devices. Participants received alcohol doses or alcohol placebo in combination with 400 μg/kg body weight THC. We aimed to reach peak blood alcohol concentration values of 0.5 and 0.7 mg/mL. Cannabis was significantly related to performance on the one-leg stand (p = 0.037). Alcohol in combination with cannabis was significantly related to impairment on horizontal gaze nystagmus (p = 0.029). The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 demonstrated a high sensitivity for THC, whereas the sensitivity of the Securetec Drugwipe® 5 was low. SFST were mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. Lack of sensitivity might be attributed to tolerance and time of testing. SFST were sensitive to both doses of alcohol. The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 appears to be a promising tool for detecting THC in oral fluid as far as correct THC detection is concerned.

  9. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    PubMed

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  10. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  11. Interlock Logic System (ILS) diagrams (RADL Item 2-38, supplement) (engineering material)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Illustrations of the interlock logic systen (ILS) of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The diagrams are separated into two parts: (1) solar portion of plant digital ILS diagrams, and (2) electrical power generation subsystem control loop diagrams. (BCS)

  12. Self-Forming Interlocking Interfaces on the Immiscible Polymer Bilayers via Gelation-Mediated Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaozhuang; Ma, Guoqiang; Zhao, Huaixia; Cui, Jiaxi

    2017-09-01

    Gelation-mediated phase separation is applied to prepare immiscible polymer bilayer films with an interlocking interface structure. Polymer systems consisting of copolymer of urea and polydimethylsiloxane and epoxy are selected to demonstrate the feasibility. When the epoxy fraction exceeds 25 wt%, well-defined bilayer structures self-form by a one-pot casting method in which the phase separation state is fixed by an evaporation-induced gelation. Microscopy studies of the resulting bilayers clearly reveal that interlocking structures form during the bilayer films construct. The interlocking structures lead to an enhanced interfacial adhesion and higher fracture energy. The current strategy might offer a facile way to in situ create an interlocking interface between immiscible polymer systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. CAMAC-based interlock system for power-supply-hardware protection on MFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Strauch, M.S.

    1981-09-30

    This interlock module accepts 16 inputs and generates, in conjunction with an internal PROM map, 8 outputs. This decision process is autonomous of the CAMAC dataway and host computer. The map is generated, burned and verified by a user interactive program written to accept input/output equations in Boolean algebra. The interlock module requires the host computer to periodically interrogate it to verify proper operation of the module, host computer and date link; otherwise, permissives are dropped. An internal mask register may be used to override interlock inputs. This mask is perishable and must be constantly refreshed. Output drivers may be operated in a latch/no latch mode. This prevents outputs, once dropped, from being reasserted even if the proper input sequence is reestablished. A first-out register may be utilized to determine which input has dropped first in the event that chain reactions are developed among the interlock inputs.

  14. Ignition Target Fabrication and Fielding for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Huang, H; Nikroo, A; Stephens, R; Wilkens, H; Xu, H; Armstrong, P; Cook, R; Kozioziemski, B; Letts, S; Mapoles, E; Moody, J; McElfresh, M; Sanchez, J; Seugling, R; Cooley, J; Montgomery, D; Nobile, A

    2005-10-06

    Continued advances in the design of ignition targets have stimulating new development paths for target fabrication, with potentially important simplifications for fielding cryogenic ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Including graded dopants in ablators as well as optimizing capsule and fuel layer dimensions increase implosion stability. This has led to developments of micron-scale fill tubes to fill and field the targets. Rapid progress has been made in development of the graded dopant layers in capsules as well as their characterization, in fabrication methods for micro-fill-tubes, and in fuel fill control with these fill tubes. Phase-contrast x-ray radiography has allowed characterization of fuel layers in beryllium targets. This target development program includes participation from General Atomics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  15. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  16. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, C.A.

    1983-06-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  17. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, Charles A.

    1985-01-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  18. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials.

  19. Igniter adapter-to-igniter chamber deflection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the maximum RSRM igniter adapter-to-igniter chamber joint deflection at the crown of the inner joint primary seal. The deflection data was gathered to support igniter inner joint gasket resiliency predictions which led to launch commit criteria temperature determinations. The proximity (deflection) gage holes for the first test (Test No. 1) were incorrectly located; therefore, the test was declared a non-test. Prior to Test No. 2, test article configuration was modified with the correct proximity gage locations. Deflection data were successfully acquired during Test No. 2. However, the proximity gage deflection measurements were adversely affected by temperature increases. Deflections measured after the temperature rise at the proximity gages were considered unreliable. An analysis was performed to predict the maximum deflections based on the reliable data measured before the detectable temperature rise. Deflections to the primary seal crown location were adjusted to correspond to the time of maximum expected operating pressure (2,159 psi) to account for proximity gage bias, and to account for maximum attach and special bolt relaxation. The maximum joint deflection for the igniter inner joint at the crown of the primary seal, accounting for all significant correction factors, was 0.0031 in. (3.1 mil). Since the predicted (0.003 in.) and tested maximum deflection values were sufficiently close, the launch commit criteria was not changed as a result of this test. Data from this test should be used to determine if the igniter inner joint gasket seals are capable of maintaining sealing capability at a joint displacement of (1.4) x (0.0031 in.) = 0.00434 inches. Additional testing should be performed to increase the database on igniter deflections and address launch commit criteria temperatures.

