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Sample records for alcohol intake smoking

  1. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  2. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  3. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  4. Association among work exposure, alcohol intake, smoking and Dupuytren's disease in a large cohort study (GAZEL)

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Carton, Matthieu; Mediouni, Zakia; Dumontier, Christian; Roquelaure, Yves; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Leclerc, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In view of the debate of factors in Dupuytren’s disease, we aimed to describe its relationship with certain occupational factors, alcohol intake and smoking. Setting The French GAZEL cohort (employees of Electricité de France and Gaz de France). Participants Participants of the cohort who answered a questionnaire in 2012, that is, 13 587 participants (73.7% of the questionnaire sent). In 2007, self-assessed lifetime occupational biomechanical exposure was recorded (carrying loads, manipulating a vibrating tool and climbing stairs), as well as alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Analyses were performed on high alcohol intake, smoking and duration of relevant work exposure, stratified by gender. Primary and secondary outcome measures From a specific question on Dupuytren’s disease assessed in 2012, the outcome measures were self-reported Dupuytren’s disease (yes/no) and disabling Dupuytren’s disease (including surgery). Results A total of 10 017 men and 3570 women, aged 64–73 years, were included; the mean age for men was 68 years and for women was 65 years. Among men, the following were significantly associated with Dupuytren’s disease: age (OR 1.03 (1.00; 1.06)), diabetes (OR 1.31 (1.07; 1.60)), heavy drinking (OR 1.36 (1.10; 1.69)) and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work (OR 1.52 (1.15; 2.02)); except for diabetes, the association with these factors was stronger for disabling Dupuytren’s disease (or surgery), with OR 1.07 (1.03; 1.11), 1.71 (1.25; 2.33) and 1.98(1.34; 2.91), respectively, for age, heavy drinking and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work. Among the 3570 women included, 160 reported Dupuytren’s disease (4.5%). The number of cases in the group of women was too low to reach conclusions, although the findings seemed similar for age, diabetes and vibration exposure. Conclusions In this large French cohort study, Dupuytren’s disease in men was associated with high

  5. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  6. Risk of vocal chord dysplasia in relation to smoking, alcohol intake and occupation.

    PubMed

    Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M

    1990-03-01

    The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.

  7. Risk of malignant melanoma in relation to drug intake, alcohol, smoking and hormonal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Westerdahl, J.; Olsson, H.; Måsbäck, A.; Ingvar, C.; Jonsson, N.

    1996-01-01

    In a population-based, matched case-control study from southern Sweden of 400 patients with a first diagnosis of malignant melanoma and 640 healthy control subjects aged 15-75 years, the association between commonly prescribed drugs, alcohol, smoking and malignant melanoma was evaluated. In addition, the relation between reproductive and hormonal factors and melanoma in women was studied. It was found that certain specific types of prescribed drugs, i.e. beta-blockers, hydralazines and benzodiazepines, may increase the risk of melanoma development. However, these associations were diminished, at least for benzodiazepines, after controlling for host factors. As these findings are unconfirmed, and may be due to chance or confounding, further studies are warranted. The risk of malignant melanoma was not influenced by alcohol consumption or smoking habits. Our results do not suggest an association between oral contraceptives and melanoma. Furthermore, reproductive factors were not independent risk factors for melanoma. However, increasing number of live births seemed to be protective (P for trend = 0.01). There is a need for further research to be able to draw firm conclusions on the relation between number of live births and melanoma. The results based on histopathological re-examinations and those based on tumour registry data were essentially the same. PMID:8624275

  8. Smoking, obesity, and hypertension alter the dose-response curve and test sensitivity of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a marker of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, J B; Fletcher, L M; Murphy, T L; Powell, L W; Halliday, J; Heath, A C; Martin, N G

    1998-12-01

    Serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a specific and comparatively sensitive marker of excessive alcohol use; however, reports of its sensitivity vary according to the population or patient groups studied and their average alcohol intake. We have characterized the dose-response curve between alcohol intake and CDT concentrations in a study of 1400 men and women from a community-based twin registry. Our results show that mean CDT increases with increasing reported alcohol consumption even within the range of alcohol use considered to be nonhazardous. We found significant effects of sex, age, smoking, previous alcohol dependence, body mass index, and diastolic hypertension on the alcohol-CDT dose-response curve. These variables either affect test sensitivity or require adjustment of reference intervals. The results also provide insight into the physiological and biochemical factors that affect CDT concentration.

  9. Fractures and lifestyle: effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and relative weight on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in middle-aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, D; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and low relative weight are often cited as risk factors for osteoporosis. In a prospective cohort study of 96,508 middle-aged nurses 35 to 59 years of age we found that smoking was not a risk factor for hip and forearm fracture. Women who drank more than 15 grams of alcohol per day and whose relative weight was less than 21 kg/m2 were at increased risk of fractures, but these risk factors were not independent. Only the combination of alcohol intake and thinness substantially increased the likelihood of fracture. The low weight women consuming more than one drink per day comprised but 4 per cent of our population of middle-class women and sustained 6 per cent of the fractures. PMID:3189632

  10. Oesophageal cancer mortality: relationship with alcohol intake and cigarette smoking in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, A; Vioque, J; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to explore temporal changes in mortality from oesophageal cancer that could be related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DESIGN--The study used mortality trends from oesophageal cancer over the period 1951-1985. In addition, available trends on per capita consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are also presented. SETTING--Data for this study were derived from Spain's National Institute for Statistics. MAIN RESULTS--Age standardised mortality rates from oesophageal cancer have increased significantly among men in Spain from 1951 to 1985 (p less than 0.01). Mortality rates in women have not changed significantly during the same period, although there is evidence of a certain decrease in recent years. Trends of per capita cigarette consumption from 1957 to 1982 related positively with oesophageal cancer mortality among men, whereas no significant relationship was observed in women. Trends of beer, spirits, and total alcohol consumption were also positively correlated with oesophageal cancer mortality in men. Among women, a weaker relationship was found. Wine consumption showed no relationship with oesophageal cancer mortality either in men or women. CONCLUSIONS--These results are similar to those found in other studies, supporting a role of alcohol (spirits and beer) and cigarette consumption in causation of oesophageal cancer. No relationship was observed with wine consumption. PMID:1795145

  11. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    PubMed

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300)) and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27)), but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  12. Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Lee, Jang-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hsu, Hon-Ki; Kao, Ein-Long; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2005-01-20

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted in northern and southern Taiwan to clarify the independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer. A total of 513 patients with newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and 818 gender, age and study hospital-matched controls were included. We found a significant dose-response relationship between the duration and intensity of consumption of the 3 substances and the development of this neoplasm in this site. Although the amount of alcohol consumed had a stronger effect on the risk of esophageal cancer than the number of years it was consumed, however, the number of years one smoked had a stronger effect on the risk than the amount of cigarettes consumed. The strongest risk factor of esophageal cancer was alcohol intake, with highest risk (OR = 13.9) being for those who consumed more than 900 g/day-year. Combined exposure to any 2 of 3 substances brought the risks up to 8.8-19.7 fold and, to all 3 substances, to 41.2-fold. A multiplicative interaction effect for alcohol drinkers who smoked on cancer risk was detected, whereas an additive interaction effect was found among drinkers who chewed. The combined effect of all 3 substances accounted for 83.7% of the attributable fraction of contracting esophageal cancer in this population. In conclusion, these results suggest that the intensity and the length of time alcohol and tobacco are used play different roles in the etiology of esophageal cancer. Alcohol separately interacts with tobacco and betel quid in a differently synergistic way in determining the development of this site of cancer.

  13. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julia A; Bernstein, Leslie; Largent, Joan; Capanu, Marinela; Begg, Colin B; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Lynch, Charles F; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Liang, Xiaolin; Haile, Robert W; Boice, John D; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2009-04-15

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5 population-based cancer registries in the United States and Denmark. Controls were matched to cases on birth year, diagnosis year, registry region, and race and countermatched on radiation treatment. Risk factor information was collected by telephone interview. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Ever regular drinking was associated with an increased risk of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.6), and the risk increased with increasing duration (P = 0.03). Smoking was not related to asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer.

  14. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Businelle, Michael S.; Lam, Cho Y.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse. PMID:23379613

  16. Interrelationship between alcohol, smoking, acetaldehyde and cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors of upper digestive tract cancer. With regard to the pathogenesis of these cancers, there is strong epidemiological, biochemical and genetic evidence supporting the role of the first metabolite of alcohol oxidation--acetaldehyde--as a common denominator. Alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde locally in the oral cavity by microbes representing normal oral flora. Poor oral hygiene, heavy drinking and chronic smoking modify oral flora to produce more acetaldehyde from ingested alcohol. Also, tobacco smoke contains acetaldehyde, which during smoking becomes dissolved in saliva. Via swallowing, salivary acetaldehyde of either origin is distributed from oral cavity to pharynx, oesophagus and stomach. Strongest evidence for the local carcinogenic action of acetaldehyde provides studies with ALDH2-deficient Asian drinkers, who form an exceptional human model for long-term acetaldehyde exposure. After drinking alcohol they have an increased concentration of acetaldehyde in their saliva and this is associated with over 10-fold risk of upper digestive tract cancers. In conclusion, acetaldehyde derived either from ethanol or tobacco appears to act in the upper digestive tract as a local carcinogen in a dose-dependent and synergistic way.

  17. Alcohol intake over the life course and mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Flom, Julie D; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Terry, Mary Beth

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol intake is one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Current alcohol intake has been associated with mammographic density, a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, though few studies have examined the effect of both current and average lifetime alcohol intake. We interviewed 262 participants from a New York birth cohort (born 1959-1963) and obtained mammograms from 163 (71.5% of participants with a mammogram). We collected information on alcohol intake by beverage type separately for each decade of life. We used multivariable linear models to assess the associations between current and average lifetime alcohol intake and mammographic density using a quantitative measure of density from digitized images. Overall, current alcohol intake was more strongly associated with mammographic density than average lifetime alcohol intake; compared with nondrinkers, those with current intake of seven or more servings per week had on average 12.3% (95% CI: 4.3, 20.4) higher density, adjusted for average lifetime alcohol intake, age, and body mass index. We observed a consistent inverse association for red wine intake and mammographic density, suggesting that the positive association between mammographic density and overall alcohol intake was driven by other types of alcoholic beverages. Our findings support an association between current alcohol intake and increased mammographic density independent of the effect of average lifetime alcohol intake. If replicated, our study suggests that reducing current alcohol consumption, particularly beer and white wine intake, may be a means of reducing mammographic density regardless of intake earlier in life.

  18. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  19. Effects of Alcoholism Severity and Smoking on Executive Neurocognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.M.; Buu, A.; Adams, K.M.; Nigg, J.T.; Puttler, L.I.; Jester, J.M.; Zucker, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented and include impairments in memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of these deficits is unclear, but could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that may predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbid abuse of substances other than alcohol. For example, cigarette smoking occurs at a much higher rate among persons with alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance. Until recently, the negative effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism have been ignored. Methods The effects of alcoholism and smoking are examined in a community recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (N=240) using standard neuropsychological measures and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism severity was measured as an average of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 yrs). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Results Both alcoholism and smoking were negatively correlated with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was negatively correlated with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was negatively correlated with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism are significant predictors of executive function composite. However; when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer a significant predictor. Conclusions Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism on EF was not independent of IQ, suggesting that the alcoholism effect was generalized, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more

  20. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  1. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  2. Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Genkinger, J M; Hunter, D J; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K E; Buring, J E; Freudenheim, J L; Goldbohm, R A; Harnack, L; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M L; Marshall, J; Miller, A B; Rodriguez, C; Rohan, T E; Schatzkin, A; Schouten, L J; Wolk, A; Zhang, S M; Smith-Warner, S A

    2006-03-13

    Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 529 638 women among whom 2001 incident epithelial ovarian cases were documented. After study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then were pooled using a random effects model; no associations were observed for intakes of total alcohol (pooled multivariate RR=1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44 comparing > or =30 to 0 g day(-1) of alcohol) or alcohol from wine, beer or spirits and ovarian cancer risk. The association with alcohol consumption was not modified by oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, parity, menopausal status, folate intake, body mass index, or smoking. Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. This pooled analysis does not support an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk.

  3. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Sartori, N; Salvia, R; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Di Francesco, V; Frulloni, L; Bovo, P; Vaona, B; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Cavallini, G; Pederzoli, P

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare alcohol and smoking as risk factors in the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We considered only male subjects: (1) 630 patients with chronic pancreatitis who developed 12 pancreatic and 47 extrapancreatic cancers; (2) 69 patients with histologically well documented pancreatic cancer and no clinical history of chronic pancreatitis; and (3) 700 random controls taken from the Verona polling list and submitted to a complete medical check-up. Chronic pancreatitis subjects drink more than control subjects and more than subjects with pancreatic cancer without chronic pancreatitis (P<0.001). The percentage of smokers in the group with chronic pancreatitis is significantly higher than that in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 17.3; 95% CI 12.6-23.8; P<0.001] and in the group with pancreatic carcinomas but with no history of chronic pancreatitis (OR 5.3; 95% CI 3.0-9.4; P<0.001). In conclusion, our study shows that: (1) the risk of chronic pancreatitis correlates both with alcohol intake and with cigarette smoking with a trend indicating that the risk increases with increased alcohol intake and cigarette consumption; (2) alcohol and smoking are statistically independent risk factors for chronic pancreatitis; and (3) the risk of pancreatic cancer correlates positively with cigarette smoking but not with drinking.

  4. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental.

  5. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  6. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  7. Parenthood, Alcohol Intake, and Drinking Contexts: Occasio Furem Facit*

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. Method The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Results Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Conclusions Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person. PMID:21388599

  8. Alcohol and nutrient intake: mechanisms of reinforcement and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael J

    2011-07-25

    Alcohol is not only a drug of abuse but is also a food. This combination has a significant impact on the development and consequences of alcohol abuse and dependence. Understanding the neurobiological and behavioral processes that mediate them is perhaps best approached from the perspective of ingestive behavior. Research from the Hoebel laboratory has provided innovation and leadership in understanding that feeding neuropeptides plays a significant role in alcohol intake. The research reviewed here shows that galanin and other feeding peptides increase intake and also motivate abuse and the development of dependence. In addition, the consequences of long term alcohol abuse and dependence alter nutritional systems and drinking behavior. A major challenge is understanding the role of alcohol's dual properties and feeding neuropeptide in the motivation to drink.

  9. Does the flushing response modify the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension in the Japanese population? NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Mana; Tsuchiya, Naho; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Tanaka, Hideo; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Takashima, Naoyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    The influence of alcohol intake on hypertension may vary depending on the flushing response, but this relationship has not been confirmed. The relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension was examined according to the flushing response in a representative sample of the Japanese population. Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010 were asked to participate in the baseline survey of NIPPON DATA2010. Here, we investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension according to the flushing response. Statistical analyses were performed in a cross-sectional manner using multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, present illness of diabetes mellitus and present illness of dyslipidemia. Of the 1139 men and 1263 women, 659 and 463, respectively, had hypertension. Among the men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension, regardless of the flushing response (P for linear trend both <0.05). This positive relationship was observed for both users and non-users of antihypertensive drugs. No interaction with the flushing response was observed (P for interaction=0.360). In women, although the direction differed between flushers and non-flushers, the association between alcohol intake and hypertension was not significant, regardless of flushing response. In conclusion, In Japanese men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension in a manner that was not influenced by the flushing response.

  10. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J.; Finn, Deborah A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (Cmax) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  11. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  12. Length of smoking deprivation moderates the effects of alcohol administration on urge to smoke

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Although smoking deprivation is often used in laboratory studies to induce urges to smoke cigarettes, the optimal length of deprivation has not been established. Previous research showed that overnight abstinence from cigarettes led to high baseline urge to smoke that potentially masked alcohol’s acute effects on urge to smoke (Kahler et al., 2012). The current study examined whether alcohol’s effects on smoking urge were more pronounced when a shorter length of smoking deprivation was used (i.e., 3 hour instead of overnight abstinence). Using a balanced placebo design for alcohol administration, we found that participants experienced a significant increase in self-reported urge to smoke when administered alcohol after a 3-hour smoking deprivation (N=32), whereas this effect was smaller and nonsignificant when smokers were required to be abstinent overnight (N = 96). Research on factors that heighten smoking urges may find stronger effects if a 3-hour deprivation is used compared to using overnight abstinence. PMID:24556154

  13. Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior. PMID:17365768

  14. Moderate alcohol intake reduces risk of ischemic stroke in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Joo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Jae Guk; Ko, Youngchai; Hong, Keun-Sik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Han, Moon-Ku; Gorelick, Philip B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We undertook a population-based, case-control study to examine a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans who had different alcoholic beverage type preferences than Western populations and to examine the effect modifications by sex and ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: Cases (n = 1,848) were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older with first-ever ischemic stroke. Stroke-free controls (n = 3,589) were from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were matched to the cases by age (±3 years), sex, and education level. All participants completed an interview using a structured questionnaire about alcohol intake. Results: Light to moderate alcohol intake, 3 or 4 drinks (1 drink = 10 g ethanol) per day, was significantly associated with a lower odds of ischemic stroke after adjusting for potential confounders (no drinks: reference; <1 drink: odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.45; 1–2 drinks: 0.45, 0.36–0.57; and 3–4 drinks: 0.54, 0.39–0.74). The threshold of alcohol effect in women was slightly lower than that in men (up to 1–2 drinks in women vs up to 3–4 drinks in men), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistical interaction between alcohol intake and the subtypes of ischemic stroke (p = 0.50). The most frequently used alcoholic beverage was one native to Korea, soju (78% of the cases), a distilled beverage with 20% ethanol by volume. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that light to moderate distilled alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans. PMID:26519539

  15. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND RISK OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654

  16. Alcohol intake and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.

  17. Type of alcohol consumed, changes in intake over time and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H.; Corrada, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background modifiable behavioural risk factors including smoking and alcohol consumption are major contributing or actual causes of mortality. Objective to examine the effect of alcohol intake on all-cause mortality in older adults. Design and Setting prospective population-based cohort study of residents of a California, United States retirement community. Subjects 8,877 women and 5,101 men (median age, 74 years) who in the early 1980s completed a postal health survey including details on alcohol consumption. Methods participants were followed for 23 years (1981–2004) including two follow-up questionnaires (in 1992 and 1998) asking about current alcohol intake. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted risk ratios of death and 95% confidence intervals were calculated separately for men and women, using proportional hazard regression. Results of the 8,644 women and 4,980 men with complete information on the variables of interest and potential confounders, 6,930 women and 4,456 men had died (median age, 87 years). Both men and women who drank alcohol had decreased mortality compared with non-drinkers. Those who drank two or more drinks per day had a 15% reduced risk of death. The reduced risk was not limited to one type of alcohol. Stable drinkers (those who reported drinking both at baseline and follow-up) had a significantly decreased risk of death compared with stable non-drinkers. Those who started drinking at follow-up also had a significantly lower risk. Women who quit drinking were at increased risk of death. Conclusion in elderly men and women, moderate alcohol intake exhibits a beneficial effect on mortality. Those who quit may do so for health reasons that affect mortality. PMID:17350977

  18. Associations between taste genetics, oral sensation and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Valerie B; Peterson, Julie M; Bartoshuk, Linda M

    2004-09-15

    Alcohol produces a range of oral sensations, some of which have been shown to vary with the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), one marker for genetic variation in taste. Some studies report that offspring of alcoholics are most likely to be PROP nontasters [Physiol. Behav. 51 (1992) 1261; Physiol. Behav. 64 (1998) 147], yet others report the offspring as more responsive to sodium chloride (NaCl) and citric acid, which appears to contradict the taste genetic hypothesis. We predicted alcohol sensation and intake from measures of taste genetics (PROP bitterness and number of fungiform papilla), NaCl and citric acid intensity, and spatial taste pattern in 40 females and 43 males. Subjects used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) [Chem. Senses 18 (1993) 683; J. Food Qual. Pref. 14 (2002) 125] as an intensity and hedonic scale. Those who tasted PROP as most bitter or had highest numbers of fungiform papilla reported greatest oral burn from an alcohol probe; those who tasted least PROP bitterness consumed alcoholic beverages most frequently. Although higher NaCl and citric acid ratings associated with more frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages, the findings could be explained by lower intensity of tastants on the tongue tip (chorda tympani nerve) relative to whole mouth perception. In multiple regression analyses, PROP bitterness and the spatial pattern of taste perception were independent contributors to the prediction of alcohol intake. In summary, the results support that variation in oral sensation associates with alcohol intake. Those who taste PROP as least bitter and have low chorda tympani relative to whole mouth taste intensity appear to have fewest oral sensory hindrances to the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

  19. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  20. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research.

