Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.
This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…
McGann, K P; Spangler, J G
Although the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among women is lower than that among men, women suffer unique adverse health effects from these substances. Furthermore, the use of these substances during pregnancy poses special risks to mother and fetus, including placental accidents, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital anomalies, and premature birth. Primary care clinicians should ask all women about their patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and should offer targeted interventions to those using these products. PMID:9082466
Wennig, Robert; Origer, Alain; Bour, Jean; Pepin, G; Maurer, Hans H; Gillard, Claude; Verstraete, Alain; Maurer, Hans-Jürgen; Willekens, Michel
A great number of clinical, epidemiological, pharmacological and toxicological data on the influence of psychotropics on driving are available. These psychotropics include psycholeptics like ethanol, opioids, psychoanaleptics like cocaine, amphetamines and congeners, psychodysleptics like cannabis, LSD and magic mushrooms. General epidemiology and specific epidemiology for Luxembourg will be outlined. Practical aspects of roadside testing, forensic aspects as well as the place of hair testing in drugs and road safety issues will be discussed. PMID:16042050
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.
The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard
Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437
Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818
Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit
Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide
Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.
Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…
Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.
Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ≥4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted β −2.74; 95% CI −4.23, −1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted β −3.51 95% CI −4.99, −2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808
Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.
Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…
Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D.L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Background People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Results Of 1,757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. PMID:25823908
Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C
Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported "binge" drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974
Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.
Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.
Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57% male participants and 56% White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes. PMID:25600491
Legrand, Sara-Ann; Gjerde, Hallvard; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Dias, Mario J; Gustafsson, Susanne; Ceder, Gunnel; Verstraete, Alain G
Our objective was to determine the presence of psychoactive substances in blood of drivers killed in road crashes in four European countries. Data from 1118 drivers of car and vans, killed between 2006 and 2009, were collected in Finland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden. The prevalence of any psychoactive substance ranged between 31 and 48%. Alcohol (≥ 0.1 g/L) was the most common finding, 87% had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ .5 g/L. Benzodiazepines (1.8-13.3%) and amphetamines (0-7.4%) were the most prevalent psychoactive medicines and illicit drugs, respectively. Alcohol-drug and drug-drug combinations were rather prevalent. Differences in alcohol/drug findings seemed to reflect differences in use in the countries. More research should be done to develop preventive strategies to reduce the number of alcohol- and drug-related traffic accidents targeting at-risk groups, such as drivers with very high BACs and novice drivers. PMID:23297822
Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F
Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population
Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience
Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…
Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry
The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study…
Waller, P F; Blow, F C; Maio, R F; Singer, K; Hill, E M; Schaefer, N
Alcohol has long been associated with injury, but the relationship between other drugs and injury is less clear. Blood samples from 894 patients presenting to two Emergency Departments for treatment of motor vehicle injury sustained in passenger cars, station wagons, vans and pickup trucks, were tested for alcohol and other drugs. Results were related to demographic characteristics, including prior history of alcohol and drug use; crash characteristics; and injury characteristics. Alcohol was associated with more severe crashes, but other drugs, in the absence of alcohol, were not. The crashes involving drugs but no alcohol were very similar to those involving neither alcohol nor drugs. PMID:9370018
Palmer, RHC; Brick, L; Nugent, NR; Bidwell, LC; McGeary, JE; Knopik, VS; Keller, MC
Background and Aims Twin and family studies suggest that genetic influences are shared across substances of abuse. However, despite evidence of heritability, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have indicated numerous markers of limited effects, suggesting that much of the heritability remains missing. We estimated (1) the aggregate effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on multiple indicators of comorbid drug problems that are typically employed across community and population-based samples, and (2) the genetic covariance across these measures. Participants 2596 unrelated subjects from the “Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment” provided information on alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, and other illicit substance dependence. Phenotypic measures included: (1) a factor score based on DSM-IV drug dependence diagnoses (DD), (2) a factor score based on problem use (PU; i.e., 1+ DSM-IV symptoms), and (3) dependence vulnerability (DV; a ratio of DSM-IV symptoms to the number of substances used). Findings Univariate and bivariate Genome-wide complex trait analyses of this selected sample indicated that common SNPs explained 25-36% of the variance across measures, with DD and DV having the largest effects [h2SNP (CI)=0.36 (0.11-0.62) and 0.33(0.07-0.58), respectively; PU = 0.25 (-0.01-0.51)]. Genetic effects were shared across the three phenotypic measures of comorbid drug problems (rSNP; rDD-PU = 0.92 (0.76-1.00), rDD-DV = 0.97 (0.87-1.00), and rPU-DV = 0.96 (0.82-1.00)). Conclusion At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common single nucleotide polymorphisms. The additive effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms is shared across important indicators of comorbid drug problems. PMID:25424661
Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242
Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.
The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…
Litten, R Z; Allen, J P
Physiologic, behavioral, and social factors contribute to dependence on alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs. During the past decade substantial research has focused on identification/development of medications to assist in reducing urge to use these substances. This article describes these agents and reviews recent research findings on them. PMID:10023607
Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan
Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…
Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. Discussion To the authors’ knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Trial registration ACTRN12611000606987 PMID:23171383
Wood, Darryl S; Hays, Zachary R
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program data were used to consider the effects of two methods of racial classification upon estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) arrestees. Overall, compared to arrestees who self-identified as Black, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, or Hispanic, arrestees self-identifying as AI/AN were most likely to be identified administratively as something other than AI/AN. Results of 'difference of difference' analyses indicate that differences in estimates of AI/AN versus non-AI/AN arrestees' illicit drug use and alcohol abuse were much more extreme when identification was based on administrative records than when based upon arrestees' self-reports. PMID:25111841
Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian
Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774
Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M
OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322
... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...
Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang
The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815
Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica
Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…
Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may
Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold
This study investigates risk and protective factors for substance abuse in a sample of 1778 students attending technical colleges in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces of Thailand using a self-report questionnaire modified from the Communities That Care youth survey. Low school commitment was strongly associated with illicit drug use, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.84 (glue sniffing) to 10.06 (ecstasy). Having friends using drugs, and friends with delinquent behaviors increased the risk of using alcohol and illegal drugs, with adjusted odds ratios of 6.84 and 6.72 respectively for marijuana use. For protective factors, approximately 40-60% of students with high levels of moral belief, participation in religious activities, and social skills were less likely to use alcohol. It is concluded that peer influence is a significant contributor to Thai adolescents' participation in substance abuse and that engaging in religiosity may assist adolescents to internalize negative aspects of harmful drugs into positive perceptions and encourage them to avoid alcohol and illegal drugs. PMID:24930052
Li, L; Ford, J A
As in the general female population, women with disabilities face a number of situations that encourage illicit drug use, such as low self-esteem, peer pressure, and family history of substance abuse. In addition, women with disabilities more frequently encounter problems of personal adjustment, unusual developmental experiences, easy access to prescription drugs, unemployment, and medical or health-related difficulties. Using a random sample of 900 women with disabilities, we conducted a study of the patterns of illicit drug use and risk factors relating to illicit drug use among women with various disabilities. Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, illicit drug use by a best friend, being a victim of substance-abuse-related violence, and attitudes toward substance use by people with disabilities were significantly related to illicit drug use by the study population. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9741943
Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Rehm, Jürgen
A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the “risk” category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572
Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Legleye, Stéphane
Background Previous studies have shown that survey methodology can greatly influence prevalence estimates for alcohol and illicit drug use. The aim of this article is to assess the effect of data collection modes on alcohol misuse and drug use reports by comparing national estimates from computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) and audio-computer-assisted self interviews (A-CASI). Methods Design: Two national representative surveys conducted in 2005 in France by CATI (n = 24,674) and A-CASI (n = 8,111). Participants: French-speaking individuals aged – years old. Measurements: Alcohol misuse according to the CAGE test, cannabis use (lifetime, last year, 10+ in last month) and experimentation with cocaine, LSD, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, were measured with the same questions and wordings in the two surveys. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (age, educational level, marital status and professional status) were performed. Analyses were conducted on the whole sample and stratified by age (18–29 and 30–44 years old) and gender. 45–64 years old data were not analysed due to limited numbers. Results Overall national estimates were similar for 9 out of the 10 examined measures. However, after adjustment, A-CASI provided higher use for most types of illicit drugs among the youngest men (adjusted odds ratio, or OR, of 1.64 [1.08–2.49] for cocaine, 1.62 [1.10–2.38] for ecstasy, 1.99 [1.17–3.37] for LSD, 2.17 [1.07–4.43] for heroin, and 2.48 [1.41–4.35] for amphetamines), whereas use amongst women was similar in CATI and A-CASI, except for LSD in the 30–44 age group (OR = 3.60 [1.64–7.89]). Reported alcohol misuse was higher with A-CASI, for all ages and genders. Conclusions Although differences in the results over the whole population were relatively small between the surveys, the effect of data collection mode seemed to vary according to age and gender. PMID:24465720
Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.
Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114
Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F
Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487
Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni
Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195
Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.
Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 210 / Monday, November 1, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-16 of September 15, 2010 Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug...
Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.
Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)
Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh
Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = −0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = −0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848
Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh
Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848
Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis
The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475
GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE
This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068
Gold, Mark S., Ed.
The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco Smoking…
Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L.; Sampong, Stephen A.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Larson, Elaine L.
Background The United States of America currently has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and approximately 80% of incarcerated individuals have a history of illicit drug use. Despite institutional prohibitions, drug use continues in prison, and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between prison drug use, duration of incarceration, and a range of covariates. Results Most participants self-reported a history of illicit drug use (77.5%). Seven percent reportedly used drugs during the previous six months of incarceration (n = 100). Participants who had been incarcerated for more than a year were less likely than those incarcerated for longer than a year to report using drugs (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.98). Participants aged 37–89 were less likely than younger prisoners to use drugs (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.80). Heroin users were twice as likely as nonheroin users to use drugs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.04–5.03); crack cocaine users were also twice as likely as participants with no history of crack cocaine usage to report drug use (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.13–5.69). Conclusions Correctional institutions should be used as a resource to offer evidence-based services to curb drug usage. Drug treatment programs for younger prisoners, heroin and crack cocaine users, and at the beginning of a prisoner's sentence should be considered for this population. PMID:26789438
Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry
Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583
Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G
Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864
Daveluy, Amélie; Géniaux, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Boucher, Alexandra; Chenaf, Chouki; Deheul, Sylvie; Spadari, Michel; Gérardin, Marie; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise
Parachuting (also called bombing) is a method of drug delivery where illicit drugs or medicines are ingested after wrapping the substance. There are little data describing parachuting in the literature. To provide a description of this practice, all cases of parachuting reported to the national addictovigilance network up to 31 December 2014 were identified from spontaneous reports and specific surveillance programs. Cases were described according to the type of substance used, patient age and gender, type of complications, context of use and year of the event. Forty-five cases of parachute use were identified and most (n = 43) occurred after 2011. Patients were mostly men (60%), and mean age was 28.9 years. The context of use, known in 19 cases, was mostly recreational. Complications were present in 24 cases, of which eight were serious. The substance was supposed to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the majority of cases (64.4%); research chemicals were more involved in the most recent years. The physical form was mainly granular (51.6%). The wrappers were a cigarette paper (nine cases) and in one case plastic package; in the other cases, the term of parachute was used without further details. The reason for use was not explained in the majority of cases; two patients indicated using a parachute for faster effect than with a methadone capsule. Clinicians should be aware of this delivery form as the results suggest that it is common and can involve a great variability of drugs. PMID:26609911
Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel
The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496
Belcastro, P A
A review of popular drug education textbooks and curricula indicated most juxtapose the physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs. This misrepresentation ignores the literature, which is undivided, in reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes such as: sodium acetate, sodium cyclamate, dolomite, acetaminophen, gypsum, mannitol, inositol, lidocaine, amydricaine, benzocaine, caffeine, ephedrine, intercaine, phenylpropanolamine, piperocaine, procainamide, azopyridine, bromodiphenhydramine, ibuprofen, methaqualone, phenobarital trazodone, acetylcodine, codeine, quinine, quinidine, thallium, arsenic and strychnine. The temptation to extrapolate the results of licitly pure drug lots administered at precisely measured doses to represent the pharmacodynamics of illegally prepared drug lots administered at indiscernible doses must be avoided in drug educational resources. There is a pressing need to correct the factual base, both implied and suggestive, of drug education resources regarding the purity and toxicity of illicitly manufactured and purchased drugs. PMID:1593391
Bădilă, Elisabeta; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Weiss, Emma; Bartoş, Daniela
The use of illicit drugs has dramatically increased during the past years. Consequently, the number of presentations at the emergency departments due to the adverse effects of the illicit drugs has also increased. This review discusses the cardiovascular effects of cocaine, opiates and opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methamphetamines and hallucinogens as we consider that it is essential for a clinician to be aware of them and understand their mechanisms in order to optimize the therapeutic management. PMID:26710497
Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.
Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…
Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…
Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy
Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)
Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart
One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.
The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625
Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu
We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.
Slutsker, L; Smith, R; Higginson, G; Fleming, D
OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of recognized prenatal illicit substance abuse and the characteristics of women being identified as illicit drug users in a statewide population-based cohort. METHODS. During a 1-month period, birth attendants of all singleton births in Oregon (n = 3200) were surveyed regarding their knowledge of prenatal illicit drug use by women who gave birth. Birth certificates were linked to surveys after removal of personal identifiers. RESULTS. Illicit drug use was recognized in 5.2% of delivering women. Nearly half had used cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin. Recognized users were significantly more likely than nonusers to be unwed and to have used tobacco or alcohol, have received inadequate prenatal care, and have public assistance as a source of payment. Drug use was recognized twice as frequently by practitioners who routinely questioned their patients about it compared with those who relied on clinical judgment or the occurrence of complications during pregnancy. Birth certificate reporting identified only 41% of recognized users. CONCLUSIONS. Oregon practitioners are identifying seven times as many drug-using women as can be accommodated by available treatment programs for this population. Increased efforts are needed to ensure the adequacy of resources necessary to cope with the problem as already recognized. PMID:8417609
Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing
Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China. PMID:26942687
Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E
Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug
Gallet, Craig A
Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity. PMID:23303721
Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P
Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (
Mikkelsen, S L; Ash, K O
Illicit-drug users may attempt to falsify results by in vitro adulteration of specimens. We investigated eight additives (NaCl, Visine, handsoap, Drano, bleach, vinegar, golden-seal tea, and lemon juice) claimed by drug users to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays. We also analyzed adulterated urine specimens to determine if they could be identified, adding adulterants at several concentrations to 222 EIA-positive specimens confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to contain illicit drugs. To identify adulterated urines, we monitored pH, relative density, and urine color and turbidity at adulterant concentrations that falsified EIA results. Specimens contaminated with NaCl had relative densities greater than 1.035. Liquid Drano, bleach, and vinegar shifted urine pH outside the physiological range. Golden-seal tea caused a dark appearance, and specimens containing liquid soap were unusually cloudy. Lemon juice had no effect on the assays. Visine was the only adulterant not detected. The adulterants interfered somewhat differently with each of the drug assays. EIA assays for illicit drugs can be invalidated by specimen adulteration producing false-negative results. Therefore, if urine drug testing is to be conducted, pH, relative density, and appearance should be assessed and suspect specimens should be rejected. Not all adulterants can be detected, so observed collection is strongly recommended. PMID:3052928
Rocha, Priscila Coimbra; Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de; Chagas, Deysianne Costa das; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Raimundo Antonio da
This study analyzes the prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study of participants in the BRISA prenatal care cohort. Frequencies and hierarchical logistic regression were used. Estimated prevalence rates were 1.45% for illicit drug use, 22.32% for alcohol consumption, and 4.22% for smoking. The study population was mostly young (81% in the 20-34-year bracket), with 9 to 11 years of schooling (75.55%), with more than half of the women outside the workforce (52.18%), and in economic class "C" (67.61%). Pregnant women showed a high level of stress (24.46%), moderate to intense anxiety (40.84%), and severe depressive symptoms (28.8%). Approximately half (49.72%) of the pregnant women reported some type of violence, and they had wide networks (72.77%) and low social support (65.21%). Use of legal drugs, high stress levels, and single parenthood were independently associated with illicit drug use in pregnancy. PMID:26886368
French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I
Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models. PMID:21143479
Hogendorf, Anna M.; Fendler, Wojciech; Sieroslawski, Janusz; Bobeff, Katarzyna; Wegrewicz, Krzysztof; Malewska, Kamila I.; Przudzik, Maciej W.; Szmigiero-Kawko, Malgorzata; Sztangierska, Beata; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech
Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28%) versus 5524 (46%), p = 10−5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3%) versus 3976 (33.1%), p = 10−5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%), p < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1. PMID:26858959
Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; And Others
This study compared the preinjury and postinjury patterns of alcohol and illicit drug use of 87 persons (ages 16 to 20) with traumatic brain injury. Although an initial follow-up indicated decline in alcohol use, second follow-up (at 28 months postinjury) suggested that drinking quantity and frequency increased over time. Postinjury illicit drug…
Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee
Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…
Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.
Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100
Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy
This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113
Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.
Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…
Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.
The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.
Sadava, S W
Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527
Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.
Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705
Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling
A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.
The Government of Thailand, which has long recognized the serious threat posed by illicit drugs, has implemented stringent law enforcement measures aimed at suppressing illicit drug trafficking by dismantling clandestine laboratories, intercepting essential chemicals, effecting significant seizures and eradicating illicit crops. In addition, the Government has taken steps to initiate the enactment of legislation providing for the confiscation of proceeds derived from illicit drug trafficking activity. Furthermore, it has maintained and strengthened its already close bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the field of drug abuse control. PMID:1477702
Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L
Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods. PMID:26764307
Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Morse, Edward
This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets. Over 100 New Orleans evacuees provide rich accounts describing the illicit markets in New Orleans and elsewhere. The flooding of New Orleans disrupted the city’s flourishing drug markets, both during and immediately after the storm. Drug supplies, though limited, were never completely unavailable. Subjects reported that alcohol or drugs were not being used in the Houston Astrodome, and it was a supportive environment. Outside the Astrodome, they were often approached by or could easily locate middlemen and drug sellers. Evacuees could typically access illegal drug markets wherever they went. This paper analyzes the impact of a major disaster upon users of illegal drugs and the illegal drug markets in New Orleans and among the diaspora of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina. This analysis includes data from criminal justice sources that specify what the drug markets were like before this disaster occurred. This analysis also includes some comparison cities where no disaster occurred, but which help inform the similarities and differences in drug markets in other cities. The data presented also include an initial analysis of ethnographic interview data from over 100 New Orleans Evacuees recruited in New Orleans and Houston. PMID:19081751
Helle, Siri; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Løberg, Else-Marie
Illicit drug use may influence cognition in non-affective psychosis. Previous studies have shown better cognition in psychosis with illicit drug use as compared to psychosis only. Possibly, illicit drug using patients have more transient drug-related cognitive deficits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine cognitive change the first weeks after admission to a psychiatric emergency ward, expecting more cognitive improvement at follow-up in the illicit drug group as compared to psychosis only. Patients with acute non-affective psychosis with (26%) and without illicit drug use were examined at baseline (n=123) and follow-up (n=67), with alternative forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Latent Growth Curve models, controlling for cognition at baseline and age differences between the groups, were used to analyze cognitive change. The illicit drug using patients showed the largest improvement in cognition, especially among the youngest patients. Younger patients with non-affective psychosis and illicit drug use showed more cognitive improvement the first weeks after acute psychosis as compared to psychosis only. This suggests that the illicit drug users constitute a sub-group with less stable cognitive deficits and less cognitive vulnerability. PMID:25240944
... destined for U.S. markets. Without factoring in illegal maritime and air drug smuggling believed to be... threatened. European, Canadian, and U.S. bilateral drug control support, as well as the Caribbean Basin... objectives are achieved through U.S. support for Mexico's drug control policies and programs under the...
Dolan, Michael P.; And Others
Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)
Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas
Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171
Babatunde, Victor D; Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David
Illicit drug use among adults is increasing, but its associated risk following orthopaedic trauma remains largely unexplored. This study assessed the relationship of illicit drug use with inpatient adverse events, in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay, and nonroutine discharge. With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 7,118,720 orthopaedic trauma inpatients from 2002 to 2011 were identified and separated into illicit drug users (1.5%) and non-illicit drug users (98.5%). Multivariable regression modeling was used to determine the association between illicit drug use and each outcome variable. Illicit drug use was associated with higher odds of inpatient adverse events, but not greater likelihood of inpatient death. Illicit drug users were also more likely to experience prolonged hospital stay and nonroutine discharge. Prompt recognition and effective treatment interventions for orthopaedic trauma patients with a history of illicit drug use may improve inpatient outcomes. PMID:27082887
Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…
... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 14, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-23640 Filed 9..., Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico... Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimate that cultivation in Helmand decreased between 35 and...
LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria
Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people.
Verweij, A M
In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties. PMID:26266521
Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377
Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377
Brandenstein, Albert E.
This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national
Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.
Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462
Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S
Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453
The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...