  20. Progress Towards Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, John

    2012-10-01

    Since completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project in March 2009, a wide variety of diagnostics, facility infrastructure, and experimental platforms have been commissioned in pursuit of generating the conditions necessary to reach thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory via the inertial confinement approach. NIF's capabilities and infrastructure include over 50 X-ray, optical, and nuclear diagnostics systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic DT layered capsules. There are two main approaches to ICF: direct drive in which laser light impinges directly on a capsule containing a solid layer of DT fuel, and indirect drive in which the laser light is first converted to thermal X-rays. To date NIF has been conducting experiments using the indirect drive approach, injecting up to 1.8MJ of ultraviolet light (0.35 micron) into 1 cm scale cylindrical gold or gold-coated uranium, gas-filled hohlraums, to implode 1mm radius plastic capsules containing solid DT fuel layers. In order to achieve ignition conditions the implosion must be precisely controlled. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort with the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear burn in the laboratory, is making steady progress toward this. Utilizing precision pulse-shaping experiments in early 2012 the NIC achieve fuel rhoR of approximately 1.2 gm/cm^2 with densities of around 600-800 g/cm^3 along with neutron yields within about a factor of 5 necessary to enter a regime in which alpha particle heating will become important. To achieve these results, experimental platforms were developed to carefully control key attributes of the implosion. This talk will review NIF's capabilities and the progress toward ignition, as well as the physics of ignition targets on NIF and on other facilities. Acknowledgement: this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This

  2. Enhanced Model for Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Rodney J.

    2010-10-12

    Laser Fusion is a prime candidate for alternate energy production, capable of serving a major portion of the nation's energy needs, once fusion fuel can be readily ignited. Fast Ignition may well speed achievement of this goal, by reducing net demands on laser pulse energy and timing precision. However, Fast Ignition has presented a major challenge to modeling. This project has enhanced the computer code ePLAS for the simulation of the many specialized phenomena, which arise with Fast Ignition. The improved code has helped researchers to understand better the consequences of laser absorption, energy transport, and laser target hydrodynamics. ePLAS uses efficient implicit methods to acquire solutions for the electromagnetic fields that govern the accelerations of electrons and ions in targets. In many cases, the code implements fluid modeling for these components. These combined features, "implicitness and fluid modeling," can greatly facilitate calculations, permitting the rapid scoping and evaluation of experiments. ePLAS can be used on PCs, Macs and Linux machines, providing researchers and students with rapid results. This project has improved the treatment of electromagnetics, hydrodynamics, and atomic physics in the code. It has simplified output graphics, and provided new input that avoids the need for source code access by users. The improved code can now aid university, business and national laboratory users in pursuit of an early path to success with Fast Ignition.

  3. Ignition problems in scramjet testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mitani, Tohru

    1995-05-01

    Ignition of H{sub 2} in heated air containing H{sub 2}O, radicals, and dust was investigated for scramjet testing. Using a reduced kinetic model for H{sub 2}{minus}O{sub 2} systems, the effects of H{sub 2}O and radicals in nozzles are discussed in relation to engine testing with vitiation heaters. Analysis using linearized rate-equations suggested that the addition of O atoms was 1.5 times more effective than the addition of H atoms for ignition. This result can be applied to the problem of premature ignition caused by residual radicals and to plasma-jet igniters. Thermal and chemical effects of dust, inevitable in storage air heaters, were studied next. The effects of heat capacity and size of dust were expressed in terms of an exponential integral function. It was found that the radical termination on the surface of dust produces an effect equivalent to heat loss. The inhibition of ignition by dust may result, if the mass fraction of dust becomes 10{sup {minus}3}.

  4. TIBER: tokamak ignition/burn experimental research

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnston, B.M.; Hoard, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.; Schultz, J.H.

    1985-11-01

    As part of a continuing effort by the Office of Fusion Energy to define an ignition experiment, a superconducting tokamak has been designed with thin neutron shielding and aggressive magnet and plasma parameters. By so minimizing the inner radial dimensions of the tokamak center post, coil, and shielding region, the plasma major radius is reduced, with a corresponding reduction in device costs. The peak nuclear-heating rate in the superconducting TF coils is 22 mW/cmT, which results in a steady heat load of 50 kW to the cryogenic system. Fast-wave, lower-hybrid heating would be used to induce a 10-MA current in a moderate density plasma. Then pellet fueling would raise the density to achieve ignition as the current decays in a few hundred seconds. Steady-state current drive in subignited conditions permits a 0.8 MW/mS average wall loading to study plasma and nuclear engineering effects. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. SCB ignition of pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1996-09-01

    We investigated ignition of pyrotechnics, metal-fuel/metal-oxide compositions (thermites), and exothermic alloy compositions (intermetallics) using a semiconductor bridge (SCB). It was shown that these materials could be ignited at low energy levels with an appropriately designed SCB, proper loading density, and good thermal isolation. Materials tested included Al/CuO, B/BaCrO{sub 4}, TiH{sub 1.65}/KClO{sub 4}, Ti/KClO{sub 4}, Zr/BaCrO{sub 4}, Zr/CuO, Zr/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zr/KClO{sub 4}, and 100-mesh Al/Pd. Firing set was a capacitor discharge unit with charge capacitors ranging from 3 to 20,000 {mu}F at charge voltages 5-50 V. Devices functioned a few miliseconds after onset of current pulse at input energies as low as 3 mJ. We also report on a thermite torch design.