  1. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S; Tyrrell, D A; Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Smith, A P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was conducted to test the supposition that both smoking and consuming alcohol suppress host resistance to viral infections. METHODS. The relations between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of documented clinical colds were prospectively studied among 391 subjects intentionally exposed to one of five respiratory viruses and 26 subjects given saline. Clinical colds were defined as clinical symptoms verified by the isolation of virus or by an increase in virus-specific antibody titer. Analyses included control variables for demographics; body weight; virus; and environmental, immunological and psychological factors. RESULTS. Smokers were at greater risk for developing colds than nonsmokers because smokers were more likely both to develop infections and to develop illness following infection. Greater numbers of alcoholic drinks (up to three or four per day) were associated with decreased risk for developing colds because drinking was associated with decreased illness following infection. However, the benefits of drinking occurred only among nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Susceptibility to colds was increased by smoking. Although alcohol consumption did not influence risk of clinical illness for smokers, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with decreased risk for nonsmokers. PMID:8363004

  2. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  3. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  4. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  5. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  6. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  7. Survey on Smoking, Consuming Alcohol, and using Illicit Drugs in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    YENİ, Naz; TUMAY, Feray; TONGUÇ, Özge; AZAROĞLU, Elvin; BOZOK, Naz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addiction can be defined as the continuous consumption of addictive substances or repetition of certain behaviors despite adverse consequences. Epilepsy is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published data regarding addictions in patients with epilepsy. Considering the high incidence of psychopathology, we planned a survey using a self-report questionnaire to study some of the addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy and in control subjects. Methods Patients from our outpatient epilepsy clinic (n=106) and control subjects (n=96) aged between 18 and 65 years took the 20-question questionnaire that screened for smoking, consuming alcohol, or using other illicit drugs. Results Fifty-three percent of patients with epilepsy were male (n=57) and in the control group, 52% were male (n=50) (p=.062). The mean age was 32.66±2.23 years for patients with epilepsy and 35.70±0.59 years for the control group (p=.810). Mean duration of epilepsy was found to be 14.33±11.26 (1–46) years. Majority of patients with epilepsy (84%) had focal epilepsy. Alcohol intake was found to be significantly lower in patients with epilepsy (p=.0001). There was no difference regarding smoking (p=.530) or using illicit drugs between the groups (p=.262). Smoking cigarettes was lower in new onset epilepsies (<5 years) compared with epilepsies of longer duration (p=.031). Conclusion Recent studies connote to some common substrates in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and addiction. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate some addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy. Although this study did not show significant differences other than low frequency of alcohol use in patients with epilepsy and low rate of smoking in patients with epilepsy duration of <5 year, further studies among homogeneous epilepsy subgroups with larger scale along with their neuropsychological profiles may still be required. PMID:28360739

  8. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  9. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Intake in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lárraga, Armando; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Use of alcohol and tobacco, the two most concurrently abused drugs, typically first occurs during adolescence. Yet, there have been no systematic analyses of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) interactions during adolescence. Recent animal studies report that kappa-opioid (KOR) receptor activation mediates age differences in drug reinforcement. Our hypothesis is that concurrent self-administration of EtOH and Nic will be greater in adolescent rats because of age differences in KOR function. Furthermore, exposure to alcohol and nicotine during adolescence has been reported to increase EtOH intake in adulthood. We performed a longitudinal animal study and hypothesized adolescent rats allowed to self-administer nicotine would drink more alcohol as adults. Methods: Adolescent, postnatal day (P)32, and adult (P90) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer EtOH, Nic, or a combination of both, EtOH+Nic, in an intravenous self-administration paradigm. The role of KOR was pharmacologically evaluated with the KOR antagonist, norbinaltorphamine (norBNI) and with the KOR agonist, U50,488H. Alcohol drinking was subsequently evaluated with male rats in a drinking in the dark (DID), 2-bottle choice test. Results: Concurrent Nic increased EtOH intake in adolescent males, but not in adults or females. Pharmacological blockade of KOR with norBNI robustly increased EtOH+Nic self-administration in adult male rats, but had no effect with female rats. Lastly, in our longitudinal study with male rats, we found prior self-administration of Nic or EtOH+Nic during adolescence increased subsequent oral EtOH intake, whereas prior self-administration of EtOH alone in adults increased subsequent EtOH drinking. Conclusions: There are major age- and sex-differences in the reinforcing effects of EtOH+Nic. Adolescent males are sensitive to the reinforcing interactions of the two drugs, whereas this effect is inhibited by KOR activation in male adults. Nicotine

  10. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  11. A Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking and the Risk of Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Men

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Singh, Prashant; Boylan, Matthew R.; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Cao, Yin; Chan, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) are sparse and conflicting. We assessed the risk of major GIB associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in a large, prospective cohort. Methods We prospectively studied 48,000 men in the Health Professional follow-up Study (HPFS) who were aged 40–75 years at baseline in 1986. We identified men with major GIB requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion via biennial questionnaires and chart review. Results We documented 305 episodes of major GIB during 26 years of follow-up. Men who consumed >30 g/day of alcohol had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–2.35; P for trend 0.006) for major GIB when compared with nondrinkers. Alcohol consumption appeared to be primarily related to upper GIB (multivariable RR for >30 g/day vs. nondrinkers was 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66–2.77; P for trend 0.02). Men who consumed ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. < 1 drink/month of liquor had a multivariable RR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.26–2.35, P for trend <0.001). Wine and beer were not significantly associated with major GIB. The risk of GIB associated with NSAIDs/aspirin use increased with greater alcohol consumption (multivariable RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.85–2.19 for 1-14g/day of alcohol, RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.88 for ≥ 15g/day compared to nondrinkers). Smoking was not significantly associated with GIB. Conclusions Alcohol consumption, but not smoking, was associated with an increased risk of major GIB. Associations were most notable for upper GIB associated with liquor intake. Alcohol appeared to potentiate the risk of NSAID-associated GIB. PMID:27824864

  12. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking: effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Fabro, S

    1983-06-01

    Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy remain an important concern for the practicing obstetrician, who should provide current information on the potential detrimental effects of these habits. There appears to be a wide spectrum of fetal phenotypic response to the effects of alcohol. This phenotypic variability may be partially explained by the dose, timing, and pattern of gestational exposure, the metabolism of mother or fetus, or other environmental and genetic factors. At the most severe end of the spectrum are infants with the unique combination of anomalies termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The abnormalities most typically associated with alcohol teratogenicity can be grouped into 4 categories: central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions; growth deficiencies; a characteristic cluster of facial abnormalites, and variable major and minor malformations. To make a diagnosis of fullblown FAS, abnormalities in all 4 categories must be present. Along the continuum toward normal are infants with various combinations of FAS anomalies. One of the most common and serious defects associated with ethanol teratogenicity is mental retardation. Recent evidence supports the concept of a prenatal origin to the problem. At birth infants with FAS are deficient for both length and weight, usually at or below the 3rd percentile for both parameters. Growth and mental deficiency are seen in many conditions, but the rather striking facial appearance of children with FAS secures the diagnosis. The characteristic face in small children includes short palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, hypoplastic philtrum, hypoplastic maxilla, and thinned upper vermilion. A table lists the variety of malformations that may be found in other organ systems in patients with FAS. The likelihood of miscarriage increases directly with alcohol consumption. Risk of abortion is twice as high in women consuming 1 ounce of absolute alcohol (AA) as infrequently as twice a week

  13. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity predicts alcohol sensitivity and voluntary alcohol intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn; Fahlke, Claudia; Suomi, Stephen J; Oreland, Lars; Higley, James Dee

    2010-02-01

    Platelet monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) has been proposed to be a biological marker for the properties of monoamine systems, with low activity being associated with vulnerability for high scores on personality traits such as sensation seeking, monotony avoidance, and impulsiveness, as well as for vulnerability for alcoholism. In the present study, platelet MAO-B activity was analysed in 78 rhesus macaques, and its relation to voluntary alcohol intake and behaviours after intravenous alcohol administration was observed. Monkeys with low platelet MAO-B activity had low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and showed excessive aggression after alcohol administration. A novel finding was that animals with low platelet MAO-B activity showed less intoxication following alcohol administration. As we have shown previously, they also voluntarily consumed more alcohol. We here replicate results from studies on both humans and non-human primates, showing the utility of platelet MAO as a marker for risk behaviours and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, we link platelet MAO activity to alcohol sensitivity.

  14. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Buck, Cara L; Malavar, Jordan C; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2014-09-01

    Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol's stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning.

  15. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  16. [Effect of alcohol intake on dietary habits and obesity in Japanese middle-aged men].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Hirai, Y; Fujiura, Y; Imaizumi, T

    2000-10-01

    The amount of alcohol intake has been increasing in Japan. We investigated whether this might affect dietary habits in middle-aged men. In 1989, we conducted a health examination of 809 Japanese males aged 40-69. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. Mean values of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were evaluated according to alcohol intake. Consumption of total calories and proteins, especially animal proteins, increased and carbohydrate intake decreased proportionately with the amount of alcohol intake. Meat, fish, and soybean intake were increased in heavy drinker, along with niacin, sodium, and phosphorus intake. Despite their higher caloric intake, moderate and heavy drinkers were not more obese than non- or light-drinkers. Japanese heavy drinkers took more animal protein and sodium instead of carbohydrate compared to non- and light- drinkers. In our series, heavy drinking was not related to obesity.

  17. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  18. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  19. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.

  20. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  1. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  2. Acute oral 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) decreases both alcohol intake and IV nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Slade, Susan; Wells, Corinne; Glick, Stanley; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    The ibogaine derivative 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) has been found to decrease self-administration of morphine, nicotine and alcohol in rats after systemic injection. However oral dosing is the preferred route clinically. The current study evaluated the effect of oral 18-MC dosing in rats on alcohol and nicotine self-administration. For the nicotine study, young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with IV jugular infusion catheters and trained for nicotine self-administration in 45min. sessions. At weekly intervals they were administered by oral gavage doses of 18-MC (0, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg) following a repeated measures counterbalanced design twice. Acute oral 18-MC, at the 40mg/kg dosage, significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. There was a differential effect of 18-MC with rats above or below the median level of nicotine self-administration during the pretreatment baseline performance. Rats with lower baseline performance showed a significant reduction in nicotine self-administration with the 40mg/kg dosage, while those in the higher baseline group did not show a significant effect of 18-MC. In alcohol studies, the effects of the same doses of 18-MC were tested in both male and female alcohol preferring (P) rats that had free access to water and alcohol (10% v/v) 6h/day. The results show that 18-MC dose-dependently reduced alcohol intake in both male and female rats. All doses caused significant reductions in alcohol self-administration. These data reinforce previous findings that 18-MC is significantly effective in reducing alcohol intake and nicotine self-administration. The finding that 18-MC is also effective orally makes it advantageous for further development as a possible new therapy for treating alcoholism as well as smoking addiction.

  3. The role of anti-smoking legislation on cigarette and alcohol consumption habits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking and drinking habits were investigated in this paper. In 2005, a smoking ban was introduced in Italy, and we exploited this exogenous variation to measure the effect on both smoking participation and intensity and the indirect effect on alcohol consumption. Using data from the Everyday Life Aspects survey, for the period 2001-2007, we show that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Italy significantly affected smoking behavior. We also document significant indirect effects on alcohol consumption for the main alcoholic beverage categories. A robustness analysis is also performed, to test the extent to which unobservable variables may bias our estimated parameters. Our results are then used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the anti-smoking legislation in Italy.

  4. High-density lipoprotein subclasses are a potential intermediary between alcohol intake and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed

    Muth, Natalie D; Laughlin, Gail A; von Mühlen, Denise; Smith, Sidney C; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of NMR-derived HDL subclasses and alcohol intake among 2171 community-dwelling older adults with a large proportion of daily or near-daily alcohol consumers (44 %). We aimed to assess whether, in addition to increasing total HDL, alcohol may induce a beneficial shift in HDL particle size distribution. Participants were categorised based on reported alcohol intake (g per week) and on frequency (none, < 3 times/week, 3-4 times/week, ≥ 5 times/week). The association between alcohol intake and lipoprotein fractions was examined using sex-specific linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, diabetes, current smoking, exercise and hormone therapy in women. There was a stepwise gradient with the highest weekly alcohol consumption associated with the highest total HDL size and greatest number of medium and large HDL particles, as well as higher total HDL concentrations (all P < 0.001); total small HDL did not differ. Alcohol-HDL size associations were similar in both sexes and did not differ by use of hormone replacement therapy in women. In conclusion, regular alcohol consumers had a higher number and percentage of large HDL particles than non-drinkers. These results suggest that one way that alcohol may decrease CVD is through potentially favourable changes in lipoprotein subclass composition.

  5. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  6. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E.; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups—that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking. PMID:25453062

  7. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INTAKE IN ALCOHOL PREFERRING (P) AND ALCOHOL NON-PREFERRING (NP) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Truxell, Eric; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a scarcity of research on ethanol affinity in alcohol-preferring (P) rats before weaning and it is unknown if neonate P rats exhibit ethanol intake preferences comparable to those observed in adult P rats. This study examined ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring (NP) rats 3 hours after birth (Experiment 1, surrogate nipple test), at postnatal days (PD) 8, 12 and 18 (Experiment 2, consumption off the floor procedure) and at adolescence (Experiment 3, two-bottle choice test at PD32). The high-preference genotype was readily expressed three hours after birth. P neonates drank twice as much ethanol as their NP counterparts. This heightened ethanol preference transiently reversed at P8, reemerged as weaning approached (P18) and was fully expressed during adolescence. These results help clarify the ontogeny of genetic predisposition for ethanol. Genetic predisposition for higher ethanol intake in P than in NP rats seems to be present immediately following birth. PMID:21400486

  8. Association Between Alcohol Calorie Intake and Overweight and Obesity in English Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Nicola Jane; Knott, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of alcohol-derived calories to the alcohol–obesity relation. Adult alcohol calorie intake was derived from consumption volume and drink type in the Health Survey for England 2006 (n = 8864). We calculated the odds of obesity with survey-adjusted logistic regression. Mean alcohol calorie consumption was 27% of the recommended daily calorie intake in men and 19% in women on the heaviest drinking day in the last week, with a positive association between alcohol calories and obesity. Alcohol calories may be a significant contributor to the rise in obesity. PMID:24524529

  9. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  10. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P; Shah, Alok S; Budde, Matthew D; Stemper, Brian D; Olsen, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure.

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  12. Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Marie K; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Grønbæk, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that postmenopausal women who increase their alcohol intake over a five year period have a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease compared with stable alcohol intake. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1993-2012. Participants 21 523 postmenopausal women who participated in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Study in two consecutive examinations in 1993-98 and 1999-2003. Information on alcohol intake was obtained from questionnaires completed by participants. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and all cause mortality during 11 years of follow-up. Information was obtained from the Danish Cancer Register, Danish Hospital Discharge Register, Danish Register of Causes of Death, and National Central Person Register. We estimated hazard ratios according to five year change in alcohol intake using Cox proportional hazards models. Results During the study, 1054, 1750, and 2080 cases of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and mortality occurred, respectively. Analyses modelling five year change in alcohol intake with cubic splines showed that women who increased their alcohol intake over the five year period had a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease than women with a stable alcohol intake. For instance, women who increased their alcohol intake by seven or 14 drinks per week (corresponding to one or two drinks more per day) had hazard ratios of breast cancer of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.23) and 1.29 (1.07 to 1.55), respectively, compared to women with stable intake, and adjusted for age, education, body mass index, smoking, Mediterranean diet score, parity, number of births, and hormone replacement therapy. For coronary heart disease, corresponding hazard ratios were 0.89 (0.81 to 0.97) and 0.78 (0.64 to 0.95), respectively, adjusted for age, education, body mass index, Mediterranean diet score, smoking

  13. Smoke-free Policy and Alcohol Use among Undergraduate College Students

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J.; Adkins, Sarah M.; Staten, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes and behaviors related to smoke-free policy among undergraduate student alcohol drinkers on a campus in a community with smoke-free bars. Design and Sample This was a secondary data analysis of a study in which participants completed mailed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, attitudes and behaviors related to alcohol and tobacco use and smoke-free policy (n=337). Opinion and behavior items were summarized descriptively; associations were examined using Kruskal Wallis tests and chi-square tests of association. Logistic regression tested for predictors of importance of smoke-free policy. Results Respondents were predominantly female and Caucasian; mean age 20.3 years. One-fourth were current smokers. Seventy-nine percent said the community smoke-free law had no effect on frequency of visiting bars. Eighty-seven percent said smoke-free policy in campus buildings was ‘somewhat’ or ‘very important’. Predictors of perceived importance of smoke-free policy included gender and smoking status. Conclusions Most smokers in this sample did not experience a change in their motivation to quit smoking or in number of cigarettes smoked daily. Implementation of a community smoke-free law did not reduce the likelihood of visiting bars. Women and nonsmokers were more likely to rate smoke-free campus policy as very important. PMID:22512427

  14. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  15. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  16. Inhalation injury associated with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S P H; Trickett, R W; Potokar, T S

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the association of inhalation injury (IHI) with smoking, alcohol and drug abuse in patients admitted to the Welsh Centre for Burns between 1995 and 2006. Common characteristics of these individuals were identified and contrasted with inhalation injury not associated with these social factors. Two hundred and fourteen patients were identified with inhalation injury. Ninety-two of these were associated with smoking, alcohol abuse and/or drug abuse. The proportion of IHI cases associated with smoking remained stable but IHI associated with alcohol and drug abuse increased dramatically over the course of the study and if current trends continue will increase further in future years. This study also showed that IHI associated with smoking alcohol and drug abuse were found to be largely caused by housefires and deliberate self-harm, and occurred between 22:00 and 05:59 h. These results were in sharp contrast with IHI not associated with these factors.

  17. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  19. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  20. Lorcaserin, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, decreases alcohol intake in female alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Serotonergic systems in the brain have been found to be important in the addiction to alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel 5-HT2c receptor agonist, lorcaserin for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult female rats were allowed to drink water or alcohol (12%, v/v) using a standard two-bottle choice procedure. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.3125, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg, s.c.), and chronic (0, 0.625 mg/kg, sc for 10 days) effects of lorcaserin on alcohol intake and preference were assessed at different time points. In a separate experiment, the effects of lorcaserin on locomotor activity were determined. Our results show that both 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake at 2, 4 and 6 h. after the drug administration. The chronic administration of 0.625 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake up to 6h every day after the injection and there was no sign of diminished efficacy of the drug during 10-day treatment. To determine the effects of lorcaserin on sucrose intake, rats were put on a two-bottle choice of water vs a solution of 7% sucrose. The high dose of lorcaserin (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced sucrose intake only for up to 2 h. When tested for locomotor activity, lorcaserin injected 20 min before testing significantly reduced locomotor activity at all doses. However, when it was injected 5.5h before the start of the 1-h session, neither dose had a significant effect on locomotor activity. These results show the efficacy of lorcaserin in reducing alcohol intake without a significant effect on water intake and locomotion suggesting the involvement of 5-HT2c receptors in alcohol seeking behavior. Further research is warranted to determine the possible efficacy of lorcaserin or similar drugs as treatments for the treatment of alcoholism.

  1. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  2. α4-Containing GABAA Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Mediate Moderate Intake of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Rewal, Mridula; Jurd, Rachel; Gill, T. Michael; He, Dao-Yao; Ron, Dorit; Janak, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol has subjective and behavioral effects at the pharmacological levels typically reached during the consumption of one or two alcoholic drinks. Here we provide evidence that an α4-subunit-containing gamma-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor contributes to the consumption of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol. Using viral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi), we found that reduced expression of the α4 subunit in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell of rats decreased their free consumption of and preference for alcohol. The time course for the reduced alcohol intake paralleled the time course of α4 mRNA reductions achieved after viral-mediated RNAi for α4. Further, the reduction in drinking was region- and alcohol-specific: there was no effect of reductions in α4 expression in the NAc core on alcohol intake, and reductions in α4 expression in the NAc shell did not alter sucrose or water intake. These results indicate that the GABAAR α4 subunit in the NAc shell mediates alcohol intake. PMID:19144854

  3. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  4. β‐Arrestin 2 dependence of δ opioid receptor agonists is correlated with alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T; Sansuk, K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose δ Opioid receptor agonists are being developed as potential treatments for depression and alcohol use disorders. This is particularly interesting as depression is frequently co‐morbid with alcohol use disorders. Yet we have previously shown that δ receptor agonists range widely in their ability to modulate alcohol intake; certain δ receptor agonists actually increase alcohol consumption in mice. We propose that variations in β‐arrestin 2 recruitment contribute to the differential behavioural profile of δ receptor agonists. Experimental Approach We used three diarylmethylpiperazine‐based non‐peptidic δ receptor selective agonists (SNC80, SNC162 and ARM390) and three structurally diverse δ receptor agonists (TAN‐67, KNT127 and NIH11082). We tested these agonists in cAMP and β‐arrestin 2 recruitment assays and a behavioural assay of alcohol intake in male C57BL/6 mice. We used β‐arrestin 2 knockout mice and a model of depression‐like behaviour to further study the role of β‐arrestin 2 in δ receptor pharmacology. Key Results All six tested δ receptor agonists were full agonists in the cAMP assay but displayed distinct β‐arrestin 2 recruitment efficacy. The efficacy of δ receptor agonists to recruit β‐arrestin 2 positively correlated with their ability to increase alcohol intake (P < 0.01). The effects of the very efficacious recruiter SNC80 on alcohol intake, alcohol place preference and depression‐like behaviour were β‐arrestin 2‐dependent. Conclusions and Implications Our finding that δ receptor agonists that strongly recruit β‐arrestin 2 can increase alcohol intake carries important ramifications for drug development of δ receptor agonists for treatment of alcohol use disorders and depressive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26507558

  5. Relationship between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and social status in 2235 Danish men and women.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Kirchhoff, M

    1996-03-01

    The objective was to examine the relationships between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and socioeconomic factors (school education, occupational education, occupation, income, marital status, cohabitation status, housing, social class) in a population survey performed in Copenhagen County during 1982-1984. The participants were selected at random from the census register and comprised 2235 healthy Danish individuals, non-blood donors (1044 men, 1191 women) in cohorts being 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. The participants gave a detailed social and medical history and had a clinical examination including blood samples. In all age-groups, men had significantly higher serum ferritin and alcohol intake than women. In men, there was no relationship between serum ferritin and social class. Significant relationships were observed between ferritin and occupation (unemployed and self-employed men had higher ferritin than those with other occupations) and ferritin and income (in younger men, ferritin displayed a steady increase with income). None of the social variables were related to the prevalence of iron deficiency or iron overload. Alcohol intake was related to occupation and income, but not to social class. In women, none of the social variables showed any significant relationship to ferritin levels or iron overload. The prevalence of small iron stores (serum ferritin < or = 30 micrograms/l) was lower and the intake of alcohol was higher in women from high social classes. In both men and women, serum ferritin displayed highly significant positive correlations with alcohol intake. Likewise, the prevalence of iron overload (serum ferritin > 90th percentile) was closely correlated to alcohol intake. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors per se had a minor influence on serum ferritin levels and iron status in Danes. The distinct association between alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels should be considered in future iron status surveys.