Ayvasik, H Belgin; Sümer, H Canan
Although the prevalence of drug use in the young adult population in Turkey is still far below the figures reported for most European Union countries and the United States, there seems to be a noteworthy increase in drug use, especially among high school and college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of drug use among college students in Turkey and to identify some of the individual-difference variables associated with drug use. Participants were 781 college students. A survey package including (a) measures of sensation seeking-risk taking, self-esteem, affectivity level, global mental health, overall life satisfaction, and the rate and nature of substance use and (b) demographic questions was administered to the participants during regularly held class meetings. A logistic regression analysis revealed that sensation seeking-risk taking, parental education level, smoking, and frequency of alcohol use predicted illicit drug experience. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed using the context of the study as a framework. PMID:21053764
Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L
Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553
Ameneh-Forouzan, Setareh-; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Assari, Shervin
Introduction Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use. Material and methods This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately. Results Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls. Conclusions Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents. PMID:22371778
Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983
Goulart, Douglas Rangel; Durante, Letícia; de Moraes, Márcio; Asprino, Luciana
The aim of the current study was to identify and compare the characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in alcohol and drug users with those of nonusers. A retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of patients treated for facial trauma between April 1999 and March 2012 at the Maxillofacial Surgery Division of the Piracicaba Dental School. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression, and correlational analysis using SPSS 18.0 software. The results were considered relevant at P < 0.05. Medical records of 3724 patients with facial trauma were analyzed, of which 173 were illicit drug users and 19.36% reported alcohol intake. The use of illicit drugs was reported by 4.64%. The prevalent etiological factor among drug and alcohol users was interpersonal violence. The mandible was the face part most affected by fractures. Male patients exhibited increased odds of experiencing fractures (OR = 1.43), as did users of illicit drugs (OR = 1.62), when compared with nonusers. When faced with maxillofacial trauma, male drug users exhibited an increased chance of experiencing fractures. This knowledge should be used as a baseline to implement more efficient prevention strategies for this population. PMID:26595006
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C
Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3
Drug use is a complex behavior with multidimensional determinants, including social, psychological, cultural, economic, and biological factors. Blood borne viral infections including hepatitis C virus are transmitted when an uninfected intravenous drug user (IVDU) uses injection equipment, especially syringes, that have previously been used by an infected person. The transmission can also result from sharing other injection equipment such as 'cookers' and 'cottons'. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence and incidence of drug abuse have declined substantially since the introduction of needle exchange. Infection with hepatitis C may spontaneously resolve during the acute stage and never progress to chronic infection, or the infection may become chronic without medical complications, or the infection may become chronic with progressive medical complications. Regular testing for infection is an important strategy for secondary prevention of chronic hepatitis C infection. Care for hepatitis C is a vital component of a comprehensive health program for persons using illicit drugs. Such care includes screening for transmission risk behavior, prevention counseling and education, testing for HCV antibody and RNA. IDUs found to have chronic HCV infection should be assessed for the presence and degree of liver disease and evaluated for treatment for HCV Hepatitis C care also requires providing access to treatment for substance use and abuse. Therapy with opioid agonists, including methadone maintenance treatment, has been shown to diminish and often eliminate opioid use and reduce transmission of infection. Approval of buprenorphine makes office-based pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction possible. When considering treatment for hepatitis C, particular attention must be paid to mental health conditions. As a group, IDUs exhibit higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders than the general population. IFN-based regimens for hepatitis C are often complicated by
Grootveld, Martin; Algeo, Deborah; Silwood, Christopher J L; Blackburn, John C; Clark, Anthony D
High resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the detection and quantification of the illicit "date-rape" drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in both human saliva and a commonly-consumed low-alcohol beer product. Data acquired revealed that this multicomponent analytical technique provided unequivocal evidence for the detection of this agent by this technique in both of these matrices, i.e., all three of its resonances [those ascribable to the alpha-CH2 (t, delta=2.25 ppm), beta-CH2 (tt, delta=1.81 ppm) and gamma-CH2 (t, delta=3.61 ppm) group protons] were present in spectra acquired on human saliva, and two of these (the alpha- and beta-CH2 group signals) in the beverage product examined, the latter observation attributable to overlap of the gamma-CH2 1H resonance with those of carbohydrates. Since good linear calibration relationships between the intensities of each of the NMR-visible signals and added GHB concentration (the former normalised to that of an external 3-trimethylsilyl [2,2,3,3-2H4]- propionate standard present in a coaxial NMR tube insert) were observed, this illicit drug is also readily quantifiable in such multicomponent samples. Our data demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique when applied to the analysis of illicit drugs in multicomponent sample matrices such as human biofluids and beverage products. PMID:17012769
Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo
This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899
Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan
Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…
Voas, Robert B.
This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship of drugs, alcohol, and driving among young people, university students, and a group of young criminals. The data show that young people use drugs more than adults do, and that they drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol, especially at night, more often than adults do, and…
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.
The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…
Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S
Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern. PMID:20464801
Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui
A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.
Brewer, Alex J.; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Ort, Christoph; Robel, Alix E.
Introduction and Aims Illicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUAs). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without. Design and Methods We collected daily 24-hour composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for one month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for three days in order to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion. Results Methamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted. Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect. PMID:25100044
Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D
Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791
Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe
We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290
Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe
We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290
Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae
The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479
A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...
Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise
Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…
Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman
Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860
Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin
The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul
Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any
Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung
Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638
Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Rhodes, Tim; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan
Objective To systematically review factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users, focusing on exposures exogenous to individuals that likely shape access and adherence to HIV treatment. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed English-language studies among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users with at least one of these endpoint of interest: a diagnosis of AIDS; death; changes/differences in CD4 cell counts; or changes/differences in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods Articles were included if they reported factors associated with an outcome of interest among a group of illicit drug users. Studies were identified, screened and selected using systematic methods. Results Of 2,668 studies matching the search criteria, 58 (2%) met the inclusion criteria, all but one from North America or Western Europe. Overall, 41 (71%) studies contained significant individual-level clinical characteristics or behaviours (e.g., illicit drug use) associated with disease progression. Fifteen studies (26%) identified significant social, physical, economic or policy-level exposures, including incarceration, housing status or lack of legal income. Conclusion While past studies demonstrate important environmental exposures that appear to shape access to care and subsequent disease progression, the limited literature to examine these factors demonstrates the need for future research to consider risk environment characteristics and the role they may play in shaping health outcomes from HIV infection among drug users through determining access and adherence to evidence-based care. (198 words) PMID:22333747
Catalano, Richard F; White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P
Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other legal and illicit drugs. Based on a stage model of substance use, this study tested whether NMPO use represents a unique form of illicit drug use among emerging adults and whether there are unique consequences of early NMPO use. We used longitudinal data from 912 emerging adults from the Raising Healthy Children study who were interviewed at least annually from the first or second grade through age 21. The findings indicated that almost all NMPO users have also used marijuana and a large majority has also used other drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy. In addition, more frequent users of NMPOs are also more frequent users of other drugs. Except for violent behavior, NMPO use explained little unique variance in negative outcomes of use (e.g., drug use disorder, mood disorder, nonproductive behavior, poor health, and property crime) beyond that explained by other illicit drug use. Future studies examining the predictors or consequences of NMPO use and nonmedical use of other prescription drugs need to consider use within the context of other drug use. PMID:20864261
Liang, Bryan A
Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
Page, Richard C.; And Others
Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…
Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V
Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844
Cofrancesco, Joseph; Scherzer, Rebecca; Tien, Phyllis C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Southwell, Heather; Sidney, Stephen; Dobs, Adrian; Grunfeld, Carl
Objective To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment. Design Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Methods An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users. Results Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:18195562
Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J
Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research. PMID:17454020
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Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N
Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. PMID:24531638
Dickson, Stuart; Park, Alexandra; Nolan, Susan; Kenworthy, Sarah; Nicholson, Cheryl; Midgley, Julie; Pinfold, Rowena; Hampton, Scott
Testing for drugs in oral fluid is a convenient procedure for determining recent drug use. A number of issues are still to be resolved and this paper investigates the effects of storage systems on drug stability and recovery using three different collection devices supplied by Cozart, Immunalysis and Microgenics (third party). Drugs were analysed using a range of immunoassay systems followed by MS confirmation and quantitation. The reproducibility of the weight of specimen collected was excellent (CV<10%) for the three collection devices tested. Of the three systems studied, only the Cozart product gave acceptable recovery of THC from drug-spiked oral fluid. A combination of Cozart, Immunalysis and Diagnostix immunoassays with the Cozart collection system gave the most sensitive and discriminating screening assays for the drugs studied, namely THC, benzodiazepines, methamphetamine and morphine. Storage at either 5 degrees C or room temperature had no significant effect on drug recoveries. PMID:16621382
Soyibo, K.; Lee, M. G.
Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. PMID:10212517
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G
This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963
Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW
Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644
Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim
Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug
Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki
The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.
Gallegos Torres, Ruth Magdalena; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto
The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to obtain the opinions of a group of people about legal issues regarding addiction. Data collection was performed using a structured questionnaire with four themes. In order to participate, the individual could not use any drugs but should have a close relationship with a drug user. The data was processed using SPSS V. 14. There were 100 participants, 75% of whom were women, and 38% had a drug user as a friend, mainly cocaine and marijuana users. The participants had one opinion in common: laws should be more severe for people who use, sell, or transport drugs. The current laws do not improve consumers' criminal behavior. There is a need for further studies addressing people's opinion about this phenomenon in order to obtain a more realistic view of this drug issue. PMID:20011902
Chauhan, Preeti; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use. Using a prospective cohort design study, court documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (n = 833) were first interviewed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) from 1989 to 1995 and again in middle adulthood from 2000 to 2002 (mean age = 40 years) and 2003 to 2005 (mean age = 41 years). In middle adulthood, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to live in neighborhoods with more disorder and disadvantage and less social cohesion and advantage compared to controls and to engage in illicit drug use during the past year. Path analyses showed an indirect effect on illicit drug use via neighborhood disorder among maltreated children, even after accounting for drug abuse symptoms in young adulthood, although this was sex specific and race specific, affecting women and Whites. Overall, child abuse and neglect places children on a negative trajectory that dynamically influences negative outcomes at multiple levels into middle adulthood. PMID:22781851
Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve
Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results
Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina
Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376
Jeal, Nikki; Macleod, John; Turner, Katrina; Salisbury, Chris
Objectives Most female street-based sex workers (SSWs) are drug users and this group experience particularly poor outcomes in achieving and maintaining abstinence. In 2010 the UK adopted a recovery-orientated Drug Strategy. This strategy did not specifically highlight the complex drug treatment needs of SSWs. Therefore we sought to synthesise and critically appraise existing evidence of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in this group, in order to guide service change toward better provision for the drug treatment needs of SSWs. Methods A systematic review of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in female SSWs. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a structured search strategy was used. Searches included databases, organisational and government websites to identify published and grey literature, as well as contacting experts in the field, and hand-searching reference lists and journals. Results Six studies, one experimental and five observational, were identified which met review inclusion criteria. Intervention approaches evaluated included substitute prescribing, educational sessions and motivational interviewing. All studies reported a positive intervention effect but the five observational studies were all subject to a relatively high risk of bias. By contrast, the experimental study provided little or no evidence of positive effect (OR for reduction of illicit drug in intervention compared to controls 1.17 95%CI 0.84–1.66 at 3 months and 1.14 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.61) at 6 months follow-up). All six studies described challenges and solutions to study recruitment, retention and follow-up, which were influenced by issues affecting SSWs’ health and social stability. Conclusions There is currently no strong evidence for effectiveness of interventions to reduce illicit drug use in female SSWs with problematic drug use. Thus, the development and robust evaluation of effective interventions should be a priority if recovery
Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.
Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813
Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj
A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.
Phillips, J Craig
Individuals living with HIV who receive treatment and optimal care live longer and healthier lives. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to understand the effects of social context factors (individual, interpersonal, and social capital) that influence antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a sample of HIV-infected Black men who use illicit drugs (N = 160). Ecosocial theory and social epidemiology provided the theoretical framework for this study. Multiple regression techniques and path analysis were used to test the model for these subjects. Homelessness among the subjects significantly affected adherence to ART. Tolerability of ART was observed to have a greater indirect effect on ART adherence than a direct effect. A positive state of mind and current illicit drug use indirectly affected ART adherence; however, significance was not achieved. Implications for the use of this theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is articulated. PMID:21123085
A workshop for Australian nursing students used simulation to impart information about illicit drug use and enhance nurses' ability to care for patients who use drugs. Simulations challenged attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes and expanded students' knowledge about health promotion and patient care. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)
Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...
Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Zuccato, Ettore; Binelli, Andrea
Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50 ng L(-1)), benzoylecgonine (300 ng L(-1)), amphetamine (300 ng L(-1)), morphine (100 ng L(-1)) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50 ng L(-1)). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species. PMID:25676616
Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG), a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350) The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal), 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for
Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé
Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525
... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... follow these reminders: Never reuse or "share" syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment. Use only syringes obtained ...
Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg
A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results. PMID:25915085
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel
While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas. PMID:25330110
Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Quinn, Brendan; Thing, James; Kral, Alex H
Aims Most people who inject drugs (PWID) were first initiated into injection by a current PWID. Few studies have examined PWID who assist others into drug injection. Our goal is to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months. Methods We recruited a cross-sectional sample of PWID (N=605) in California from 2011 to 2013. We examined bivariate and multivariate risk factors for initiating someone into injection with a focus on behaviors that might encourage injection initiation such as injecting in front of non-PWID, describing how to inject to non-PWID, and willingness to initiate someone into drug injection. Results Having initiated someone into injection was reported by 34% of PWID overall and 7% in the last 12 months. Forty-four PWID had assisted 431 people into injection in the past year. Factors independently associated with initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months were having injected any person in past month – referred to as being a street doctor‟ -- (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=3.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72, 7.08), having described how to inject to non-injectors (2.76; 95% CI=1.28, 5.93), self-reported likelihood of initiating someone in the future (AOR=6.37; 95% CI=3.12, 13.01), and non-injection powder cocaine use in past month (AOR=4.40; 95% CI= 1.90, 10.19). Conclusion Active PWID are important in facilitating the process of drug injection uptake. Interventions to reduce initiation should include efforts to change behaviors and intentions among PWID that are associated with injection uptake among others. PMID:25282308
Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Martin, Peter
The purpose of this investigation is to present an overview of roadside drug driving enforcement and detections in Queensland, Australia since the introduction of oral fluid screening. Drug driving is a problematic issue for road safety and investigations of the prevalence and impact of drug driving suggest that, in particular, the use of illicit drugs may increase a driver's involvement in a road crash when compared to a driver who is drug free. In response to the potential increased crash involvement of drug impaired drivers, Australian police agencies have adopted the use of oral fluid analysis to detect the presence of illicit drugs in drivers. This paper describes the results of roadside drug testing for over 80,000 drivers in Queensland, Australia, from December 2007 to June 2012. It provides unique data on the prevalence of methamphetamine, cannabis and ecstasy in the screened population for the period. When prevalence rates are examined over time, drug driving detection rates have almost doubled from around 2.0% at the introduction of roadside testing operations to just under 4.0% in the latter years. The most common drug type detected was methamphetamine (40.8%) followed by cannabis (29.8%) and methamphetamine/cannabis combination (22.5%). By comparison, the rate of ecstasy detection was very low (1.7%). The data revealed a number of regional, age and gender patterns and variations of drug driving across the state. Younger drivers were more likely to test positive for cannabis whilst older drivers were more likely to test positive for methamphetamine. The overall characteristics of drivers who tested positive to the presence of at least one of the target illicit drugs are they are likely to be male, aged 30-39 years, be driving a car on Friday, Saturday or Sunday between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am and to test positive for methamphetamine. PMID:24389088
Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D
Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in
Gotschlich, G D
Since its establishment in 1953, the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) has been actively involved in combating illicit drug trafficking. CCC has adopted legal measures designed to meet the requirements of member States in their efforts to promote the prevention, investigation and repression of customs offences, including drug smuggling. CCC studies patterns and trends in drug trafficking and promotes ways and means of detecting drug smuggling and financial transactions related to such smuggling. CCC publishes studies and handbooks that serve as practical guides to national customs administrations of member States. In its work to combat drug trafficking, the CCC co-operates with the United Nations bodies concerned with drug control and the International Criminal Police Organizations (ICPO/Interpol). PMID:6563930
Lyvers, Michael; Meester, Molly
Psychedelic drugs have long been known to be capable of inducing mystical or transcendental experiences. However, given the common "recreational" nature of much present-day psychedelic use, with typical doses tending to be lower than those commonly taken in the 1960s, the extent to which illicit use of psychedelics today is associated with mystical experiences is not known. Furthermore the mild psychedelic MDMA ("Ecstasy") is more popular today than "full" psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin, and the contribution of illicit MDMA use to mystical experiences is not known. The present study recruited 337 adults from the website and newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), most of whom reported use of a variety of drugs both licit and illicit including psychedelics. Although only a quarter of the sample reported "spiritual" motives for using psychedelics, use of LSD and psilocybin was significantly positively related to scores on two well-known indices of mystical experiences in a dose-related manner, whereas use of MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and alcohol was not. Results suggest that even in today's context of "recreational" drug use, psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin, when taken at higher doses, continue to induce mystical experiences in many users. PMID:23457892
Farst, Karen J; Valentine, Jimmie L; Hall, R Whit
Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611
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Truckenmiller, James L.
Recent national surveys have found marked increases in the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among adolescents. To investigate differential prediction of alcohol versus hard drug use amoung youths, 6% of the youths, aged 10-19, from a Pennsylvania county school system (N=1,689) were assessed on the HEW Community Youth Program Impact Scales. The 12…
Woodruff, Susan I.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; McCabe, Cameron T.; Clapp, John D.; Hohman, Melinda
Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs) may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an 'opportunistic' public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT) on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use). Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient's visit) using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient's risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug-and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women), those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk), and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse) tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:23687546
Edlin, Brian R; Kresina, Thomas F; Raymond, Daniel B; Carden, Michael R; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rich, Josiah D; Cheever, Laura W; Cargill, Victoria A
Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV and human immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses; evaluation for comorbidities; coordination of substance-abuse treatment services, psychiatric care, and social support; evaluation of liver disease; and interferon-based treatment for HCV infection. Caring for patients who use illicit drugs presents challenges to the health-care team that require patience, experience, and an understanding of the dynamics of substance use and addiction. Nonetheless, programs are successfully integrating hepatitis C care for IDUs into health-care settings, including primary care, methadone treatment and other substance-abuse treatment programs, infectious disease clinics, and clinics in correctional facilities. PMID:15768335
Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Undergraduates at Indiana University, Bloomington, Including a Comparison Between I.U. Students and the State's High School Population. Indiana Studies in Higher Education, No. 49.