  6. Hardcore drinking drivers and other contributors to the alcohol-impaired driving problem: need for a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; McCartt, Anne T; Ferguson, Susan A

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the hardcore drinking driver concept in the context of the alcohol-impaired driving problem. Review of the relevant literature. As progress against alcohol-impaired driving slowed in the early 1990s, public and political attention turned to "hardcore" drinking drivers, and they have been a priority for the past 15 years. Though intuitive, the hardcore concept has been difficult to conceptualize. Its definition of hard-to-change chronic heavy drinking drivers focuses on a group that is not easily identifiable and ignores many who account for a large portion of alcohol-impaired driving crashes. These include drivers who drink heavily on occasion and drivers who drink at more moderate levels that elevate crash risk. Emphasis on the hardcore has focused attention on the small proportion of drinking drivers who have been detected and arrested, whereas the vast majority of drinking drivers go undetected. Some countermeasures aimed at the hardcore group have been effective in reducing recidivism, but attention and resources also need to be given to general deterrent initiatives (e.g., 0.08 g/dL, sobriety checkpoints, administrative license suspension). There has been no reduction in the overall alcohol-impaired driving problem since the mid-1990s. Reductions in the alcohol-impaired driving problem require that attention be focused on all relevant target groups. Some benefits could accrue by recognizing that countermeasures developed for hardcore drinking drivers, such as alcohol ignition interlocks and vehicle or plate impoundment, might also be effective with more numerous first-time offenders. However, such strategies are likely to be most effective against recidivism (specific deterrence). Greater gains could be achieved through general deterrent efforts (increasing the real and perceived risk of arrest and punishment to all drinking drivers), along with application of public health measures designed to reduce overall consumption. Additional ways need to

  7. Propellant-Flow-Actuated Rocket Engine Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A rocket engine igniter has been created that uses a pneumatically driven hammer that, by specialized geometry, is induced into an oscillatory state that can be used to either repeatedly impact a piezoelectric crystal with sufficient force to generate a spark capable of initiating combustion, or can be used with any other system capable of generating a spark from direct oscillatory motion. This innovation uses the energy of flowing gaseous propellant, which by means of pressure differentials and kinetic motion, causes a hammer object to oscillate. The concept works by mass flows being induced through orifices on both sides of a cylindrical tube with one or more vent paths. As the mass flow enters the chamber, the pressure differential is caused because the hammer object is supplied with flow on one side and the other side is opened with access to the vent path. The object then crosses the vent opening and begins to slow because the pressure differential across the ball reverses due to the geometry in the tube. Eventually, the object stops because of the increasing pressure differential on the object until all of the kinetic energy has been transferred to the gas via compression. This is the point where the object reverses direction because of the pressure differential. This behavior excites a piezoelectric crystal via direct impact from the hammer object. The hammer strikes a piezoelectric crystal, then reverses direction, and the resultant high voltage created from the crystal is transferred via an electrode to a spark gap in the ignition zone, thereby providing a spark to ignite the engine. Magnets, or other retention methods, might be employed to favorably position the hammer object prior to start, but are not necessary to maintain the oscillatory behavior. Various manifestations of the igniter have been developed and tested to improve device efficiency, and some improved designs are capable of operation at gas flow rates of a fraction of a gram per second (0

  8. The synergistic binding of anions and Fe3+ by transferrin. Implications for the interlocking sites hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schlabach, M R; Bates, G W

    1975-03-25

    The finding that transferrin does not bind Fe3+ at the specific metal binding sites in the absence of carbonate and synergistic anions emphasizes the fundamental importance of the anion binding site to the chemistry of Fe3+-transferrin-CO32-. An important question regards the chemical and structural requirements for carbonate substitution. This has been, however, an area of some dispute in the literature. We have utilized four synthetic routes for the preparation of Fe3+-transferrin-anion complexes. The products have been examined with regard to spectral properties, and reaction with: (a) NaHCO3, (b) Fe3+-nitrilotriacetic acid in NaHCO3, and (c) sodium citrate under CO2-free conditions. The results provide information as to which anions are synergistic, and the basic properties of the Fe3+-transferrin-anion complexes that are formed. The 6 inorganic anions that were tested were all found to be nonsynergistic. Dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde were also nonsynergistic. Dicarboxylic acids were found to form stable Fe3+-transferrin-anion complexes which were only slowly displaced by carbonate. Several monocarboxylic acids with proximal aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, amino, or thiol functional groups proved to be synergistic. CPK molecular model studies suggested the functional group and the carboxylic acid must be able to fit within a site between 6.3 and 7.0 A in maximal length. One large substituent could be accommodated by the site, however, two methylgroups on the alpha carbon to a carboxylate group could not be accommodated. Chloroacetate and monocarboxylic acids were nonsynergistic. The results are interpreted in terms of an interlocking sites hypothesis which envisions the synergistic anion as interacting with the protein via its its carboxyl group and bonding with the Fe3+ via its proximal functional group.