  6. Effect of alcohol intake on muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Collier, Greg R; Broad, Elizabeth M; Davis, Peter G; Martin, David T; Sanigorski, Andrew J; Hargreaves, Mark

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effects of alcohol intake on postexercise muscle glycogen restoration with samples from vastus lateralis being collected immediately after glycogen-depleting cycling and after a set recovery period. Six well-trained cyclists undertook a study of 8-h recovery (2 meals), and another nine cyclists undertook a separate 24-h protocol (4 meals). In each study, subjects completed three trials in crossover order: control (C) diet [meals providing carbohydrate (CHO) of 1.75 g/kg]; alcohol-displacement (A) diet (1.5 g/kg alcohol displacing CHO energy from C) and alcohol + CHO (AC) diet (C + 1.5 g/kg alcohol). Alcohol intake reduced postmeal glycemia especially in A trial and 24-h study, although insulin responses were maintained. Alcohol intake increased serum triglycerides, particularly in the 24-h study and AC trial. Glycogen storage was decreased in A diets compared with C at 8 h (24.4 +/- 7 vs. 44.6 +/- 6 mmol/kg wet wt, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) and 24 h (68 +/- 5 vs. 82 +/- 5 mmol/kg wet wt, P < 0.05). There was a trend to reduced glycogen storage with AC in 8 h (36.2 +/- 8 mmol/kg wet wt, P = 0.1) but no difference in 24 h (85 +/- 9 mmol/kg wet wt). We conclude that 1). the direct effect of alcohol on postexercise glycogen synthesis is unclear, and 2). the main effect of alcohol intake is indirect, by displacing CHO intake from optimal recovery nutrition practices.

  7. Nicotine Interactions with Low-Dose Alcohol: Pharmacological Influences on Smoking and Drinking Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Rensburg, Kate Janse Van; MacQueen, David A.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1–2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully-crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed four counter-balanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (Male: 0.3 g/kg; Female: 0.27 g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed, as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low-doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. PMID:24364618

  8. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  9. Youth smoking risk and community patterns of alcohol availability and control: a national multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496

  10. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  11. SMOKING STATUS IS A CLINICAL INDICATOR FOR ALCOHOL MISUSE IN US ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Falba, Tracy; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Sindelar, Jody; O’Connor, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Screening for alcohol use in primary care settings is recommended by clinical care guidelines, but is not adhered to as strongly as screening for smoking. It has been proposed that smoking status could be used to enhance the identification of alcohol misuse in primary and other medical settings but national data are lacking. Objective To investigate smoking status as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse in a national sample of US adults, following clinical care guidelines for the assessment of these behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants Analyses are based on a sample of 42,565 US adults from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave I, 2001–2002). Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (O.R.) and test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value [PPV, NPV], and likelihood ratio [LR] of smoking behavior (daily, occasional, former) were determined for the detection of hazardous drinking behavior and alcohol-related diagnoses, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV. Results Daily, occasional, and ex-smokers were more likely than never smokers to be hazardous drinkers (O.R.3.23 [95% CI 3.02–3.46]; O.R.5.33 [95% CI 4.70–6.04]; O.R.1.19 [95% CI 1.10–1.28], respectively). Daily and occasional smokers were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol diagnoses (O.R.3.52 [95% CI 3.19–3.90], O.R.5.39 [95% CI 4.60–6.31]; respectively). For the detection of hazardous drinking by current smoking (occasional + daily), sensitivity was 42.5%; specificity 81.9%, PPV 45.3% (vs. population rate of 26.1%), and LR+ 2.34. For the detection of alcohol diagnoses by current smoking; sensitivity was 51.4%; specificity 78.0%, PPV 17.8% (vs. population rate of 8.5%), and LR+ 2.33. Conclusions Occasional and daily smokers were at heightened risk for hazardous drinking and alcohol use diagnoses. Smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol

  12. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  13. Association between Alcohol Intake and Hemoglobin A1c in the Korean Adults: The 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Although alcohol consumption is commonly encountered in clinical practice, few studies have investigated the clinical significance of alcohol intake on the use of the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between alcohol intake and HbA1c level in the general population. Methods Among the 24,594 participants who participated in the 2011–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 12,923 participants were analyzed in this study. We excluded diabetic patients currently taking antidiabetes medication. We compared the HbA1c level and proportions of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% according to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range and the amount of alcohol intake. The average amounts of daily alcohol intake were categorized into three groups: 0 g/day, <30 g/day, ≥30 g/day. Results The mean HbA1c level was 5.65%, and the mean FPG concentration was 95.3 mg/dl. The percentages of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% were 42.6%, 13.4%, and 4.5%, respectively. The average amount of alcohol intake was 12.3 g/day. The percentages of subjects with alcohol intake 0, <30, and ≥ 30 g/day were 16.5%, 69.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between alcohol intake and FPG concentration (P < 0.001), the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between the alcohol intake and HbA1c level. Overall, the adjusted HbA1c levels decreased across alcohol intake (5.70% ± 0.01%, 5.66% ± 0.01%, and 5.55% ± 0.01%) after adjustment for confounding factors such as age, sex, FPG concentration, college graduation, smoking history, presence of hypertension, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol concentration, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride

  14. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  15. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  16. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Tanja; Kawecki, Michal M.; Reeve, Janice; Cunningham, Claudia; Bovaird, Iain

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population. Material and Methods Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent. Results Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%), elimination of bacteria (68%) and reduction of plaque formation (47%). Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%). Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62). Conclusions The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash. PMID:24422013

  17. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (p<0.05) CYP2B6 protein was seen in four brain regions of smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking non-alcoholics: hippocampus (5.8-fold), caudate nucleus (3.3-fold), putamen (3.0-fold) and cerebellar hemisphere (1.6-fold). The genetic variant C1459T (R487C) has been associated with reduced hepatic enzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  18. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  19. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  20. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U.S. sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the non-institutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30-days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers, (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared to never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers (95% CI: 3.1-6.6). Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3). Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to alcohol use disorders among smokers, compared to non-smokers who drink equivalent quantities. PMID:17117970

  1. Prospective Analysis of Early Lapse to Drinking and Smoking Among Individuals in Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laura J.; Litt, Mark D.; Cooney, Ned L.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine, prospectively, 1) dynamic changes in affective state, self-efficacy, and urge in the hours before initial smoking and drinking lapses among individuals in concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment, and 2) the extent to which self-efficacy, urge to use, and/or the use of one substance predicted lapse to the other substance. Ninety-six men and women recruited for a clinical trial of concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment were eligible for inclusion. Only data from those who experienced an initial lapse to drinking (n=29), or smoking (n=32) were included. Two outpatient substance abuse clinics provided concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment on a weekly basis for three months. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods were employed over a 28-day monitoring period to assess antecedents to first drink and a 14-day monitoring period was examined for initial smoking lapses. Baseline and EMA measures of positive and negative affect, alcohol/smoking urge, alcohol/smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine withdrawal, and quantity/frequency of alcohol and tobacco use were examined as lapse predictors. Analyses of EMA ratings controlled for the corresponding baseline measure. Smoking lapse among individuals in concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment was foreshadowed by higher urges to smoke, lower positive mood, and lower confidence to resist smoking. Drinking lapse was preceded by lower confidence to resist smoking, but only among individuals who reported recent smoking. Concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment should focus on the enhancement of abstinence self-efficacy, positive mood, and the curbing of urges in order to offset lapse risk. PMID:22023022

  2. Association of Dermatoses with Duration and Quantum of Alcohol Intake: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yugal Kishor; Shukla, Pankaj; Nayak, Roopa; Kothari, Preeti; Gupta, Aayush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic alcohol intake impacts skin directly, through organ dysfunction or by modifying preexisting dermatoses. However, dermatoses afflicting chronic alcoholics figure in a few studies only. Aim: This study aims to correlate the spectrum of dermatoses in chronic alcoholics with the quantum/duration of alcohol intake and raised liver transaminases. Materials and Methods: Adult males, totaling 196, ascertained to fulfill the Royal College of Psychiatry criteria for chronic alcoholism by the de-addiction center and referred for dermatological consult were enrolled as cases, and similar number of age-/sex-matched teetotallers, as controls. Data emanating from detailed history, clinical examination, and routine liver functions tests were summarized and subsequently analyzed, including statistically using the Chi-square, independent “t” and Spearman's rank correlation tests, and compared with data from previous studies. Results: Majority (104) drank 41–50 units of alcohol/week since 3–40 (mean: 20.01 ± 9.322) years. Generalized pruritus (odds ratio [OR]: 31.15, P < 0.001), xerosis (OR: 3.62, P = 0.008), and seborrheic dermatitis (OR: 12.26, P < 0.001) were significantly more common in cases than controls. Infections (73; 37.2%), eczemas (45; 22.9%), and generalized hyperpigmentation (28; 14.2%) were the major presenting complaints. Spider nevi, gynecomastia, and pellagroid dermatitis were present in 34 (17.3%), 19 (9.7%), and 8 (4.1%) respectively exclusively in cases only. Commonly seen systemic abnormalities were an alcoholic liver disease (45; 22.9%), diabetes mellitus (23; 11.7%), and peripheral neuropathy (19; 9.7%). Conclusion: Knowledge of cutaneous manifestations of chronic alcoholism could prompt in-depth history taking of alcohol intake, lead to specialist referral and thereby enable timely de-addiction, hopefully before serious adversities in the chronic alcoholics.

  3. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  4. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  5. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L.; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. Method we conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113) or quit (n = 290), and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124) or quit (n = 1403) during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. Findings severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: ‘conflict with loved ones’ (OR = 10.4, p<0.01), ‘crime related’ (OR = 35.7, p<0.05), ‘pregnancy-specific’ (OR = 13.4, p<0.05), and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05). Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level) did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. Conclusions Our

  6. Influence of smoking on caffeine elimination in healthy volunteers and in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Joeres, R; Klinker, H; Heusler, H; Epping, J; Zilly, W; Richter, E

    1988-01-01

    The effect of smoking on caffeine elimination was measured in 7 healthy volunteers and in 18 smoking and in 30 nonsmoking patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis following oral application of 366 mg caffeine. In an intraindividual experiment in smoking health probands, caffeine clearance decreased from 118 +/- 33 to 77 +/- 22 ml per min (p less than 0.05) after abstaining cigarette smoking for 3 weeks. In a control group without liver disease (8 smokers, 15 nonsmokers), we found a caffeine clearance of 114 +/- 40 ml per min in smokers and 64 +/- 20 in nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). Smoking and nonsmoking patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis did not differ with respect to clinical and laboratory data and hexobarbitone elimination. However, caffeine clearance was 63 +/- 63 ml per min in smoking patients compared to 34 +/- 49 ml per min in nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). Fasting plasma concentrations of caffeine were higher in nonsmokers (5.1 +/- 6.2 micrograms per ml) than in smokers (2.1 +/- 4.5 micrograms per ml, p less than 0.05). We conclude that smoking habits have to be taken into account if caffeine is used as a model compound for measuring quantitative liver function.

  7. Drug-induced reductions in ethanol intake in alcohol preferring and Fawn-Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A H; Overstreet, D H; Janowsky, D S

    1991-01-01

    The ethanol intake of Fawn-Hooded rats, a serotonin deficient strain, was examined under a two bottle choice between ethanol (10%) and tap water. The Fawn-Hooded rats drank as much ethanol as the alcohol preferring strain of rats (approximately 6 times that of the control Wistar rats), but drank more fluid and ate more. In general, direct and indirect serotonin agonists, reduced ethanol intake to a smaller degree in the Fawn-Hooded rats compared to the P rats. In contrast the centrally acting antimuscarinic scopolamine reduced ethanol intake to a similar degree in the two strains.

  8. Coffee intake, smoking, and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Follis, Jack L; Schabath, Matthew B

    2009-06-15

    Coffee contains polyphenolic antioxidants and caffeine, which may favorably affect pulmonary function. Therefore, the authors studied cross-sectional associations (1987-1989) between coffee intake and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a population-based cohort study (analytic sample = 10,658). They also conducted analyses stratified by smoking status, since smoking is a strong risk factor for respiratory disease and could influence the effects of caffeine and antioxidants. Self-reported coffee intake was categorized as rare/never, <7 cups/week, 1 cup/day, 2-3 cups/day, and >or=4 cups/day. Pulmonary function was characterized by the spirometric measures forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). After adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, and dietary factors, pulmonary function values increased across increasing categories of coffee consumption in never and former smokers but not in current smokers. In never or former smokers who consumed >or=4 cups of coffee daily, FVC and FEV(1) were 2%-3% greater than in never or former smokers who rarely/never consumed coffee (P(trend) values: in never smokers, 0.04 for FVC and 0.07 for FEV(1); in former smokers, <0.001 for FVC and <0.001 for FEV(1)). These data show a possible beneficial effect of coffee (or a coffee ingredient) on pulmonary function, but it appears to be limited to nonsmokers.

  9. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta Naimi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Loft, Steffen; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Vogel, Ulla; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2009-05-12

    GPX1 encoding the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and hOGG1 encoding the 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) may counteract oxidative stress and resulting DNA damage associated with lifestyle-related exposures. We examined whether the polymorphisms GPX1 Pro(198)Leu and OGG1 Ser(326)Cys or low erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in pre-diagnostic blood samples are associated with colorectal cancer risk, and assessed possible interactions between the polymorphisms or enzyme activity and various lifestyle factors in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Additionally, we studied whether the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993-1997. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu, hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among homozygous GPX1(198)Leu carriers, with incidence rate ratios for colorectal cancer of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.17-1.81, P=0.02) per 10g alcohol intake per day and 2.56 (95% CI: 0.99-6.61, P=0.02) among ever smokers compared with never smokers at enrolment. Erythrocyte GPX activity was influenced by the GPX1 Pro(198)Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence.

  10. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  11. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  12. The Role of Early Life Experience and Species Differences in Alcohol Intake in Microtine Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Allison M. J.; Ahern, Todd H.; Young, Larry J.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse. PMID:22745824

  13. Alcohol History and Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Bupropion Sustained Release and Varenicline Trials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Huffman, Christopher J.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims We conducted a review of published reports of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy trials in order to address the following: 1) the generalizability of findings to smokers with a history of alcohol problems; 2) the extent to which alcohol use affects smoking cessation overall and the efficacy of pharmacotherapy specifically and 3) the effect of smoking cessation on alcohol use. Methods We located published reports of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion sustained release (SR) and varenicline clinical trials using an approach based on prior Cochrane reviews. The reports were searched for alcohol-related inclusion/exclusion criteria and for findings related to alcohol. Results The present review included 212 published reports from 149 trials. Alcohol-related exclusion criteria appeared frequently (41.6% of trials)—45/125 NRT trials (36%), 15/22 bupropion SR trials (68.2%) and 3/3 varenicline trials—and most commonly involved exclusion of participants with either current or recent alcohol problems. Most studies failed to provide any baseline alcohol-related characteristics. Eleven trials reported on the relationship between alcohol history and likelihood of smoking cessation. In the majority of these studies, smokers with a past history of alcohol problems were not at a disadvantage, although contrary findings exist. Only two studies examined the potential influence of smoking cessation on alcohol use. Conclusions Smokers with alcohol problems, particularly those with current or recent problems, are underrepresented in studies of approved pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Future trials should assess alcohol use at baseline and during treatment and examine reciprocal influences between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. PMID:17526629

  14. Coffee, Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity and QT Interval Duration: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. Methods We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. Results In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were −1.2 ms (95% CI −4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and −2.0 ms (−11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (−0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (−0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (−2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (−2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was −0.8 ms (−3.0 to 1.4). Conclusion Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity. PMID

  15. Regulation of Milk Intake After Exposure to Alcohol in Mothers’ Milk

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Contrary to the folklore which claims that drinking alcohol during lactation benefits both mother and infant, previous research in our laboratory revealed that breastfed infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers’ consumption of an alcoholic beverage. Because breastfed infants are clearly capable of regulating milk intake, the present study tested the hypothesis that infants would compensate for the diminished milk intake if their mothers then refrained from drinking alcohol. Methods A within-subjects design that controlled for time of day was implemented because of the great individual and daily variation in both milk composition and intake. To this end, 12 exclusively breastfed infants and their mothers were tested on 2 days separated by 1 week. Each woman drank a 0.3 g/kg dose of alcohol in orange juice on one testing day and orange juice alone on the other; the order was counterbalanced. The infants’ behaviors were monitored for the next 16 hr, the first 4 hr of monitoring on each test day occurred at the Monell Center. The infants fed on demand and immediately before and after each feeding, infants were weighed without a change in clothing. Results Consistent with previous findings, infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4 hr immediately after exposure to alcohol in mothers’ milk compared with the control condition. Compensatory increases in intake were then observed during the 8 to 16 hr after exposure when mothers refrained from drinking alcohol. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that short-term exposure to small amounts of alcohol in mothers’ milk produces distinctive changes in the infants’ patterns of feeding. PMID:11329500

  16. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  17. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: part 3. Smoking cessation and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Martin, U

    1998-02-01

    Smoking cessation (SC) is probably the single most important risk factor modification for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to stop smoking are highly cost effective. SC produces reductions in mortality and morbidity that generally outweigh any increase in risk due to weight gain, unless the gain is so great that it is accompanied by adverse changes in blood pressure, lipid profile or glucose tolerance. There is clear evidence that SC improves the lipid profile, decreases thrombotic tendency, reduces vascular endothelial damage and improves insulin sensitivity. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) with moderate alcohol consumption (showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day), but an increased risk at higher alcohol consumption levels. Potential mediators of these cardioprotective effects include an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased clotting propensity, enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and a possible lowering of blood pressure at low consumption levels in women. Alcohol consumption may not, however, compensate for the large increase in risk produced by smoking. Whereas moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduces the risk of death between the ages of 35 and 69 years, cigarette smoking approximately doubles the risk.

  18. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  19. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  20. Precocious Initiation into Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Gambling among Children with Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Michèle; St-Pierre, Renée A.; Laventure, Myriam; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent participation in risky and addictive behaviours, such as smoking, substance use, and gambling has the potential to lead to many serious problems. The presence of conduct problems (CPs) and early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours have been independently shown to be associated with adolescent and young adult smoking, drinking, and gambling. Nevertheless, the relation between early initiation into risky and addictive behaviours and CPs remains to be explored among pre-adolescents. Our study aims to examine the prospective relation between CPs in early primary school and pre-adolescent initiation into smoking, alcohol use, and gambling. Method: Our study used data from participants in an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study at the Université de Sherbrooke to examine cigarette, alcohol, and gambling initiation among primary school-aged boys and girls with CPs. Children were recruited between the ages of 6 and 9 years from several low socioeconomic status public schools in diverse geographical regions of Quebec. Initiation into cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling was measured 1 year later. Results: Children with CPs were found to be at greater risk for early initiation into smoking, alcohol, and gambling. These effects remained even once other known risk factors, such as poor parental supervision and child effortful control, were controlled for. Conclusions: These results suggest that CPs present in early elementary school can predict early initiation in to potentially addictive behaviours among boys and girls. Implications for targeted preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:27582453

  1. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  2. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  3. Involvement of purinergic P2X4 receptors in alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Lasek, Amy W.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The P2X4 receptor is thought to be involved in regulating alcohol-consuming behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) has been reported to inhibit P2X4 receptors. Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic agent that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the P2X4 receptor. The current study examined the effects of systemically- and centrally-administered ivermectin on alcohol drinking of replicate lines of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD-1/HAD-2) rats, and the effects of lentiviral-delivered short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting P2rx4 on EtOH intake of female HAD2 rats. Method For the 1st experiment, adult male HAD-1 & HAD-2 rats were given 24-hr free-choice access to 15% EtOH vs. water. Dose-response effects of ivermectin (1.5 to 7.5 mg/kg i.p.) on EtOH intake were determined; the effects of ivermectin were then examined for 2% w/v sucrose intake over 5 consecutive days. In the 2nd experiment, female HAD-2 rats were trained to consume 15% EtOH under 2-hr limited access conditions, and dose-response effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ivermectin (0.5 to 2.0 μg) were determined over 5 consecutive days. The 3rd experiment determined the effects of microinfusion of a lentivirus expressing P2rx4 shRNAs into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) on 24-hr EtOH free-choice drinking of female HAD-2 rats. Results The highest i.p. dose of ivermectin reduced alcohol drinking (30-45%) in both rat lines, but did not alter sucrose intake. HAD-2 rats appeared to be more sensitive than HAD1 rats to the effects of ivermectin. ICV administration of ivermectin reduced 2-hr limited access intake (∼35%) of female HAD-2 rats; knockdown of P2rx4 expression in the posterior VTA reduced 24-hr free choice EtOH intake (∼20%). Conclusion Overall, the results of the current study support a role for P2X4 receptors within the mesolimbic system in mediating alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:26334550

  4. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Peng, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia A.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tobacco smoke are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers to VOCs from secondhand smoke (SHS) in vehicles using mercapturic acid metabolites. Methods Fourteen nonsmokers were individually exposed in the backseat to one hour of SHS from a smoker seating in the driver’s seat who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 minute intervals in a stationary car with windows opened by 10 cm. Baseline and 0-8 h post-exposure mercapturic acid metabolites of 9 VOCs were measured in urine. Air-to-urine VOC ratios were estimated based on respirable particulates (PM2.5) or air nicotine concentration, and lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene was estimated for adults. Results The greatest increase in 0-8 h post-exposure concentrations of mercapturic acids from baseline was MHBMA-3 (parent, 1,3-butadiene) (2.1-fold), then CNEMA (acrylonitrile) (1.7-fold), PMA (benzene) (1.6-fold), MMA (methylating agents) (1.6-fold), and HEMA (ethylene oxide) (1.3-fold). The LER of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene in SHS for 5 hour a week ranged from 15.5×10−6 to 28.1×10−6 for adults, using air nicotine and PM2.5 to predict air VOC exposure, respectively. Conclusion Nonsmokers have significant intake of multiple VOCs from breathing SHS in cars, corresponding to health risks that exceed the acceptable level. Impact Smoking in cars may be associated with increased risks of cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases among nonsmokers. PMID:25398951

  5. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) -induced reductions in alcohol intake during continuous access and following alcohol deprivation are not altered by restraint stress in alcohol-preferring (P) rats

    PubMed Central

    Bertholomey, Megan L.; Henderson, Angela N.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.; Stewart, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduces anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats. The present experiment examined whether the effects of NPY on alcohol drinking are modulated by stress exposure during continuous access or following ethanol deprivation. Female P rats underwent 6 weeks of continuous access to 15% v/v ethanol and water prior to intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula implantation. Deprived rats underwent two cycles of 5 days of ethanol exposure followed by 2 days of ethanol deprivation, while non-deprived rats had uninterrupted access to ethanol. Stressed rats in both ethanol access groups were exposed to restraint stress for 1 hour 4-6 hours after ethanol was removed from the deprived group in both cycles. ICV infusions of 5.0 μg NPY or aCSF were administered 48 hours following the deprivation/stress procedure, after which ethanol was returned. Rats showed increased ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation compared to non-deprived controls. Food and water intake were increased, while ethanol intake was decreased, in rats infused with NPY. Stress did not increase ethanol intake or alter the response to NPY. Although no stress effects were found, the present experiment replicates previous findings regarding the effectiveness of NPY in reducing ethanol consumption. Future studies aimed at determining the extent to which stress may affect relapse to ethanol drinking and response to NPY would benefit from implementing different stress paradigms and varying the pattern of ethanol access. PMID:20937300

  6. Oral squamous cell cancer: early detection and the role of alcohol and smoking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Data sources A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using Medline/Pub Med, with the key words such as oral cancer, alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms, tobacco smoking and prevention. The search was restricted to articles published in English, with no publication date restriction (last update 2010). Review Methods In this review article, we approach the factors for a cytologic diagnosis during OSCC development and the markers used in modern diagnostic technologies as well. We also reviewed available studies of the combined effects of alcohol drinking and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk. Results The interaction of smoking and alcohol significantly increases the risk for aero-digestive cancers. The interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption seems to be responsible for a significant amount of disease. Conclusion Published scientific data show promising pathways for the future development of more effective prognosis. There is a clear need for new prognostic indicators, which could be used in diagnostics and, therefore a better selection of the most effective treatment can be achieved. PMID:21211041

  7. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  8. Screening potential intakes of colour additives used in non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2008-06-01

    The Union of European Beverages Associations (UNESDA) has undertaken a screening exercise to determine whether any of the colours used in non-alcoholic beverages has the potential for high consumers to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The organisation undertook a survey of its membership to identify current use levels in non-alcoholic beverages. Information about the consumption of beverages and other foods that can contain the colours was derived from UK survey data because UK consumers were shown to represent some of the highest in the EU. A methodology was developed which added the intake of high level consumers of beverages to average intakes from all other uses to estimate total high level intake. A hierarchical approach used maximum approved use levels (where available) at the first tier and, if intakes exceed the ADI or maximum use levels were not available, UNESDA usage survey data at the second tier. Of the 33 colours approved for use in beverages nine were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 1. A further 22 colours were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 2. Two colours (E101 riboflavins and E110 sunset yellow) required further evaluation but under practical use conditions neither of these colours had the potential to exceed its ADI. Some colours used in beverages are permitted quantum satis in other foods and so permitted use levels were not available. Further information is required about these uses to determine whether total intakes from all foods have the potential to exceed ADIs.