Wakefield, Linda Morton
The use of alcohol and six classes of illicit drugs among 485 undergraduates at Indiana University, Bloomington, was studied in 1981-1982 and compared to a state study of alcohol/drug use by high school students. Attention was focused on the following questions: When does drug experimentation begin, and which drugs are currently most popular? How…
Noonan, Kathryn Y; Beshire, Melissa; Darnell, Jason; Frederick, Kimberley A
Measurement of illicit drugs on paper currency is of interest for evidentiary purposes in legal cases involving the drug trade. Current methods, primarily based on mass spectrometry, are destructive and prevent re-analysis of the evidence. This article details a method based on Raman microspectroscopy that is able to collect spectra from individual crystals on the surface of paper currency. Mixtures of isoxsuprine and norephedrine, which are non-pharmacologically active drug surrogates, as well as lidocaine and benzocaine, common excipients in street drugs, were doped in small quantities onto US currency. Significant fluorescence interference resulted from the underlying dollar bill. This work presents two methods for reducing the fluorescence background, photobleaching and background subtraction, which both worked well. Finally, a method for determining the percent composition of individual components in heterogeneous mixtures was developed by systematically sampling the surface of the dollar bill. Results were accurate within a few percent, although the method was quite time consuming. PMID:16390588
There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm reduction, there continues to be strong opposition to this approach, with critics alleging that harm reduction programs enable drug use. Vancouver, Canada provides a compelling case study that demonstrates that many positive impacts of harm reduction can be attained while addiction treatment-related goals are simultaneously supported. While the evidence for harm reduction is clearly mounting, it is unfortunate that ideological and political barriers to implementing harm reduction programs in Canada remain. As evidenced by Vancouver and elsewhere, harm reduction programs do not exacerbate drug use and undermine treatment efforts and should thereby occupy a well-deserved space within the continuum of programs and services offered to people who inject drugs. PMID:24559062
Palamar, Joseph J; Kiang, Mathew V; Halkitis, Perry N
Religiosity is a protective factor against illicit drug use, but further investigation is needed to delineate which components of religiosity are protective against use. A racially diverse sample (N = 962) was surveyed about religiosity, exposure to users, and recent use of marijuana, powder cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of opioids and amphetamine. Results suggest that identifying as Agnostic increased odds of use for each of the five drugs; however, this effect disappeared when controlling for religious importance and attendance. High levels of religious attendance were protective against recent use of marijuana and cocaine, but protective effects diminished when controlling for exposure to users, which was a robust predictor of use of every drug. Religion is a protective mechanism against drug use, but this effect may diminish in light of exposure to users. Alternative preventative methods need to be directed toward individuals who are not religious or are highly exposed to users. PMID:23114835
van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Mougel, Jean-François; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Jorens, Philippe G; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian
Daily 24 hour composite influent wastewater samples were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of Brussels-North (Belgium) for eight months to study variations in the concentrations and mass loads of nine illicit drugs and metabolites: cocaine (COC) and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (METH), methadone (MTD) and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and the specific metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM). Samples were analyzed using a validated analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The selected compounds could be detected and quantified in all samples. The measured concentrations were in agreement with earlier published concentrations, when available. All illicit drugs showed significant differences in mass loads between months. Daily variations were observed for MDMA, AMP and COC and metabolites, with higher mass loads observed during the weekend. This is probably related to their recreational consumption pattern and was further confirmed when holiday periods (New Year's Eve, Belgian national holiday) were in detail investigated. For METH, 6-MAM, MTD and EDDP, stable and consistent amounts were observed during the week. In all samples, the ratio of the concentration of the parent compound to its metabolite(s) was calculated to evaluate whether measured concentrations reflect human excretion of the illicit drugs. For MTD, the ratio of parent compound/metabolite was in agreement with the excretion pattern, while for COC some deviations were observed, resulting from excretion pattern uncertainties, and stability and discharge issues. PMID:21331424
Background Surgeons are usually exposed to high workloads leading to fatigue and stress. This not only increases the likelihood of mistakes during surgery but also puts pressure on surgeons to use drugs to counteract fatigue, distress, concentration deficits, burnout or symptoms of depression. The prevalence of surgeons taking pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) or mood enhancement (ME) drugs has not been systematically assessed so far. Methods Surgeons who attended five international conferences in 2011 were surveyed with an anonymous self-report questionnaire (AQ) regarding the use of prescription or illicit drugs for CE and ME and factors associated with their use. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) was used in addition. The RRT guarantees a high degree of anonymity and confidentiality when a person is asked about stigmatizing issues, such as drug abuse. Results A total of 3,306 questionnaires were distributed and 1,145 entered statistical analysis (response rate: 36.4%). According to the AQ, 8.9% of all surveyed surgeons confessed to having used a prescription or illicit drug exclusively for CE at least once during lifetime. As one would expect, the prevalence rate assessed by RRT was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the AQ (19.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 15.9% to 23.9%, N = 1,105). An even larger discrepancy between the RRT and AQ was observed for the use of antidepressants with a 6-fold higher prevalence (15.1%; 95% CI, 11.3% to 19.0%, N = 1,099) as compared to 2.4% with the AQ. Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that pressure to perform at work (odds ratio (OR): 1.290; 95% CI, 1.000 to 1.666; P = 0.05) or in private life (OR: 1.266; 95% CI, 1.038 to 1.543; P = 0.02), and gross income (OR: 1.337; 95% CI, 1.091 to 1.640; P = 0.005), were positively associated with the use of drugs for CE or ME. Conclusions The use of illicit and prescription drugs for CE or ME is an underestimated phenomenon among surgeons which is
Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy. PMID:24869455
Pettenon, Márcia; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Guimarães, Luciano S. P.; Pedroso, Rosemeri Siqueira; Hauck, Simone; Pechansky, Flavio
Background & objectives: Evidence has suggested that parenting styles have peculiar characteristics in families with drug-related issues. This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of crack (smoke cocaine) users and non-users about parental bonding quality regarding care and control in Brazil. Methods: A total of 198 hospitalized crack users and 104 users of any non-illicit drug were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results: Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that crack users were more likely (ORadj = 9.68; 95% CI: 2.82, 33.20) to perceive neglectful mothers, as well as more likely (ORadj = 4.71, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.22) to perceive controlling and affectionless fathers in comparison with non-illicit drug users who were more likely to perceive optimal parenting. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that the perception of neglectful mothers and affectionless controlling fathers may be associated with the tendency of the children to be less resilient when facing stressful events, leading them to a greater risk to use crack. PMID:25109717
Tóth, Anita Réka; Varga, Tibor
Illicit and central nervous system active licit drug consumption related deaths are mainly the consequences of either unintentional or intentional overdose. According to the data in the relevant literature occurrences of different organ damages are also observable and this can play a role in death, as well. Organ damages may appear simultaneously with overdosing or can be extended in time, which may lead to proving the cause of death and establishing the relationships with previous medication difficult. The most frequent damage observed is rhabdomyolysis syndrome, which has been mainly described after cocaine or opium consumption. Authors present four cases from the autopsy documentation of the period between 2003 and 2008 at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary in which illicit drug consumption or neuroleptic licit drug medication resulted in development of myocardium and striated muscle damage. The dominant clinical symptoms were hyperthermia, renal and circulatory failure. The laboratory tests showed renal and liver insufficiency; in addition the CK and CK-MB level increase suggested damage in striated muscles. The focal myocardium and striated muscle damage could be assessed as the cause of death in one case, but microscopic investigation proved the presence of damage in each. PMID:19342269
Li, Xiaoming; And Others
Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…
Mackuľak, Tomáš; Skubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Ryba, Jozef; Birošová, Lucia; Fedorova, Ganna; Spalková, Viera; Bodík, Igor
The aim of this study was to analyze illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater from eight selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. The effect of two of the biggest music festivals in Slovakia on illicit drugs in wastewater was also investigated. Urinary bio-markers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabis and ecstasy use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We then compared our results with data obtained in other parts of Europe and the world. This study demonstrates that Slovakia has one of highest methamphetamine consumption rates in Europe. Within Slovakia, the highest level of methamphetamine consumption was found in Petržalka, where the mean specific load of this drug in sewage was 169 mg/day/1000 inhabitants; the next highest loads were detected in Piešťany (128 mg/day/1000 inhabitants) and Bratislava (124 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Amphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis consumption in our study were comparable to that found in other European cities, whereas cocaine consumption was lower. We also analyzed the pattern of drug consumption over the course of a week. The load of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in wastewater increased during the weekend. The use of this drug was most common in the capital of Slovakia. Increased consumption was also found during a folk festival in Piešťany. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend. An increase of drug consumption was also detected during a music festival in Trenčín, especially for ecstasy. The specific load of ecstasy during this festival increased from 3mg/day/1000 inhabitants to 29 mg/day/1000 inhabitants. The possible influence of music styles on the consumption of certain drugs was also observed. During a folk festival, methamphetamine and cocaine were more commonly used. PMID:25046607
Linas, Beth S.; Latkin, Carl; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Chang, Larry W.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Genz, Andrew; Kirk, Gregory D.
Aims To understand the environmental and contextual influences of illicit cocaine and heroin use and craving using mobile health (mHealth) methods. Design Interactive mHealth methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) were utilized in the Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study to assess drug use and craving among urban drug users in real time. Participants were provided with mobile devices and asked to self-report every time they either craved (without using) or used heroin or cocaine for 30 days from November 2008 through May 2013. Setting Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants A total of 109 participants from the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study. Measurements For each drug use or craving event, participants answered questions concerning their drug use, current mood and their social, physical and activity environments. Odds ratios (OR) of drug use versus craving were obtained from logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations of all reported events. Findings Participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male and 59% HIV-infected. Participants were significantly more likely to report use rather than craving drugs if they were with someone who was using drugs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.86), in an abandoned space (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.78, 24.84) or walking/wandering (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.54). Craving drugs was associated with being with a child (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.59), eating (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.85) or being at the doctor’s office (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.80). Conclusions There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions. PMID:25311241
Background Incorrect perceptions of high rates of peer alcohol and tobacco use are predictive of increased personal use in student populations. Correcting misperceptions by providing feedback has been shown to be an effective intervention for reducing licit drug use. It is currently unknown if social norms interventions are effective in preventing and reducing illicit drug use in European students. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-site cluster controlled trial of a web-based social norms intervention aimed at reducing licit and preventing illicit drug use in European university students. Methods/Design An online questionnaire to assess rates of drug use will be developed and translated based on existing social norms surveys. Students from sixteen universities in seven participating European countries will be invited to complete the questionnaire. Both intervention and control sites will be chosen by convenience. In each country, the intervention site will be the university that the local principal investigator is affiliated with. We aim to recruit 1000 students per site (baseline assessment). All participants will complete the online questionnaire at baseline. Baseline data will be used to develop social norms messages that will be included in a web-based intervention. The intervention group will receive individualized social norms feedback. The website will remain online during the following 5 months. After five months, a second survey will be conducted and effects of the intervention on social norms and drug use will be measured in comparison to the control site. Discussion This project is the first cross-national European collaboration to investigate the feasibility of a social norms intervention to reduce licit and prevent illicit drug use among European university students. Final trial registration number DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’. PMID:23075043
Hodges, Colin M.; Akhavan, Jacqueline
For routine identification of forensic samples many techniques are employed. These include ultraviolet spectrophotometry, combined gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy together with high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Conventional Raman spectroscopy is not routinely used by forensic laboratories for the identification of drugs and explosives because of high background scatter and time consuming sample alignment. One way of overcoming these problems is to use the newly developed technique of Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Here negligible sample alignment is required, and there is reduced sample fluorescence. FTR spectra were recorded of pure and contaminated illicit drug samples, together with some explosive materials. Identification of an unknown explosive (Semtex) was also conducted. FTR provides a simple and satisfactory method of identifying certain drugs and explosives. The technique is non-destructive, utilizing small samples with no sample preparation being required.
Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin
In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.
Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use. PMID:20102394
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe trends since 2000 in young people's use of illegal/illicit drugs in Britain, and to place these into a longer-term context alongside recent theorising on youthful drug taking. The implications for health educators are to be examined. Design/methodology/approach: A selective narrative review of…
Young, N K
Children are affected by alcohol and other drug use along three primary paths: in utero through the mother's use, environmentally through both family and community influences, and through their own use. Children who are prenatally exposed are put at risk both through physiological insults and through caregiving deficits in their immediate family. The number of cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in the western world has been estimated at 0.33 cases per 1,000 live births; 200 babies are born with FAS per year in California. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimates that 7.62 million babies (18.6%) were exposed to alcohol during gestation. Current prevalence estimates show about 28.6 million children of alcoholics in the United States, while in California it is estimated that about 17.6% of children lived with a parent who used illegal substances during the past year. Although all the prenatal effects of alcohol are not known, it is clear that there is no safe amount of alcohol to be consumed during pregnancy. There is little consensus, however, on long-term effects from in utero exposure alone because of the influence of adverse environmental factors; prenatal exposure is usually not the final influence, but is reinforced by years of neglect, deprivation, negative behavioral models, and other adverse conditions. And although society places most emphasis upon the negative effects of illicit substances, use of alcohol is strongly associated with crime and family violence. The consequences of use of alcohol and tobacco are more costly to society in terms of health care, accidents, days of work lost, and other social costs. PMID:9110264
Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Binelli, Andrea
Despite the growing interest on the presence of illicit drugs in freshwater ecosystems, just recently the attention has been focused on their potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic species. However, these studies largely neglected the effects induced by exposure to complex mixtures of illicit drugs, which could be different compared to those caused by single psychoactive molecules. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic damage induced by a 14-day exposure to a realistic mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in surface waters worldwide (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, morphine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The mixture caused a significant increase of DNA fragmentation and triggered the apoptotic process and micronuclei formation in zebra mussel hemocytes, pointing out its potential genotoxicity towards this bivalve species. PMID:27261879
Bailey, Beth A; McCook, Judy G; Hodge, Alexis; McGrady, Lana
Poor birth outcomes are associated with illicit drug use during pregnancy. While prenatal cigarette exposure has similar effects, cessation of illicit drug use during pregnancy is often prioritized over cessation of smoking. The study goal was to examine the impact of pregnancy tobacco use, relative to use of illicit drugs, on birth outcomes. Women were recruited at entry to prenatal care, with background and substance use information collected during pregnancy. Urine drug screens were performed during pregnancy, and the final sample (n = 265) was restricted to infants who also had biologic drug testing at delivery. Participants were classified by pregnancy drug use: no drugs/no cigarettes, no drugs/cigarette use, illicit drugs/no cigarettes, and illicit drugs/cigarette use. Groups differed significantly on infant birthweight, but not gestational age at delivery after control for confounders including background and medical factors. Among women who smoked, the adjusted mean birthweight gain was 163 g for those not using hard illicit drugs, while marijuana use had no effect on birth weight beyond the effect of smoking cigarettes. Women who used hard illicit drugs and did not smoke had an adjusted mean birthweight gain of 317 g over smokers. Finally, women who refrained from hard illicit drugs and smoking had a birthweight gain of 352 g. Among substance using pregnant women, smoking cessation may have a greater impact on birthweight than eliminating illicit drug use. Intervention efforts should stress that smoking cessation is at least as important to improving pregnancy outcomes as abstaining from illicit drug use. PMID:21424740
van Amsterdam, J G C; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; de Wolff, F A
The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering medical, health, legal, and criminalistic issues of the drugs. After this face-to-face discussion the drugs were scored again. Taking the assessment of ketamine as an example, it appeared that each expert used its own scale to score, and that policymakers do not score deviant from experts trained in the medical-biological field. Of the five drugs evaluated by the panel, p-methoxy-metamphetamine (PMMA), gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and 4-methylthio-amphetamine (MTA) were assessed as more adverse than ketamine and psilocine and psilocybine-containing mushrooms. Whereas some experts slightly adjusted during the assessment procedure their opinion on ketamine and PMMA, the opinion on mushrooms was not affected by the discussion held between the two scoring rounds. All experts rank the five drugs in a similar way on the adverse effect scale i.e., concordance scale of the Electre model, indicating unanimity in the expert panel with respect to the risk classification of these abused drugs. PMID:14746774
Bijlsma, Lubertus; Serrano, Roque; Ferrer, Carlos; Tormos, Isabel; Hernández, Félix
In this work, a study on the occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water systems has been made. A comprehensive dataset was obtained by analyzing illicit drugs daily in influent and effluent waters from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), over three different weeks. To complete this dataset, monitoring was conducted during an international pop/rock festival, an interesting facet within this study. The STPs selected were sited along the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Castellón province, Valencia region) and represent towns of different sizes, with appreciable variations in the population in the summer period. Illicit drug concentrations in the influents were low, except during the celebration of the music festival, when the levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, MDA and MDMA increased. Comparing the influent and effluent concentration data allowed the rough estimation of the removal of illicit drugs and metabolites by each STP. Removal efficiencies were estimated between 75 and 100% for most of the analytes under investigation. The loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem were also calculated from effluent data. Weekly discharges of drugs and metabolites via effluent sewage waters presented values commonly below 10 g for each individual drug, with the exception of benzoylecgonine, which usually exceeded this level. The increase in population and drug consumption during the music event led to a notable increase in the weekly discharges, reaching values up to 406 g of MDMA and 122 g of benzoylecgonine. PMID:24342491
Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, Paul; Gartner, Coral; Thai, Phong; Carter, Steve; Lloyd, Belinda; Burns, Lucy; Mueller, Jochen
Obtaining representative information on illicit drug use and patterns across a country remains difficult using surveys because of low response rates and response biases. A range of studies have used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a complementary approach to monitor community-wide illicit drug use. In Australia, no large-scale WBE studies have been conducted to date to reveal illicit drug use profiles in a national context. In this study, we performed the first Australia-wide WBE monitoring to examine spatial patterns in the use of three illicit stimulants (cocaine, as its human metabolite benzoylecgonine; methamphetamine; and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)). A total of 112 daily composite wastewater samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment plants across four states and two territories. These covered approximately 40% of the Australian population. We identified and quantified illicit drug residues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There were distinctive spatial patterns of illicit stimulant use in Australia. Multivariate analyses showed that consumption of cocaine and MDMA was higher in the large cities than in rural areas. Also, cocaine consumption differed significantly between different jurisdictions. Methamphetamine consumption was more similar between urban and rural locations. Only a few cities had elevated levels of use. Extrapolation of the WBE estimates suggested that the annual consumption was 3tonnes for cocaine and 9tonnes combined for methamphetamine and MDMA, which outweighed the annual seizure amount by 25 times and 45 times, respectively. These ratios imply the difficulty of detecting the trafficking of these stimulants in Australia, possibly more so for methamphetamine than cocaine. The obtained spatial pattern of use was compared with that in the most recent national household survey. Together both WBE and survey methods provide a more comprehensive evaluation of drug use that can assist
Amigó Tadín, Montserrat
Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries. PMID:16493852
Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S
Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of
Scherer, Michael; Trenz, Rebecca; Harrell, Paul; Mauro, Pia; Latimer, William
Objectives The current study examined how drinking severity among injection and non-injection drug users is associated with sex risk behaviors and risk of HIV exposure. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of an investigation of risk factors among drug users in Baltimore known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study. Participants (N = 557) completed an interview, self-reported 30-day alcohol use, lifetime injection and non-injection drug use, and provided blood samples to screen for HIV. Participants were grouped into one of three drinking severity conditions: Abstinent (no reported alcohol use in prior 30-days), Moderate Alcohol Use (≤30 drinks for females, or ≤ 60 drinks for males), or Problematic Alcohol Use (>30 drinks for females, or >60 drinks for males). Drinking severity groups were significantly different on lifetime injection drug use, heroin injection, snorting/sniffing cocaine, and smoking crack. Results Logistic regression analyses found problematic alcohol users to be more likely than alcohol abstainers to inject drugs before or during sex (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.07-16.10), and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI = 2.09-11.81), inject drugs before/during sex (AOR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.29-6.80) and to be HIV+ among Black participants (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.14-6.49). Conclusions These results outline the necessity for research and clinical intervention among this population to reduce sex risk behaviors and potential HIV exposure, while highlighting the need to examine drinking severity as a predictor of sex risk behaviors. PMID:23617865
Esse, Katherine; Fossati-Bellani, Marco; Traylor, Angela; Martin-Schild, Sheryl
Drug abuse robs individuals of their jobs, their families, and their free will as they succumb to addiction; but may cost even more: a life of disability or even life lost due to stroke. Many illicit drugs have been linked to major cardiovascular events and other comorbidities, including cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and marijuana. This review focuses on available epidemiological data, mechanisms of action, particularly those leading to cerebrovascular events, and it is based on papers published in English in PubMed during 1950 through February 2011. Each drug's unique interactions with the brain and vasculature predispose even young, healthy people to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Cocaine and amphetamines have the strongest association with stroke. However, the level of evidence firmly linking other drugs to stroke pathogenesis is weak. Large epidemiological studies and systematic evaluation of each drug's action on the brain and cardiovascular system are needed to reveal the full impact of drug use on the population. PMID:22398980
Verweij, A M
Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). PMID:26267375
Even though a body of data on the environmental occurrence of medicinal, government-approved ("ethical") pharmaceuticals has been growing over the last two decades (the subject of this book), nearly nothing is known about the disposition of illicit (illegal) drugs in the environm...
Barton, Mark D; Qureshi, Amir; Vijapura, Anita; Temple, H Thomas
This study assessed the relationship of non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis. In a retrospective review of 986 donor charts recovered from 2009 to 2011 at a single tissue bank, the absence of reported non-injected illicit drug use corresponded with seropositivity in 6.61 %, of recovered donors while reported illicit drug use in the medical and social history corresponded with seropositivity in 11.25 %, representing a 70 % increased risk. There was no significant difference noted for overall seropositivity rates between types on noninjected illicit drugs, although donors that used cocaine had a higher incidence of HIV, while marijuana use was associated with a higher rate of HBV, HCV, and syphilis positivity. Toxicology screening results were not an accurate predictor of seropositivity (PPV = 3.77 %; NPV = 91.56 %). Further, the degree of relationship between the donor and the next of kin had no bearing on the veracity of actual drug use when comparing the response of the medical-social history and the toxicology screen. PMID:26006785
... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...
Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.
The full 2010 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975;2010: Volume I, Secondary School Students". That monograph contains a description of MTF's design and purposes, as well as extended reporting on substance use of all kinds, licit and illicit, and a number of related factors such as…
Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Birošová, Lucia
We analyzed 13 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent and the possibility of their degradation by biological and chemical processes. Tramadol (413-853 ng/L) and methamphetamine (460-682 ng/L) were the most concentrated compounds in the wastewater in winter and summer, respectively. A significant decrease in the concentration of tramadol in wastewater was measured during the summer. The lowest efficiency was observed for tramadol, venlafaxine, citalopram and oxazepam (∼ 10%) and the highest efficiency was observed for amphetamine and THC-COOH (∼ 80%). The efficiency of compound degradation via the Fenton reaction, a modified Fenton reaction and different degradation (by algae, wood-rotting fungi and enzymes at influent versus effluent) was determined. The Fenton reaction and its modification were efficient at eliminating these substances in comparison with the tested biological processes. PMID:25680092
Scott, Katherine; Fagermo, Narelle; Callaway, Leonie; Lust, Karin
We present the case of a 20-year-old student with an undiagnosed pregnancy who had taken ecstasy and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide). Twenty-four hours later she delivered a stillborn term infant, and subsequently developed eclampsia with seizures, hypertension and proteinuria. Illicit drug use is relatively common in women of child-bearing age in Australia, and is a risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Ecstasy (MDMA [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine]) is a sympathomimetic amine, similar to amphetamine in its cardiovascular effects. LSD is a hallucinogen with complex pharmacology and has potential for significant compromise of placental blood flow. We propose that the combined vasoconstrictive effects of MDMA and LSD caused placental ischaemia, contributing to the fetal death and precipitating a cascade of endothelial dysfunction which resulted in an eclamptic syndrome.
Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon
Background Nearly two million school-aged children in US are currently homeschooled. This study seeks to examine homeschooled adolescents’ attitudes toward, access to, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) compared to their non-homeschooled peers. Methods The study uses data between 2002 and 2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for school-attending respondents aged 12–17 (n = 200,824). Participants were questioned regarding peer use of licit and illicit substances, ease of accessing illicit substances, and past 12-month substance use. Survey adjusted binary logistic regression analyses were systematically executed to compare non-homeschooled adolescents with homeschooled adolescents with respect to views toward, access to, and use of substances. Results Findings indicate that homeschooled adolescents were significantly more likely to strongly disapprove of their peers drinking (AOR = 1.23) and trying (AOR = 1.47) and routinely using (AOR = 1.59) marijuana. Homeschooled adolescents were significantly less likely to report using tobacco (AOR = 0.76), alcohol (AOR = 0.50), cannabis (AOR = 0.56) and other illicit drugs and to be diagnosed with an alcohol (AOR = 0.65) or marijuana (AOR = 0.60) use disorder. Finally, homeschooled adolescents were also less likely to report easier access to illicit drugs and to be approached by someone trying to sell drugs compared to non-homeschooled peers. Conclusions Homeschooled adolescents’ views, access, use and abuse of ATOD are uniquely different from those of non-homeschooled adolescents. Findings point to the need to more extensively examine the underlying mechanisms that may account for these differences. PMID:26338482
Leiva Diaz, Viriam; Vasters, Gabriela Pereira; da Costa, Moacyr Lobo
The aim of this quantitative, descriptive, transversal study was to characterize drug use among students in the second year of the Nursing Degree course. The sample of 119 students answered a questionnaire divided into: general information, sociodemographic, economic, personal, familiar, sociocultural and drug usage. The study showed that students possess factors that protect them from drug usage and the acquisition of drug habits; but that they also have risk factors which must be taken into consideration in prevention programs, such as unhealthy life styles or drug abusage in people close to them (family, friends or classmates). We found that the profile of drugs used, containing both legal and illegal drugs, was similar to those in the national and international context. It is important to emphasize that even though the consumption of alcohol and tobacco occupy the highest places, in the student environment as well as nationally, these are not considered as problematic as the illegal drugs. PMID:20694426
Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.
Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203
Baker, David R; Barron, Leon; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
This paper presents, for the first time, community-wide estimation of drug and pharmaceuticals consumption in England using wastewater analysis and a large number of compounds. Among groups of compounds studied were: stimulants, hallucinogens and their metabolites, opioids, morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and others. Obtained results showed the usefulness of wastewater analysis in order to provide estimates of local community drug consumption. It is noticeable that where target compounds could be compared to NHS prescription statistics, good comparisons were apparent between the two sets of data. These compounds include oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, methadone, tramadol, temazepam and diazepam. Whereas, discrepancies were observed for propoxyphene, codeine, dosulepin and venlafaxine (over-estimations in each case except codeine). Potential reasons for discrepancies include: sales of drugs sold without prescription and not included within NHS data, abuse of a drug with the compound trafficked through illegal sources, different consumption patterns in different areas, direct disposal leading to over estimations when using parent compound as the drug target residue and excretion factors not being representative of the local community. It is noticeable that using a metabolite (and not a parent drug) as a biomarker leads to higher certainty of obtained estimates. With regard to illicit drugs, consistent and logical results were reported. Monitoring of these compounds over a one week period highlighted the expected recreational use of many of these drugs (e.g. cocaine and MDMA) and the more consistent use of others (e.g. methadone). PMID:24377678
Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C.
Background The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. Methods We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative US sample of high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011–2013; Weighted N= 7,373). Results One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p < .0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps < .0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps < .0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of “club drugs.” Discussion Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. PMID:26005041
... ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our... publication in the Federal Register at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background The law...
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.
This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…
Galanter, Marc, Ed.
This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…
Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P
The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV who have a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512
Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; O’Grady, Catherine L.; Kurtz, Steven P.
The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV with a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512
Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.
Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531
Hueza, Isis M; Ponce, Fernando; Garcia, Raphael C T; Marcourakis, Tânia; Yonamine, Maurício; Mantovani, Cínthia de C; Kirsten, Thiago B
The use of smoked illicit drugs has spread dramatically, but few studies use proper devices to expose animals to inhalational abused drugs despite the availability of numerous smoking devices that mimic tobacco exposure in rodents. Therefore, the present study developed an inexpensive device to easily expose laboratory animals to smoked drugs. We used crack cocaine as the drug of abuse, and the cocaine plasma levels and the behaviors of animals intoxicated with the crack cocaine were evaluated to prove inhaled drug absorption and systemic activity. We developed an acrylic device with two chambers that were interconnected and separated by a hatch. Three doses of crack (100, 250, or 500 mg), which contained 63.7% cocaine, were burned in a pipe, and the rats were exposed to the smoke for 5 or 10 min (n=5/amount/period). Exposure to the 250-mg dose for 10 min achieved cocaine plasma levels that were similar to those of users (170 ng/mL). Behavioral evaluations were also performed to validate the methodology. Rats (n=10/group) for these evaluations were exposed to 250 mg of crack cocaine or air for 10 min, twice daily, for 28 consecutive days. Open-field evaluations were performed at three different periods throughout the experimental design. Exposed animals exhibited transient anorexia, increased motor activity, and shorter stays in central areas of the open field, which suggests reduced anxiety. Therefore, the developed model effectively exposed animals to crack cocaine, and this model may be useful for the investigation of other inhalational abused drugs. PMID:26391341
McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. PMID:26618807
Hays, Patrick A
A rapid, sensitive, accurate, precise, reproducible, and versatile method for determining the purity of reference drug standards and the routine analysis of illicit drugs and adulterants using proton (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy is presented. The methodology uses a weighed sample dissolved in a deuterated solvent or solvent mixture containing a high purity internal standard. The NMR experiment employs 8 scans using a 45 second delay and 90 degrees pulse. In the determination of purity of reference standards, the number of quantitative determinations available is equal to the number of peak groups that are baseline resolved. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of these signals is usually < 1% for pure standards, and the results agree well with other purity determining methods. This method can also aid in the determination of correct molecular weight for standards containing an unknown number of waters of hydration or an unknown number of acids per drug in salts. Because the molar response for the hydrogen nucleus is 1 for all compounds, and since no separation media are used, only one linearity study is required to test a probe. In the presented study, the linearity of the NMR probe was determined using methamphetamine HCl dissolved in deuterium oxide (D2O) with maleic acid as the internal standard (5 mg) for a range of concentrations from 0.033 to 69.18 mg/ml with a resulting correlation coefficient of >0.9999 for all 6 methamphetamine peak groups. The spectra of complex illicit heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine samples are presented, as well as an extensive list of compounds, their solubilities and the solvent(s) and internal standard used. PMID:16382828
Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason
This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…
Nagler, N A
The Pompidou Group was set up in 1971 to provide a forum for exchanging views and concerting action in Western Europe in response to the growing drugs problem. Until 1979 it had no formal status, but in 1980 the Group became part of the Council of Europe with member States being free to choose whether to join or not. Its initial membership of six countries has expanded to 16 members. Every two to three years, ministers from member countries meet to review the work of the Group and to set a new programme of activities. Government officials (Permanent Correspondents) then meet to further the programme by arranging meetings, working groups, seminars, symposia and related activities of experts in particular fields. The Group has considered a wide variety of topics of general interest, which included: European cooperation in the control of drug traffic; problems connected with drug addicts in prison; the care of hard-core addicts; problems related to the staffing of treatment and rehabilitation services; the development of administrative monitoring systems for the assessment of public health and social problems related to drug misuse; drug trafficking on the high seas; the role of the criminal justice system in responding to the needs of drug misusers; methods of reaching young people particularly at risk; problems concerning women and drugs; control services at major European airports; cannabis misuse in Europe; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among drug misusers; and consideration of elements for inclusion in a new United Nations convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. PMID:3620762
Evgenidou, Eleni N; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) along with illicit drugs (IDs) are newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants and are receiving considerable attention because of their environmental impacts: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. However, relatively little information is often available with regard to their possible biotic and abiotic transformation products (TPs). This lack of knowledge has resulted in a substantial amount of ongoing effort to develop methods and approaches that would assess their occurrence, degradability potential elimination mechanisms and efficiencies in sewage treatment plants as well as environmental and human health risks. In this article, an extensive literature survey was performed in order to present the current stage of knowledge and progress made in the occurrence of TPs of PPCPs and IDs in raw and treated wastewaters. Apart from the TPs resulting from structural transformations of the parent compound in the aquatic environment or in technological treatment facilities (e.g. sewage and drinking water treatment plants), free metabolites and drug conjugates formed during human metabolism have also been included in this review as they are also released into the aquatic environment through wastewaters. Their concentration levels were reported in influents and effluents of WWTPs, hospital effluents and their removals in the treatment plants were discussed. Finally, information on the toxicity of TPs has been compiled when available. PMID:25461093
This document contains the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on the use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors. In this Resolution, the General Assembly recalls previous resolutions adopted to fight illicit drugs, expresses alarm at the fact that drug dealers are using children to further their illicit activities and at the increasing number of drug-addicted children, and refers to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the upcoming Convention on the Rights of the Child. Based on this, the UN condemns all forms of drug trafficking, especially those which involve children; urges states to establish programs to protect children from drugs; invites member states with the most urgent problems to adopt additional measures; calls for suitably severe punishment of drug-trafficking crimes that involve children; urges all organizations to place high priority on the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in children; asks international agencies and the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control to give financial support to such programs; and asks the UN Department of Pubic Information of the Secretariat to publish information designed to prevent drug use in children. PMID:12289144
Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan
The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one
Wang, De-Gao; Zheng, Qiu-Da; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Juan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Wang, Zhuang; Ge, Lin-Ke
Illicit drugs and their metabolites have recently been recognized as an emerging group of contaminants due to their potential ecotoxicological impact in aquatic ecosystems. To date, information on the occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment of China remains limited. In this study, we collected surface water samples from 36 rivers in north China that discharge into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea and measured the concentrations of amphetamine-like compounds, ketamines, cocainics, and opioids. The occurrence and spatial patterns of these substances show significant differences between the rivers and regions. Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples (detection frequency of 92 and 69 %). The concentrations of METH and KET ranged from <0.1 to 42.0 ng L(-1) (mean = 4.53 ng L(-1)) and <0.05 to 4.50 ng L(-1) (mean = 0.49 ng L(-1)), respectively. The high detection frequencies of METH and KET are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. The high concentrations of these illicit drugs and their metabolites were found in areas that have a high population density. The riverine input of total illicit drugs into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea was estimated to be in the range of 684 to 1160 kg per year. PMID:27167374
Guinan, T M; Kirkbride, P; Della Vedova, C B; Kershaw, S G; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H
Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high throughput analytical technique capable of detecting low molecular weight analytes, including illicit drugs, and with potential applications in forensic toxicology as well as athlete and workplace testing, particularly for biological fluids (oral fluids, urine and blood). However, successful detection of illicit drugs using SALDI-MS often requires extraction steps to reduce the inherent complexity of biological fluids. Here, we demonstrate an all-in-one extraction and analytical system consisting of hydrophobically functionalized porous silicon microparticles (pSi-MPs) for affinity SALDI-MS of prescription and illicit drugs. This novel approach allows for the analysis of drugs from multiple biological fluids without sample preparation protocols. The effect of pSi-MP size, pore diameter, pore depth and functionalization on analytical performance is investigated. pSi-MPs were optimized for the rapid and high sensitivity detection of methadone, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This optimized system allowed extraction and detection of methadone from spiked saliva and clinical urine samples. Furthermore, by detecting oxycodone in additional clinical saliva and plasma samples, we were able to demonstrate the versatility of the pSi-MP SALDI-MS technique. PMID:26502296
Massachusetts Univ., Amherst.
This group of documents describe the University of Massachusetts/Amherst's (UMA) drug and alcohol prevention program. The Alcohol Education Program sheet describes the program's goal and objectives, lists educational programs, media efforts, community development projects and discusses assistance and referral policy. Another document states the…
Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J
The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. PMID:25217552
McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina
Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…
Background Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use. Methods We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients’ first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems. Results The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n = 519) were homeless, 54% (n = 1363) were unemployed and 7% (n = 183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n = 1258) were self-referred and 31% (n = 788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n = 630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n = 1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.50–2.30) and psychological problems (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.23–1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.32–11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.58–6.65). Conclusion The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients’ treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of
Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are
Rajs, Jovan; Petersson, Anna; Thiblin, Ingemar; Olsson-Mortlock, Caroline; Fredriksson, Ake; Eksborg, Staffan
Autopsy investigations, toxicological analyses, and calculation of body mass index were performed in 1180 deceased illicit drug addicts (IDAs) in Stockholm. Sweden during 1988-2000, i.e., during a period of time when the general population in numerous countries showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight. Nutritional deficit in IDAs has been pointed out as a threat to their health as well as to their quality of life. The prevalence of overweight in deceased IDAs increased from 27.4% in 1988 to 45.5% in 2000. The prevalence of overweight among all heroin users, heroin injectors, methadone, cocaine, and amphetamine users was 36.0, 38.4, 43.1, 45.0 and 50.9%, respectively, the lowest prevalence being among users of cannabis alone and HIV-positive IDAs (22.0 and 16.1%, respectively). In conclusion, Stockholm's IDAs are affected by the past decade's dramatically increased prevalence of overweight, at least to the same degree as the general population. The increased body weight seems not to influence the danger of dying upon heroin administration. PMID:15027554
Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna
The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952
Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi
Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking. PMID:24914526
Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006
This report provides an analysis of recent findings on drug and alcohol use trends among girls. Data indicate that girls have caught up with boys in illicit drug and alcohol use and have actually surpassed boys in cigarette and prescription drug use. Also, more girls than boys are new users of substances. Marijuana is the illicit drug most widely…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...
Gerrity, Daniel; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A
Diurnal variations in wastewater flows are common phenomena related to peak water use periods. However, few studies have examined high-resolution temporal variability in trace organic contaminant (TOrC) concentrations and loadings. Even fewer have assessed the impacts of a special event or holiday. This study characterizes the temporal variability associated with a major sporting event using flow data and corresponding mass loadings of a suite of prescription pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and illicit drugs. Wastewater influent and finished effluent samples were collected during the National Football League's Super Bowl, which is a significant weekend for tourism in the study area. Data from a baseline weekend is also provided to illustrate flows and TOrC loadings during "normal" operational conditions. Some compounds exhibited interesting temporal variations (e.g., atenolol), and several compounds demonstrated different loading profiles during the Super Bowl and baseline weekends (e.g., the primary cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine). Interestingly, the influent mass loadings of prescription pharmaceuticals were generally similar in magnitude to those of the illicit drugs and their metabolites. However, conventional wastewater treatment was more effective in removing the illicit drugs and their metabolites. Total influent and effluent mass loadings are also provided to summarize treatment efficacy and environmental discharges. PMID:21920575
Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J
Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840
Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J
Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840
Psychotropic drugs have been overly prescribed for women of all ages for all manner of symptoms. Patients' and physicians' expectations about appropriate diagnosis and treatment, combined with the relative invisibility of women's alcohol and legal and illicit drug use, can lead to quick but temporary prescription solutions that may put women at risk for multiple addictions. This is a special problem for adolescent, minority, and elderly women, about whom we know little yet hold strong stereotypes. Moreover, while prescriptions may alleviate patients' symptoms, they do little to correct the underlying situation. Physicians are encouraged to review their prescribing habits and to learn more about their women patients' use of alcohol, cigarettes, previously prescribed medications, and recreational drugs, as well as a tendency to self-medicate. Physicians should also have available alternative strategies to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Images PMID:3074574
Walters, G D
A quantitative review of the substance abuse literature revealed a mean general prevalence of spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs abuse of 26.2% when a broad definition of remission was employed and 18.2% when a narrow definition was implemented. From the results of this review, it was concluded that few meaningful differences exist between spontaneous remitters and persons who either continue misusing substances or remit through treatment on pre-remission measures of prior drug involvement. Of the factors cited by self-remitters as important in facilitating their desistance from substances, the present review found that health concerns, pressure from friends and family, and extraordinary events were instrumental in initiating spontaneous remission, while social support, non-drug-using friendships, willpower, and identity transformation were pivotal in maintaining change. Evidence is presented to indicate that spontaneous remission from alcohol and illicit drugs and spontaneous remission from tobacco smoking may differ in several key respects. PMID:10976668
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Treno, Andrew J.; Lascala, Elizabeth A.
This study examines the spatial relationship between drug availability and rates of drug use in neighborhood areas. Responses from 16,083 individuals were analyzed at the zip code level (n = 158) and analyses were conducted separately for youth and adults using spatial regression techniques. The dependent variable is the percentage of respondents…
Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimita
Objectives Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Methods Data from recent-marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted N=6,481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Results Using “to experiment” decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana “to experiment” decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for “insight” increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to “boredom” increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. Conclusions This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs. PMID:26115351
Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Aguilar-Moya, Remedios; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Zarza, María J; Aguilar-Serrano, Julia
The aim of this study was to develop an exploratory approach to characterizing the pattern of recreational abuse of alcohol and other drugs abuse at Christmas work dinners. An adaptation of the rapid assessment methodology RARE was carried out through the combination of quantitative (rapid assessment surveys, n=444) and qualitative (observations and semistructured interviews, n=8) techniques. The fieldwork was carried out at 13 restaurants in Valencia and Alicante (Spain) in December 2007. In general we observed a marked increase in the use of alcohol and other substances compared to the rest of the year, though restaurant staff perceived a decrease in alcohol abuse attributable to new road traffic legislation. Cocaine is perceived as the illicit substance most widely used at such events. Younger coworkers initiate older ones in the use of illicit drugs, and the the latter may use this behaviour as a means of feeling younger and more uninhibited. Christmas work dinners propitiate a recreational substance-use pattern that requires adapted preventive and restrictive interventions, such as the introduction of suitable transport initiatives and the restriction of alcohol serving hours. PMID:19578730
Nicklin, Julie L.
U.S. Department of Education (DOE) data showed a 1999 increase in drug and alcohol arrests on college campuses. Also, the number of reported sex offenses rose by 6 percent from 1998-99. Some experts question the validity of the year-to-year comparisons and the DOE data. Presents statistics on sex offenses, drug use, and drinking and football. (SM)
Dunn, Richard E., Ed.
This student workbook for the Georgia Alcohol and Drug Awareness Program consists of four sessions with two parts each. The first part of each session parallels and elaborates material taught in class, while the second part consists of an outline to facilitate taking notes in class. The first session deals with the relationship of drugs and…
Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey
Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.
This document presents an alcohol supplement to New York's Drug Education Curriculum. The supplement is designed to address the unique circumstances that distinguish educational strategies about alcohol from those applied to other drugs. Section I, Introduction, describes the strategy suggested by this document as being based on health promotion,…
Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215
Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215
... illegally shipped chemicals. West Africa Although no West African country is currently listed as a major... drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime organizations based in Latin... estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale...
Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.
Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.
Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Barcelo, Damia
A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of 20 abused and illicit drugs and their metabolites in sewage sludge has been developed and validated. To the authors' knowledge, nine out of the 20 selected analytes, namely, cocaethylene, ephedrine, heroin, alprazolam, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and the cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD), are investigated for the first time in this matrix. In the optimized approach, freeze-dried sewage sludge samples were extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were further cleaned-up by solid phase extraction. Analytes were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Method limits of quantification were below 3.3ng/g d.w. for all compounds but cannabinoids (8.2-22.5ng/g d.w.). Method repeatability was below 14% for most compounds. Overall method recoveries were low due to the presence of matrix interferences that could not be completely eliminated and suppressed the ionization of the target analytes between 26% and 89%. However, extraction losses and matrix effects were satisfactorily corrected through the use of isotopically labeled analogs as surrogate standards, ensuring reliable results. The method was applied to the analysis of various sewage sludge samples. Cannabinoids, methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) were the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds, showing maximum concentrations above 100ng/g d.w. in all cases (up to 579ng/g d.w. in the case of THC). This work is the first evidence of the presence of the cannabinoids CBN, CBD, and THC in sewage sludge. PMID:24275487
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Beynon, Caryl M; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Tiihonen, Jari; Föhr, Jaana; Kuikanmäki, Outi; Paasolainen, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi
Illicit drug use is associated with various health problems that result in inpatient hospital admissions. The primary objective of this study was to examine all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations by gender. The cohort comprised 4817 drug users (3365 males and 1452 females) who sought treatment in Helsinki between 1997 and 2008. Data on hospitalizations that occurred among these clients were extracted from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Crude hospitalization rates (CHRs) and standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and Kaplan-Meier analysis with Log-Rank test was used to compare survival in terms of time to hospitalization between males and females. At the end of the follow-up period, 84.5% of females and 73.3% of male clients were hospitalized at least once. Female clients had higher CHR (607.6/1000 person-years, 95%CI: 594.1-621.4) than males (511.0/1000, 95% CI: 502.9-519.3), and had significantly poorer survival than males (Log-Rank test, P<0.001). However, male clients stayed longer on admission than females (mean length of stay 70.2days versus 60.7days respectively, P<0.001). Compared to the national rates, excess hospitalizations were noted in both males (SHR=6.3, 95% CI: 6.2-6.4) and female clients (SHR=4.3, 95% CI: 4.2-4.4). Based upon primary discharge diagnosis, the leading causes of hospitalizations included psychosis (n=622), schizophrenia (n=604), depression (n=497), cardiovascular diseases (n=223), hepatitis C (n=116), HIV (n=81), and other types of hepatitis (n=45). Female clients were more likely than males to be admitted for hepatitis C infection (P<0.001) and depression (P<0.001). Male clients were more likely than females to be diagnosed with other types of hepatitis infections (P=0.032) and psychosis (P=0.035). Excess hospitalizations signify excessive utilization of health resources. Effective drug abuse treatment, gender-sensitive approaches, and regular health checks can
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...
... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...
... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.
Designed to provide instructors and students with reliable and scientifically validated information about alcohol and other drugs, this curriculum guide presents lessons in six major areas: (1) drugs and traffic safety; (2) alcohol: what it is and how it works; (3) alcohol: use, abuse, and moderation; (4) drugs other than alcohol: types, uses, and…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...
... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...
... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...
Joseph, Brenden; Kerr, Thomas; Puskas, Cathy M; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J
HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs typically achieve lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and experience higher rates of sub-optimal HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes. Given the dearth of longitudinal research into ART adherence dynamics, we sought to identify factors associated with transitioning into and out of optimal adherence to ART in a longitudinal study of HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment. Using data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-positive illicit drug users confidentially linked to comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment records, we estimated longitudinal factors associated with losing or gaining ≥95% adherence in the previous six months using two generalized linear mixed-effects models. Among 703 HIV-infected ART-exposed PWUD, becoming non-adherent was associated with periods of homelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.56-4.07), active injection drug use (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.56) and incarceration (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10-2.17). Periods of sex work (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.75) and injection drug use (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.77) were barriers to becoming optimally adherent. Methadone maintenance therapy was associated with becoming optimally adherent (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.50-2.33) and was protective against becoming non-adherent (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41-0.65). In conclusion, we identified several behavioural, social and structural factors that shape adherence patterns among PWUD. Our findings highlight the need to consider these contextual factors in interventions that support the effective delivery of ART to this population. PMID:25915438
Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J
The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs and illicit drugs in surface water such as surrounding area, proximity to wastewater effluent and weather conditions, mainly rainfall was also investigated. Most PPCPs were frequently found in river water at concentrations reaching single microgL(-1) and their levels depended mainly on the extent of water dilution resulting from rainfall. Discharge of treated wastewater effluent into the river course was found to be the main cause of water contamination with PPCPs. The most frequently detected PPCPs represent the group of pharmaceuticals dispensed at the highest levels in the Welsh community. These were antibacterial drugs (trimethoprim, erythromycin-H(2)O and amoxicillin), anti-inflammatories/analgesics (paracetamol, tramadol, codeine, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac) and antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine and gabapentin). Only four PPCPs out of 56 (simvastatin, pravastatin, digoxin and digoxigenin) were not quantified over the course of the study. Several PPCPs were found to be both ubiquitous and persistent in the aqueous environment (e.g. erythromycin-H(2)O, codeine, carbamazepine, gabapentin and valsartan). The calculated average daily loads of PPCPs indicated that in total almost 6 kg of studied PPCPs are discharged daily into the studied rivers. The illicit drugs studied were found in rivers at low levels of ng L(-1). Average daily loads of amphetamine, cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine were as follows: 8, 1.2 and 39 gday(-1), respectively. Their frequent occurrence in surface water is primarily associated with their high illegal usage and is strongly associated with the
Joseph, Brenden; Kerr, Thomas; Puskas, Cathy M.; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J
HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs typically achieve lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and experience higher rates of sub-optimal HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes. Given the dearth of longitudinal research into ART adherence dynamics, we sought to identify factors associated with transitioning into and out of optimal adherence to ART in a longitudinal study of HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment. Using data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-positive illicit drug users confidentially linked to comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment records, we estimated longitudinal factors associated with losing or gaining ≥ 95% adherence in the previous six months using two generalized linear mixed-effects models. Among 703 HIV-infected ART-exposed PWUD, becoming non-adherent was associated with periods of homelessness (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.56 - 4.07), active injection drug use (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.56) and incarceration (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.10 - 2.17). Periods of sex work (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34 - 0.75) and injection drug use (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50 - 0.77) were barriers to becoming optimally adherent. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) was associated with becoming optimally adherent (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.50 - 2.33) and was protective against becoming non-adherent (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41 - 0.65). In conclusion, we identified several behavioural, social and structural factors that shape adherence patterns among PWUD. Our findings highlight the need to consider these contextual factors in interventions that support the effective delivery of ART to this population. PMID:25915438
Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M; Rincón, Rolando J; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Hernández, Félix
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this
Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499
Slawson, Gregory; Milloy, M-J; Balneaves, Lynda; Simo, Annick; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Background Cannabis is increasingly prescribed clinically and utilized by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to address symptoms of HIV disease and to manage side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In light of concerns about the possibly deleterious effect of psychoactive drug use on adherence to ART, we sought to determine the relationship between high-intensity cannabis use and adherence to ART among a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users. Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users linked to comprehensive ART dispensation records in a setting of universal no-cost HIV care. We estimated the relationship between at least daily cannabis use in the last six months, measured longitudinally, and the likelihood of optimal adherence to ART during the same period, using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model accounting for relevant socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural factors. Results From May 2005 to May 2012, 523 HIV-positive illicit drug users were recruited and contributed 2430 interviews. At baseline, 121 (23.1%) participants reported at least daily cannabis use. In bivariate and multivariate analyses we did not observe an association between using cannabis at least daily and optimal adherence to prescribed HAART (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.76 – 1.64, p-value = 0.555.) Conclusions High-intensity cannabis use was not associated with adherence to ART. These findings suggest cannabis may be utilized by PLWHA for medicinal and recreational purposes without compromising effective adherence to ART. PMID:25012624
Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J
The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of
Poulsen, Helen; Moar, Rosemary; Troncoso, Carolina
Alcohol is a drug known to impair the ability to drive safely and is acknowledged as a major factor in New Zealand road crashes. However, the use of other impairing drugs by New Zealand drivers is largely unknown. This paper reports the prevalence of drug use by drivers killed on New Zealand roads. As this is a biased population sample the results can only indicate possible drug use in the wider driving population. Blood samples taken from 1046 deceased drivers were analysed for the presence of alcohol and a range of both illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs. Five hundred and forty-six (52%) of these drivers had not used alcohol or other potentially impairing drugs. Five hundred (48%) had alcohol and/or other drugs in their blood that may have impaired their ability to drive safely. Of these 500 drivers, 135 had used alcohol alone, 96 had used cannabis alone and 142 had used a combination of alcohol and cannabis, but no other drug. Alcohol concentrations in 351 drivers who had drunk alcohol ranged from 5 to 354 mg per 100 mL (mean 152 mg/100 mL). Levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the blood of the 314 drivers who had used cannabis ranged from approximately 0.1 ng/mL to 44 ng/mL (mean 5.6 ng/mL). There were 127 drivers who had used some other combination of drugs, many still including alcohol and/or cannabis. Only 29 of the 500 drivers who had used a drug, had not used either cannabis or alcohol and 240 (48%) of the 500 drivers had used more than one potentially impairing drug. PMID:23131305
Krauss, Shannon T; Remcho, Thomas P; Lipes, Shelby M; Aranda, Roman; Maynard, Henry P; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Tontarski, Richard E; Landers, James P
Current colorimetric presumptive identification of illicit drugs for determining illegal possession of controlled substances by law enforcement relies solely on the subjective interpretation of color change using drug- or class-specific reactions. Here, we describe the use of inexpensive polyester-toner, rotation-driven microfluidic devices with a smartphone as a potential alternative for current presumptive colorimetric field-testing of illicit drugs, allowing for an objective and user-friendly image analysis technique for detection. The centrifugal microfluidic platform accommodates simultaneous presumptive testing of material from a single input to multiple reaction chambers, enabling rapid screening. Hue and saturation image analysis parameters are used to define threshold values for the detection of cocaine and methamphetamine as proof-of-principle with 0.25 and 0.75 mg/mL limits of detection, respectively, with nonvolatile reagents stored on-board and smartphone for detection. Reported LODs are lower than those concentrations used in the field. Additionally, the developed objective detection method addresses the testing of drugs with various common cutting agents, including those known to produce false negative and positive results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by successfully identifying the composition of 30 unknown samples. PMID:27525468
Montesano, Camilla; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Dario
Oral fluid (OF) has become a valuable biologic specimen for toxicological analysis, especially in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) investigations, because of easy and non-invasive collection procedures. In OF testing, being the sample volume is limited, multi-analyte procedures are particularly advantageous since they save time and resources. In this work, a procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 20 illicit drugs, belonging to the classes of cocaine, amphetamines, natural and synthetic opioids and hallucinogens, is presented. The sample preparation is based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), a novel technique which is based on the miniaturization of solid-phase extraction (SPE). The presented method, which includes all the most diffused illicit drugs and their metabolites, has been fully validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) guidelines. LLOQs ranged from 0.5 to 30 ng mL(-1) (diacetylmorphine); the presented method allows the detection of all the selected drugs quite below the cutoff values recommended by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) for abuse identification. PMID:25772560
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Harp, Kathi L.; Oser, Carrie B.
Though recent evidence indicates that rates of illicit drug use among African American women are now higher than the national average, little is known about the etiology of substance use in this population. In addition, the effects of racism and other cultural factors are understudied and may be unique amongst African American women. This cross-sectional study explores risk and protective factors for drug use among 204 African American women. More specifically, associations between racism experiences and drug use are investigated in the context of potential moderating influences (i.e., psychosocial resources, social safety net variables, and cultural identity and practices). Findings suggest that racism is associated with drug use, but that its effects diminish with age. In addition, results suggest that psychosocial resources, social safety net factors and culturally specific factors like ethnic community membership and engagement in cultural practices afford African American women some protection against the detrimental effects of racism. PMID:24482547
Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.
Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…
Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R. Adron
Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859
Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R Adron
Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Olubamwo, Olubunmi; Beynon, Caryl M; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Föhr, Jaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Tuomola, Pekka; Tasa, Niko; Kauhanen, Jussi
Blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs) are important health consequences of illicit drug use. This study assessed predictors of inpatient hospital admissions for BBVIs in a cohort of 4817 clients seeking treatment for drug use in Finland. We examined clients' data on hospital admissions registered in the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register from 1997 to 2010 with diagnoses of BBVIs. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were separately conducted for each of the three BBVI groups to test for association between baseline variables and hospitalizations. Findings were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Based upon primary discharge diagnoses, 81 clients were hospitalized for HIV, 116 for hepatitis C, and 45 for other types of hepatitis. Compared to those admitted for hepatitis C and other hepatitis, drug users with HIV had higher total number of hospital admissions (294 versus 141 and 50 respectively), higher crude hospitalization rate (7.1 versus 3.4.and 1.2 per 1000 person-years respectively), and higher total length of hospital stay (2857 days versus 279 and 308 respectively). Trends in hospitalization for all BBVI groups declined at the end of follow-up. HIV positive status at baseline (aHR: 6.58) and longer duration of drug use (aHR: 1.11) were independently associated with increased risk for HIV hospitalization. Female gender (aHR: 3.05) and intravenous use of primary drug (aHR: 2.78) were significantly associated with HCV hospitalization. Having hepatitis B negative status at baseline (aHR: 0.25) reduced the risk of other hepatitis hospitalizations. Illicit drug use coexists with blood-borne viral infections. To address this problem, clinicians treating infectious diseases need to also identify drug use in their patients and provide drug treatment information and/or referral. PMID:25736625
Khan, Usman; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Li, Jing; Maho, Walid; Du, Peng; Li, Kaiyang; Hou, Linlin; Zhang, Jiying; Meng, Xiangzhou; Li, Xiqing; Covaci, Adrian
Sewage-based epidemiology was applied for the first time to a number of mainland Chinese megacities. The application monitored influents to 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) to estimate the use of illicit drugs in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai. Altogether, 11.4 million inhabitants were covered during September-October 2012. 24-h composite raw sewage samples were collected for 4 consecutive days at each STP. Each collected sample was analyzed for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methylester, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, mephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, ketamine, and norketamine. Through the analysis of these chemical residues, the use of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, mephedrone, methadone, methamphetamine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and ketamine among Chinese urban inhabitants was monitored. The results obtained demonstrated in a quantitative way that the drug use patterns of Chinese are different from their European counterparts. Abuse of methamphetamine and ketamine was particularly noteworthy in China, while consumption of cocaine and ecstasy, the most popular drugs in Europe, was very low among the sampled Chinese inhabitants. Further, the use of most drugs demonstrated a geographical trend, since their use was much higher in the southern cities of Shenzhen and Guangzhou than it was in Beijing and Shanghai. Interestingly, the exclusive, but minor, metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, was detected only sporadically. This would suggest that the use of heroin among Chinese urban users sampled in the study was low. Further, the patterns of drug use observed during the study are largely consistent with trends reported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Overall, our study suggests that sewage-based epidemiology can readily be used to monitor the use of illicit drugs in
Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka
A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results
Three drugs are currently marketed in France in the prevention of relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Their efficacy though real remains limited and it is useful to develop other molecules. Some products are at present under evaluation, and are already or could be used in the near future in the treatment of alcohol dependence: baclofene, oxybate de sodium (GHB), nalmefene, topiramate, ondansetron and aripiprazole. The available studies on these molecules are still limited and the results sometimes clinically modest. Nevertheless, some of them open interesting future prospects. If there is no big revolution to wait in the short term in the treatment of alcohol dependence, we can consider some interesting orientations: better effectiveness on alcohol consumption, but also change of paradigm concerning the objectives and the methods of this treatment: reduction of consumption versus abstinence, treatment on request, choice of the molecule guided by objective criteria (psychosocial, biological, genetic...). PMID:22288352
Milloy, M-J; King, Alexandra; Kerr, Thomas; Adams, Evan; Samji, Hasina; Guillemi, Silvia; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio
Introduction In many settings worldwide, members of indigenous groups experience a disproportionate burden of HIV. In Canada, there is an urgent need to improve HIV treatment outcomes for indigenous people living with HIV (IPLWH), to not only reduce HIV/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality but also curb elevated rates of viral transmission. Thus, by comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs, we sought to investigate longitudinal changes in three HIV treatment indicators for IPLWH who use illicit drugs during a community-wide treatment-as-prevention (TasP) initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing observational prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users recruited from community settings in Vancouver, British Columbia. Cohort data are linked to comprehensive retrospective and prospective clinical records in a setting of no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment and care. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate longitudinal changes in the proportion of participants with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the previous 180 days, optimal adherence to ART (i.e. ≥95% vs. <95%) and non-detectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL <50 copies/mL plasma). Results Between 2005 and 2014, 845 individuals were recruited, including 326 (39%) self-reporting any indigenous ancestry, and contributed 6732 interviews and 13,495 VL measurements. Among indigenous participants, the proportion with recent ART increased from 51 to 94% and non-detectable VL from 23 to 65%. In multivariable models, later interview period was positively associated with recent ART (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16 per interview period, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 to 1.20) and non-detectable VL (AOR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.10). In adjusted models comparing indigenous and non-indigenous participants, we did not observe differences
Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A
This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.
One of a series of state profiles, this report describes the dimensions of the problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in Kansas and the public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. It highlights positive developments and identifies areas to be strengthened. Demographic characteristics, state agency organization, and state…
LaChance, Laurie L.
The foreword states that this publication aims to assist the reader to better understand the dimensions of the drug and alcohol abuse problems of adolescents and the responses of choice by professionals and by those caring for adolescents. These topics are discussed: (1) the stepping stone theory; (2) correlates of substance abuse; (3)…
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.
This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…
The Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) is a nationally representative survey of substance abuse treatment facilities and clients. The data were collected to estimate the client length of stay and the costs of treatment as well as to describe the post-treatment status of clien...
Tebbutt, M. J.
Described is a computer program that, by means of a simple motor task, provides a context that enables students to learn about motor coordination. The effects of alcohol, drugs, or solvents on the motor task can be investigated using a delay in the feedback loop. A description of the hardware and software is included. (KR)
Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö
In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659
Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J
Pharmaceuticals and recently also illicit drugs have been recognised as emerging environmental contaminants due to their potential environmental impact: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. This manuscript is part one of the two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. An attempt to use wastewater data is made in order to verify patterns of the usage of drugs (in particular illicit) in local communities. The average usage of cocaine in South Wales was estimated at 0.9 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1), which equals 1 tonne of this drug used or disposed of to sewage annually in Wales. The calculated usage of amphetamine denoted 2.5 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1) and is suspected to be an overestimate. Because no analysis of enantiomers of amphetamine was undertaken, no distinction between amphetamine's legal and illicit usage could be made. PMID:19324480
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Fellows, Bert; Damron, Kim S; Pampati, Vidyasagar; McManus, Carla D
The abuse of prescription-controlled substances is a common phenomenon, associated with illicit drug use, in patients suffering with chronic pain and receiving controlled substances for the management of pain. Prescription drug abuse in Kentucky has led to an increase in Medicare and Medicaid fraud, as well as physician indictments for unscrupulous practices and increased vigilance and prosecution by the authorities. This study was undertaken to evaluate 400 consecutive patients receiving controlled substances in an interventional pain management practice in Western Kentucky to evaluate the prevalence of illicit drug use and opioid abuse and noncompliance with opioid therapy. Results indicated that patients covered by third-party insurance showed 17% (95% CI, 10%-24%) prevalence of illicit drug use, with patients on Medicare, with or without third-party insurance, showing 10% (95% CI, 4%-6%) prevalence, compared to patients on Medicare and Medicaid with 24% (95% CI, 16%-32%) prevalence, and patients with only Medicaid with 39% (95% CI, 29%-49%) prevalence of illicit drug use. In addition, combined use of illicit drugs and misuse of prescription drugs was also seen in a substantially greater proportion of patients in Groups III and IV, with the highest (60%) in Group IV with Medicaid only, followed by Group III with Medicaid supplementation of Medicare insurance in 40% of the patients. Overall illicit drug use, opioid abuse, and noncompliance of opioids is significant in patients in Western Kentucky receiving Medicaid as a primary insurance or as a supplemental insurance to Medicare, despite extensive monitoring, written agreement, and education. PMID:15751456
... En español Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Browse Sections The Basics Overview When ... to your child about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. Knowing the facts will help your ...
... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...
Examined factors related to alcohol and other drug use among over 2,000 fraternity and sorority members. Found similar bases for alcohol and other drug use, including acceptability of inebriation and high school pattern of drinking. There tended to be more drug use among students with lower physical tolerance for alcohol than among those with…
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section 219.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and drug use prohibited. (a)...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section 17... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...
VAN HEST, N. A. H.; De VRIES, G.; SMIT, F.; GRANT, A. D.; RICHARDUS, J. H.