  9. Options for an ignited tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1984-02-01

    It is expected that the next phase of the fusion program will involve a tokamak with the goals of providing an ignited plasma for pulses of hundreds of seconds. A simple model is described in this memorandum which establishes the physics conditions for such a self-sustaining plasma, for given ion and electron thermal diffusivities, in terms of R/a, b/a, I, B/q, epsilon ..beta../sub p/, anti T/sub i/, and anti T/sub e//anti T/sub i/. The model is used to produce plots showing the wide range of tokamaks that may ignite or have a given ignition margin. The constraints that limit this range are discussed.

  10. Interlocked by nanoscale sculpturing: pure aluminum copper contacts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerngross-Baytekin, Melike; Gerngross, Mark Daniel; Carstensen, Jürgen; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Connecting metals reliable with different corrosion potential is a well-known challenge. An extreme example are copper aluminum contacts. Galvanic corrosion occurs if the two different metals are in contact with each other and an electrolyte, the aluminum becomes susceptible to corrosion under current flow. Usually, antioxidant pastes containing metals are employed but create difficulties e.g. for fatigue resistant power electronic connections. The recently described process of nanoscale sculpturing [1] offers an alternative. Usually, if the surface of metals like aluminium are prepared they are just arbitrary cuts through the bulk. There is no optimization of the surface grain structure towards stability at all. Neither the crystalline facets in the grains are in their most stable orientation nor is the protective oxide shell the most stable one. The nanoscale sculpturing approach is carving out the most stable grains and planes by chemical or electrochemical treatment. The decisive trick is that the chemistry is targeting towards the instable oxide and not the metal. Aluminium sample surfaces including alloys like AA575 exhibit afterwards single crystalline surface facets covered with nanoscale stable oxide films. Galvanically deposited copper forms extremely reliable interlocked connections on top, even allowing for soldering on top of their surface.

  11. ACIS design compliance with principle accelerator safety interlock design requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.

    2005-02-23

    Prior to and during the design of the APS's Access Control Interlock System (ACIS), an effort was made to insure that the design complied with the relevant DOE and ANL requirements as well as those set forth in other recognized documents then in circulation. A paragraph-by-paragraph listing of the requirements (in some cases, recommended practices) and the corresponding ACIS design features was compiled for use by the review committees then in place. This tabulation was incorporated in the APS Safety Analysis Document (SAD) as Appendix A. With the evolutionary changes that have occurred to the APS and to the documents referenced, some of the details of these compliances have evolved as well. It has been decided to maintain the SAD as a ''living'' document, editing it in close time proximity to the evolving APS. Since Appendix A depicted the ACIS's original design compliance to an also-evolving set of documents, it was decided to remove Appendix A but to retain it as a reference document. This LS Note now contains that set of original design compliances. As the APS and the ACIS continue to evolve, the changes made will be subject to internal review and approval and will always be subject to the requirements set forth by the DOE and ANL.

  12. Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-15

    This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

  13. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen/oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Zurawski, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a unique monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant inlet temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of a catalytic igniter. The test results showed that the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using both the granular and monolithic catalysts are presented. The capabilities of a facility constructed to conduct the igniter testing and the advantages of a catalytic igniter over other ignition systems for gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are also discussed.

  14. Integration of Microwave Plasma Ignition Into a Multi-Fuel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    electronics control, this type of ignition system can easily surpass conventional spark ignition performance and capabilities. Continued work would seek...plasma source as a spark plug replacement. The QWCCR is a highly efficient impedance transformation device that can step up the electrical potential...can be larger than a conventional spark plug spark, thus reducing the thermal point loading that results from a spark gap. Additionally, the nature of

  15. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  16. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  17. Isochoric implosions for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Tabak, M

    2006-06-05

    Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. In conventional ICF implosions, however, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] may be employed to implode a dense, quasi-uniform fuel assembly with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. A scheme for realizing these specialized implosions in a practical ICF target is also described.

  18. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  19. Confinement of ignition and yield on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Foley, D.; Anderson, A.; Burnham, A.; Reitz, T.; Latkowski, J.; Bernat, T.

    1996-06-14

    The National Ignition Facility Target Areas and Experimental Systems has reached mid-Title I design. Performance requirements for the Target Area are reviewed and design changes since the Conceptual Design Report are discussed. Development activities confirm a 5-m radius chamber and the viability of a boron carbide first wall. A scheme for cryogenic target integration with the NIF Target Area is presented.

  20. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  1. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson

    2003-10-13

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  2. A study to investigate the ability of subjects with chronic lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 UK breath alcohol testing device.

    PubMed

    Honeybourne, D; Moore, A J; Butterfield, A K; Azzan, L

    2000-07-01

    The Lion Intoximeter 3000 has been used for evidential breath testing in the U.K. for some years. Some individuals with lung diseases have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the device. This study describes an investigation that we have carried out on a newer instrument--the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK--which is now in use in the U.K. The study was designed to investigate the ability of subjects with a variety of lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using this device. The 40 adult subjects investigated comprized 10 normal controls, 10 with asthma, 10 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 10 with restrictive lung disease. After baseline spirometry, subjects were given alcohol to drink, the quantity based upon body weight. After a gap of at least 20 min, subjects were asked to provide evidential breath samples in accordance with.the test procedure built into the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK. The results showed that two asthmatic subjects, four with COPD and three with restrictive lung disease failed to provide evidential breath samples even after four attempts. Despite the device requiring a minimum sample volume of 1.2 l, eight of the nine subjects who failed had a forced vital capacity (FVC) of more than 1.5 l. Seven of these nine subjects had a forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) of less than 1.0 l. In conclusion, this study has shown that some subjects with lung diseases may have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 UK.