  9. A genomic scan for habitual smoking in families of alcoholics: common and specific genetic factors in substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Bierut, Laura Jean; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Nancy L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Cloninger, C Robert; Begleiter, Henri; Conneally, P Michael; Crowe, Raymond R; Hesselbrock, Victor; Li, Ting-Kai; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Reich, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Smoking is a highly heritable, addictive disorder that commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence. The purpose of this study is to perform a genomic screen for habitual smoking and comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence in families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Subjects were assessed using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) to evaluate alcohol dependence and habitual smoking (smoking one pack per day or more for at least 6 months). Sixty seven multi-generational families with 154 independent sibling pairs affected with habitual smoking were genotyped in a screening sample. Analyses on 79 multi-generational families with 173 independent sibling pairs were repeated in a replication sample. Sibpair analyses were performed using ASPEX. Four chromosomal regions in the screening sample had increased allele sharing among sibling pairs for habitual smoking with a LOD score greater than 1 (chromosomes 5, 9, 11, and 21). The highest LOD score was on chromosome 9 (LOD = 2.02; allele sharing 58.9%). Four chromosomal regions also had modest evidence for linkage to the comorbid phenotype habitual smoking and alcohol dependence (chromosomes 1, 2, 11, 15); and the strongest finding was on chromosome 2 (LOD = 3.30; allele sharing 69.1%). Previously identified areas (chromosomes 1 and 7) implicated in the development of alcohol dependence in this same data set did not provide evidence for linkage to habitual smoking in the screening sample. In the replication data set, there continued to be increased allele sharing near peaks identified in the screening sample on chromosomes 2 and 9, but the results were modest. An area on chromosome 7, approximately 60 cM from a location previously identified in linkage analysis with alcohol dependence, had increased allele sharing for the comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence. These data provide evidence of specific genetic regions involved in the

  10. The Impact of Smoking Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Denlinger, Rachel L.; Pacek, Lauren R.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Drobes, David J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Vandrey, Ryan; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes could improve public health by reducing smoking and toxicant exposure, but may also have unintended consequences on alcohol use. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes on alcohol outcomes. The secondary aim was to examine whether the effects of these cigarettes on alcohol outcomes were mediated by changes in nicotine exposure, smoking behavior, or withdrawal. Methods Between June 2013 and July 2014, we conducted a 7-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial at 10 U.S.-based sites. Daily smokers not currently interested in quitting (n = 839) were assigned to equally sized groups to smoke for 6 weeks cigarettes containing either normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g, 9 mg tar), moderate nicotine content (5.2 mg/g nicotine, 9 mg tar), or very low nicotine content (VLNC; 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, 9 to 13 mg tar). This investigation focused on a subsample of current drinkers (n = 403). Each reduced nicotine content cigarette condition was compared to the NNC control condition with respect to trajectories over the 6-week period of average daily alcohol use and occurrence of binge drinking. Moderating variables were considered. Mediation analyses tested potential explanatory processes including changes in nicotine exposure, cigarettes per day, and withdrawal. Results Over time, reduced nicotine exposure and smoking rate mediated effects of VLNC cigarette use on reduced alcohol use. There was no evidence of compensatory drinking in response to nicotine reduction or nicotine withdrawal, even among subgroups expected to be at greater risk (e.g., relatively heavier drinkers, highly nicotine-dependent individuals). Conclusions The findings suggest that compensatory drinking is unlikely to occur in response to switching to VLNC cigarettes. In contrast, reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may reduce alcohol use (clinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01681875

  11. Transition to a smoke-free culture within mental health and drug and alcohol services: A survey of key stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Fraser, Trish; Bullen, Chris; Wallace-Bell, Mark; McRobbie, Hayden; Hadwen, Georgy

    2014-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among people with mental illnesses, and they carry a higher burden of smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, smoke-free policies and systems for supporting cessation have proved difficult to introduce in mental health and drug and alcohol services (MHDAS). This paper examines the barriers to becoming smoke free within New Zealand services. Key informants, including staff, smoke-free coordinators, and cessation specialists were interviewed. Of the 142 invited informants 61 agreed (42%) to participate in a telephone interview, and 56 provided useable data. Organizations had a permissive or transitioning smoking culture, or were smoke free, defined by smoke-free environments, smoke-free-promoting attitudes and behaviours of management and staff, and cessation support. Most organizations were on a continuum between permissive and transitional cultures. Only eight services had a fully smoke-free culture. MHDAS face many challenges in the transition to a smoke-free culture. They are not helped by exemptions in smoke-free policies for mental health services, staff smoking, negative staff attitudes to becoming smoke free, poor knowledge of nicotine dependence, smoking-related harm and comorbidities, and poor knowledge and skills regarding cessation-support options. Health inequalities will continue across both service and socioeconomic divides without a concerted effort to address smoking.

  12. Sex Differences in Stimulus Expectancy and Pharmacologic Effects of a Moderate Dose of Alcohol on Smoking Lapse Risk in a Laboratory Analogue Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use is often implicated in initial lapses to smoking during quit smoking attempts. Mechanisms explaining this association are unknown but could include (a) learned associations between drinking and smoking or (b) direct pharmacologic effects of alcohol. Objectives In a 2 (Told Alcohol vs. Told Placebo) × 2 (0.4g/kg vs. 0.0 g/kg ethanol) between-subjects balanced-placebo design, we examined instruction and beverage condition effects on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking and whether these effects differed by sex. Methods Participants were 96 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. After 15 hours of smoking abstinence, participants consumed either an alcoholic or a non-alcoholic beverage and 35 minutes later completed a smoking lapse task. Results Overall, neither instructions nor beverage contents influenced behavior on the smoking lapse task. However, the instruction condition had different effects in men and women. Women, but not men, were more likely to smoke and reported expecting greater satisfaction from smoking when they were Told Alcohol compared to Told Placebo. The effects of instruction condition on smoking behavior were not mediated by self-reported expected satisfaction from smoking. Conclusions Women may be more likely to choose to smoke after drinking moderate amounts of alcohol because of their expectations rather than the pharmacological effects of the alcohol. PMID:22227611

  13. Early sexual experience alters voluntary alcohol intake in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Morris, John S; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-03-20

    Steroid hormones signaling before and after birth sexually differentiates neuronal circuitry. Additionally, steroid hormones released during adolescence can also have long lasting effects on adult behavior and neuronal circuitry. As adolescence is a critical period for the organization of the nervous system by steroid hormones it may also be a sensitive period for the effects of social experience on adult phenotype. Our previous study indicated that early adolescent sexual activity altered mood and prefrontal cortical morphology but to a much smaller extent if the sexual experience happened in late adolescence. In humans, both substance abuse disorders and mood disorders greatly increase during adolescence. An association among both age of first sexual activity and age of puberty with both mood and substance disorders has been reported with alcohol being the most commonly abused drug in this population. The goal of this experiment was do determine whether sexual experience early in adolescent development would have enduring effects on adult affective and drug-seeking behavior. Compared to sexually inexperienced hamsters and those that experienced sex for the first time in adulthood, animals that mated at 40 days of age and were tested either 40 or 80 days later significantly increased depressive- but not anxiety-like behaviors and increased self-administration of saccharine-sweetened ethanol. The results of this study suggest that an isolated, though highly relevant, social experience during adolescence can significantly alter depressive-like behavior and alcohol self-administration in adulthood.

  14. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption: relationship to blood lipids and lipoproteins in premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Cresanta, M K; Papanek, P

    1984-07-01

    A total of 164 premenopausal female subjects were randomly selected for evaluation from a much larger pool of volunteers. The relationships between blood lipid and lipoprotein levels as dependent variables and cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined from partial regression coefficients. A lower HDL-C level (10.1 mg/dL) was seen in smokers v nonsmokers. For each ounce of alcohol consumed, HDL-C level was higher by 2.8 mg/dL, and greater physical activity was associated with a higher HDL-C level of 8.6 mg/dL. An analysis of covariance with covariance adjustments for age and body fat revealed that smokers who regularly exercise or consume alcohol had significantly lower HDL-C levels than nonsmokers with similar habits. Subjects who both exercise and consume alcohol demonstrated higher HDL-C levels than those who indulge in one or the other separately. Results suggest that cigarette smoking may attenuate the effects of chronic exercise or alcohol consumption, or of both, to raise HDL-C levels. Also, chronic exercise and alcohol consumption may exert an additive effect, raising HDL-C level.

  15. Nicotine enhances alcohol intake and dopaminergic responses through β2* and β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tolu, Stefania; Marti, Fabio; Morel, Carole; Perrier, Carole; Torquet, Nicolas; Pons, Stephanie; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Faure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are the most widely co-abused drugs. Both modify the activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and lead to an increase in DA release in the Nucleus Accumbens, thereby affecting the reward system. Evidences support the hypothesis that distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular target of acetylcholine (ACh) and exogenous nicotine, are also in addition implicated in the response to alcohol. The precise molecular and neuronal substrates of this interaction are however not well understood. Here we used in vivo electrophysiology in the VTA to characterise acute and chronic interactions between nicotine and alcohol. Simultaneous injections of the two drugs enhanced their responses on VTA DA neuron firing and chronic exposure to nicotine increased alcohol-induced DA responses and alcohol intake. Then, we assessed the role of β4 * nAChRs, but not β2 * nAChRs, in mediating acute responses to alcohol using nAChR subtypes knockout mice (β2−/− and β4−/− mice). Finally, we showed that nicotine-induced modifications of alcohol responses were absent in β2−/− and β4−/− mice, suggesting that nicotine triggers β2* and β4 * nAChR-dependent neuroadaptations that subsequently modify the responses to alcohol and thus indicating these receptors as key mediators in the complex interactions between these two drugs. PMID:28332590

  16. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD.

  17. Smoking cessation is associated with lower rates of mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Salyer, Patricia; Hartz, Sarah M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological outcomes that accompany smoking cessation are not yet conclusive but positive outcomes could help to persuade quitting. Method We use data from the longitudinal National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between cigarette smoking reduction and Wave 2 status of addiction/mental health disorder among daily smokers at Wave 1, stratified by status of the diagnosis of interest at Wave 1. We adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between smokers with different levels of smoking reduction between Wave 1 and Wave 2 using propensity score regression adjustment. Results After adjusting for propensity scores and other mental health/addiction comorbidities at Wave 2, among daily smokers who had current or lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of mood/anxiety disorder (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.9) and alcohol disorder (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5, 0.99) at Wave 2. Among daily smokers with no lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting smoking by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of drug use disorder at Wave 2 aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Conclusions There is no support in our data for the concern that smoking cessation would result in smokers’ increased risk of some mental disorders. To the contrary, our data suggest that smoking cessation is associated with risk reduction for mood/anxiety or alcohol use disorder, even among smokers who have had a pre-existing disorder. PMID:25055171

  18. Salt intake and gastric cancer risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, tumour site and histological type

    PubMed Central

    Peleteiro, B; Lopes, C; Figueiredo, C; Lunet, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although salt intake is considered a probable risk factor for gastric cancer, relevant studies have provided heterogeneous results, and the magnitude of the association has not been accurately quantified. Methods: To quantify gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary salt exposure according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and virulence, smoking, tumour site, and histological type, we evaluated 422 gastric cancer cases and 649 community controls. Salt exposure was estimated in the year before the onset of symptoms through: sodium intake (estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)); main food items/groups contributing to dietary sodium intake; visual analogical scale for salt intake preference; use of table salt; and duration of refrigerator ownership. Results: Comparing subjects with the highest with those with the lowest salt exposure (3rd vs 1st third), sodium intake (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.16–3.46), consumption of food items with high contribution to sodium intake (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.56–4.14) and salt intake evaluated by visual analogical scale (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.28–2.63) were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Subjects owning a refrigerator for >50 years had a lower risk for gastric cancer (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.57). These associations were observed regardless of H. pylori infection status and virulence, smoking, tumour site or histological type. Conclusion: Our results support the view that salt intake is an important dietary risk factor for gastric cancer, and confirms the evidence of no differences in risk according to H. pylori infection and virulence, smoking, tumour site and histological type. PMID:21081930

  19. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  20. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  1. Extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens dorsomedial shell contribute to alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Hong; Rewal, Mridula; Gill, T. Michael; Ron, Dorit; Janak, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that extrasynaptic δ-subunit–containing GABAA receptors are sensitive to low-to-moderate concentrations of alcohol, raising the possibility that these receptors mediate the reinforcing effects of alcohol after consumption of one or a few drinks. We used the technique of viral-mediated RNAi to reduce expression of the GABAA receptor δ-subunit in adult rats in localized regions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to test the hypothesis that δ-subunit–containing GABAA receptors in the NAc are necessary for oral alcohol consumption. We found that knockdown of the δ-subunit in the medial shell region of the NAc, but not in the ventral or lateral shell or in the core, reduced alcohol intake. In contrast, δ-subunit knockdown in the medial shell did not affect intake of a 2% sucrose solution, suggesting that the effects of GABAA receptor δ-subunit reduction are specific to alcohol. These results provide strong evidence that extrasynaptic δ-subunit–containing GABAA receptors in the medial shell of the NAc are critical for the reinforcing effects of oral ethanol. PMID:21368141

  2. Dietary sodium and potassium intake in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Lee, Jung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Mi Kyung; Sung, Eunju; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-10-01

    A few epidemiological data are available assessing the associations of intakes of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the associations of dietary intake of Na and K with the prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD. We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 177 participants (46 596 men and 53 581 women) who underwent a health screening examination and completed a FFQ at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea, between 2011 and 2013. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of fatty liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake or other known causes of liver disease. The proportion of NAFLD was 35·6 % for men and 9·8 % for women. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD was observed with increasing Na intake. The multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of NAFLD comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted Na intake were 1·25 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·32; P trend<0·001) in men and 1·32 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·47; P trend <0·001) in women. However, when we additionally adjusted for body fat percentage, the association became attenuated; the corresponding PR of NAFLD were 1·15 (95 % CI 1·09, 1·21) in men and 1·06 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·17) in women. No inverse association was observed for energy-adjusted K intake. Our findings suggest that higher Na intake is associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults, which might be partly mediated by adiposity.

  3. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  4. EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON D2/D3 STRIATAL RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN ALCOHOLICS AND SOCIAL DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Daniel S.; Kareken, David A.; Yoder, Karmen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have reported lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D2/D3 receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D2/D3 receptor availability. Method Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [11C]raclopride scans. D2/D3 binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs). Results Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smoking controls. Conclusions Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability. PMID:23649848

  5. Bidirectional relationship between alcohol intake and sensitivity to social defeat: association with Tacr1 and Avp expression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Britta S; Sequeira, Michelle K; Schank, Jesse R

    2017-02-01

    While epidemiological studies show that alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with affective disorders, the causal direction of this association is unclear. We examined this relationship using mouse models including social defeat stress (SDS), social interaction (SI) and voluntary alcohol consumption. C57BL6/J mice exposed to SDS segregate into two subpopulations, those that express depressive-like phenotypes ('susceptible') and those that do not ('resilient'). First, we stratified SDS-exposed mice and measured their voluntary alcohol consumption. Next, we determined whether SI behavior in alcohol-naïve mice could predict alcohol intake. Finally, we assessed the effect of binge-like alcohol exposure on sensitivity to SDS. We quantified Tacr1 (neurokinin-1 receptor gene) and Avp (vasopressin peptide gene) mRNA in brain regions involved in depression, addiction and social behavior. We found that susceptible mice consumed more alcohol compared with resilient mice, suggesting that depression-like phenotypes associate with increased alcohol intake. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between SI and alcohol intake in stress- and alcohol-naïve mice, suggesting that individual differences in SI associate with alcohol preference. Finally, alcohol pre-treatment increased sensitivity to SDS, indicating that alcohol exposure alters sensitivity to social stress. Quantification of mRNA revealed that increased expression of Tacr1 and Avp generally associated with decreased SI and increased alcohol intake. C57BL6/J mice are an inbred strain; thus, it is likely that individual differences in behavior and gene expression are driven by epigenetic factors. Collectively, these results support a bidirectional relationship between alcohol exposure and susceptibility to stress that is associated with variations in neuropeptide expression.

  6. Smoking, alcohol consumption and betal-quid chewing among young adult Myanmar laborers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Htin, Kyaw; Howteerakull, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; TipayamongkholgulI, Mathuros

    2014-07-01

    Health-risk behaviors among young adults are a serious public health problem. This cross sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent multiple health-risk behaviors: smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and chewing betel quid among young adult Myanmar laborers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Three hundred Myanmar laborers, aged 18-24 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. About 33.6% reported no risk behaviors, 24.7% had one, and 41.7% had two or three risk behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed six variables were significantly associated with health-risk behaviors: male gender, high/moderate custom/traditional influences, friends who smoked/consumed alcohol/chewed betel quid, and exposure to betel-quid chewing by other family members.

  7. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-28

    factors such as stress and social enrichment might act separately or interact to affect alcohol intake. It is logistically and ethically impossible to...0.01]. This finding indicates that social enrichment is physiologically arousing for male rats. Further, there was a stress x housing interaction [F...baseline, socially enriched animals ate more food than did isolated animals (E > I) and there was a stress x housing interaction (NS E > S I 58 = S

  8. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    smoking cessation interventions for use in primary care settings. Both included the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) if desired. The Brief Counselor...BCAP), or a Self-Guided Program (SGP), with the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) available to all participants. Participants in the BCAP attend...of motivational interviewing, behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy with an emphasis on reducing alcohol consumption as a strategy

  9. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  10. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  11. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  12. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  13. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood.

  14. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value.

  15. Precipitants of adolescent suicide: possible interaction between allergic inflammation and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gloria M; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Anthony, Bruno J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of mortality among adolescents. There is a pressing public health need to investigate triggers and novel vulnerabilities for suicide in order to improve risk assessment and develop innovative prevention strategies. Alcohol is a well established risk factor for adolescent suicide. In this paper, we outline a novel mechanism linking allergy, alcohol, and suicide, reviewing (a) the association between allergic inflammation, depression, and suicide; and (b) the role of alcohol in inducing phosphorylation and rearrangement of tight junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in increased "leakiness", i.e. passage of cells and molecules. Seasonal peaks of suicide in spring have been consistently reported, but their causality is poorly understood. A preliminary epidemiologic study found increased nonviolent suicide rates in females in spring during intervals of high tree pollen, in comparison to similar intervals of low tree pollen. This initial report added to the emerging literature proposing a relationship between allergy and depression, and is being further pursued at clinical, epidemiological, animal and postmortem tissue levels. We propose that allergic inflammation influences depression-related brain function via molecular and cellular mediators, but those mediators have a very limited access to the brain when the BBB is intact. Alcohol intake disrupts BBB, allowing increased brain exposure to cellular mediators of allergy. Considering the greater prevalence of allergy in adolescence when alcohol use starts, studies investigating the connection between allergy, alcohol, and suicide should be expanded to also include a focus on youth.

  16. Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, J M; Estruch, R; Salamero, M; Orteu, N; Fernandez-Solà, J; Sacanella, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of chronic ethanol intake on the central nervous system, we studied 40 asymptomatic, well-nourished, chronic alcoholics (mean age, 42.6 +/- 9.1 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects. Studies included neuropsychological testing, visual and short-latency auditory evoked potentials, and morphometric analysis of computed tomography scans. The mean daily ethanol consumption of the alcoholics was 204 gm over an average of 26.4 years. Compared to control subjects, chronic alcoholics exhibited a significant prolongation of the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials, and a prolongation and reduction in the amplitude of the latency of the V wave of short-latency auditory evoked potentials. These abnormalities were related to the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed. Brain morphometric analysis showed that alcoholics had a significantly greater degree of brain shrinkage with age, compared to control subjects. The cortical atrophy index correlated significantly with the lifetime ethanol consumption. Neuropsychological testing in alcoholics compared to controls revealed a significant impairment of frontal skills that was related to age, degree of scholarship, and the presence of frontal atrophy. In conclusion, well-nourished chronic alcoholics exhibited significant brain impairment, as demonstrated by neuropsychological testing, evoked potentials, and brain morphometric analysis, which was correlated with the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed.