SUMMARY Truncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with a mobile digital X-ray unit between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, using truncated models. The screening programme reached about two-third of the estimated target population at least once annually. The intended coverage (at least two chest X-rays per person per year) was about 23%. We conclude that simple truncated models can be used relatively easily on available single-source routine data to estimate the size of a population of illicit drug users and homeless persons. We assumed that the most likely overall bias in this study would be overestimation and therefore the coverage of the targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme would be higher. PMID:17631692
Legrand, Sara-Ann; Isalberti, Cristina; der Linden, Trudy Van; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Favretto, Donata; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Caplinskiene, Marija; Minkuviene, Zita; Pauliukevicius, Alvydas; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, René; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Langel, Kaarina; Blencowe, Tom; Verstraete, Alain G
The objective of this study was to determine the presence of alcohol and drugs in drivers severely injured in traffic crashes in six European countries. Data were collected from 2492 seriously injured drivers of cars and vans in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, and the Netherlands, between 2007 and 2010. Toxicological analysis was performed with chromatographic techniques on whole blood for 23 substances. The percentage of drivers positive for at least one psychoactive substance ranged between 28% (Lithuania) and 53% (Belgium). Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most common finding with the highest percentage in Belgium (42.5%). Among the alcohol-positive drivers, 90.5% had a blood alcohol count (BAC) ≥0.5 g/L and 65.7% had a BAC ≥1.3 g/L. Benzodiazepines (0.0-10.2%) and medicinal opioids (0.5-7.8%) were the most prevailing medicinal drugs, but half of the concentrations were lower than therapeutic. Cannabis (0.5-7.6%) was the most prevailing illicit drug. Alcohol was found in combination with drugs in 2.3-13.2% of the drivers. Drug combinations were found in 0.5-4.3% of the drivers. This study confirms the high prevalence of psychoactive substances in injured drivers, but we observed large differences between the participating countries. Alcohol was the most common finding, followed by cannabis and benzodiazepines. Notable are the many drivers having a BAC ≥ 1.3 g/L. The majority of the substances were found in combination with another psychoactive substance, mostly alcohol. The high prevalence of high BACs and combinations (compared to roadside surveys) suggest that those drivers are most at risk and that preventive actions should target them preferentially. PMID:22887894
Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
This paper presents, for the first time, spatial and temporal occurrence of a comprehensive set of >60 pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater (7 wastewater treatment plants utilising different treatment technologies) and a major river in the UK over a 12 month period. This paper also undertakes a comparison of the efficiency of processes utilised during wastewater treatment and it discusses under-researched aspects of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in the environment including sorption to solids and stereoselectivity in the fate of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. The removal efficiency of analytes strongly depended on the type of wastewater treatment technology employed and denoted <50% or >60% in the case of tricking filter and activated sludge respectively. It should be stressed, however, that the removal rate was highly variable for different groups of compounds. A clear increase in the cumulative concentration of all monitored compounds was observed in receiving waters; thus highlighting the impact of WWTP discharge on water quality and the importance of the removal efficiency of WWTPs. No seasonal variation was observed with regard to the total load of targeted compounds in the river each month. The concentration of each analyte was largely dependent on rainfall and the dilution factor of WWTP discharge. These results indicate that although the drugs of abuse are not present at very high concentrations in river water (typically low ng L(-1) levels), their occurrence and possible synergic action is of concern, and the study of multiple groups of drugs of abuse is of significant importance. PMID:23563258
Working under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol may affect safety and job performance. However, the size of this possible problem among health professionals (HPs) is unknown. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze samples of oral fluid and self-reported data from questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among a sample of HPs in Norway, (ii) to study self-reported absence from or impairment at work due to alcohol and/or drug use, and (iii) to examine whether such use and absence/impairment due to such use depend on socio-demographic variables. A total of 916 of the 933 invited HPs from hospitals and pharmacies participated in the study (participation rate = 98.2%), and 81.1% were women. Associations were analyzed in bi-variate cross tables with Chi-square statistics to assess statistical significance. Alcohol was not detected in any of the samples. Ethyl glucuronide, a specific alcohol metabolite, was found in 0.3% of the collected samples. Illicit drugs and medicinal drugs were identified in 0.6% and 7.3% of the samples, respectively. Both analytical results and self-reported use of alcohol and drugs during the past 12 months indicate that recent and past year alcohol and drug use was lower among HPs than among workers in other business areas in Norway, Europe and US. Nevertheless, several HPs reported absence from work due to alcohol (0.9%) and medicinal drug use (0.8%) during the past 12 months. A substantial part (16.7%) of the self-reported medicinal drug users reported absence from work because of use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months, and more than 1/4 of those reported in-efficiency at work because of the use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months. Reduced efficiency at work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months was reported by 12.2%. This sample of HPs seldom used illicit drugs, few had a high level of alcohol consumption, and few tested positive for medicinal drugs. Absence or hangover
Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Karinen, Ritva; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg; Gjerde, Hallvard
Working under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol may affect safety and job performance. However, the size of this possible problem among health professionals (HPs) is unknown. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze samples of oral fluid and self-reported data from questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among a sample of HPs in Norway, (ii) to study self-reported absence from or impairment at work due to alcohol and/or drug use, and (iii) to examine whether such use and absence/impairment due to such use depend on socio-demographic variables.A total of 916 of the 933 invited HPs from hospitals and pharmacies participated in the study (participation rate = 98.2%), and 81.1% were women. Associations were analyzed in bi-variate cross tables with Chi-square statistics to assess statistical significance.Alcohol was not detected in any of the samples. Ethyl glucuronide, a specific alcohol metabolite, was found in 0.3% of the collected samples. Illicit drugs and medicinal drugs were identified in 0.6% and 7.3% of the samples, respectively. Both analytical results and self-reported use of alcohol and drugs during the past 12 months indicate that recent and past year alcohol and drug use was lower among HPs than among workers in other business areas in Norway, Europe and US. Nevertheless, several HPs reported absence from work due to alcohol (0.9%) and medicinal drug use (0.8%) during the past 12 months. A substantial part (16.7%) of the self-reported medicinal drug users reported absence from work because of use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months, and more than 1/4 of those reported in-efficiency at work because of the use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months. Reduced efficiency at work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months was reported by 12.2%.This sample of HPs seldom used illicit drugs, few had a high level of alcohol consumption, and few tested positive for medicinal drugs. Absence or hangover related
Jones, Hayley E.; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J.; Baker, David R.; Ades, A.E.
Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these ‘back-calculations’, the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801
Jones, Hayley E; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J; Baker, David R; Ades, A E
Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these 'back-calculations', the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801
Walton, Georgia; Co, Steven J.; Milloy, M-J; Qi, Jiezhi; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan
Background The psychosocial impacts of various types of childhood maltreatment on vulnerable illicit drug-using populations remains unclear. We examined the prevalence and correlates of antecedent emotional, physical and sexual abuse among a community-recruited cohort of adult HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. Methods We estimated the prevalence of childhood abuse at baseline using data from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item validated instrument used to retrospectively assess childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships between sub-types of childhood maltreatment with various social-demographic, drug-using and clinical characteristics. Results Overall, 233 HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) were included in the analysis, including 83 (35.6%) women. Of these, moderate or severe emotional childhood abuse was reported by 51.9% of participants; emotional neglect by 36.9%; physical abuse by 51.1%; physical neglect by 46.8%; and sexual abuse by 41.6%. In multivariate analyses, emotional, physical and sexual abuse were independently associated with greater odds of recent incarceration. Emotional abuse and neglect were independently associated with a score of ≥16 on the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). There was no association between any form of childhood maltreatment and clinical HIV variables, including viral load, CD4 count and history of antiretroviral therapy use. Conclusion These findings underscore the negative impact of childhood maltreatment on social functioning and mental health in later life. Given the substantial prevalence of childhood maltreatment among this population, there is a need for evidence-based resources to address the deleterious effect it has on the health and social functioning of HIV-positive IDU. PMID:21390877
From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…
Chan, Kit Yee; Stoové, Mark A; Reidpath, Daniel D
Background Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular, injecting drug users. The effect of the stigmatising attitudes towards injecting drug users on perceptions of PLWHA within the health care contexts has not been thoroughly explored, and typically neglected in terms of stigma intervention. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of twenty Thai trainee and qualified nurses. Drawing upon the idea of 'social reciprocity', this paper examines the constructions of injecting drug users and PLWHA by a group of Thai nurses. Narratives were explored with a focus on how participants' views concerning the high-risk behaviour of injecting drug use might influence their attitudes towards PLWHA. Results The analysis shows that active efforts were made by participants to separate their views of patients living with HIV/AIDS from injecting drug users. While the former were depicted as patients worthy of social support and inclusion, the latter were excluded on the basis that they were perceived as irresponsible 'social cheaters' who pose severe social and economic harm to the community. Absent in the narratives were references to wider socio-political and epidemiological factors related to drug use and needle sharing that expose injecting drug users to risk; these behaviours were constructed as individual choices, allowing HIV positive drug users to be blamed for their seropositive status. These attitudes could potentially have indirect negative implications on the nurses' opinions of patients living with HIV/AIDS more generally. Conclusion Decreasing the stigma associated with illicit drugs might play crucial role in improving attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS. Providing health workers with a broader understanding of risk behaviours and redirecting government injecting drug
Fidan, Ali Kemal; Bakırdere, Sezgin
A sensitive analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and tadalafil in legal drugs, illicit/counterfeit drugs, and wastewater samples. Chromatographic separation of two analytes was achieved on a C18 column with a mobile phase including 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 and acetonitrile (35 + 65, v/v) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Analytes were separated from each other in 6 min with high resolution. LOD/LOQ values were calculated as 28/92 ng/mL for sildenafil citrate and 39/129 ng/mL for tadalafil. Calibration plots for both analytes were linear with correlation coefficients >0.9993. A validated method was successfully applied to legal and illicit erectile-dysfunction drug samples consumed in Istanbul, Turkey, and to wastewater samples. Nine different samples were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative measurement of their ingredients, and the results were compared with the values written on the labels of the drugs. The wastewater sample was also analyzed for its sildenafil and tadalafil content. To calculate the recoveries, a spiking experiment was performed and recovery rates for sildenafil and tadalafil were calculated as 101.30 ± 3.43 and 102.68 ± 1.59, respectively. PMID:27143116
Drug Abuse in the Military. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Reviewing the Problem of Drug Abuse in the Military.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This document contains transcripts of testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the effects of illicit drug use and alcoholism on military personnel. Following statements by Senators Hawkins, Grassley, and Kerry, testimonies from representatives of the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, and Coast Guard are…
Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.
This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60..., AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...
Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.
Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with perceived need for drug abuse treatment among not-in-treatment, adult, illicit stimulant drug users (n=710) in rural areas of Ohio, Kentucky, and Arkansas. More than one-quarter of the sample perceived a need for treatment. Results from a stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that white users, users with better physical and mental health status, and occasional users of methamphetamine were significantly less likely to see a need for treatment. Users with higher Addiction Severity Index composite scores for family/social problems or legal problems, and users with prior drug abuse treatment experience were significantly more likely to perceive a need for treatment. These findings have practical implications for efforts addressing substance abuse in rural areas. PMID:17604917
Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn
Background The U.S.-Mexico border displays elevated rates of hazardous alcohol and drug use. Whether the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and disorders is also high in the border area is unknown. Methods Data are from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected respondents interviewed from 2011–2013. Participants included 1,690 Mexican Americans from Texas (572 in an off-border city and 1,118 from 3 border cities) and 1,293 Mexicans from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas (415 in an off-border city and 878 from 3 Mexican cities bordering Texas) who reported drinking in the last 12 months. Participants were interviewed regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for: a) co-occurring hazardous alcohol use (5+/4+ at least monthly) and drug use (medical and illicit), and b) co-occurring presence of a DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit/control) of drug use disorders (DUD symptoms). Results Co-occurring hazardous alcohol and drug use was more common in the U.S. border cities (14.7%) than off-border (7.2%), but similar for Mexican border (1.2%) and off-border (1.4%) cities. Co-occurrence of AUD and DUD symptoms was likewise more common at the U.S. border (6.8%) than off-border (3.3%), as well as at the Mexican border (1.3%), compared to off-border (0.6%), but not statistically significant for Mexico. In models adjusting for demographics, mobility factors and exposure to the U.S. culture, border residence in both countries related to a nearly two-fold increase in prevalence ratios (PR) of co-occurring AUD and DUD symptoms (PR=1.97, 95%CI=1.36–2.85). Conclusions Increased rates of co-occurring alcohol and drug use disorders suggest an added negative impact on already difficult conditions of the border population. PMID:25833029
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council...
MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...
Beseler, Cheryl; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Tsuang, Ming T.
The use of DSM criteria to evaluate liability to substance use disorders (SUDs) and to identify SUD phenotypes may not provide the sensitivity required to identify genes associated with vulnerability to SUDs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a number of basic aspects of substance use that may be more proximal than full SUDs to risk genes, some of which may thus have greater potential utility as phenotypes in subsequent molecular genetic analyses. In this paper we present results from the first stage of our planned analyses, focusing on how individual symptoms of abuse and dependence may be used to create alternate phenotypes for SUDs. Specifically, we used factor analysis and biometrical modeling on each symptom of illicit substance abuse and dependence within different types of substances, and compared and contrasted factor patterns and heritabilities across the different substances. These analyses were carried out using a population-based sample of 3372 male–male twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse. We obtained extensive data from these participants on substance use and SUDs via telephone interview in 1992, including data on the illicit substances: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, and psychedelics. The results indicate that: A) although a one-factor model assuming a single underlying liability for abuse and dependence symptoms and behaviors can be rejected for most substances, there is no uniform support for a two-factor model differentiating between abuse versus dependence; B) patterns of symptoms or behaviors reported by substance users vary across substances; C) not all symptoms or behaviors contribute equally to the presentation of an SUD; and D) the heritability of symptoms or behaviors of substance users varies both within and between substances. These results represent important first steps in facilitating the search for SUD-risk genes in subsequent high
Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott
No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial. PMID:26075840
Background Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has shown promise for alcohol use, relatively little is known about its effectiveness for adult illicit drug use. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of the SBIRT approach for outcomes related to drug use among patients visiting trauma and emergency departments (EDs) at two large, urban hospitals. Methods A total of 700 ED patients who admitted using illegal drugs in the past 30 days were recruited, consented, provided baseline measures of substance use and related problems measured with the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite), and then randomized to the Life Shift SBIRT intervention or to an attention-placebo control group focusing on driving and traffic safety (Shift Gears). Both groups received a level of motivational intervention matched to their condition and risk level by trained paraprofessional health educators. Separate measurement technicians conducted face-to-face follow-ups at 6 months post-intervention and collected hair samples to confirm reports of abstinence from drug use. The primary outcome measure of the study was past 30-day drug abstinence at 6 months post-intervention, as self-reported on the ASI-Lite. Results Of 700 participants, 292 (42%) completed follow-up. There were no significant differences in self-reported abstinence (12.5% vs. 12.0% , p = 0.88) for Life Shift and Shift Gears groups, respectively. When results of hair analyses were applied, the abstinence rate was 7 percent for Life Shift and 2 percent for Shift Gears (p = .074). In an analysis in which results were imputed (n = 694), there was no significant difference in the ASI-Lite drug use composite scores (Life Shift +0.005 vs. Shift Gears +0.017, p = 0.12). Conclusions In this randomized controlled trial, there was no evidence of effectiveness of SBIRT on the primary drug use outcome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683227. PMID
Thomas, B S
From a baseline survey of high school students in two school systems, information was obtained to describe patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and adverse consequences of use, compare indices of AOD use and consequences for grade level and gender differences, and examine relationships of indices to selected individual, family-related, and social competence/adjustment-related risk factors. Though use of illicit drugs was reported at low levels, prevalence of drinking and incidence of binge drinking were relatively high. Increases in AOD use and adverse consequences with age and grade level were found, but gender differences were not found. Relationships of AOD use and adverse consequences to selected individual, family, and social risk factors were consistent with a substantial body of prior work but exceptions were found. Strongest correlations to both indices were found for risk taking, sense of mastery, family management/cohesion, peer pressure, and social/school adjustment. PMID:1289655
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...
..., 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 22649) that amended the regulations governing FAA-required drug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...
... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...
... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...
... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...
Mississippi Univ., University.
This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…
DeJong, William; Moeykens, Barbara A.
This bulletin is intended to help school administrators at the higher education level who are responsible for developing and institutionalizing alcohol and other drug prevention programs. Stressed is the importance of thinking about the program's long-term prospects during early stages of program planning. The information is based on interviews…
Groeneveld, G; de Puit, M; Bleay, S; Bradshaw, R; Francese, S
Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect's lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. PMID:26118853
Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.
Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. PMID:26118853
Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.
Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.
Baum, Marianna K; Campa, Adriana; Page, J Bryan; Lai, Shenghan; Tsalaile, Lesedi; Martinez, Sabrina Sales; Burns, Patricia; Williams, O’Dale; Li, Yinghui; van Widenfelt, Erik; Bussmann, Herman; Sikhulele, Moyo; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Marlink, Richard
Background With one of the worst HIV prevalence rates in the world, Botswana has made great strides in addressing AIDS. Nevertheless, to fully contain the epidemic, outreach to marginalized groups, including illicit drug users, is critical. Objective To conduct targeted outreach within an intervention trial to recruit HIV-infected drug users and assess HIV disease and nutritional status. Method Recruitment strategies included safeguarding confidentiality, involving ocal health-care professionals, advertising, and participation incentives. Urine toxicology, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, blood chemistry, plasma micronutrients, dietary history, drug use and morbidity were assessed for two years. Results Targeted outreach identified 138 HIV-infected persons who used marijuana; 18.1% had CD4 cell counts ≤ 350 cells/μL and 39.9% had low BMI. Eligible marijuana users (N=52) had significantly lower BMI (21.8 3.7 vs. 24.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, P=0.001), higher HIV viral load (4.36 ± 0.89 vs. 4.09 ± 0.89 log10, P=0.018), and higher kilocalorie intake (1924 ± 1055 vs. 1620 ± 926 Kcalories, P=0.025) than those who did not use marijuana (N=748) with similar CD4 cell count. Marijuana users ≥ 40 years old had more opportunistic diseases (P=0.020) than non-users of the same age. Benzodiazepine use was detected among 57 participants and they had higher BMI than marijuana users (24.4 ± 6.8 vs. 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2, P= 0.017). Conclusion A population stigmatized by illicit drug use and HIV-infection can be brought into a clinical research setting in Africa. HIV-infected marijuana users were at a risk for higher HIV viral load, lower BMI and more comorbidities than nonusers. Outreach to this marginalized group is important for containing the HIV epidemic. PMID:26855969
Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.
A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from
Nefau, Thomas; Karolak, Sara; Castillo, Luis; Boireau, Véronique; Levi, Yves
Consumption of illicit drugs is a new concern for water management that must be considered not only because of the social and public health aspects but also in an environmental context in relation with the contamination of surface waters. Indeed, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain drug residues that have not been eliminated since STP treatments are not completely efficient in their removal. We developed and validated an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method to assess the concentrations of 17 illicit drugs and metabolites in raw urban wastewaters: cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamine and amphetamine-likes (methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, MDA), opiates and opiate substitutes (methadone and buprenorphine), and THC-COOH cannabis metabolite. This method has been applied to the analysis of influent and effluent samples from 25 STPs located in France all over the country. The results allowed evaluating the drug consumption in the areas connected to the STPs and the efficiency of the treatment technology implied. We selected STPs according to their volume capacity, their treatment technologies (biofilters, activated sludges, MBR) and their geographical location. In influents, the concentrations varied between 6 ng/L for EDDP (main metabolite of methadone) and 3050 ng/L for benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite). Consumption maps were drawn for cocaine, MDMA, opiates, cannabis and amphetamine-like compounds. Geographical significant differences were observed and highlighted the fact that drug consumption inside a country is not homogeneous. In parallel, comparisons between STP technology processes showed differences of efficiency. More, some compounds appear very resistant to STP processes leading to the contamination of receiving water. PMID:23770552
Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from motorcycle riders who died in road crashes in Norway from 2001 to 2010. An additional aim was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from fatally injured motorcycle riders and car drivers who died during the same time period. Blood samples from motorcycle riders who died within 24h after the accident (n=207, 63% of all killed riders), were analysed for alcohol, psychoactive drugs (medicinal and illicit drugs). The cut-off concentrations for alcohol and drugs findings in blood samples (i.e., the drug concentrations above which a finding was regarded as positive) were set according to the legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. Results were assessed in relation to age, sex, time of the day and week, and single versus multiple-vehicle accidents. Alcohol or drugs were found in 27.1 percent of all investigated riders. For riders killed in single or multiple-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs were found in 44.6 and 15.3 percent, respectively. Alcohol was the most frequently found substance for all age groups and most prevalent in samples from riders below 25 years who died in single-vehicle accidents (45.8 percent). Drugs were most often found among riders between 25 and 34 years (19.6 percent in total and 25.9% for those killed in single-vehicle crashes). The prevalence of alcohol or drugs was highest among riders killed in single-vehicle accidents during weekend days and nights (60.9 and 65.2 percent). Alcohol and drugs were less often found in samples from killed motorcycles riders than in samples from car and van drivers (40.2 percent). For single-vehicle accidents, the total prevalence of alcohol or drugs among killed motorcycles riders and car drivers was 44.6 percent and 63.8 percent, respectively. The same pattern of alcohol and drugs was found among the two groups, except that the prevalence among motorcycle riders was lower
Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others
Two of the major topics treated in this report are the current prevalence of drug use among American high school seniors, and trends in use since 1975. Also reported are data on school grade of first use, trends in use at earlier grade levels, intensity of drug use, attitudes and beliefs among seniors concerning various types of drug use, and…
Reasons for Use, Abstention, and Quitting Illicit Drug Use by American Adolescents: A Report Commissioned by the Drugs-Violence Task Force of the National Sentencing Commission. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 44.