  3. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  4. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  5. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, A.; Haws, L.D.; Mohler, J.H.

    1983-05-13

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  6. 14 CFR 33.69 - Ignitions system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ignitions system. 33.69 Section 33.69... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.69 Ignitions system. Each engine must be equipped with an ignition system for starting the engine on the ground and in flight. An...

  7. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Albert; Haws, Lowell D.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1984-08-14

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  8. Ignition and combustion phenomena in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sass, F

    1928-01-01

    Evidences were found that neither gasification nor vaporization of the injected fuel occurs before ignition; also that the hydrogen coefficient has no significance. However the knowledge of the ignition point and of the "time lag" is important. After ignition, the combustion proceeds in a series of reactions, the last of which at least are now known.

  9. Structure ignition assessment model (SIAM)\\t

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Cohen

    1995-01-01

    Major wildland/urban interface fire losses, principally residences, continue to occur. Although the problem is not new, the specific mechanisms are not well known on how structures ignite in association with wildland fires. In response to the need for a better understanding of wildland/urban interface ignition mechanisms and a method of assessing the ignition risk,...

  10. Selective synthesis and device applications of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using isopropyl alcohol as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Che, Yuchi; Wang, Chuan; Liu, Jia; Liu, Bilu; Lin, Xue; Parker, Jason; Beasley, Cara; Wong, H-S Philip; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-08-28

    The development of guided chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a great platform for wafer-scale integration of aligned nanotubes into circuits and functional electronic systems. However, the coexistence of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes is still a major obstacle for the development of carbon-nanotube-based nanoelectronics. To address this problem, we have developed a method to obtain predominantly semiconducting nanotubes from direct CVD growth. By using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the carbon feedstock, a semiconducting nanotube purity of above 90% is achieved, which is unambiguously confirmed by both electrical and micro-Raman measurements. Mass spectrometric study was performed to elucidate the underlying chemical mechanism. Furthermore, high performance thin-film transistors with an on/off ratio above 10(4) and mobility up to 116 cm(2)/(V·s) have been achieved using the IPA-synthesized nanotube networks grown on silicon substrate. The method reported in this contribution is easy to operate and the results are highly reproducible. Therefore, such semiconducting predominated single-walled carbon nanotubes could serve as an important building block for future practical and scalable carbon nanotube electronics.

  11. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOEpatents

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  12. Plans for the CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) instrumentation and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1987-10-07

    Extensive experience with previous fusion experiments (TFTR, MFTF-B and others) is driving the design of the Instrumentation and Control System (I and C) for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) to be built at Princeton. The new design will reuse much equipment from TFTR and will be subdivided into six major parts: machine control, machine data acquisition, plasma diagnostic instrument control and instrument data acquisition, the database, shot sequencing and safety interlocks. In a major departure from previous fusion experiment control systems, the CIT machine control system will be a commercial process control system. Since the machine control system will be purchased as a completely functional product, we will be able to concentrate development manpower in plasma diagnostic instrument control, data acquisition, data processing and analysis, and database systems. We will discuss the issues driving the design, give a design overview and state the requirements upon any prospective commercial process control system.

  13. Cement oscillation increases interlock strength at the cement-bone interface, with commentary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Han, Pengfei; Gu, Wenguang; Shi, Zuowei; Li, Dabin; Wang, Changli

    2009-05-01

    Modern cementing techniques aim to improve the interlock between bone and cement and to establish a durable interface. Cement penetration is generally believed to influence interface failure, but current methods for improving the cement-bone interface are inadequate. Oscillation is the reciprocated movement of an object through its balanced position, or the quantum physics of systematic fluctuation back and forth near an average value (or trimmed value). To increase the interlock strength at the cement-bone interface, we designed a cement oscillator according to the principles of vibrational mechanics. To evaluate the effect of oscillation on the quality of interlock strength at the cement-bone interface, we randomly divided 156 femoral bones of adult pigs into 2 groups, oscillated and control, and performed mechanical tests to assess interlock strength at the cement-bone interface. The filling effect of bone cement was observed and analyzed under a stereomicroscope, and then each oscillated femur was compared with a control femur. The interlock strength at the cement-bone interface in the oscillated group was significantly greater than in the control group (P<.05), and the filling effect in the oscillated group was also better than that in the control group (P<.05). Our findings show that oscillation of bone cement significantly increases interlock strength at the cement-bone interface, point the way for clinicians to develop a high-performance and pragmatic fixation technique for prostheses to increase interlock strength, and will be of considerable practical importance in helping to prevent aseptic loosening of cemented prostheses.