  17. Toxicity of chronic high alcohol intake on mouse natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, R M; Starkey, J R; Meadows, G G

    1988-02-01

    The toxicity of chronic alcohol intake on natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from well-nourished, female C57BL/6 mice was studied in a 4-hour cytolytic chromium-release assay against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. Mice were fed a nutritionally complete crystalline amino acid diet and received 20% w/v alcohol solution for 12 weeks. Ad libitum and pair-fed control mice were given diet and either an isocaloric glucose solution or water. Decreased NK cell activity was observed in alcohol-consuming mice relative to all other control groups. NK cell activity was moderately decreased by feeding mice a high glucose diet, but more severely lowered in pair-fed groups compared to ad libitum control groups.

  18. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  19. Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert W.; Jain, Meera G.

    1974-01-01

    A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer. PMID:4429932

  20. [The evaluation of smoking and alcohol consumption by university students in Gdańsk].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Z; Anand, J S; Salamon, M; Waldman, W; Wnuk, K

    2001-01-01

    Anonymous questionnaire examination were performed among 1585 students from eight universities in Gdańsk, including 664 men and 921 women from 17 to 48 (mean 21.4 +/- 2.26) years old. Alcohol was consumed by 1452 (91.61%) students, including 91.53% women and 91.72% men. Both men and women preferred beer, respectively, 73.7% and 50.6%. In three-stage AUDIT-test (alcohol drinking dangerous to health) including 716 (45.2%) students, most of them in stage A (81.6%); in stage B about 8.2% comprised while there were about 10.2% in stage C students. Alcohol consumption carried the lowest risk (stage A) among students of Medical University while corresponding risk was the highest among students of Maritime High School. Among respondents drinking alcohol dangerously to health there were significantly more persons who did drugs (73.7%). Students qualified to the AUDIT test smoked cigarettes significantly more often than the rest of the examined population. Smokers amounted to 399 (25.2%) students, including 224 (26.3%) women and 157 (23.6%) men. The difference in figures was statistically non-significant. Among smoking respondents the students of Fine Arts Academy constituted the majority, while those of Medical University and of University School of Physical Education were in minority. Catholic Priest Seminary respondents did not have the relevant experiences.

  1. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.

  2. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiao-Hua; Huai, Jia-Ping; Ding, Jin; Chen, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) through a meta-analysis of clinical observational studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE databases from inception to 31 May 2013 without language limitations, and by manually searching the references of retrieved articles. Case-control and cohort studies that investigated the association between smoking or alcohol consumption and ECC were included. The quality of these studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Summary relative risks and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using a random-effects model. Publication bias was assessed by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. RESULTS: A total of 12 eligible articles (11 case-control studies and one cohort study) were included in this meta-analysis. Eleven studies reported the association between smoking and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that smokers had an increased risk of ECC development as compared with non-smokers (summary RR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.50). This correlation was present in population-based studies (n = 5; summary RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05) but not in hospital-based studies (n = 6; summary RR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.88-1.37) and in non-Asian regions (n = 7; summary RR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.03-1.87) but not in Asia (n = 4; summary RR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38). Seven studies reported an association between consuming alcohol and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that alcohol drinkers had a similar risk of ECC development as did individuals who did not drink alcohol (summary RR = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.87-1.37). There was moderate heterogeneity among the studies and no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ECC, but alcohol consumption is not. Further population-based studies, particularly cohort studies, are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24379600

  3. Lifetime alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- but not BRAF+ colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Hodge, Allison M; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Walters, Rhiannon; Room, Robin; Southey, Melissa C; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Buchanan, Daniel D; English, Dallas R

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up = 14.6 years; n = 596 colon and n = 326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (phomogeneity  = 0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; phomogeneity  = 0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.

  4. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study.

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, M.; Tessari, E.; Bortolomasi, M.; Piasere, O.; Semenzin, M.; Garzotto, N.; Tansella, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test in screening primary care attenders for alcohol problems. DESIGN: A validity study among consecutive primary care attenders aged 18-65 years. Every third subject completed the alcohol use disorders identification test (a 10 item self report questionnaire on alcohol intake and related problems) and was interviewed by an investigator with the composite international diagnostic interview alcohol use module (a standardised interview for the independent assessment of alcohol intake and related disorders). SETTING: 10 primary care clinics in Verona, north eastern Italy. PATIENTS: 500 subjects were approached and 482 (96.4%) completed evaluation. RESULTS: When the alcohol use disorders identification test was used to detect subjects with alcohol problems the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. The cut off score of 5 was associated with a sensitivity of 0.84, a specificity of 0.90, and a positive predictive value of 0.60. The screening ability of the total score derived from summing the responses to the five items minimising the probability of misclassification between subjects with and without alcohol problems provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93. A score of 5 or more on the five items was associated with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol use disorders identification test performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Using five of the 10 items on the questionnaire gives reasonable accuracy, and these are recommended as questions of choice to screen patients for alcohol problems. PMID:9040389

  5. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  6. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  7. Non-oxidative ethanol metabolites as a measure of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Thomas M; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2013-01-16

    Recent alcohol intake can be monitored by the measurement of indirect biomarkers. Elevated levels of liver enzymes (i.e. gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST)) in blood are commonly used in clinical practice as an indicator of alcohol-induced liver damage. With the exception of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the specificity of indirect markers is only moderate because many cases of elevated levels are unrelated to alcohol consumption. Because of their intermediate half-life and tendency to accumulate in hair, non-oxidative ethanol metabolites can be used as markers with an intermediate timeframe between ethanol measurements and GGT and CDT with regard to recent alcohol consumption occurring between hours to 1 week. Additionally, these biomarkers offer a high ethanol-specificity in combination with approximately a two-fold higher sensitivity in comparison with indirect alcohol markers. In case of forensic use of direct ethanol metabolites, caution has to be taken in interpretation and pre-analytical pitfalls should be considered.

  8. Webinar Presentation: Update on DNA Methylation Alterations at Birth from Pregnancy Folate Intake and Smoking from the California Childhood Leukemia Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Update on DNA Methylation Alterations at Birth from Pregnancy Folate Intake and Smoking from the California Childhood Leukemia Study, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Epigenetics held on Apr. 8, 2015.

  9. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  10. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  11. Negative effects of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency combination on osseointegration in a rat model.

    PubMed

    de Deco, Camila Porto; da Silva Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira; Bárbara, Mary Anne Moreira; de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes; Marchini, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency can both affect bone physiology and have shown to have an adverse effect on dental implant therapy. However, the combination of both factors on osseointegration is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration in rats fed with alcohol and presenting induced estrogen deficiency. Ninety-six female rats were divided according to diet and hormonal condition into 6 groups as follows: group Sh-W: sham (simulated ovariectomy) control, food and water ad libitum; group Sh-Et: sham, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; group Sh-Su: sham, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet in relation to Sh-Et; group Ov-W: ovariectomy, food and water ad libitum; group Ov-Et: ovariectomy, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; and group Ov-Su: ovariectomy, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet as Ov-Et. The groups were subdivided according to time of euthanasia: 30 and 45 days after placement of implants. Implant surgery was performed 1 month after ovariectomy or sham. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and evaluated by histomorphometry. Groups Ov-Et and Ov-Su showed the lowest percentage of bone-to-implant contact. The combination of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency, and the combination of estrogen deficiency and reduced ingestion of food can negatively affect osseointegration in rats.

  12. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Grønbæk, Morten; O’Reilly, Eilis; Bälter, Katarina; Goldbourt, Uri; Hallmans, Göran; Knekt, Paul; Liu, Simin; Pereira, Mark; Pietinen, Pirjo; Spiegelman, Donna; Stevens, June; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. CHD Incidence is low in men younger than 40 and in women younger than 50 years and for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate effects of alcohol on CHD risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD depends on age. Methods and results A pooled analysis of eight prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline. Average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups: hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0–29.9 g/day) aged 39–50, 50–59, and 60+ years were 0.58 (95% C.I. 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.60–0.86), and 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference (IRD) between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (IRD=45 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 8 to 84), than in middle-aged (IRD=64 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 24 to 102) and older adults (IRD=89 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 44 to 140). Similar results were observed in women. Conclusions Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of CHD in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. PMID:20351238

  13. Online Health Check for Reducing Alcohol Intake among Employees: A Feasibility Study in Six Workplaces across England

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Murray, Elizabeth; Shenker, Don; Marston, Louise; Kaner, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Most hazardous and harmful drinkers are of working age and do not seek help with their drinking. Occupational health services are uniquely placed to universally screen employees across the range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The aim was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering electronic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in the context of a health check in six different workplace settings. Methods and Findings Employees were recruited from six workplaces across England, including three local authorities, one university, one hospital and one petro-chemical company. A total of 1,254 (8%) employees completed the health check and received personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Most participants were female (65%) and of ‘White British’ ethnicity (94%), with a mean age of 43 years (SD 11). Participants were mostly in Intermediate occupations (58%), followed by Higher managerial / professional (39%) and Routine and manual occupations (2%). A quarter of participants (25%) were drinking at hazardous levels (33% male, 21% female), which decreased with age. Sixty-four percent (n=797) of participants completed online follow-up at three months. Most participants were supportive of workplaces offering employees an online health check (95%), their preferred format was online (91%) and many were confident of the confidentiality of their responses (60%). Whilst the feedback reminded most participants of things they already knew (75%), some were reportedly motivated to change their behaviour (13%). Conclusions Online health screening and personalised feedback appears feasible and acceptable, but challenges include low participation rates, potentially attracting ‘worried well’ employees rather than those at greatest health risk, and less acceptance of the approach among older employees and those from ethnic minority backgrounds and

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  15. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved.

  16. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  17. Smoking, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Use Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Miriam K.; Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew J.; Mills, Katherine L.; Teesson, Maree

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often co-occur with smoking and tobacco use disorders. Each of these disorders is known to have negative health consequences and impairment independently, but little is known about the impact of their co-occurrence. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, correlates, order of onset, and impact of co-occurring daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Method The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007 NSMHWB) was a nationally representative survey of 8,841 Australians. The survey assessed for 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders; the age respondents first started smoking daily, experienced a traumatic event, or developed problems with alcohol; and self-reported mental and physical health and impairment. Results There were systematic patterns of co-occurrence between daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Daily smoking and problems with alcohol use tended to develop after first trauma exposure, which is broadly consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs were also associated with additive negative effects on mental and physical health and functioning, after controlling for demographics. Conclusions Smoking, PTSD, and AUDs commonly co-occur in this nationally representative sample of Australian men and women, and this comorbidity was associated with greater severity of mental and physical health problems and impairment in several areas of functioning. This study highlights the importance of identifying and eliminating these patterns of co-occurrence, potentially through integrated interventions. PMID:26386825

  18. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

  19. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-04

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  20. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  1. Pfeiffer-like syndrome with holoprosencephaly: a newborn with maternal smoking and alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lee, Inn-Chi; Ng, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a female infant with Pfeiffer-like syndrome and holoprosencephaly. She had a cloverleaf skull, ocular proptosis, broad thumbs and halluces, and variable accompanying anomalies compatible with Pfeiffer syndrome. She also displayed microcephaly, short palpebral fissures, and a smooth philtrum, which are clinical signs consistent with fetal alcohol syndrome. She suffered from multiple congenital anomalies and died at 41 days of age. Cardio-pulmonary failure, brain abnormalities, prematurity, and multiple complications contributed to her death. The patient displayed normal chromosomal numbers and type. DNA analysis did not reveal fibrobtast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 or TWIST gene mutations. We review the previous reports of Pfeiffer syndrome and holoprosencephaly and describe our infant patient with Pfeiffer-like syndrome, holoprosencephaly, and heavy in utero maternal alcohol and smoking exposures.

  2. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  3. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Alexander; Lim, Sarah; Goh, Evan; Wong, Ophelia; Marsh, Philip; Knight, Virginia; Sievert, William; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females (p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, M or XL probe, and disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness (p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect (p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease. PMID:28075394

  4. Cigarette Smoking among Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators and Victims: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. Conclusions The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. PMID:25066781

  5. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  6. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  7. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  8. Dopamine Release Dynamics Change during Adolescence and after Voluntary Alcohol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum. PMID:24788731

  9. Cigarette Smoking as a Predictor of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Children and Adolescents: Evidence of the "Gateway Drug Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from a 1992 statewide survey of students in grades 5-12 were analyzed to determine the extent to which cigarette smoking predicted alcohol and other drug use and acted as a gateway drug. Results indicated smoking was a powerful predictor for alcohol and drug use, and the relationship was dose responsive. (SM)

  10. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  11. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  12. Potential role of adolescent alcohol exposure-induced amygdaloid histone modifications in anxiety and alcohol intake during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Subhash C; Sakharkar, Amul J; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Huaibo

    2015-10-01

    Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism in adulthood. Here, the role and persistent effects of histone modifications during adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in the development of anxiety and alcoholism in adulthood were investigated. Rats received intermittent ethanol exposure during post-natal days 28-41, and anxiety-like behaviors were measured after 1 and 24 h of the last AIE. The effects of AIE on anxiety-like and alcohol-drinking behaviors in adulthood were measured with or without treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). Amygdaloid brain regions were collected to measure HDAC activity, global and gene-specific histone H3 acetylation, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein and dendritic spine density (DSD). Adolescent rats displayed anxiety-like behaviors after 24 h, but not 1 h, of last AIE with a concomitant increase in nuclear and cytosolic amygdaloid HDAC activity and HDAC2 and HDAC4 levels leading to deficits in histone (H3-K9) acetylation in the central (CeA) and medial (MeA), but not in basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA). Interestingly, some of AIE-induced epigenetic changes such as, increased nuclear HDAC activity, HDAC2 expression, and decreased global histone acetylation persisted in adulthood. In addition, AIE decreased BDNF exons I and IV and Arc promoter specific histone H3 acetylation that was associated with decreased BDNF, Arc expression and DSD in the CeA and MeA during adulthood. AIE also induced anxiety-like behaviors and enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood, which was attenuated by TSA treatment via normalization of deficits in histone H3 acetylation of BDNF and Arc genes. These novel results indicate that AIE induces long-lasting effects on histone modifications and deficits in synaptic events in the amygdala, which are

  13. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  14. Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Eiler, Bill J A; Cook, Jason B; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2009-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15 and 30%, with ad libitum access to water and food) 22 h/day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days of age, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18-day washout period and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4, and 22 h postinjection. Rats were injected intraperitoneally just before lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the second test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1- and 4-h time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4-h time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all three time-points within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse.

  15. Alcohol intake in high alcohol drinking (HAD) rats is suppressed by FG5865, a novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Long, T A; Kalmus, G W; Björk, A; Myers, R D

    1996-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2 antagonist, FG5606 (amperozide), and the mixed 5-HT1 agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5893, attenuate significantly the volitional intake of alcohol in the cyanamide treated rat. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect on alcohol drinking in the selectively bred, high alcohol drinking (HAD) rat of a new and novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5865 (2-[4-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-1-piperazinyl]-3-pyridinecarboxy lic acid methyl ester), which shares pharmacological properties with FG5893. Initially, a standard three bottle preference test for water vs. 3% to 30% alcohol solutions was given over 11 days to determine the maximally preferred concentration for each animal. Then water and this solution, which ranged between 9% and 20% with an overall mean absolute intake of 6.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg per day, was offered over three consecutive 4-day test sequences: (1) predrug control; (2) SC injections b.i.d. of either 1.0 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg FG5865 or saline control vehicle; and (3) postdrug. Whereas saline failed to alter alcohol consumption of the HAD rats, FG5865 caused a significant dose dependent reduction by as much as 75% in the intakes of alcohol during its administration in terms of both g/kg (p < 0.01) and proportion of alcohol to total fluid intake (p < 0.01). During the administration of 2.5 mg/kg FG5865, alcohol drinking declined from 6.5 +/- 0.3 g/kg to as low as 2.3 +/- 0.2 g/kg per day. Neither the body weight of the HAD animals nor their intake of food was affected by either dose of FG5865. These results uphold the concept that the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the brain play a part in the aberrant drinking of alcohol of the HAD rat. Because FG5865 influences the activity of serotonergic neurons in the mesolimbic system of the rat, it is envisaged that the drug suppresses alcohol drinking by way of its action on these neurons.

  16. Smoking and alcohol in the etiology of oral cancer: gender-specific risk profiles in the south of Greece.

    PubMed

    Zavras, A I; Douglass, C W; Joshipura, K; Wu, T; Laskaris, G; Petridou, E; Dokianakis, G; Segas, J; Lefantzis, D; Nomikos, P; Wang, Y F; Diehl, S R

    2001-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancer (OC) mortality is very low in Greece, especially among men, compared to other European countries. We conducted a case-control study of OC in Athens, and obtained information on tobacco, alcohol use and other potential risk factors and confounding variables for 110 incident cases and 115 hospital-based controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tobacco smoking (pack years, P(trend)=0.01) and alcohol use (drinks/week, P(trend)=0.07) were independent risk factors, with a multiplicative effect for combined exposures (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 2.4-29.1, for >28 alcohol drinks/week and >50 pack years of cigarette smoking). The type of alcoholic beverage also seemed important: drinking ouzo and tsipouro (liquors of high ethanol concentration) was associated with greater increased OC risk than drinking comparable amounts of wine, beer or dark spirits. While alcohol drinking is more common for male cases versus controls, few men reported regularly consuming large quantities of ethanol associated with highest risk of OC in other studies. This may partially explain the low rates of male OC mortality in Greece. Among the 38% of our cases who were women, however, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking frequencies were significantly elevated compared to controls, and so the etiology of OC risk in females requires further investigation.

  17. Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Zuvela, N; Landis, N; Wilce, P A

    2008-01-01

    Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in alcoholics. To date only limited data is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the action of alcohol and nicotine in the human brain. This study utilized gene expression screening to identify genes sensitive to chronic alcohol abuse within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the human brain. Alcohol-responsive genes encoded proteins primarily involved in structural plasticity and neurotransmitter transport and release. In particular, genes involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and glutamatergic transmission were found to be affected. The possibility that glutamate transport was a target of chronic alcohol and/or tobacco abuse was further investigated in an extended case set by measurement of mRNA and protein expression. Expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters SLC17A6 and SLC17A7 were robustly induced by smoking, an effect that was reduced by alcohol co-exposure. Glutamatergic transmission is vital for the control of the VTA and may also be critical to the weighting of novelty and importance of a stimulus, an essential output of this brain region. We conclude that enduring plasticity within the VTA may be a major molecular mechanism for the maintenance of smoking addiction and that alcohol, nicotine and co-abuse have distinct impacts on glutamatergic transmission with important implications for the control of this core mesolimbic structure.

  18. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure.

  19. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  20. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  1. Health Education: Smoking, Alcoholism, Drugs. Review of selected programmes for schoolchildren and parents. EURO Reports and Studies 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuylsteek, K.

    This review presents some examples of health education programs in various countries and serves as a reference for a World Health Organization (WHO) working group on health education for schoolchildren and parents. Details are given on health education programs in relation to smoking, alcoholism, and the nonmedical use of drugs. Program aims,…

  2. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  3. Circadian rhythms of water and alcohol intake: effect of REM-sleep deprivation and lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1984-01-01

    The recently discovered increase in alcohol drinking produced by a 7 day period of rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep deprivation with a modified flowerpot technique and the subsequent decrease during REM-rebound were now examined through continual monitoring of drinking with a computer attached to drinkometers. REM-sleep deprivation abolished the circadian rhythms of both alcohol and water intake. The circadian rhythm of water drinking returned during the first post-deprivation day but alcohol drinking was almost eliminated during the first 18 hr and there was no circadian rhythm to the alcohol drinking on the following 3 days. In an additional study, the circadian rhythms of both water and alcohol intake were abolished by electrolytic lesioning of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The lesion did not, however, alter the mean level of alcohol drinking. Thus the abolition of circadian rhythms is not sufficient for increasing alcohol consumption and the increase produced during REM-sleep deprivation appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.

  4. Chronic alcohol intake up-regulates hepatic expressions of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive and chronic alcohol intake leads to a lower hepatic vitamin A status by interfering with vitamin A metabolism.Dietary provitamin A carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A mainly by carotenoid 15,15’-monooxygenase 1 (CMO1) and, to a lesser degree, carotenoid 9910’-monooxygenase 2 (CMO2)...

  5. Polymorphisms in Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase and Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase, Folate and Alcohol Intake, and Colon Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Keku, Temitope; Butler, Lesley M.; Galanko, Joseph; Massa, Beri; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims We examined associations among folate and alcohol intake, SNPs in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and colon cancer risk. Methods Colon cancer cases (294 African Americans and 349 whites) were frequency matched to population controls (437 African Americans and 611 whites) by age, race and sex from 33 North Carolina counties from 1996 to 2000. Folate and alcohol intakes were collected by dietary interview. Five SNPs were genotyped using DNA from whole blood: SHMT C1420T; MTRR A66G; MTR A2756G, and the previously-reported MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results An inverse association was observed for SHMT TT genotype as compared to CC genotype in whites (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.4, 1.0), but not in African Americans. Inverse associations were observed for high folate intake in individuals carrying 0 or 1 variant allele [OR 0.2 (95%CI 0.06 – 0.8) for African Americans; OR 0.2 (95%CI 0.1– 0.6) for whites] compared to low folate intake. Modest interactions between these SNPs and alcohol or folate intakes were observed. Conclusions Our results are consistent with other findings and provide needed data on these associations among African Americans. PMID:19776626

  6. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  7. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to “like/dislike” post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as “fingered speech”. Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors. PMID:25714907

  8. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  9. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  10. Effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the distributions of lymphocyte subpopulations in rats with excessive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Lin, Wen-Shan; Huang, Zih-Ru; Lin, Chun-Chin; Yeh, Wei-Hao; Wu, Yi-Ru; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2010-12-22

    To investigate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on antioxidant statuses and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the rats with alcohol intake, the antioxidant statuses in the peripheral blood (PB) and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the PB, spleen, and bone marrow (BM) of the rats fed with WPC (0.334 g/kg) and alcohol (6 g/kg) for 3 months were analyzed. Results showed that the effects of WPC on the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in the PB, the T and B cells in the spleen, and the B cells in the BM were more apparent in the rats with alcohol intake; however, they are not apparent in the controls. Taken together, our results indicated that the immunity of rats might be enhanced by the increased antioxidant ability after WPC supplementation and the effects of WPC on the lymphocyte subpopulations were mainly in the spleen and BM and not in the PB.