Johnston, Lloyd D.
The data for this report were obtained from the Monitoring the Future study. Surveys from eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade respondents were used to examine adolescents' reasons for use, abstention, and quitting illicit drug use. Many reasons were found for drug use. Abstainers provided more reasons for their abstention than quitters gave for their…
Background Drug misuse is an important clinical problem associated with a poorer outcome in patients who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Qualitative studies have rarely been used to elicit reasons for drug use in psychosis, but not in schizophrenia. Methods Seventeen people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had used street drugs were interviewed and asked to describe, in narrative form, their street drug use from their early experiences to the present day. Grounded theory was used to analyse the transcripts. Results We identified five reasons for continuing street drug use. The reasons were: as an 'identity defining vocation', 'to belong to a peer group', due to 'hopelessness', because of 'beliefs about symptoms and how street drugs influence them' and viewing drugs as 'equivalent to taking psychotropic medication'. Street drugs were often used to reduce anxiety aroused by voice hearing. Some participants reported street drugs to focus their attention more on persecutory voices in the hope of outwitting their perceived persecutors. Conclusions It would be clinically useful to examine for the presence of the five factors in patients who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia and use street drugs, as this is likely to help the clinician to tailor management of substance misuse to the individual patient's beliefs. PMID:21092168
Sägmüller, Bernd; Schwarze, Bernd; Brehm, Georg; Trachta, Gerd; Schneider, Siegfried
We have developed a new analysis procedure based upon High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in combination with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as detection technique to meet todays need for an additional unique and reliable identification method of the ingredients of illicitly sold drugs or other pharmaceutical compounds. Separation of the individual components of a sample was preferentially achieved by employing an acetonitrile free eluent. The fractions of interest were collected as microliter volumes in the wells of a microtiter plate, which contained a home-made, matrix-stabilized silver halide dispersion. The latter functions as the precursor for the SERS-active surface generated by the probing laser beam. The limits of detection can be as low as 1 μg of analyte per one well of the microtiter plate. The recorded SERS spectra of the drugs Cocaine, Heroine and Amphetamine or the pharmaceuticals (Nor-) Papaverine and Procaine promise the possibility of a unique identification, especially if compared with the spectra of reference samples, and, therefore, can support the conclusions drawn by other identification techniques, if requested for example during a law suit.
Loganathan, Bommanna; Phillips, Malia; Mowery, Holly; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L
Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination profiles and mass loadings of urobilin (a chemical marker of human waste), macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), and two drugs of abuse (methamphetamine and ecstasy), from a small (<19 mega liters day(-1), equivalent to <5 million gallons per day) wastewater treatment plant in southwestern Kentucky. The concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, methamphetamine and ecstasy in wastewater samples varied widely, ranging from non-detects to 300 ng L(-1). Among the macrolide antibiotics analyzed, azithromycin was consistently detected in influent and effluent samples. In general, influent samples contained relatively higher concentrations of the analytes than the effluents. Based on the daily flow rates and an average concentration of 17.5 ng L(-1) in the effluent, the estimated discharge of azithromycin was 200 mg day(-1) (range 63-400 mg day(-1)). Removal efficiency of the detected analytes from this WWTP were in the following order: urobilin>methamphetamine>azithromycin with percentages of removal of 99.9%, 54.5% and 47%, respectively, indicating that the azithromycin and methamphetamine are relatively more recalcitrant than others and have potential for entering receiving waters. PMID:19121838
Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Beynon, Caryl M; Vohlonen, Ilkka; Tiihonen, Jari; Föhr, Jaana; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kauhanen, Jussi
Premature death is a serious public health concern. The primary objective of this study was to examine premature deaths in terms of potential years of life lost (PYLL) in a cohort of 4817 treatment-seeking illicit drug users. Clients' data were linked to the Finnish national cause-of-death register and the follow-up period ranged from 31 January 1997 to 31 December 2010. PYLL before 70 years was calculated for all deaths and cause-specific deaths by gender. We observed 496 deaths (417 males and 79 females) at the end of 2010. The mean age at death was 33.8 years, 34.3 years for males (range 18-68) and 31.4 years for females (range 16-53). Overall, 17,951 life years were lost; 14,898 among males and 3053 among females. The overall PYLL rate for males was more than twice that of females (513.0/1000 vs. 243.7/1000 person-years) but the mean PYLL was higher in females than males (38.6 vs. 35.7 years). Of the total PYLL, 34.8 % was due to accidental overdose, and 24.0 % to suicide. In both genders, accidental overdose and suicide were the two top-ranking causes of PYLL. Premature deaths among drug users are a potential loss to the society. Our findings suggest that measures targeting accidental overdose and suicide are top priorities for reducing preventable loss of life. PMID:25967278
Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy
Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…
Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence
Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359
Binelli, A; Pedriali, A; Riva, C; Parolini, M
The increase in global consumption of illicit drugs has produced not only social and medical problems but also a potential new environmental danger. Indeed, it has been established that drugs consumed by humans end up in surface waters, after being carried through the sewage system. Although many studies to measure concentrations of several drugs of abuse in freshwater worldwide have been conducted, no data have been available to evaluate their potentially harmful effects on non-target organisms until now. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the cyto-genotoxic effects of cocaine, one of the primary drugs consumed in Western Countries, in the biological model Dreissena polymorpha by the use of a biomarker battery. We performed the following tests on Zebra mussel hemocytes: the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the apoptosis frequency evaluation and the micronucleus assay (MN test) for the evaluation of genotoxicity and the lysosomal membranes stability test (neutral red retention assay; NRRA) to identify the cocaine cytotoxicity. We exposed the molluscs for 96 h to three different nominal concentrations in water (40 ng L(-1); 220 ng L(-1); and 10 μg L(-1)). Cocaine caused significant (p<0.05) primary DNA damage in this short-term experiment, but it also caused a clear increase in micronucleated cells and a marked rise in apoptosis, which was evident in samples from even the lowest environmental cocaine concentration. Because cocaine decreased the stability of lysosomal membranes, we also highlighted its cytotoxicity and the possible implications of oxidative stress for the observed genotoxic effects. PMID:22119280
Li, Guohua; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.
Introduction In the United States, transportation employees who are suspected of using alcohol and drugs are subject to reasonable-cause testing. This study aims to assess the validity of suspected alcohol and drug violations in aviation employees. Methods Using reasonable-cause testing and random testing data from the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2005, we calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of suspected alcohol and drug violations. The true status of violations was based on testing results, with an alcohol violation being defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ≥40 mg/dL and a drug violation as a test positive for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or opiates. Results During the 11-year study period, a total of 2,284 alcohol tests and 2,015 drug tests were performed under the reasonable-cause testing program. The PPV was 37.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.7–39.7%] for suspected alcohol violations and 12.6% (95% CI, 11.2–14.1%) for suspected drug violations. Random testing revealed an overall prevalence of 0.09% (601/649,796) for alcohol violations and 0.6% (7,211/1,130,922) for drug violations. The LR+ was 653.6 (95% CI, 581.7–734.3) for suspected alcohol violations and 22.5 (95% CI, 19.6–25.7) for suspected drug violations. Discussion The discriminative power of reasonable-cause testing suggests that, despite its limited positive predictive value, physical and behavioral observation represents an efficient screening method for detecting alcohol and drug violations. The limited positive predictive value of reasonable-cause testing in aviation employees is due in part to the very low prevalence of alcohol and drug violations. PMID:20712820
Zhai, Duanting; Tan, Yong Qiao Elton; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae
The first fluorescent sensor (GHB Orange) for date rape drug GHB was developed. It exhibits the fluorescence quenching property for GHB and allows its detection in various drinks. The interaction mechanism was elucidated as intramolecular charge transfer induced by a hydrogen bond. This discovery will help in solving the drug facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:24492471
Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea
We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…
Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.
In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…
Prado, Guillermo; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Rosen, Alexa; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Brown, C. Hendricks; Velazquez, Maria-Rosa; Villamar, Juan; Freitas, Derek; Tapia, Maria I.; McCollister, Kathryn
INTRODUCTION Drug and alcohol use disproportionately affect Hispanic youth. Despite these disparities, few empirically supported preventive interventions are available to ameliorate this public health concern among Hispanic youth. This study examined the effects of Familias Unidas, relative to Community Practice, in reducing past 90-day substance use, alcohol and marijuana dependence, and having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Additionally, this study explored whether Familias Unidas’ effects varied by environmental context, namely parental stress and social support for parents. METHODS A total of 242 delinquent Hispanic youth aged 12 – 17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at three time points. RESULTS Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing past 90-day substance use, illicit drug use, and in reducing the proportion of youth with an alcohol dependence diagnosis, relative to Community Practice. Results also showed a reduction in the proportion of youth who reported having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. No differences between conditions were observed in past 90-day alcohol use or marijuana dependence. Intervention effects on illicit drug use and alcohol dependence varied by environmental context. For example, Familias Unidas was most efficacious for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and lower levels of social support. CONCLUSIONS Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing some drug and alcohol related outcomes. The findings also support the concept of targeting family-based interventions, such as Familias Unidas, for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and low levels of social support. PMID:22776441
Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert
This document presents the Alcohol and Drug Education Programs (ADEP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to provide education programs for individuals under the age of 21 convicted of certain alcohol and drug related offenses. An introduction is followed by a section on substances of abuse and their effects.…
... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.
In response to growing awareness of and concern about alcohol and other drug problems, institutions of higher education are implementing policies and programs in an attempt to curb alcohol and other drug use and its associated negative consequences. Momentum is building for comprehensive prevention approaches that combine traditional education…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...
Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile
Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...
..., final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653). 3. It reorganizes existing rule... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (77 FR 39194), entitled ``Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.'' The..., the National Air Tour Safety Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a...
Edwards, Ruth W.
This paper compares data on the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by students in grades 8 and 12 across four sizes of communities. Data from the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS), administered in approximately 250 communities during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 school years, were analyzed for four community sizes: very small (population…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.
This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…
Rocha-Silva, Lee; And Others
The Centre for Alcohol and Drug Studies, Johannesburg (South Africa) commissioned a study of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among historically disadvantaged black youth aged 10 to 21 years. A national survey explored the prevalence of substance use in this age group through responses of 1,376 children and youths. An in-depth study examined…
Nicklin, Julie L.
Arrests for violations of drug/alcohol laws at colleges and universities rose 7.2 and 3.6%, respectively, from 1996 to 1997. Campus police attribute the increases not to increased drug and alcohol use but to more aggressive enforcement. However, some health researchers feel usage has risen. Campus weapons violations and forcible rape arrests have…
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...
Bitancourt, Tânia; Tissot, Maria Cristina Ribeiro Grilli; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; da Silveira Filho, Dartiu Xavier
Substance use among teenage students and factors associated were investigated through a survey using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence, additional questions on family factors and personal risks, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, adapted to Brazil. The target population consisted of 3891 10-22-year-old students from the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil. The prevalence of lifetime substance use was 26.7%. Most commonly used substances were energy drinks combined with alcohol (19%), solvents (11.2%) and marijuana (4.8%). Almost 60% of the students had already tried alcohol and 18.2% had tried tobacco. Factors associated to lifetime substance use were: lower self-esteem, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, use of alcohol, trying tobacco, bad relationship with the mother, permissive mothers, practicing sports as an obligation, working, and higher socioeconomic level. Concerning frequent/heavy substance use, chances were found to be higher among students who had use tobacco and alcohol, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, and those with lower self-esteem. Preventive actions concerning drug use should focus on avoiding the first experimentation, approaching family relationships, and improving students' self-esteem. PMID:26832836
Klötz, Fia; Petersson, Anna; Isacson, Dag; Thiblin, Ingemar
Several case reports and survey studies have indicated that abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) often leads to increased aggressiveness and feelings of hostility that may occasionally trigger violent behaviour. Other observations indicate that many users of AAS also abuse alcohol and/or various illegal substances. Since substance abuse is a well-known risk factor for violent behaviour, it could be that violence committed by AAS users might, at least in many cases, actually be caused by abuse of other drugs. In order to examine this possibility further here, the criminal histories (in terms of incidences of convictions) of deceased users of AAS with (AASpos-subst.pos) and without (AASpos-subst.neg) signs of abuse of other illegal substances were compared to the corresponding histories of deceased users of illicit substances testing negatively for AAS (subst.pos-AASneg) at the time of autopsy. The risk of being convicted for a crime against property was significantly higher in the subst.pos-AASneg group than in either the AASpos-subst.neg or AASpos-subst.pos groups (RR=0.048 versus 0.408). At the same time, the risk of being convicted for a crime of violence was at least as high for the two AAS-positive groups as for the AAS-negative group. Furthermore, when compared with the first 3 years after the first criminal conviction, a pronounced increase in the proportion of incidence of violent crimes and a marked reduction in the proportion of incidence of crime against property was observed during the 3-year period immediately preceding death only among the AASpos-subst.neg subjects. In conclusion, the incidence of violent crime among users of AAS without signs of other drug abuse was comparable to the corresponding incidences for drug addicts without AAS use. This observation suggests that the violent criminality observed among AAS users is not confounded in any systematic fashion by abuse of other drugs. The findings also indicate that use of AAS in certain
Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves
Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were
Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark
Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778
The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...
Spencer, C; Navaratnam, V
Although those Malaysian secondary schoolchildren who have never used drugs are consistent in their support for legal and social sanctions against drug use, it is argued that such sanctions are a relatively unimportant factor in the decision whether or not to use drugs. Non-drug users inhabit a social world separated from their drug-using contemporaries; they rely on information from public rather than direct social sources, and claim to have been little interested in information received. However, there is evidence that, for a minority of the drug-using sub-sample, public information campaigns have made them more rather than less interested in experimenting with drug substances. PMID:7460763
RICHARDSON, Lindsey A.; LONG, Cathy; DeBECK, Kora; NGUYEN, Paul; MILLOY, M-J S.; WOOD, Evan; KERR, Thomas H.
Objective Many people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) face challenges to their financial stability. Resulting activities that PWUD undertake to generate income may increase their vulnerability to violence. We therefore examined the relationship between income generation and exposure to violence across a wide range of income generating activities among HIV-positive and HIV-negative PWUD living in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data were derived from cohorts of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative PWUD (n=1876) between December 2005 and November 2012. We estimated the relationship between different types of income generation and suffering any kind of violence using bivariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE), as well as the characteristics of violent interactions. Results Exposure to violence was reported among 977 (52%) study participants over the study period. In multivariate models controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, mental health status, and drug use patterns, violence was independently and positively associated with participation in street-based income generation activities (i.e., recycling, squeegeeing, and panhandling; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23–1.57), sex work (AOR=1.23, 95%CI=1.00–1.50), drug dealing (AOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.44–1.84), and theft and other acquisitive criminal activity (AOR=1.51, 95%CI=1.27–1.80). Engagement in regular, self or temporary employment was not associated with being exposed to violence. Strangers were the most common perpetrators of violence (46.7%) and beatings the most common type of exposure (70.8%). Conclusions These results suggest that economic activities expose individuals to contexts associated with social and structural vulnerability to violence. The creation of safe economic opportunities that minimize vulnerability to violence among PWUD is therefore urgently required. PMID:25691275
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…
Khalagi, Kazem; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Sharif, Vandad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Motevalian, Abbas
Latent class analysis (LCA) is a method of assessing and correcting measurement error in surveys. The local independence assumption in LCA assumes that indicators are independent from each other condition on the latent variable. Violation of this assumption leads to unreliable results. We explored this issue by using LCA to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the Iranian Mental Health Survey. The following three indicators were included in the LCA models: five or more instances of using any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator A), any use of any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator B), and the self-perceived need of treatment services or having received treatment for a substance use disorder in the past 12 months (indicator C). Gender was also used in all LCA models as a grouping variable. One LCA model using indicators A and B, as well as 10 different LCA models using indicators A, B, and C, were fitted to the data. The three models that had the best fit to the data included the following correlations between indicators: (AC and AB), (AC), and (AC, BC, and AB). The estimated prevalence of illicit drug use based on these three models was 28.9%, 6.2% and 42.2%, respectively. None of these models completely controlled for violation of the local independence assumption. In order to perform unbiased estimations using the LCA approach, the factors violating the local independence assumption (behaviorally correlated error, bivocality, and latent heterogeneity) should be completely taken into account in all models using well-known methods. PMID:27156343
Brewer, Alex J.; Ort, Christoph; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Berset, Jean-Daniel
Drug concentrations in composite municipal wastewater samples and census-based estimates of population are used to derive daily loads of illicit substances that are indexed to population. However, such estimates do not provide information on the diurnal trends of substance excretion nor can they account for changes in population. To address these limitations, a series of 1 h composites created by sampling wastewater influent at 6 min intervals was collected over four consecutive days at a single wastewater treatment plant. Creatinine (a urinary indicator), caffeine, methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and cocaine were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Diurnal trends and between-day trends were substance specific and related to the number of estimated doses and excretory half-life. Normalization to creatinine yielded trends in substances that differed significantly from non-normalized trends by accounting for changes in population within the municipality studied. Increases in normalized substance excretion observed during early morning hours originate from individuals among the resident population of the municipality due to the absence of commuters. PMID:22804833
Fedorova, G; Randak, T; Golovko, O; Kodes, V; Grabicova, K; Grabic, R
The goal of this study was to assess the bioavailable concentrations of analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants and illicit drugs in the surface waters of the Czech Republic. All of the sampling sites are located within the most important water quality monitoring profiles at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 463 to 6,447 ng POCIS(-1) (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler). Carbamazepine (196-2,690 ng POCIS(-1)) and tramadol (160-2,250 ng POCIS(-1)) were the most abundant compounds at every site. The most polluted sites were those that received communal wastewater effluent and had a low dilution factor (ratio of wastewater effluent and river flow). The aqueous concentrations of the target compounds were estimated using sampling rate values obtained during a field calibration experiment. Patterns in the aqueous concentrations of the compounds (after back calculation from POCIS extracts) and the POCIS concentrations are different, possibly leading to discrepancies between the toxicity assessments conducted using POCIS extracts and those conducted using grab samples of water from the same location. PMID:24485281
Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith
The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…
Background Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA) involved in nonmedical prescription opioid use among rural and urban drug users. The purpose of this study was to describe rural-urban differences in ROA for nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods A purposive sample of 212 prescription drug users was recruited from a rural Appalachian county (n = 101) and a major metropolitan area (n = 111) in Kentucky. Consenting participants were given an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported nonmedical use and ROA (swallowing, snorting, injecting) for the following prescription drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, OxyContin® and other oxycodone. Results Among urban participants, swallowing was the most common ROA, contrasting sharply with substance-specific variation in ROA among rural participants. Among rural participants, snorting was the most frequent ROA for hydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone, while injection was most common for hydromorphone and morphine. In age-, gender-, and race-adjusted analyses, rural participants had significantly higher odds of snorting hydrocodone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone than urban participants. Urban participants had significantly higher odds of swallowing hydrocodone and oxycodone than did rural participants. Notably, among rural participants, 67% of hydromorphone users and 63% of morphine users had injected the drugs. Conclusions Alternative ROA are common among rural drug users. This finding has implications for rural substance abuse treatment and harm reduction, in which interventions should incorporate methods to prevent and reduce route-specific health complications of drug use. PMID:20950455
The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…
Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned
Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)
Page, Richard C; And Others
Used Hill Interaction Matrix to measure content and quality of interactions in 12-hour therapy group of 12 male drug addicts and 3 therapists. Categories of therapeutic work included conventional, assertive, speculative, and confrontive; categories of content included topic, group, personal, and relationship. Group was highly confrontive; most…
The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...
Poryvkina, Larisa; Babichenko, Sergey
The SFS technology has already proved its analytical capabilities in a variety of industrial and environmental tasks. Recently it has been introduced for forensic applications. The key features of the SFS method - measuring a 3-dimensional spectrum of fluorescence of the sample (intensity versus excitation and emission wavelengths) with following recognition of specific spectral patterns of SFS responsible for individual drugs - provide an effective tool for the analysis of untreated seized samples, without any separation of the substance of interest from its mixture with accompanying cutting agents and diluents as a preparatory step. In such approach the chemical analysis of the sample is substituted by the analysis of SFS matrix visualized as an optical image. The SFS technology of drug detection is realized by NarTest® NTX2000 analyzer, compact device intended to measure suspicious samples in liquid, solid and powder forms. It simplifies the detection process due to fully automated procedures of SFS measuring and integrated expert system for recognition of spectral patterns. Presently the expert system of NTX2000 is able to detect marijuana, cocaine, heroin, MDMA, amphetamine and methamphetamine with the detection limit down to 5% of the drug concentration in various mixtures. The numerous tests with street samples confirmed that the use of SFS method provides reliable results with high sensitivity and selectivity for identification of drugs of abuse. More than 3000 street samples of the aforesaid drugs were analyzed with NTX2000 during validation process, and the correspondence of SFS results and conclusions of standard forensic analyses with GC/MS techniques was in 99.4% cases.
Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II
Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to
Background Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs. Methods During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine. Results During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (≤18 years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8 g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688 /4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons. Conclusion Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children
Keller, Thomas; Keller, Andrea; Tutsch-Bauer, Edith; Monticelli, Fabio
Until 2002 in Austria a blood sample could not be drawn due to regulations stipulated by the Austrian constitution. During the years 2003-2007 alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs were analyzed in 1167 blood samples from cases of suspected and drugged drivers. In accordance with the findings of the EU-project Rosita, a wide variety of illicit drugs and medications could be found in blood samples of the drivers where cannabis (50%), opiates (20%), amphetamines (18%), cocaine (15%) and benzodiazepines (20%) were those with the highest prevalence. To enable police and medical officers to identify drivers under the influence of cannabis, a newly developed urinary road-site-test system, Check 24 (Protzek GmbH, Germany), with two different cut-off values for THCCOOH-glucuronide was used. So far, it was not possible to draw any conclusions from a cannabinoid positive urine sample to the actual influence of a driver due to the previous consumption of cannabis. Using this test a better differentiation between recent and temporal earlier consumption was possible. In addition to using the Check 24 system the technology of pupillography (AMTech GmbH, Germany) was applied in cases of drugged driving. For the first time the authors were able to predict the presence of at least one central nervous active substance in the blood of a drugged driver. PMID:19282219
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
Álvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda
An analytical method for determining traditional and emerging drugs of abuse in particulate matter, sewage sludge and sediment has been developed and validated. A total of 41 drugs of abuse and metabolites including cocainics, tryptamines, amphetamines, arylcyclohexylamines, cathinones, morphine derivatives, pyrrolidifenones derivatives, entactogens, piperazines and other psychostimulants were selected. Samples were ultrasound extracted with McIlvaine buffer and methanol, and the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata-X cartridges. Drugs were eluted using methanol and methanol-dichloromethane and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The optimum solid-liquid extraction (SLE) conditions were: weight 1g of sample and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) with 10mL of methanol-McIlvain buffer (1:1, v/v, pH 4.5) for 10min. Recoveries for all compounds were ≥50% in the three matrices with the exception of ephedrine (EPHE), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), ecgonine methyester (ECME), heroin (HER), 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 4-acetoxy N,N'-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DIPT) and methadone (MET). Data acquisition was done by selective reaction monitoring (SRM), and the two most abundant product ions were used for confirmation. Limits of detection were lower than 1.32ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and limits of quantification were between 0.12 and 3.96ngg(-1) (d.w.). The method was applied to the analysis of particulate matter, where cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BECG), ecgoninemethylester (ECME), cocaethylene (COCET), methadone (MET) and codeine (COD) were mostly detected. In the case of dehydrated sludge, opioids are at higher concentration than cocainics and some emerging drugs such as 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), ketamine (KET) and bufotenine (BUF) were detected. In sediment COC, 4-methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP), MET and BECG were most relevant compounds. PMID:26091784
Even though a body of data on the environmental occurrence of medicinal, government-approved ("ethical") pharmaceuticals has been growing over the last two decades (the subject of this book), nearly nothing is known about the disposition of illicit (illegal) drugs in the environm...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...
Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.
This monograph provides the 1975-2005 national trends in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American secondary school students. It covers subgroup differences, attitudes and beliefs about use, social milieu, degree and duration of drug highs, initiation rates, prevalence and frequency, and trends in illicit drug and alcohol use. Drug…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
Alcohol use by youths has been linked to delinquent behaviors, such as stealing, illicit drug use, and problems in school. Research also indicates that early drinkers are more likely than nondrinkers to engage in delinquent behaviors. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report their alcohol use in…
Fisk, John E; Morley, Andy M; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Montgomery, Catharine
Deficits in deductive reasoning have been observed among ecstasy/polydrug users. The present study seeks to investigate dose-related effects of specific drugs and whether these vary with the cognitive demands of the task. One hundred and five participants (mean age 21.33, SD 3.14; 77 females, 28 males) attempted to generate solutions for eight one-model syllogisms and one syllogism for which there was no valid conclusion. All of the one-model syllogisms generated at least one valid conclusion and six generated two valid conclusions. In these six cases, one of the conclusions was classified as common and the other as non-common. The number of valid common inferences was negatively associated with the aspects of short-term cannabis use and with measures of IQ. The outcomes observed were more than simple post-intoxication effects since cannabis use in the 10 days immediately before testing was unrelated to reasoning performance. Following adjustment for multiple comparisons, the number of non-common valid inferences was not significantly associated with any of the drug-use measures. Recent cannabis use appears to impair the processes associated with generating valid common inferences while not affecting the production of non-common inferences. It is possible, therefore, that the two types of inference may recruit different executive resources, which may differ in their susceptibility to cannabis-related effects. PMID:24723099
Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.
Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491
Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.
This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.
Giesbrecht, Norman; Haydon, Emma
The social, health and economic burdens from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs have impacts globally, national and locally. Effective interventions are needed at each level in order to reduce the extensive harm and attendant costs. This paper examines four topics: options available to the local community, evidence of effectiveness, links between local experiences and national and regional initiatives and implications for future research and intervention. It appears that there are a substantial number of options available at the local level. However, evaluation of them is not standard practice, and the results of the higher quality evaluations indicate that many, but not all, interventions have modest or equivocal impact. There is also not a consistent relationship between local and national interventions, although some themes are apparent: in tobacco control there may be good synergy across jurisdictional levels, for alcohol there is evidence that as national control measures are eroded local communities are encouraged or required to take up these agendas, and with regard to illicit drugs there may be tension between law enforcement priorities at the national level and harm reduction orientations locally. Future initiatives need to have appropriate evaluations as a standardised part of prevention initiatives, and include the development of national databases of what is going on locally. These initiatives should promote national policies that include setting parameters and guidelines, but nevertheless do not dictate specific steps and strategies how to achieve local goals in reducing risk and harm. PMID:17132579
Ti, Lianping; Milloy, M-J; Buxton, Jane; McNeil, Ryan; Dobrer, Sabina; Hayashi, Kanna; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Background Leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) and is associated with severe health-related harms and costs. However, little is known about the prevalence of and factors associated with leaving AMA among PWUD. Methods Data were collected through two Canadian prospective cohort studies involving PWUD between September 2005 and July 2011 and linked to a hospital admission/discharge database. Bivariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine factors associated with leaving hospital AMA among PWUD who were hospitalized. Results Among 488 participants who experienced at least one hospitalization, 212 (43.4%) left the hospital AMA at least once during the study period. In multivariable analyses, factors positively and significantly associated with leaving hospital AMA included: unstable employment (AOR = 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–3.03); recent incarceration (AOR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.07–2.49); ≥ daily heroin injection (AOR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.05–2.11); and younger age per year younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02–1.06). Conclusions We found a substantial proportion of PWUD in this setting left hospital AMA and that various markers of risk and vulnerability were associated with this phenomenon. Our findings highlight the need to address substance abuse issues early following hospital admission. These findings further suggest a need to develop novel interventions to minimize PWUD leaving hospital prematurely. PMID:26509447
Geil, Chelsea R.; Hayes, Dayna M.; McClain, Justin A.; Liput, Daniel J.; Marshall, S. Alex; Chen, Kevin Y.; Nixon, Kimberly
Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche. PMID:24842804
Seraganian, Peter; And Others
A major shift in drug abuse epidemiology has been witnessed in North America over the past decade. Although alcohol continues to be widely abused, usage of other substances has proliferated. While addicted individuals share some attributes, certain demographic, psychological, and cognitive characteristics may distinguish alcoholics from those who…
College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.
Based on data from surveys of students enrolled in spring 1993 and spring 1996, the four briefs provided in this report describe alcohol and drug use among students at California's College of the Canyons. The first brief addresses the frequency of alcohol use by students, indicating that 15% of the 1996 students reported drinking three or more…
US Department of Education, 2008
In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…
... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...
... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...
... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...
... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...
Swenson, J R; Dimsdale, J E; Rockwell, E; Carroll, W; Hansbrough, J
We reviewed records of adult patients admitted to our burn unit who were reported to abuse drugs or alcohol from 1985 to 1988. The proportion of patients reported as abusing drugs increased significantly from 1987 to 1988, compared to previous years. However, there was no increase in the proportion of patients reported to abuse alcohol. Patients identified as abusing drugs had longer hospital stays, compared to patients who were not reported to abuse substances. Methamphetamine and cocaine were the drugs most often abused by patients who abused drugs or both drugs and alcohol. Mechanisms of burn injury in these patients included "accidental" burn injury related to acute intoxication, and self-injury due to psychosis or depression. PMID:1882020
Rhoades, H M; Creson, D; Elk, R; Schmitz, J; Grabowski, J
OBJECTIVES: This study examined two major methadone treatment factors, visit frequency and methadone dose, posited to be important in reducing intravenous drug use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. METHODS: One hundred fifty opiate-dependent subjects randomly assigned to four groups received 50 or 80 mg of methadone and attended a clinic 2 or 5 days per week. RESULTS: Survival analysis indicated higher dropout rates for groups having five vs two visits per week (Chi2=7.76). Higher proportions of opiate-positive results on urine screens were associated with lower methadone doses (F[1,91]=4.74). CONCLUSIONS: Receiving take-home doses early in treatment enhanced treatment retention. The 50-mg dose combined with five visits per week produced the worst outcome. Fewer visits enhanced retention at 50 mg, but opiate use rates were higher at this dose than they were for either 80-mg group. The HIV infection rate at entry was 9%. No subjects seroconverted during the study. Risk behaviors for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome declined over time regardless of group/dose assignment. These results have important implications for modification of regulatory and clinic policy changes. PMID:9584030
... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...
Kozicki, Zigmond A.
Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug...
Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713
Valenciano, Ligia Rojas; da Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo; Vasters, Gabriela Pereira
This was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The participant population consisted of 69 students who were attending the fifth year of the Nursing Degree course. A self-administered questionnaire was applied, which was previously validated with a sample of nursing students that were attending other years of the course. The instrument was divided into five domains: general, sociodemographic, economic, personal, familiar and sociocultural information. The study evidence, that the phenomenon of drugs is multifactorial, is associated with sociodemographic, economic, personal, familiar and sociocultural characteristics. The students were predominantly female, of the middle-economic class, with good academic performance, but had unhealthy life styles. Concerning drug consumption, 44.9% had consumed alcoholic beverages and consumed at the time of the study, another smaller percentage smoked tobacco and 1.4% smoked marijuana; in addition, a clear knowledge of risk behaviors and of the consequences to which they are exposed did not exist within this group. PMID:20694422
Bijlsma, Lubertus; Beltrán, Eduardo; Boix, Clara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix
Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Correction for possible SPE losses or degradation during storage was made by the use of isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS), available for all compounds, which were added to the samples as surrogates. Although ILIS were also efficient for matrix effects correction, the strong ionization suppression observed was not eliminated; therefore, a four-fold dilution prior to SPE was applied to influent wastewaters and a low injection volume was selected (3 μL), in order to reach a compromise between matrix effects, chromatographic performance and sensitivity. The method was validated at 25 and 200 ng L(-1) (effluent), and 100 and 800 ng L(-1) (influent), obtaining limits of quantification (i.e. the lowest level that the compound can be quantified and also confirmed with at least two MS/MS transitions) between 0.4-25 ng L(-1) (effluent) and 2-100 ng L(-1) (influent). The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of 14 influent and 14 effluent wastewater samples collected over 2 weeks in Castellón (Spain) within a European collaborative study. PMID:24752696
Parker, Robert B.; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Meibohm, Bernd; Laizure, S. Casey
Background and Objective Human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1) and human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) play an important role in metabolizing many medications. Alcohol is a known inhibitor of these enzymes but the relative effect on CES1 and CES2 is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol on the metabolism of specific probes for CES1 (oseltamivir) and CES2 (aspirin). Methods The effect of alcohol on CES1- and CES2-mediated probe drug hydrolysis was determined in vitro using recombinant human carboxylesterase. To characterize the in vivo effects of alcohol, healthy volunteers received each probe drug alone and in combination with alcohol followed by blood sample collection and determination of oseltamivir, aspirin, and respective metabolite pharmacokinetics. Results Alcohol significantly inhibited oseltamivir hydrolysis by CES1 in vitro but did not affect aspirin metabolism by CES2. Alcohol increased the oseltamivir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-6 h by 27% (range 11-46%, p=0.011) and decreased the metabolite/oseltamivir AUC 0-6 h ratio by 34% (range 25-41%, p<0.001). Aspirin pharmacokinetics were not affected by alcohol. Conclusions Alcohol significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of oseltamivir by CES1 both in vitro and in humans, but did not affect the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid by CES2. These results suggest that alcohol's inhibition of CES1 could potentially result in clinically significant drug interactions with other CES1-substrate drugs, but it is unlikely to significantly affect CES2-substrate drug hydrolysis. PMID:25511794
Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151
Christie, Timothy K S; Murugesan, Alli; Manzer, Dana; O'Shaughnessey, Michael V; Webster, Duncan
Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management. PMID:24860685
Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS A Consumer Guide Drugs & Alcohol What do drugs and alcohol have to do with HIV? Drug and alcohol use can ... behavior that can increase your exposure to HIV/AIDS. For example, using or sharing needles or other ...
... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...
Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre
Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss
Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn; Morojele, Neo K; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Donson, Hilton; Plüddemann, Andreas
This paper aims to provide surveillance information about the extent and consequences of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use by adolescents for three sentinel sites in South Africa (Cape Town, Durban and Gauteng province). From 1997 to 2001, data were gathered from multiple sources, including specialist treatment centres, trauma units, school students, rave party attenders, and arrestees. Since the start of surveillance, an increasing proportion of South African adolescents are using AODs. Surveys point to high levels of alcohol misuse among high school students, with alcohol being the most common substance of abuse. Cannabis is the most frequently reported illicit drug of abuse among adolescents. This is reflected in the large proportion of adolescents receiving treatment for cannabis, cannabis-positive arrestees, and cannabis-positive trauma patients. Cannabis smoked together with methaqualone is the second most common primary drug of abuse in Cape Town. Arrestee data highlights the potentially negative effect of adolescent methaqualone use. Cocaine and heroin are emerging as problem drugs of abuse among adolescents in large metropolitan centres. Ecstasy (MDMA) use occurs mainly among adolescents who attend rave parties and clubs. The study points to the need for AOD intervention programmes that target young people and the need for continued monitoring of adolescent AOD use in the future. PMID:15288752
Presents "Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You" (ADDY), a comprehensive program designed to prevent adolescent alcohol- and drug-related crashes and to prepare young people to be more responsible drivers and passengers. Describes program modules, evaluation results, and school and community benefits that may result from adopting this program.…
Wernly, P; Thormann, W
Using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with a borate/phosphate buffer containing 75 mM SDS (pH 9.1), common drugs of abuse and/or their metabolites, including opioids, benzoylecgonine, amphetamines, and methaqualone, can easily be analyzed. After solid-phase extraction of 5 mL of urine, drug concentrations down to about 100 ng/mL can be unambiguously monitored with on-column multiwavelength detection. Peak assignment is achieved through comparison of retention times and absorption spectra of eluting peaks with those of computer-stored model runs. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated with data obtained from different patient urines which tested positively for one or several drugs using nonisotopic immunoassays. Results suggest that MECC of illicit drugs is a highly specific and sensitive instrumental approach suitable for confirmation testing following a positive response of a toxicological screening procedure. PMID:1789451
Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold
Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316
Castro, Felipe G.; Gutierres, Sara
Very little research has examined drug and alcohol use among rural Mexican-Americans, and the few existing studies have yielded mixed results. Some authors have suggested that substance use by Mexican-American youth is similar to that of Anglo youth, but at least one study has shown that Mexican-American females use drugs at a higher rate than do…
Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia
The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. PMID:25103281
Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristen L.; Murray, Regan L.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Massey, Lynn S.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Booth, Brenda M.
The inner city Emergency Department (ED) provides a window of opportunity for screening for alcohol and other drug misuse and substance use disorders (SUDs), in order to facilitate linkage for individuals who are in need of services targeting such issues. The majority of prior work in this area has focused on alcohol use. This study used latent class analyses to characterize substance use/SUDs among adults presenting to the ED for medical complaints or injuries. Participants (n=14,557; 77% participation; 45% male; 54% African-American) completed a computerized survey assessing demographics, health functioning, and substance use/SUDs. Although injured patients were significantly more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, and were more likely to have an alcohol use disorder, presenting complaint was not related to other drug use/diagnoses. Five latent classes were identified: (1) non users/SUDs (65.9%) (2) binge drinkers (24.3%), (3) marijuana users/SUD (3.5%), (4) cocaine users/SUD (2.9%), and (5) poly-drug users (3.3%). Compared to class 1, participants in the other classes were younger, male, without health insurance, with poor mental health functioning, tobacco users, and had prior substance use treatment. African-Americans were most likely to be in classes 3 or 4 and employed participants were most likely to be in class 2. In comparison to class 1, classes 2 and 3 reported better physical health; class 2 was more likely to present for injury whereas class 5 was more likely to present for a medical complaint. ED-based screening and interventions approaches need to address the co-occurrence of alcohol, illicit drug, and psychoactive prescription drug use. PMID:21514734
Míguez, H H; Pecci, M C
In a group of 4800 young man--sample--who were called on to the Military Service Medical Examination in 1992, was investigated the legal and illegal psychoactive drugs using in. Findings show that: a) 42% were alcohol abusers during last 30 days; b) more than 17% have used marihuana once in their lives; c) 9.7% have used cocaine and d) 1 of each 10 have recognized use psychoactive drugs without medical prescription. Cultural practices linked to excessive alcohol abuse and the present increase use of other psychoactive drugs by young people are discussed. PMID:7872028
Ledgerwood, David M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Risk, Nathan K.; Lewis, Collins E.; Price, Rumi Kato
Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report. PMID:18547737
Ledgerwood, David M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Risk, Nathan K; Lewis, Collins E; Price, Rumi Kato
Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report. PMID:18547737
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...
Poulsen, Helen; Moar, Rosemary; Pirie, Ruth
Over a period of five years, blood samples were taken from 1046 drivers killed as a result of a motor vehicle crash on New Zealand roads. These were analysed for the presence of alcohol and a range of both illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs. Driver culpability was determined for all crashes. The control group of drug- and alcohol-free drivers comprised 52.2% of the study population. Drivers positive for psychoactive drugs were more likely to be culpable (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.4-5.2) than the control group. Driver culpability exhibited the expected positive association with alcohol use (OR 13.7, 95% CI 4.3-44) and with combined alcohol and cannabis use (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.0-16). There was only a weak positive association between cannabis use (with no other drug) and culpability (OR 1.3, CI 95% 0.8-2.3). Furthermore, the OR for drivers with blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations greater than 5 ng/mL was lower (OR 1.0, CI 95% 0.4-2.4) than drivers with blood THC concentrations less than 2 ng/mL (OR 3.1, CI 95% 0.9-10). This is inconsistent with results reported by other studies where a significant increase in crash risk was found with blood THC levels greater than 5 ng/mL. In this study, there were very few drivers who had used a single drug, other than cannabis or alcohol. Therefore, from this study, it is not possible to comment on any relationship between opioid, stimulant or sedative drug use and an increased risk of being killed in a crash for the drivers using these drugs. The results from a multivariate analysis indicate that driver gender, age group and licence status, (P=0.022, P=0.016, P=0.026, respectively), the type of vehicle being driven (P=0.013), the number of vehicles in the crash (P<0.001), the blood alcohol concentration of the driver (P<0.001) and the use of any drug other than alcohol and cannabis (P=0.044), are all independently associated with culpability. PMID:24636874
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James
School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…
Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon
This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762
How Strong Is the Evidence that Illicit Drug Use by Young People Is an Important Cause of Psychological or Social Harm? Methodological and Policy Implications of a Systematic Review of Longitudinal, General Population Studies
MacLeod, John; Oakes, Rachel; Oppenkowski, Thomas; Stokes-Lampard, Helen; Copello, Alex; Crome, Ilana; Davey Smith, George; Egger, Matthias; Hickman, Mathew; Judd, Ali
Recreational use of illicit drugs (i.e. use not associated with a diagnosed drug problem) may cause psychological and social harm. A recent systematic review found that evidence for this was equivocal. Extensive evidence was only available in relation to cannabis use. This was relatively consistently associated with lower educational attainment…
Gardner, Stephen E., Ed.
Articles in this monograph examine key issues in combined drug and alcohol use. The first chapter discusses clinical and research evidence about the physical and psychological effects of various drug and alcohol combinations. Chapter Two presents findings about usage patterns of alcohol and drugs. The impact of alcohol use in a treatment setting…
Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ
This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766