  14. Ignition potential of rifle bullets

    Treesearch

    Trevor Maynard; Mark Finney; Sara McAllister; Ian Grob

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station and National Technology and Development Centers performed experiments to evaluate the potential for rifle bullets to ignite organic matter after striking hard surfaces. Outdoor target shooting is often suspected as a wildfire cause, but investigators currently do...

  15. Cardio-vascular activity of catestatin: interlocking the puzzle pieces.

    PubMed

    Mazza, R; Tota, B; Gattuso, A

    2015-01-01

    Catestatin (CST), the Chromogranin A (CgA)-derived cationic and hydrophobic peptide, firstly recognized as an endogenous inhibitor of catecholamine secretion, functions as a physiological brake of the adreno-sympathetic-chromaffin system. Its wide spectrum of activities includes relevant multilevel cardiovascular and antihypertensive influences. At central systemic level, CST seems to modulate the autonomic cardiovascular control possibly acting on baroreceptor afferent fibers of the nucleus tractus solitarius. This, as well as clinical and experimental (CgA-KO mice) evidences point to an important role of CST in the determinism and prevention of essential hypertension. At organ level, CST exerts myocardial (negative inotropy and lusitropy) effects and potently vasodilates endothelin-1 (ET-1)-preconstricted coronaries through β2-adrenergic receptor (AR)-Gi/o protein-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signalling, while counterbalancing β adrenergic (ISO) stimulation. The contractile myocardial effects have been deeply analysed in fish and amphibian hearts, highlighting finely diversified mechanisms of action. CST also acts as cardioprotective agent in both pre- and post-conditioning through NO-dependent mechanisms implicating the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) signalling and the activation of mitoKATP channels. The CST-elicited cardiotropic and coronarotropic influences, along with the recently discovered proangiogenic and regulatory effects in glucose and lipid metabolism, contribute to delineate an integrated and updated picture of the peptide which emerges as a pleiotropic hormone with a wide range of cytokine-like characteristics. The aim of this review is to interlock some older and more recent evidences which may help to better perceive the subtle links and differences among the puzzle pieces that still need to be deciphered.

  16. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  17. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  18. Laser ignition application in a space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.; Culley, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    A laser ignition system is proposed for the Combustion Experiment Module on an orbiting spacecraft. The results of a design study are given using the scheduled 'Flame Ball Experiment' as the design guidelines. Three laser ignition mechanisms and wavelengths are evaluated. A prototype laser is chosen and its specifications are given, followed by consideration of the beam optical arrangement, the ignition power requirement, the laser ignition system weight, size, reliability, and laser cooling and power consumption. Electromagnetic interference to the onboard electronics caused by the laser ignition process is discussed. Finally, ground tests are suggested.

  19. Ignition Delay Associated with a Strained Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerk, T. J.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Ignition processes associated with two adjacent fuel-oxidizer interferences bounding a strained fuel strip are explored here using single-step activation energy asymptotics. Calculations are made for constant as well as temporally decaying strain fields. There possible models of ignition are determined: one in which the two interfaces ignite independently as diffusion flames; one in which the two interfaces ignite dependently and in which ignition occurs to form a single , premixed flame at very high strain rates before ignition is completely prevented. In contrast to a single, isolated interface in which ignition can be prevented by overmatching heat production with heat convection due to strain, ignition of a strained fuel strip can also be prevented if the finite extend of fuel is diluted by oxidizer more quickly than heat production can cause a positive feedback thermal runaway. These behaviors are dependent on the relative sizes of timescales associated with species and heat diffusion, with convection due to strain, and with the chemical reaction. The result here indicate that adjacent, strained species interfaces may ignite quite differently in nature from ignition of a single, strained intrface and that their interdependence should be considered as the interfaces are brought closer together in complex strain fields. Critical strain rates leading to complete ignition delay are found to be considerably smaller for the fuel strip than those for single interfaces as the fuel strip is made thin in comparison to diffusion and chemical length scales.

  20. Combustion-wave ignition for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion wave ignition concept was experimentally studied in order to verify its suitability for application in baffled sections of a large booster engine combustion chamber. Gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane (GOX/GH4) and gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GOX/GH2) propellant combinations were evaluated in a subscale combustion wave ignition system. The system included four element tubes capable of carrying ignition energy simultaneously to four locations, simulating four baffled sections. Also, direct ignition of a simulated Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) was performed. Tests were conducted over a range of mixture ratios and tube geometries. Ignition was consistently attained over a wide range of mixture ratios. And at every ignition, the flame propagated through all four element tubes. For GOX/GH4, the ignition system ignited the MCC flow at mixture ratios from 2 to 10 and for GOX/GH2 the ratios is from 2 to 13. The ignition timing was found to be rapid and uniform. The total ignition delay when using the MCC was under 11 ms, with the tube-to-tube, as well as the run-to-run, variation under 1 ms. Tube geometries were found to have negligible effect on the ignition outcome and timing.

  1. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  2. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Schwarz, Alfred C.

    1987-01-01

    In an explosive device comprising an explosive material which can be made to explode upon activation by activation means in contact therewith; electrical activation means adaptable for activating said explosive material such that it explodes; and electrical circuitry in operation association with said activation means; there is an improvement wherein said activation means is an electrical material which, at an elevated temperature, has a negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity and which has a shape and size and an area of contact with said explosive material sufficient that it has an electrical resistance which will match the resistance requirements of said associated electrical circuitry when said electrical material is operationally associated with said circuitry, and wherein said electrical material is polycrystalline; or said electrical material is crystalline and (a) is mounted on a lattice matched substrate or (b) is partially covered with an intimately contacting metallization area which defines its area of contact with said explosive material.