  11. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  12. Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology. Methods We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2). Results The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population. Conclusion The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:24505444

  13. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  14. Overall alcohol intake, beer, wine and systemic markers of inflamation in western europe: results from three MONICA samples (Augsburg, Glasgow, Lille).

    PubMed

    Karvaj, M

    2007-11-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of moderate alcohol consumption have been proposed to explain why moderate alcohol intake lowers coronary heart disease risk. The relationship between overall alcohol, beer or wine consumption and markers of systemic inflammation in three different geographical areas in Europe, was investigated.

  15. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  16. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Barber, Xavier; Bolumar, Francisco; Porta, Miquel; Santibáñez, Miguel; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol) was 7.65 (95%CI, 3.16–18.49); and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day) was 5.07 (95%CI, 2.06–12.47). A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1–24 g/d) did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend<0.00001). A significant increase in EC risk was only observed for black-tobacco smoking (2.5-fold increase), not for blond tobacco. The effects for alcohol drinking were much stronger when the analysis was limited to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 160), whereas a lack of effect for adenocarcinoma was evidenced. Smoking cessation showed a beneficial effect within ten years whereas drinking cessation did not. Conclusion Our study shows that the risk of EC, and

  17. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Addressing tobacco use disorder in smokers in early remission from alcohol dependence: the case for integrating smoking cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, David; Kim, Sun; DiGirolamo, Gregory; Smelson, David; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Despite the declining overall rate of cigarette smoking in the general population in the United States, the prevalence of smoking is estimated to be as high as 80% among treatment-seeking alcoholics. The serious adverse health effects of tobacco and heavy alcohol use are synergistic and recent evidence suggests that smoking slows the process of cognitive recovery following alcohol abstinence. In addition, substantial evidence shows that treatment for tobacco dependence does not jeopardize alcohol abstinence. In this paper, we focus on the impact and treatment implications of tobacco dependence among treatment-seeking alcoholics through a review of five areas of research. We begin with brief reviews of two areas of research: studies investigating the genetic and neurobiological vulnerability of comorbid tobacco and alcohol dependence and studies investigating the consequences of comorbid dependence on neurobiological and cognitive functioning. We then review literature on the effects of smoking cessation on drinking urges and alcohol use and the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions with alcoholic smokers. Finally, we offer recommendations for research with an emphasis on clinical research for enhancing smoking cessation outcomes in this population. PMID:19748166

  19. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  20. Gender Differences in the Roles of Religion and Locus of Control on Alcohol Use and Smoking Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Roth, David L.; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Spiritual health locus of control reflects a person’s beliefs about the role of a higher power in one’s health and can take an active or a passive perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of active and passive spiritual health locus of control beliefs on select health risk behaviors—alcohol use and smoking—in a national sample of African Americans. Method: A national U.S. probability sample of study participants (N = 2,370; 906 men; 1,464 women) completed a telephone survey assessing religious involvement, active and passive spiritual health locus of control beliefs, and alcohol consumption and smoking status. Because of previous research suggesting gender-specific associations among these variables, moderation analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Results: For women, higher religious behaviors were associated with less alcohol use, and this effect was more pronounced among those high in active spiritual health locus of control. For men, the combination of lower religious beliefs and higher passive spiritual health locus of control was associated with more alcohol consumption and more days of consuming five or more alcoholic drinks. No moderation effects were found for smoking. Conclusions: This study identified unique patterns of religious involvement and spiritual health locus of control beliefs that are associated with alcohol use, including heavy drinking, among African Americans. These findings have implications for pastoral counseling and other faith-based approaches for addressing heavy drinking in African Americans. PMID:25978836

  1. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults.

  2. Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking

  3. Effects of continuous opioid receptor blockade on alcohol intake and up-regulation of opioid receptor subtype signalling in a genetic model of high alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Ingman, K; Soini, S L; Laitinen, J T; Korpi, E R

    1999-10-01

    Effects of a continuous naloxone infusion via osmotic pumps on alcohol drinking and opioid receptor density and function in the high-drinking AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats were examined. AA rats were trained to drink 10% (v/v) ethanol in a 1-h limited access procedure and implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps delivering either saline, a low dose (0.3 mg/kg per hour), or a high dose (3.0 mg/kg per hour) of naloxone for 7 days. The pumps were then removed and alcohol, food and water intakes were measured for another 4 days. Compared with saline, both naloxone doses significantly suppressed 1-h alcohol intake during the 7-day infusion. The suppression was smaller than that by a bolus injection of the same daily dose 15 min before the session, although a complete blockade of morphine-induced antinociception was achieved even with the smaller naloxone infusion. Significant decreases were also seen in daily food and water intake during the first days, but they quickly returned to their previous baselines. After pump removal, rats of both naloxone-treated groups rapidly increased their alcohol drinking and reached the pretreatment baseline, while their food and water intakes significantly surpassed their baselines. Naloxone infusion at 3.0 mg/kg per hour for 7 days significantly decreased 24-h alcohol drinking without affecting alcohol preference. Twenty-four hours after pump removal, autoradiography with [3H]DAMGO, [3H]DPDPE and [3H]U-69,543 revealed an up-regulation of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor binding sites in many brain areas of these animals. This receptor up-regulation was functional, because receptor coupling to G-protein activation was enhanced by agonist ligands, as revealed by [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography. A good correlation existed between ligand binding densities and G-protein activation for mu- and kappa-receptors in control and naloxone-treated brain sections. Furthermore, morphine-induced analgesia in a hot-plate test showed a leftward shift in

  4. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  5. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The multifaceted gut‐brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR‐1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre‐clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR‐1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre‐proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR‐1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population‐based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  6. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes.

  8. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  9. Alcohol intake and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-07-01

    Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of <1, 1-2, and >2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.

  10. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  11. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: Implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M.; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R.; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Prior work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM’s ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM’s effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABA ARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAA receptor function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs. PMID:24451653

  12. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  13. Smoking Status and Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake, and Alcohol/Caffeine Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    blood pressure, blood lipids and uric acid . The Framingham Study. Arch Int Med, 143, 1366-1374. Gyntelberg, F., & Meyer, J. (1974). Relationship...milk, cream, cheeses, ice cream) 6. eat low-fat dairy products (e.g., low-fat milk or cottage cheere, yogurt ) 7. eat (or cook with) butter, lard, or

  14. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leichter, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  15. Chronic cigarette smoking in alcohol dependence: associations with cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate levels in the extended brain reward system.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic smoking in alcohol dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain morphology and metabolite levels in large lobar regions (e.g. frontal lobe). Here, we evaluated if these abnormalities are specifically apparent in several cortical and select subcortical components of the extended brain reward system (BRS), a network that is critically involved in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. We studied 33 non-smoking and 43 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) with 1 week of abstinence and 42 non-smoking Controls. At 1.5 Tesla, we obtained regional measures of cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA; a surrogate marker of neuronal integrity) concentration in major components of the BRS as well as the corresponding measures throughout the cortex. Smoking ALC and non-smoking ALC demonstrated decreased thickness compared with Controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the total BRS, total frontal cortex and global cortex. Smoking ALC had significantly decreased thickness compared to non-smoking ALC in the ACC, insula, the total BRS and total frontal cortex. Smoking ALC had also lower NAA concentrations than both non-smoking ALC and Controls in the DLPFC, insula, superior corona radiata and the total BRS. Alcohol consumption and common medical and psychiatric co-morbidities did not mediate differences between smoking and non-smoking ALC. This dual modality magnetic resonance (MR) study indicated that chronic smoking in ALC was associated with significant cortical thinning and NAA abnormalities in anterior brain regions that are implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

  16. Concomitant intake of alcohol may increase the absorption of poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Sjögren, Erik; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-01-25

    Ethanol can increase the solubility of poorly soluble and hence present a higher drug concentration in the gastrointestinal tract. This may produce a faster and more effective absorption resulting in variable and/or high drug plasma concentrations, both of which can lead to adverse drug reactions. In this work we therefore studied the solubility and absorption effects of nine diverse compounds when ethanol was present. The apparent solubility was measured using the μDiss Profiler Plus (pION, MA) in four media representing gastric conditions with and without ethanol. The solubility results were combined with in-house data on solubility in intestinal fluids (with and without ethanol) and pharmacokinetic parameters extracted from the literature and used as input in compartmental absorption simulations using the software GI-Sim. Apparent solubility increased more than 7-fold for non-ionized compounds in simulated gastric fluid containing 20% ethanol. Compounds with weak base functions (cinnarizine, dipyridamole and terfenadine) were completely ionized at the studied gastric pH and their solubility was therefore unaffected by ethanol. Compounds with low solubility in intestinal media and a pronounced solubility increase due to ethanol in the upper gastric compartments showed an increased absorption in the simulations. The rate of absorption of the acidic compounds indomethacin and indoprofen was slightly increased but the extent of absorption was unaffected as the complete doses were readily absorbed even without ethanol. This was likely due to a high apparent solubility in the intestinal compartment where the weak acids are ionized. The absorption of the studied non-ionizable compounds increased when ethanol was present in the gastric and intestinal media. These results indicate that concomitant intake of alcohol may significantly increase the solubility and hence, the plasma concentration for non-ionizable, lipophilic compounds with the potential of adverse drug

  17. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect

  18. The J-Curve in HIV: Low and Moderate Alcohol Intake Predicts Mortality but Not the Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, David; Fehr, Jan; Conen, Anna; Calmy, Alexandra; Orasch, Christina; Battegay, Manuel; Schmid, Patrick; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In HIV-negative populations, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than alcohol abstention. Whether the same holds true for HIV-infected individuals has not been evaluated in detail. Design: Cohort study. Methods: Adults on antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study with follow-up after August 2005 were included. We categorized alcohol consumption into: abstention or very low (<1 g/d), low (1–9 g/d), moderate (10–29 g/d in women and 10–39 g/d in men), and high alcohol intake. Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease-free survival (combined endpoint), cardiovascular disease events (CADE) and overall survival. Baseline and time-updated risk factors for CADE were included in the models. Results: Among 9741 individuals included, there were 788 events of major CADE or death during 46,719 patient-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence of 1.69 events/100 person-years. Follow-up according to alcohol consumption level was 51% no or very low, 20% low, 23% moderate, and 6% high intake. As compared with no or very low alcohol intake, low (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.98) and moderate alcohol intakes (0.78, 0.64 to 0.95) were associated with a lower incidence of the combined endpoint. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and CADE. Conclusions: Compared with no or very low alcohol consumption, low and moderate intake associated with a better CADE-free survival. However, this result was mainly driven by mortality and the specific impact of drinking patterns and type of alcoholic beverage on this outcome remains to be determined. PMID:26444500

  19. Case-case comparison of smoking and alcohol risk associations with Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Koriyama, Chihaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kim, Woo-Ho; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Liao, Linda M.; Yu, Jun; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Lissowska, Jolanta; Meneses-Gonzalez, Fernando; Yatabe, Yashushi; Ding, Ti; Hu, Nan; Taylor, Philip R.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Torres, Javier; Akiba, Suminori; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer. However, monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nucleic acid is also present in up to 10% of these tumors worldwide. EBV prevalence is increased with male sex, non-antral localization and surgically disrupted anatomy. To further examine associations between EBV and gastric cancer, we organized an international consortium of 11 studies with tumor EBV status assessed by in situ hybridization. We pooled individual-level data on 2,648 gastric cancer patients, including 184 (7%) with EBV-positive cancers; all studies had information on cigarette use (64% smokers) and 9 had data on alcohol (57% drinkers). We compared patients with EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors to evaluate smoking and alcohol interactions with EBV status. To account for within-population clustering, multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate interaction odds ratios (OR) adjusted for distributions of sex (72% male), age (mean 59 years), tumor histology (56% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (61% noncardia) and year of diagnosis (1983–2012). In unadjusted analyses, the OR of EBV positivity with smoking was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–3.2). The OR was attenuated to 1.5 (95% CI, 1.01–2.3) by adjustment for the possible confounders. There was no significant interaction of EBV status with alcohol drinking (crude OR, 1.4; adjusted OR, 1.0). Our data indicate the smoking association with gastric cancer is stronger for EBV-positive than EBV-negative tumors. Conversely, the null association with alcohol does not vary by EBV status. Distinct epidemiologic characteristics of EBV-positive cancer further implicate the virus as a co-factor in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23904115

  20. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark? A nationwide register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985–2009. Design A nationwide register-based study. Setting Denmark. Participants The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more in the period 1985–2009. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct contribution from smoking and alcohol use on the absolute difference in mortality rates. The secondary outcome is life expectancy in relation to educational attainments. Results Since 1985, Danish overall mortality rates have decreased. Alongside the improvement in mortality, the absolute difference in the mortality rate (per 100 000 persons) between the lowest and the highest educated quartile grew from 465 to 611 among men and from 250 to 386 among women. Smoking and alcohol use have caused 75% of the increase among men and 97% of the increase among women. Among men the increase was mainly caused by alcohol. In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. Conclusions The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use are targeted to the lower educated part of the Danish population. PMID:25967987

  1. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  2. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  3. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  4. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  5. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of phase I metabolizing enzyme genes, their interaction with lifetime grilled and smoked meat intake, and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Humberto; Steck, Susan E.; Cleveland, Rebecca J.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between 22 CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer incidence and their interactions with grilled–smoked meat intake, a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Methods White women with first primary in situ or invasive breast cancer (n = 988) and frequency-matched controls (n = 1021) from a population-based study were interviewed to assess lifetime grilled–smoked meat intake. SNPs with minor allele frequencies of greater than 0.05 were selected because of their links to carcinogenesis. We used multivariable unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Breast cancer was inversely associated with CYP1A1 rs104C8943 AG + GG genotype (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.50–0.99; vs. AA genotype) and positively associated with CYP1B1 rs10175338 TT genotype (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12–2.26; vs. GG genotype) and the CYP3A4 rs2242480 CT + TT genotype (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.00–1.56; vs. CC genotype). The sum of the number of “at-risk” alleles for the CYP SNPs was positively associated with breast cancer incidence (4–6 “at-risk” alleles OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.37–3.99 vs. 0-1 alleles; PTrend < .01). We observed multiplicative and additive interactions (P <.05) between grilled –smoked meat intake (low vs. high) with CYP1A1 rs1048943 and CYP1B1 rs10175338 SNPs. Conclusions Phase I metabolizing enzyme gene SNPs may play a role in breast cancer development and may modify the grilled–smoked meat intake–breast cancer association. PMID:27956118

  7. Systemic immune modulation induced by alcoholic beverage intake in obese-diabetes (db/db) mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Seol-Hee; Baek, So-Young; Go, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol over-consumption is generally immunosuppressive. In this study, the effects of single or repetitive alcohol administration on the systemic immunity of db/db mice were observed to clarify the possible mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of obese individuals to alcohol-related immunological health problems. Alcohol (as a form of commercially available 20% distilled-alcoholic beverage) was orally administered one-time or seven times over 2 weeks to db/db mice and normal C57BL/6J mice. Immunologic alterations were analyzed by observation of body weight and animal activity, along with proportional changes of splenocytes for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Modulation of plasma cytokine level and immune-related genes were also ascertained by micro-bead assay and a microarray method, respectively. The immune micro-environment of db/db mice was an inflammatory state and adaptive cellular immunity was significantly suppressed. Low-dose alcohol administration reversed the immune response, decreasing inflammatory responses and the increment of adaptive immunity mainly related to CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, to normal background levels. Systemic immune modulation due to alcohol administration in the obese-diabetic mouse model may be useful in the understanding of the induction mechanism, which will aid the development of therapeutics for related secondary diseases.

  8. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities). Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ) and MiniMental State(MMS). Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly. PMID:22538114

  9. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  10. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  11. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine's capacity to establish place preferences and modify intake of an alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, E J; Hui, Y Z; Hubbell, C L; Reid, L D

    1990-12-01

    Doses of 0.2, 2.0, 6.3 and 20.0 mg/kg 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a putative neurotoxin at serotonergic neurons and a recreational drug, were assessed using Sprague-Dawley rats in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Also, the drug's effects on intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (ES) was assessed. The CP testing involved multiple administrations of MDMA with frequent periodic testing (weekly for 4 weeks) of MDMA's effects. Doses of 2.0 and 6.3 mg/kg produced positive CPPs with every test. MDMA also affected rats' gain in body weight across the 4 weeks of dosing. The 2.0 mg/kg reliably incremented gain in body weight, while the 20.0 mg/kg dose reliably attenuated it. In the drinking experiment, water-deprived rats (22 h/day) were given daily opportunities to drink either tap water or a sweetened ES. When stable intakes were achieved, MDMA's effects were assessed across repeated daily administrations (12 days) and subsequently (16 days). MDMA, dose-relatedly, decreased intake of both ES and water with the highest dose leading to marked loss in body weight. Intakes of fluids were not modified markedly subsequent to dosing. In summary, MDMA is an agent that produces a positive CPP (providing further evidence for MDMA's abuse liability), produces changes in weight gain and nonselectively reduces fluid intake among fluid-deprived rats.

  12. Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass. Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Välimäki, M. J.; Kärkkäinen, M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Laitinen, K.; Alhava, E.; Heikkinen, J.; Impivaara, O.; Mäkelä, P.; Palmgren, J.; Seppänen, R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the contribution to peak bone mass of exercise, smoking, and calcium intake in adolescents and young adults. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study with end point measurement (bone mineral density) after 11 years' follow up for lifestyle. SETTING--Five university hospital clinics. SUBJECTS--264 (153 females, 111 males) subjects aged 9 to 18 years at the beginning of the follow up and 20 to 29 years at the time of measurement of bone mineral density. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x ray absorptiometry; measures of physical activity and smoking and estimates of calcium intake repeated three times during follow up. RESULTS--In the groups with the lowest and highest levels of exercise the femoral bone mineral densities (adjusted for age and weight) were 0.918 and 0.988 g/cm2 for women (P = 0.015, analysis of covariance) and 0.943 and 1.042 g/cm2 for men (P = 0.005), respectively; at the lumbar spine the respective values were 1.045 and 1.131 (P = 0.005) for men. In men the femoral bone mineral densities (adjusted for age, weight, and exercise) were 1.022 and 0.923 g/cm2 for the groups with the lowest and highest values of smoking index (P = 0.054, analysis of covariance). In women the adjusted femoral bone mineral density increased by 4.7% together with increasing calcium intake (P = 0.089, analysis of covariance). In multiple regression analysis on bone mineral density of the femoral neck, weight, exercise, age, and smoking were independent predictors for men; with weight, exercise, and age for women. These predictors together explained 38% of the variance in bone mineral density in women and 46% in men. At the lumbar spine, weight, smoking, and exercise were predictors for men; and only weight for women. CONCLUSIONS--Regular exercise and not smoking is important in achieving maximal peak bone mass in adolescents and young adults. PMID:8069139

  13. Effects of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on mouse oesophageal mucosa changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency and deoxycholic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zapaterini, Joyce R; de Moura, Nelci A; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    The noxious effects of dietary zinc deficiency (ZD) and deoxycholic bile acid (DCA) supplementation in the oesophagus were investigated. The additional influence of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on the changes in the oesophageal mucosa induced by dietary ZD plus DCA was also assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Group 1 was fed control diet and groups 2-4 were fed ZD plus DCA diet. After 5 weeks, groups 3 and 4 were exposed to 10% ethanol intake or cigarette smoke for 15 weeks, respectively. All animals were euthanized at the end of week 20, and the oesophagus, lung, liver and colon were collected and analysed by conventional morphology. Cell proliferation was assessed in the oesophageal mucosa by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein by Western blotting. Dietary ZD plus DCA treatment induced mild hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia, increased cell proliferation index and COX-2 protein expression in the oesophagus, and intranuclear inclusion, karyocytomegaly and microvesicular fatty change in the liver. Cigarette smoke increased COX-2 protein expression in oesophageal mucosa and irregular enlargement of alveolus and alveolar ductal air spaces, while ethanol enhanced liver damage induced by ZD plus DCA diet. These findings indicate that dietary ZD plus DCA treatment during 20 weeks induces a pattern of chemical oesophageal injury but not Barrett's-like lesions.

  14. Body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx: modeling odds ratios in pooled case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Kelsey, Karl; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf Neto, Jose; Purdue, Mark P; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2010-06-15

    Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.

  15. Dose-dependent reduction of hazardous alcohol use in a placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Stephanie S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A; Leeman, Robert F; Cooney, Ned L; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W

    2009-06-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone (Ntx) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of Ntx on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (n=102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral Ntx (25-mg, 50-mg and 100-mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome--no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment--25 mg and 50 mg Ntx were superior to placebo (each p<0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Ntx can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of Ntx on drinking. This effect appears to favour lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100-mg dose. Given its efficacy and favourable side-effect profile, the 25-mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy.