  3. Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture with an Interlocking Humeral Nail in Older Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rigid interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fracture is ideal for use in adolescents in terms of stability of the fracture and convenience for the patient. However, numerous authors have reported that rigid interlocking nailing has some limitations in this age group due to the risk of complications. We evaluated the results of intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures with an interlocking humeral nail in older children and adolescents. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with an interlocking humeral nail. Radiographs were examined for proximal femoral change and evidence of osteonecrosis. Outcomes were assessed by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Results Twenty-four femoral shaft fractures in 23 patients were enrolled. The mean age at the time of operation was 12 years and 8 months and the mean follow-up period was 21 months. Bony union was achieved in all patients without any complications related to the procedure such as infection, nonunion, malalignment and limb length discrepancy. All fractures were clinically and radiographically united within an average eight weeks. No patients developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head and coxa valga. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing through the greater trochanter using a rigid interlocking humeral nail is effective and safe for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in older children and adolescents. PMID:22318831

  4. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  5. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Hoebing, T.; Ruhrmann, C.; Hechtfischer, U.; Tochadse, G.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2014-09-01

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD.

  6. Development of MEMS based safe electro-thermal pyrotechnic igniter for a new generation of microfuze (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennarun, Pierre; Rossi, Carole; Esteve, Daniel; Conedera, Veronique

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a safe MEMS based micro electro-thermal igniter for a safe microfuze for military purpose. The proposed device"s architecture is made of: (1) one pyrotechnical micro igniter, (2) one arming function, (3) one disarming function and (3) one sterilization function. The pyrotechnical electro-thermal igniter consists in a resistive element that converts electrical energy into heat to initiate an energetic material. The arming function permits the igniter to be armed, ready to fire, only if the ignition conditions are respected. For that, a short-circuit to the electrical ground is cut and the igniter is connected to the power supply. The igniter can be reset to the safe mode (disarmed state) thanks to the disarming function that reconnects the igniter's electrical pads to the electrical ground. If necessary the igniter can be sterilized meaning that the system's ignition capability is definitively removed. All these functions are based on the use of two electro-thermal micro switches : one ON-OFF and one OFF-ON. Due to the application requirements (the fuze is used once but after a long storage, all components must have a high level of safety and reliability and the power consumption must be minimized), we opted for a new generation of one shot, safe and reliable micro switches. They are based on electro thermal mechanisms and consist in breaking one electrical connection (ON-OFF switch) or micro soldering locally two electrical connections (OFF-ON switch). Both switches have been developed in MEMS technology, characterized and are presented in this paper. A prototype of safe micro igniter with ON-OFF and OFF-ON switches has been also realized and is presented.

  7. The effect of kerosene injection on ignition probability of local ignition in a scramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Heng; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu

    2017-03-01

    The spark ignition of kerosene is investigated in a scramjet combustor with a flight condition of Ma 4, 17 km. Based plentiful of experimental data, the ignition probabilities of the local ignition have been acquired for different injection setups. The ignition probability distributions show that the injection pressure and injection location have a distinct effect on spark ignition. The injection pressure has both upper and lower limit for local ignition. Generally, the larger mass flow rate will reduce the ignition probability. The ignition position also affects the ignition near the lower pressure limit. The reason is supposed to be the cavity swallow effect on upstream jet spray near the leading edge, which will make the cavity fuel rich. The corner recirculation zone near the front wall of the cavity plays a significant role in the stabilization of local flame.

  8. Ca2+-sensors and ROS-GC: interlocked sensory transduction elements: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    From its initial discovery that ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase is a mono-modal Ca2+-transduction system linked exclusively with the photo-transduction machinery to the successive finding that it embodies a remarkable bimodal Ca2+ signaling device, its widened transduction role in the general signaling mechanisms of the sensory neuron cells was envisioned. A theoretical concept was proposed where Ca2+-modulates ROS-GC through its generated cyclic GMP via a nearby cyclic nucleotide gated channel and creates a hyper- or depolarized sate in the neuron membrane (Ca2+ Binding Proteins 1:1, 7–11, 2006). The generated electric potential then becomes a mode of transmission of the parent [Ca2+]i signal. Ca2+ and ROS-GC are interlocked messengers in multiple sensory transduction mechanisms. This comprehensive review discusses the developmental stages to the present status of this concept and demonstrates how neuronal Ca2+-sensor (NCS) proteins are the interconnected elements of this elegant ROS-GC transduction system. The focus is on the dynamism of the structural composition of this system, and how it accommodates selectivity and elasticity for the Ca2+ signals to perform multiple tasks linked with the SENSES of vision, smell, and possibly of taste and the pineal gland. An intriguing illustration is provided for the Ca2+ sensor GCAP1 which displays its remarkable ability for its flexibility in function from being a photoreceptor sensor to an odorant receptor sensor. In doing so it reverses its function from an inhibitor of ROS-GC to the stimulator of ONE-GC membrane guanylate cyclase. PMID:22509149

  9. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  10. BIT: Biosignal Igniter Toolkit.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Hugo Plácido; Lourenço, André; Fred, Ana; Martins, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    The study of biosignals has had a transforming role in multiple aspects of our society, which go well beyond the health sciences domains to which they were traditionally associated with. While biomedical engineering is a classical discipline where the topic is amply covered, today biosignals are a matter of interest for students, researchers and hobbyists in areas including computer science, informatics, electrical engineering, among others. Regardless of the context, the use of biosignals in experimental activities and practical projects is heavily bounded by the cost, and limited access to adequate support materials. In this paper we present an accessible, albeit versatile toolkit, composed of low-cost hardware and software, which was created to reinforce the engagement of different people in the field of biosignals. The hardware consists of a modular wireless biosignal acquisition system that can be used to support classroom activities, interface with other devices, or perform rapid prototyping of end-user applications. The software comprehends a set of programming APIs, a biosignal processing toolbox, and a framework for real time data acquisition and postprocessing.

  11. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  12. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaera-Sanz, M.

    2009-08-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of μseconds. Siemens has introduced a ``so called'' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  13. Programmable controllers replace relays in MFTF-B personnel-safety interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Branum, J.D.

    1981-10-20

    This paper describes a new approach for implementing personnel safety interlocks logic using industrial-type programmable controllers. The logic for all personnel safety interlocks except those totally internal to a subsystem is implemented in two non-redundant controllers. A high degree of fail-safe reliability is achieved by augmenting the protective features intrinsic to each controller with those provided by a small amount of external support hardware. The controllers are interfaced to the host computer system via fiber optic data links to enable display of interlock and overall system status on the control room graphic displays. When fully implemented, the controllers will perform the equivalent of over 2000 discreet relay functions.

  14. HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System Functional Requirements and Technical Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    TUCK, J.A.

    2000-05-11

    Double-shell tanks (DSTs) and Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs) are actively ventilated, along with certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other RPP facilities. The exhaust air stream on a typical primary ventilation system is drawn through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to ensure confinement of airborne radioactive materials. Active ventilation exhaust stacks require a stack CAM interlock to detect releases from postulated accidents, and to shut down the exhaust fan when high radiation levels are detected in the stack airstream. The stack CAM interlock is credited as a mitigating control to stop continued unfiltered radiological and toxicological discharges from the stack, which may result from an accident involving failure of a HEPA filter. This document defines the initial technical design baseline for a HEPA filter AP fan interlock system.

  15. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces. PMID:27156720

  16. In-vessel remote maintenance of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, M.A.; Hager, E.R.; Creedon, R.L.; Fisher, M.V.; Atkin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is the first deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion device that will study the physics of an ignited plasma. The ability of the tokamak vacuum vessel to be maintained remotely while under vacuum has not been fully demonstrated on previous machines, and this ability will be critical to the efficient and safe operation of ignition devices. Although manned entry into the CIT vacuum vessel will be possible during the nonactivated stages of operation, remotely automated equipment will be used to assist in initial assembly of the vessel as well as to maintain all in-vessel components once the D-T burn is achieved. Remote maintenance and operation will be routinely required for replacement of thermal protection tiles, inspection of components, leak detection, and repair welding activities. Conceptual design to support these remote maintenance activities has been integrated with the conceptual design of the in-vessel components to provide a complete and practical remote maintenance system for CIT. The primary remote assembly and maintenance operations on CIT will be accomplished through two dedicated 37- x 100-cm ports on the main toroidal vessel. Each port contains a single articulated boom manipulator (ABM), which is capable of accessing half of the torus. The proposed ABM consists of a movable carriage assembly, telescoping two-part mast, and articulated link sections. 1 ref.

  17. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  18. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  19. Piezoelectric Ignition of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Collins; Michelle Pantoya; Andreas A. Neuber; Michael Daniels; Daniel Prentice

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric initiators are a unique form of ignition for energetic material because the current and voltage are tied together by impact loading on the crystal. This study examines the ignition response of an energetic composite composed of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide nanopowders to the arc generated from a lead zirconate and lead titanate piezocrystal. The mechanical stimuli used to activate the piezocrystal varied to assess ignition voltage, power, and delay time of aluminum–molybdenum trioxide for a range of bulk powder densities. Results show a high dielectric strength leads to faster ignition times because of the higher voltage delivered to the energetic. Ignition delay is under 0.4 ms, which is faster than observed with thermal or shock ignition. Electric ignition of composite energetic materials is a strong function of interparticle connectivity, and thus the role of bulk density on electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity is a focus of this study. Results show that the ignition delay times are dependent on the powder bulk density with an optimum bulk density of 50%. Packing fractions and electrical conductivity were analyzed and aid in explaining the resulting ignition behavior as a function of bulk density.

  20. Spark-Ignited Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-27

    compression for ignition and would allow the diesel engine to operate at the more efficient and practical compression ratio of 12 to 1. To accomplish this, an...found to provide approximately equal efficiency under most operating conditions other than high load, and to provide instant cold start at the more ...high- efficiency diesel engine. The engine would be modified to have a moderate compression ratio, no swirl, and moderate to high squish to help improve