  16. Dose Dependent Reduction of Hazardous Alcohol Use in a Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naltrexone for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; McKee, Sherry A.; Leeman, Robert F.; Cooney, Ned L.; Meandzija, Boris; Wu, Ran; Makuch, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The opiate antagonist naltrexone has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence and as a component of treatment to reduce heavy drinking. At present, there are no published dose-ranging clinical trials of the oral preparation for treatment of problem drinking. The present study evaluated the effects of naltrexone on alcohol use among the subset of hazardous drinkers (N = 102) who participated in a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of oral naltrexone (25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg doses) combined with open-label transdermal nicotine patch for enhancing smoking cessation. On the primary outcome—no hazardous drinking (drinking that exceeded weekly or daily limits) during treatment—25 mg and 50 mg naltrexone were superior to placebo (each p < 0.05). These findings remained after controlling for baseline predictors or smoking abstinence during treatment. Time to remission of hazardous drinking was examined as a secondary outcome with definitions of hazardous drinking based on weekly limits, daily limits and the combination of weekly and daily limits and the results were consistent with the primary findings. In conclusion, the findings suggest that naltrexone can reduce the risk of hazardous drinking in smokers who are not seeking or receiving alcohol treatment, providing strong evidence for the pharmacological effects of naltrexone on drinking. This effect appears to favor lower doses that may be better tolerated and less expensive than the higher 100 mg dose. Given its efficacy and favorable side effect profile, the 25 mg dose should be considered for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:18796184

  17. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  18. Alcohol and smoking and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in Japanese men: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-02-15

    Although alcohol and smoking have not been established as risk factors for prostate cancer, they are important risk factors for other human cancers and potentially major avoidable factors. Alcohol drinkers and smokers might be less likely to get screening, which might lead to attenuation of the positive association. Here, we investigated the association of alcohol drinking and smoking and prostate cancer according to stage, as well as prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms, in a large prospective study among Japanese men. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study) was established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II. Subjects were 48,218 men aged 40-69 years who completed a questionnaire, which included their alcohol and smoking habits at baseline, and who were followed until the end of 2010. During 16 years of follow-up, 913 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer; of whom 248 had advanced cases, 635 were organ-localized and 30 were of an undetermined stage. Alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with advanced prostate cancer [nondrinkers: reference, 0-150 g/week: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.82; 150-300 g/week: HR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19; ≥ 300 g/week: HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.97-2.05, p for trend = 0.02]. The positive association was not substantially changed among cancers detected by subjective symptoms. Smoking was inversely associated with prostate cancer among total subjects, but tended to increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms. In conclusion, abstinence from alcohol and prohibition of smoking might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer.

  19. Chronic Moderate Alcohol Intakes Accelerate SR-B1 Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Menghua; Diao, Yan; Liu, Ying; Huang, Hui; Li, Yanze; Tan, Peizhu; Liang, Huan; He, Qi; Nie, Junhui; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However, a high level of cholesterol in the body is strongly associated with the progression of various severe diseases. In our study, the potential involvement of alcohol in the regulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B and type I (SR-B1)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport was investigated. We separated male C57BL/6 mice into four diets: control, alcohol, Control + HC and alcohol + HC. The SR-B1 level and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate- high- density lipoprotein (DiI-HDL) uptake were also measured in AML12 cells and HL7702 cells treated with alcohol. The control + HC diet led to increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels while alcohol + HC led no significant change. Compared with that of the control group, the SR-B1 mRNA level was elevated by 27.1% (P < 0.05), 123.8% (P < 0.001) and 343.6% (P < 0.001) in the alcohol, control + HC and alcohol + HC groups, respectively. In AML12 and HL7702 cells, SR-B1 level and DiI-HDL uptake were repressed by SR-B1 siRNA or GW9662. However, these effects were reversed through alcohol treatment. These data suggest that a moderate amount of alcohol plays a novel role in reverse cholesterol transport, mainly mediated by PPARγ and SR-B1. PMID:27618957

  20. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    counseling and nicotine replacement therapy [NRT; nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban)] with an emphasis on reducing alcohol consumption as a strategy...Counselor Assisted Program (BCAP), or a Self-Guided Program (SGP), with the nicotine patch and buproprion (Zyban) available to all participants...and stay quit by use of motivational interviewing, behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy with an emphasis on reducing alcohol

  1. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  2. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  3. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  4. Alcohol intake and binge drinking among Italian adolescents: The role of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Girardi, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking, a pattern associated with worse outcome, is becoming increasingly popular among youths, thus negatively impacting social life. To investigate drinking patterns and their underlying motives in Italian adolescents, the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form were administered to 332 school-age teenagers (16-19 years; 139 girls, 193 boys) from a single Roman school, recruited at their classrooms through the intermediation of their teachers. Boys scored higher than girls on all drinking and binge measures. They also scored higher on the Enhancement, Social, and Conformity Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form subscales. Binge drinking scores positively correlated with gender, alcohol consumption, and with all Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form subscales. In the two-step hierarchical model, Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form enhancement and conformity predicted alcohol use and Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form coping motives significantly predicted binge drinking. Binge drinking is prevalent among Italian adolescents, who mainly drink to enhance perceived positive effects of alcohol, conform to their social groups, and face their problems. Boys binge more than girls.

  5. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans.

  6. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Al Mansouri, Shamma; Ojha, Shreesh; Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Nurulain, Syed M; Bahi, Amine

    2014-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors play a major role in alcohol reward. In fact, the implication of cannabinoid neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) is becoming increasingly evident. The CB2 receptor agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP) was used to investigate the role of the CB2 receptors in mediating alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) and sensitivity in mice. The effect of BCP on alcohol intake was evaluated using the standard two-bottle choice drinking method. The mice were presented with increasing EtOH concentrations and its consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was measured following the EtOH preference tests. Finally, the effect of BCP on alcohol reward and sensitivity was tested using an unbiased EtOH-CPP and loss of righting-reflex (LORR) procedures, respectively. BCP dose-dependently decreased alcohol consumption and preference. Additionally, BCP-injected mice did not show any difference from vehicle mice in total fluid intake in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded concentrations of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the CB2 receptor activation did not alter taste function. More importantly, BCP inhibited EtOH-CPP acquisition and exacerbated LORR duration. Interestingly, these effects were abrogated when mice were pre-injected with a selective CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Overall, the CB2 receptor system appears to be involved in alcohol dependence and sensitivity and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism.

  7. Changes in Smoking for Adults with and without Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Longitudinal Evaluation in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the smoking cessation and smoking relapse behavior of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs). Objectives The current study used longitudinal data from a representative sample of the U.S. adult population to examine changes in smoking over three years for men and women with and without AUD and DUD diagnoses. Methods Participants were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who completed the Wave 2 assessment three years later (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of AUD and DUD diagnoses on smoking cessation and smoking relapse. Results Wave 1 Current Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.55, 0.89), Past AUD (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.60, 0.89), Current DUD (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.76), and Past DUD (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49, 0.79) were less likely to have quit smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. Wave 1 Former Daily Smokers with a Current AUD (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.36, 3.73), Current DUD (OR=7.97, 95% CI=2.51, 25.34), and Past DUD (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.84, 3.95) were more likely to have relapsed to smoking at Wave 2 than those with no AUD or DUD diagnosis. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant. Conclusion Current and Past AUDs and DUDs were associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking while Current AUDs, Current DUDs, and Past DUDs were associated with an increased likelihood of smoking relapse. PMID:23721534

  8. [Emotions, stress, smoking, alcohol consumption and cancer--the correlational and causal connections].

    PubMed

    Korystov, Iu N

    1997-01-01

    Correlative and causal relationships are discussed between emotions, stress, smoking, drinking, and cancer. The following conclusions have been drawn. Emotions control the physiological stress reactions: the negative emotions initiate and maintain stress, and positive emotions stop it. A dissatisfied need provokes the development of the state of emotional stress. There are two types of emotional stress states: the active stress which is directed to "overcoming" and the passive state of "waiting till the stress is over". Individuals differ in emotionality, stress reactivity, and inclination to the active and passive emotional stress. The passive emotional stress increases the probability of cancer. This effect is caused by the development of the hormonal and neurotransmitter state, which provokes immunosuppression, DNA damage, and stimulation of hemopoiesis. Smoking and drinking are the ways of modifying the psychoemotional state. These habits as well as development of cancer are the effects of the same cause--stress. Thus, cases of correlation between smoking and drinking do not reflect the causal relationships. Only intensive smoking and drinking which lead to tissue damage can increase the incidence of cancer.

  9. Aging, chronic alcohol consumption, and low folate intake are determinants of genomic DNA methylation in the liver and colon of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors in the development of colon and liver cancer. Both factors are known to be associated with altered DNA methylation. Inadequate folate intake can also derange biological methylation pathways. We investigated the effects of aging,...

  10. Multi-Day Administration of Ivermectin is Effective in Reducing Alcohol Intake in Mice at Doses Shown to be Safe in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multi-day IVM administration in reducing 10E intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; i.p.) on reducing 10% v/v alcohol (10E) intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48 and 72 hours post-injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake and total fluid intake with Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Individual student’s t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (p<0.01). Pre IVM 10E intake was 9.1 ± 3.2 g/kg/24-h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (p<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (p<0.01) and total fluid intake (p<0.05). Multi-day administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  11. Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koh, W-P; Robien, K; Wang, R; Govindarajan, S; Yuan, J-M; Yu, M C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given the close correlation between smoking and alcohol intake in most epidemiologic studies, it is difficult to exclude the residual confounding effect of alcohol in the association between smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: We evaluated the association between smoking and risk of HCC in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort with a low prevalence of alcohol intake. Information on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption was obtained through in-person interviews conducted at enrolment. Results: After a mean of 11.5 years of follow-up, there were 394 incident cases of HCC. Participants who consumed more than two alcoholic drinks per day showed an increased risk for HCC (hazard ratio (HR)=2.24; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.46–3.41). After adjusting for alcohol consumption and other potential confounders, current vs never smokers had a statistically significant, increased risk of HCC (HR=1.63; 95% CI=1.27–2.10) that was dose-dependent (number of cigarettes per day, P for trend<0.001). The observed tobacco–HCC association also was duration-dependent (years of smoking in ever smokers, P for trend=0.002). When we excluded daily drinkers from the analysis, all risk estimates remained essentially the same and statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings strongly implicate tobacco smoke as a causal factor of HCC development. PMID:21915129

  12. Interaction between MLL3 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol drinking in laryngeal cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Gong, Liang; Jiang, Qichuan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A previous study indicated that MLL3 genetic polymorphisms were associated with human cancer. However, whether MLL3 genetic variants are associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer is not clear. This study investigated the association between MLL3 gene polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer in a Chinese population. Four polymorphisms of the MLL3 gene (rs6943984, rs4725443, rs3800836, rs6464211) were genotyped using the TaqMan method in 592 patients with larynx cancer and 602 age- and sex-matched noncancer controls. We found that rs6943984 and rs4725443 of the MLL3 gene were significantly associated with the risk of larynx cancer after Bonferroni correction. The minor allele A for rs6943984 was associated with increased larynx cancer risk (P < 0.001, OR = 1.960, 95% CI = 1.587-2.420). C allele frequency (0.151) for rs4725443 was significantly higher in the case group than the control group (0.072, P < 0.001). Haplotype analyses showed that haplotypes A-T-A-C and G-T-G-C increased the risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 2.406, 95% CI: 1.820-3.180, P < 0.001; OR = 1.399, 95% CI: 1.180-1.659, respectively), and haplotypes G-T-A-C and G-T-G-T significantly reduced the risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.332, 95% CI: 0.271-0.408, P < 0.001; OR = 0.742, 95% CI: 0.607-0.908, respectively). We also found that MLL3 rs6943984 and rs4725443 polymorphisms had synergistic effects with smoking or alcohol drinking for the risk of laryngeal cancer. This study indicated that MLL3 genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with larynx cancer in a Chinese population. There was a mutually synergistic effect between smoking, alcohol drinking, and MLL3 gene polymorphisms for laryngeal cancer.

  13. Evaluating the Influence of Side Stream Cigarette Smoke at an Early Stage of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Won; Yun, Hyejin; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyub; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

    2017-01-01

    Side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS) is known to be as harmful and hazardous to human health as is active smoking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the exposure to SSCS and its stimulatory and subacute effects on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A methionine and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCDHF) diet was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. During the first three weeks of MCDHF diet feeding, each diet group was exposed to SSCS (0, 20, 40 μg/L) or fresh air for 2 hrs per day and 5 days per week. Additional experiments were performed by increasing the concentration (0, 30, 60 μg/L) and exposure time (6 hours per day) of SSCS. According to histopathologic analysis and serum levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), there were no differences in hepatic fat deposition, fibrosis, apoptosis or liver damage in MCDHF-fed mice based on SSCS exposure. There were also no differences in the expression of inflammation-, oxidative stress- or fibrosis-related genes between MCDHF-fed mice with or without SSCS exposure. Therefore, it is concluded that SSCS with current exposure amounts does not have additive detrimental effects on the early stage of NASH. PMID:28133511

  14. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  15. Job Strain and Alcohol Intake: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Houtman, Irene L.; Joensuu, Matti; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1–14, men: 1–21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15–20, men: 22–27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress. PMID:22792218

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  19. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (12 ± 3 kcal; P = 0.002). In men, increasing percentages of SFAs (58 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.001) and PUFAs (66 ± 19 kcal; P < 0.001) were associated with increased energy intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P < 0.001), and MUFAs (36 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.01) were associated with increased energy intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (25 ± 8 kcal; P = 0.001). Obesity was associated with increased HOMA-IR and CRP in both genders (all P ≤ 0.001). Increasing PUFAs was associated with decreasing CRP in men (P = 0.02). In conclusion, increasing the percentage of calories from sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  20. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  1. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  2. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  3. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  4. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  5. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  6. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  7. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Muwonge, Richard; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Sankila, Risto; Thara, Somanathan; Thomas, Gigi; Vinoda, Jissa; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2008-05-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with two-thirds of the cases occurring in developing countries. While cohort and nested case-control study designs offer various methodological strengths, the role of tobacco and alcohol consumption in the etiology of oral cancer has been assessed mainly in case-control studies. The role of tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking patterns on the risk of cancer of the oral cavity was evaluated using a nested case-control design on data from a randomized control trial conducted between 1996 and 2004 in Trivandrum, India. Data from 282 incident oral cancer cases and 1410 matched controls were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Tobacco chewing was the strongest risk factor associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for chewers were 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-4.6) for men and 11.0 (95%CI=5.8-20.7) for women. Effects of chewing pan with or without tobacco on oral cancer risk were elevated for both sexes. Bidi smoking increased the risk of oral cancer in men (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). Dose-response relations were observed for the frequency and duration of chewing and alcohol drinking, as well as in duration of bidi smoking. Given the relatively poor survival rates of oral cancer patients, cessation of tobacco and moderation of alcohol use remain the key elements in oral cancer prevention and control.

  10. Impact of centralized intake on drug and alcohol treatment placement decisions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christy K; Foss, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) and others have asserted that matching persons to an appropriate level of care will result in more positive and cost-effective treatment outcomes. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, through its Target Cities demonstration project, proposed the implementation of centralized intake and the use of comprehensive standardized assessment procedures as mechanisms for improving the treatment process. As part of Chicago Target Cities, it was decided to implement ASAM criteria at the central intake units (CIU). A comprehensive assessment instrument was developed, assessors were trained, and decision protocols were designed to facilitate the implementation. This article examines the impact of these interventions on the placement decision process. The placement decisions of the assessors employed by individual treatment agencies before implementation of the CIU were compared to the placement decision process of the CIU assessors. The role of patient preferences, the information assessors used to make placement decisions, and the willingness of assessors to make the clinical judgments indicated by ASAM PPC-2 were examined. Results indicate that the CIU assessors' final treatment recommendations were more similar to what they thought was best for the patient, and less related to patient preference than those made by assessors at the individual treatment agencies. The CIU assessors also used a wider range of information when making their placement decisions than did the Pre-CIU assessors. Finally, the CIU assessors were more willing to rate patients on ASAM criteria than were the Pre-CIU assessors. Implementation of the ASAM PPC-2 at the CIUs produced the expected differences in the placement decision processes at the CIU from those observed at the treatment agencies. The results indicate that the implementation of ASAM PPC-2 is both feasible and produces expected changes in the placement decision process.

  11. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    follow-up data were gathered for more than 85% of participants at 3, 6 and 12 months. The study addressed three research questions: (1) Does an alcohol...especially for a large scale study . Despite high follow-up rates, data were obtained from somewhat fewer GSP participants than BCAP participants...was found that participants who were lighter drinkers prior to entering the study had a higher quit rate at three months if they were in the BCAP

  12. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism.

  13. Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviors on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang, C.S.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of smoking and drinking status in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and Materials: All patients with all stages and sites were included if complete information was available on baseline smoking and alcohol behavior (never, former, active), disease stage, primary site, radiation dose, sex, and age. Treatment was radiotherapy in 973 patients, postoperative radiotherapy in 469, and chemoradiotherapy in 429. Statistical analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods. Results: Data from 1,871 patients were available. At baseline, 9% of patients never smoked, 40% were former smokers, and 51% were active smokers; 20% never drank, 25% were former drinkers, and 55% were active drinkers. Smoking was associated with inferior local control and survival. For local control, the hazard ratio (HR) of active smokers vs. former smokers was 1.5 (p = 0.0001). For survival, the HRs of former smokers and active smokers vs. those who never smoked were also statistically significant (1.3 and 1.7, respectively, p = 0.000001). Alcohol drinking was associated with local control (p = 0.03), and was associated with survival. For survival, HRs of former and active drinkers compared with those who never drank were, respectively, 1.1 (p = 0.01) and 1.28 (p = 0.001). Adjusted 5-year local control and survival rates for those who never smoked and never drank were 87% and 77%, respectively, and for those who were both active smokers and active drinkers were 72% (p = 0.007) and 52% (p = 0.0009), respectively. Conclusion: Smoking and drinking at baseline were associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

  14. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  15. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Monnig, Mollie A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately half of people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in PLWH, yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = 0.046) and processing speed (p = 0.001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = 0.047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (p’s < 0.01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (p’s < 0.01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes in heavy drinking PLWH. PMID:26444260

  16. Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H.; Corrada, María M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44–101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981–2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  17. Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L

    2012-08-15

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) = 0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87; p(trend) < 0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.77; p(trend) = 0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; p(trend) = 0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk.

  18. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism interacts with alcohol and folate intake to influence the risk of colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Genomic DNA hypomethylation has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Methionine synthase A2756G (MTR A2756G) is a common nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene that encodes methionine synthase, a key enzyme in the pathway leading to DNA methylation. Several studies, but not all, have reported relatively lower plasma homocysteine among individuals with the AG or GG genotype. Meanwhile, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with genomic DNA hypomethylation in healthy volunteers. We therefore hypothesized that minor allele carriers possess a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma, and examined this hypothesis in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma in Japan involving 723 cases and 670 controls. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for colorectal adenoma after adjustment for potential confounders. Despite the lack of an overall association, we observed a significant interaction between MTR A2756G and alcohol intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Compared with never drinkers with the AA genotype, never drinkers with the AG or GG genotype exhibited a significantly decreased risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90) whereas heavy drinkers with the same genotypes showed a substantially increased risk (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.04-3.46). In addition, a marginally significant interaction was observed with folate intake (P for interaction = 0.07). The G allele may confer protection against colorectal adenoma in the presence of a considerably good folate status. Our findings add to increasing evidence that DNA methylation plays an important role even at an early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  19. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  20. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  1. Emotional Reactivity to Incentive Downshift as a Correlated Response to Selection of High and Low Alcohol Preferring Mice and an Influencing Factor on Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes et al., 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption, or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that alcohol intake either doesn’t provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, that high drinking and emotional intensity following incentive

  2. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  3. Boost Your High: Cigarette Smoking to Enhance Alcohol and Drug Effects among Southeast Asian American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined: 1) whether using cigarettes to enhance the effects of other drugs (here referred to as “boosting”) is a unique practice related to blunts (i.e., small cheap cigars hollowed out and filled with cannabis) or marijuana use only; 2) the prevalence of boosting among drug-using young people; and 3) the relationship between boosting and other drug-related risk behaviors. We present data collected from 89 Southeast Asian American youth and young adults in Northern California (35 females). 72% respondents reported any lifetime boosting. Controlling for gender, results of linear regression analyses show a significant positive relationship between frequency of boosting to enhance alcohol high and number of drinks per occasion. Boosting was also found to be associated with use of blunts but not other forms of marijuana and with the number of blunts on a typical day. The findings indicate that boosting may be common among drug-using Southeast Asian youths. These findings also indicate a need for further research on boosting as an aspect of cigarette uptake and maintenance among drug- and alcohol-involved youths. PMID:22522322

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  5. Reduction of Brain Mitochondrial β-Oxidation Impairs Complex I and V in Chronic Alcohol Intake: The Underlying Mechanism for Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haorah, James; Rump, Travis J.; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathy and neurocognitive deficits are common among chronic alcohol users, which are believed to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. The specific type of brain mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (mRCC) that are adversely affected by alcohol abuse has not been studied. Thus, we examined the alterations of mRCC in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice brain that were pair-fed the ethanol (4% v/v) and control liquid diets for 7–8 weeks. We observed that alcohol intake severely reduced the levels of complex I and V. A reduction in complex I was associated with a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cPT1) and cPT2 levels. The mitochondrial outer (cPT1) and inner (cPT2) membrane transporter enzymes are specialized in acylation of fatty acid from outer to inner membrane of mitochondria for ATP production. Thus, our results showed that alterations of cPT1 and cPT2 paralleled a decrease β-oxidation of palmitate and ATP production, suggesting that impairment of substrate entry step (complex I function) can cause a negative impact on ATP production (complex V function). Disruption of cPT1/cPT2 was accompanied by an increase in cytochrome C leakage, while reduction of complex I and V paralleled a decrease in depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ, monitored by JC-1 fluorescence) and ATP production in alcohol intake. We noted that acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, a cofactor of cPT1 and cPT2) prevented the adverse effects of alcohol while coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was not very effective against alcohol insults. These results suggest that understanding the molecular, biochemical, and signaling mechanisms of the CNS mitochondrial β-oxidation such as ALC can mitigate alcohol related neurological disorders. PMID:23967116

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  8. [Ethanol elimination rate (beta60, beta-slope) in different age groups after intake of a moderate or high dose of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Barinskaia, T O; Smirnov, A V; Salomatin, E M; Shaev, A I

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol elimination rate (beta60) was measured in different age groups of men and women following its single intake at a dose of 0.8 g/kg body weight (experiment 1) and 2 g/kg (experiment 2). Samples of capillary blood were collected 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 300 min (experiment 1) or 360 min after the termination of the intake (experiment 2). The phase of alcohol elimination was deduced from the kinetic curve. Each alcohol dose was consumed during 1-2 minutes or 1-1.5 hours (experiments 1 and 2 respectively). The value of (beta60) in experiment 1 was estimated at 0.17 +/- 0.04 per thousand/hour in young men aged between 18-26 years, 0.22 per thousand/hour in adult men of 32-48 years, and 0.21 per thousand/hour in women aged between 19-41 years. The difference between alcohol elimination rates in young and adult men on the one hand and between young men and women on the other hand was statistically significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). In the second experiment, ethanol elimination rate was practically identical in men of the above age groups (0.16 +/- 0. 02 per thousand/hour) and significantly higher than in 64-66 year-old men (0.14 +/- 0.03 per thousand/hour). The values of ethanol elimination rate in men of group 2 calculated by the Weedmark formula proved underestimated by 17 +/- 5% regardless of their age. Men of both age groups included in experiment 1 showed an alcohol excretion rate overestimated by 8 +/- 5% and 31 +/- 6% respectively compared with 10 +/- 7% in women. It is suggested that a single intake of alcohol may lead to an instantaneous rise in the hepatic concentration of ethanol unrelated to the consumed amount that however affects its metabolic rate. It is concluded that the duration of ethanol intake has greater effect on the rate of its elimination from the body than the amount of consumed alcohol, especially in alcohol-tolerant subjects.

  9. Cancer screening of upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholics with reference to drinking and smoking habits and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Ohmori, T; Muramatsu, T; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, M; Maruyama, K; Hayashida, M; Ishii, H

    1996-11-04

    In this study, 1,000 Japanese male alcoholics were consecutively screened by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with esophageal iodine staining. Associations among cancer-detection rates, drinking and smoking habits, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes were evaluated. A total of 53 patients (5.3%) had histologically confirmed cancer. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed in 36, gastric cancer in 17, and oropharyngolaryngeal cancer in 9 patients: 8 of the esophageal-cancer patients were multiple-cancer patients, with additional cancer(s) in the stomach and/or oropharyngolaryngeal region. Multiple logistic regression revealed that use of stronger alcoholic beverages (whisky or shochu) in contrast with lighter beverages (sake or beer) and smoking of 50 pack-years or more increased the risks for esophageal (odds ratio 3.2 and 2.8 respectively), oropharyngolaryngeal (4.8 and 5.1 respectively) and multiple cancer (10.5 and 11.8 respectively). The inactive form of ALDH2, encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2 prevalent in Orientals, exposes them to higher blood levels of acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, after drinking. This inactive ALDH2 was detected in 19/36 (52.8%) patients with esophageal cancer, in 5/9 (55.6%) patients with oropharyngolaryngeal cancer, and in 7/8 (87.5%) patients with multiple cancer. All of these gene frequencies far exceeded that in a large alcoholic cohort (80/655, 12.2%). The triple combination of the risk factors of the inactive ALDH2, stronger alcoholic beverages and heavy smoking was more commonly associated with multiple-cancer patients than with patients with esophageal cancer alone (62.5% vs. 7.1%). These results show that the 3 risk factors are important for the development of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For these high-risk drinkers, regimented screening appears to be indicated.

  10. Ceftriaxone treatment affects the levels of GLT1 and ENT1 as well as ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Sreemantula, Sai N; Lee, Moonnoh R; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that deletion of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is associated with reduced glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) level, and consequently increased ethanol intake. In this study, we measured changes in GLT1 and ENT1 levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell associated with alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We examined, then, whether ceftriaxone (CEF) would affect both GLT1 and ENT1 levels in these brain regions. P rats were given 24-h concurrent access to 15 and 30% ethanol, water, and food for 5 weeks. On Week 6, P rats received 100 mg/kg CEF (i.p.) or a saline vehicle for five consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured daily for 8 days starting on the first day of injections. We found a significant reduction in daily ethanol intake in CEF-treated group, starting on Day 2 of injections. Western blot for GLT1 and binding assay for ENT1 revealed downregulation of GLT1 level, whereas ENT1 levels were increased in the NAc core and NAc shell, respectively, but not in the PFC in saline vehicle group. Importantly, CEF treatment reversed these effects in both NAc core and shell. These findings provide evidence for potential regulatory effects of CEF on both GLT1 and ENT1 expression in reducing ethanol intake.

  11. Higher alcohol intake may modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer: an analysis of three case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Shannon M; Koga, Karin; Woolcott, Christy G; Dahl, Timothy; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Yaffe, Martin J; Vachon, Celine M; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and mammographic density are established risk factors for breast cancer. This study examined whether the association of mammographic density with breast cancer varies by alcohol intake. Mammographic density was assessed in digitized images for 1207 cases and 1663 controls from three populations (Japan, Hawaii, California) using a computer-assisted method. Associations were estimated by logistic regression. When comparing ever to never drinking, mean density was similar and consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. However, within the Hawaii/Japan subset, women consuming >1 drink/day had a non-significantly elevated relative risk compared to never drinkers. Also in the Hawaii/Japan population, alcohol intake only modified the association between mammographic density and breast cancer in women consuming >1 drink/day (p(interaction)=0.05) with significant risk estimates of 3.65 and 6.58 for the 2nd and 3rd density tertiles as compared to 1.57 and 1.61 for never drinkers in Hawaii/Japan. Although these findings suggest a stronger association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk for alcohol consumers, the small number of cases requires caution in interpreting the results.

  12. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  13. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. Methods We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992–2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Results Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Conclusions Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight. PMID:26910775

  14. The Interplay of Friendship Networks and Social Networking Sites: Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence Effects on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Methods. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Results. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends’ risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Conclusions. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors. PMID:24922126

  15. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  16. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  17. Maternal alcohol intake around the time of conception causes glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in rat offspring, which is exacerbated by a postnatal high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gårdebjer, Emelie M; Anderson, Stephen T; Pantaleon, Marie; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption throughout pregnancy can cause metabolic dysregulation, including glucose intolerance in progeny. This study determined if periconceptional (PC) alcohol (12% v/v in a liquid diet) (PC:EtOH) consumed exclusively around conception results in similar outcomes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control (C) rats were given a liquid diet containing no alcohol but matched to ensure equal caloric intake. PC maternal alcohol intake (from 4 days before conception until day 4 of gestation), resulted in offspring with elevated fasting plasma glucose (∼10-25%, P < 0.05), impaired glucose tolerance (P < 0.05), and decreased insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) at 6 months of age. This was associated with increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and sex-specific alterations in peripheral protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. These changes were accompanied by increased mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a, and 3b (1.5- to 1.9-fold, P < 0.05) in fetal liver in late gestation, suggesting PC:EtOH may cause epigenetic changes that predispose offspring to metabolic dysfunction. Exposure to a postnatal (PN) high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFD) from 3 months of age caused hyperinsulinemia (∼2-fold increase, P < 0.001) and exacerbated the metabolic dysfunction in male offspring exposed to PC:EtOH but had no additive effects in females. Given many women may drink alcohol while planning a pregnancy, it is crucial to increase public awareness regarding the effects of alcohol consumption around conception on offspring health.

  18. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  19. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: using parental smoking as a proxy to explore causality.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Eilis J; Chen, Honglei; Gardener, Hannah; Gao, Xiang; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2009-03-15

    In epidemiologic studies and in studies of discordant twins, cigarette smoking has been consistently associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease, but whether this association is causal remains controversial. Alternatively, an infectious or toxic exposure in childhood or early adulthood could affect both the reward mechanisms that determine smoking behavior and the future risk of Parkinson's disease. If so, parental smoking, commonly established before the birth of the first child, would be unlikely to be related to Parkinson's disease risk. The authors assessed the association between Parkinson's disease and parental smoking during childhood in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study conducted in the United States. During 26 years and 18 years of follow-up, respectively, 455 newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease cases were documented among those who provided information on parental smoking. The age-adjusted, pooled relative rate of Parkinson's disease was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.00; P-trend = 0.04) comparing participants who reported that both parents smoked with those who reported that neither did. Adjustment for caffeine and alcohol intake did not materially change the results. If the inverse association between smoking and Parkinson's disease were due to confounding by an environmental factor or were the result of reverse causation, it is unlikely that parental smoking would predict Parkinson's disease.

  20. Elevated soluble CD14 and lower D-dimer are associated with cigarette smoking and heavy episodic alcohol use in persons living with HIV (PLWH)

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Baker, Jason; Kojic, E.; Onen, N.; Hammer, John; Patel, Pragna; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to persistent inflammation and coagulation activation. Methods We examined whether smoking and heavy episodic alcohol use (defined as 5 or more drinks on one occasion) were associated with greater monocyte activation (sCD14) and coagulation (D-dimer) in participants in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (the ‘SUN’ Study), a prospective observational cohort. Results Using regression analysis (n = 689), current smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14 (B= 135.57, 95%CI (84.95, 186.19), p < .001); whereas heavy alcohol use compared to non-heavy use was associated with significantly lower D-dimer levels (B= −.059, 95%CI (−.102, −.016), p = .007). Conclusions Smoking cessation should be encouraged by HIV care providers to improve mortality outcomes from all causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease. PMID:26181818

  1. A nonhuman primate model of excessive alcohol intake. Personality and neurobiological parallels of type I- and type II-like alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Linnoila, M

    1997-01-01

    Developmental, biochemical, and behavioral concomitants of voluntary excessive alcohol consumption were investigated using a nonhuman primate model. Studies were designed to investigate potential neurobiological and behavioral parallels of Cloninger's subtypes of type I and type II alcoholism in nonhuman primates. The studies have shown that a subpopulation of primates chronically consume intoxicating amounts of alcohol. Subjects that chronically consume intoxicating amounts of alcohol often exhibit neurobiological and behavioral features that were predicted by Cloninger's model for subtypes of alcoholism among humans. Investigations showed that behavior patterns and biological indices that characterize high anxiety, whether constitutionally or stress induced, were correlated with high rates of alcohol consumption, consistent with predictions for type I alcoholism. Early untoward rearing experiences that increased anxiety increased the probability that subjects would chronically drink alcohol to intoxication. Investigations of type II-like alcohol consumption patterns focused on subjects with low central nervous system (CNS) serotonin functioning [as measured by reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)]. CSF 5-HIAA in infancy was shown to be a relatively stable neurobiological trait across development into adulthood. An individual CSF 5-HIAA concentration in infancy was shown to be a consequence of paternal and maternal genetic influences. Early parental neglect reduced CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. Low CSF 5-HIAA and CNS norepinephrine functioning were shown to predict excessive alcohol consumption in adolescence. Behaviorally, subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA demonstrated impaired impulse control, which resulted in excessive and inappropriate aggression, infrequent and inept social behaviors, low social status, social isolation and expulsion from social groups at an early age, and high rates of

  2. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  3. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  4. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. Effects of varenicline on operant self-administration of alcohol and/or nicotine in a rat model of co-abuse.

    PubMed

    Funk, D; Lo, S; Coen, K; Lê, A D

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine (in the form of tobacco) are often taken together, with increased negative health consequences. Co-use may modify intake of one or both of the drugs, or the effects of drugs used to treat nicotine or alcohol addiction. Varenicline is commonly prescribed as an aid to enhance quitting smoking. More recently it has been shown to reduce alcohol intake in humans and laboratory animals. There is little work investigating the role of co-exposure to alcohol and nicotine in the effects of varenicline. In pilot clinical studies, it has been reported that smoking enhances varenicline's effectiveness as a treatment for alcohol misuse, but this relationship has not been systematically investigated. To help resolve this, we examined if the effects of varenicline on alcohol and nicotine self-administration (SA) in rats are modified when the two drugs are taken together. Rats were trained on alcohol SA, and some were implanted with i.v. catheters for nicotine SA. Groups of animals then lever pressed for alcohol or nicotine alone, and another group lever pressed for alcohol and nicotine, using a two lever choice procedure. Varenicline did not affect alcohol SA. Varenicline reduced nicotine SA modestly. Access to both alcohol and nicotine reduced self-administration of either drug, but did not change the effects of varenicline. We found that in rats with a history of alcohol SA, varenicline reduced reinstatement of extinguished alcohol seeking induced by exposure to an alcohol prime combined with cues previously associated with alcohol.

  8. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  9. Borderline personality traits and substance use: genetic factors underlie the association with smoking and ever use of cannabis, but not with high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Tim J; de Moor, Marleen M H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Geels, Lot M; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Bartels, Meike; Willemsen, Gonneke; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine A; Neale, Michael C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders often co-occur. Both disorders are heritable and family studies showed that there are familial factors that increase the risk for BPD as well as substance use/abuse. This is the first study that investigates whether the association of borderline personality traits (BPT) with substance use reflects an underlying genetic vulnerability or nongenetic familial influences. To this end we analyzed data of 5,638 Dutch and Belgian twins aged between 21-50 years from 3,567 families. Significant associations between BPT and high alcohol consumption (r = .192), regular smoking (r = .299), and ever use of cannabis (r = .254) were found. Bivariate genetic analyses showed that the associations of BPT and substance use had different etiologies. For regular smoking and for ever use of cannabis, the correlation with BPT was explained by common genetic factors. Interestingly, for high alcohol consumption and BPT the association was explained by unique environmental factors that influence both traits rather than common genetic factors.

  10. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P < 0.0001), 17 (32.7%) of the pepper and hot meals consumers (P < 0.005), 4 (11.8%) of the alcohol consumers, and among 2 (3.7%) of the non-exposed group. Statistical analyses revealed a greater mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in smokers (3.68) followed by (2.82) alcohol consumers, compared to the habitual peppers and hot meal consumers (2.28) and the non-exposed group (2.00). What's more, 80% of the smears with cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of

  11. [Assessment of selected features of the lifestyle being conduicive to the state of health of 16-18 year old girls. Part I. Dieting, physical activity, smoking and drinking alcohol].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.

  12. Smoking cessation and adolescent treatment response with comorbid ADHD☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Delos-Reyes, Christina M.; Wasilow, Sherry; Svala, Kathleen M.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Minors entering treatment for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders tend to smoke at high rates, and many have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clear-air laws force patients to refrain from smoking on the premises of AOD treatment facilities, which may hinder the progress of treatment-seeking populations who smoke and struggle with ADHD comorbidity in particular. This study explores clinical characteristics associated with smoking among youths presenting for residential treatment, clinical characteristics associated with smoking cessation, and the impact of smoking cessation with ADHD comorbidity on AOD treatment response. Participants were 195 adolescents (52% female, aged 14–18 years) court-referred to residential treatment. Data were collected at intake, prospectively each week for the 10-week treatment period, and at discharge. Two-thirds (67%) of the enrollment sample entered treatment smoking half a pack a day on average, a large proportion (50%) of which did not smoke during treatment. ADHD patients were more likely to smoke before and during treatment except for those who got active in service and step-work. Quitting smoking did not adversely affect AOD outcomes and was associated with better prognosis of lowered AOD cravings for youths with and without ADHD. Smoking cessation during adolescent AOD treatment is recommended with provision of pharmaceutical and/or behavioral modalities that reduce nicotine withdrawal. PMID:27692184

  13. Differences in the Prevalence of Obesity, Smoking and Alcohol in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Al Kazzi, Elie S.; Lau, Brandyn; Li, Tianjing; Schneider, Eric B.; Makary, Martin A.; Hutfless, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of adequate and standardized recording of leading risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical records have downstream effects on research based on administrative databases. The measurement of healthcare is increasingly based on risk-adjusted outcomes derived from coded comorbidities in these databases. However inaccurate or haphazard assessment of risk factors for morbidity and mortality in medical record codes can have tremendous implications for quality improvement and healthcare reform. Objective We aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse of a large administrative database with a direct data collection survey. Materials and Methods We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for four leading risk factors in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to compare them with a direct survey in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2011. After confirming normality of the risk factors, we calculated the national and state estimates and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for obesity, overweight, tobacco use and alcohol abuse between NIS and BRFSS. Results Compared with direct participant questioning in BRFSS, NIS reported substantially lower prevalence of obesity (p<0.01), overweight (p<0.01), and alcohol abuse (p<0.01), but not tobacco use (p = 0.18). The correlation between NIS and BRFSS was 0.27 for obesity (p = 0.06), 0.09 for overweight (p = 0.55), 0.62 for tobacco use (p<0.01) and 0.40 for alcohol abuse (p<0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of obesity, overweight, tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse based on codes is not consistent with prevalence based on direct questioning. The accuracy of these important measures of health and morbidity in databases is critical for healthcare reform policies. PMID:26536469

  14. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-04

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1.

  15. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.

  16. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  17. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Masood, Mohd; Scully, Crispian

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking are oral cancer risk factors. Observational studies unanimously report that oral cancer risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects is exceptionally high. However, none of them assessed the fractions of this risk attributable to the three individual risk factors and to the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect on oral cancer. A meta-analysis of observational South-East Asian studies which reported oral cancer odds ratios (ORs) stratified for smoking-drinking-chewing exposures was performed. The pooled ORs were estimated and controlled for quality, heterogeneity, publication bias and inclusion criteria. The smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect was estimated through the pooled Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI, excess risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed individuals with respect to the risk expected from the addition of the three individual risks of smoking, drinking and chewing). Fourteen studies were included with low between-study heterogeneity. The pooled ORs for smoking, drinking, chewing, smoking-drinking-chewing, respectively were 3.6 (95% confidence interval -95% CI, 1.9-7.0), 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0), 7.9 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3), 40.1 (95% CI, 35.1-45.8). The pooled RERI was 28.4 (95% CI, 22.9-33.7). Among smoking-drinking-chewing subjects, the individual effects accounted for 6.7% (smoking), 3.1% (drinking), 17.7% (chewing) of the risk, while the interaction effect accounted for the remaining 72.6%. These data suggest that 44,200 oral cancer cases in South-East Asia annually occur among smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects and 40,400 of these are exclusively associated with the interaction effect. Effective oral cancer control policies must consider concurrent tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing usages as a unique unhealthy lifestyle.

  18. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  19. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and six months

    PubMed Central

    Madras, Bertha K.; Compton, Wilson M.; Avula, Deepa; Stegbauer, Tom; Stein, Jack B.; Clark, H. Westley

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol screening and brief interventions in medical settings can significantly reduce alcohol use. Corresponding data for illicit drug use is sparse. A Federally funded Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) service program, the largest of its kind to date, was initiated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in a wide variety of medical settings. We compared illicit drug use at intake and six months after drug screening and interventions were administered. Design SBIRT services were implemented in a range of medical settings across six states. A diverse patient population (Alaska Natives, American Indians, African-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics), was screened and offered score-based progressive levels of intervention (brief intervention, brief treatment, referral to specialty treatment). In this secondary analysis of the SBIRT service program, drug use data was compared at intake and at a six month follow-up, in a sample of a randomly selected population (10%) that screened positive at baseline. Results Of 459,599 patients screened, 22.7% screened positive for a spectrum of use (risky/problematic, abuse/addiction). The majority were recommended for a brief intervention (15.9%), with a smaller percentage recommended for brief treatment (3.2%) or referral to specialty treatment (3.7%). Among those reporting baseline illicit drug use, rates of drug use at 6 month follow-up (4 of 6 sites), were 67.7% lower (p < 0.001) and heavy alcohol use was 38.6% lower (p < 0.001), with comparable findings across sites, gender, race/ethnic, age subgroups. Among persons recommended for brief treatment or referral to specialty treatment, self-reported improvements in general health (p < 0.001), mental health (p < 0.001), employment (p < 0.001), housing status (p < 0.001), and criminal behavior (p < 0.001) were found. Conclusions SBIRT was feasible to implement and the self-reported patient status at six months

  20. A critical review of laboratory-based studies examining the relationships of social anxiety and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Battista, Susan R; Stewart, Sherry H; Ham, Lindsay S

    2010-03-01

    Research has revealed inconsistencies regarding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use. The goal of the current review is to examine lab-based studies that have been conducted in an attempt to help disentangle the social anxiety - alcohol link. Specifically, this review focuses on the most prominent theories present in this area of research, namely, the Tension Reduction Theory, the Stress-Response Dampening Model, the Self-Awareness Model, the Attention Allocation Model, and the Appraisal-Disruption Model. The review then describes the empirical studies that have been conducted to test predictions derived from each of these theories. This is followed by a discussion of some methodological considerations in this area of research, including an examination of participant characteristics, study selection criteria, alcohol administration procedures, the nature of the anxiety-inducing tasks that have been used in this area of research, and the different types of outcome measures that are typically used to measure social anxiety. The review ends with some tentative conclusions and directions for future research, including recommendations to recruit individuals with high levels of trait social anxiety, to closely monitor blood alcohol levels achieved at different time points during the study, to examine more interaction-based social anxiety provoking tasks, and to employ a wider range of outcome measures (e.g., cognitive and behavioural outcomes relevant to social anxiety).

  1. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  2. Fluid intake and incidence of renal cell carcinoma in UK women

    PubMed Central

    Allen, N E; Balkwill, A; Beral, V; Green, J; Reeves, G

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the apparent protective effect of alcohol intake on renal cell carcinoma may be due to the diluting effect of carcinogens by a high total fluid intake. We assessed the association between intakes of total fluids and of specific beverages on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large prospective cohort of UK women. Methods: Information on beverage consumption was obtained from a questionnaire sent ∼3 years after recruitment into the Million Women Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for renal cell carcinoma associated with beverage consumption adjusted for age, region of residence, socioeconomic status, smoking, and body mass index. Results: After an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 588 cases of renal cell carcinoma were identified among 779 369 women. While alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell carcinoma (RR for ⩾2 vs <1 drink per day: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.96; P for trend=0.02), there was no association with total fluid intake (RR for ⩾12 vs <7 drinks per day: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.91–1.45; P for trend=0.3) or with intakes of specific beverages. Conclusions: The apparent protective effect of alcohol on the risk of renal cell carcinoma is unlikely to be related to a high fluid intake. PMID:21407222

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  4. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Hammad, Alaa M.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  5. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  6. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  7. Predictors of and reasons for attempts to reduce alcohol intake: A population survey of adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption. Method Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so. Results Those cutting down were significantly older (OR 1.01, p<0.001), were more likely to be female (OR 1.32, p<0.05), had higher AUDIT-C scores (OR 1.12, p<0. 001), were less likely to be of white ethnicity (OR 0.64, p<0. 001), and were more likely to reside in the South of England (OR 1.34, p<0. 001). They were also more likely to be of higher occupationally-based social-grades (p<0. 001). The main reported reasons for reducing consumption were: fitness (22.5%), weight loss (20.4%), future health (20.4%), advice from a health-care professional (7.9%) and cost (7.6%). Those reporting the followings reasons for cutting down had higher AUDIT-C scores than those who did not report these reasons: a concern about further health problems (β 0.20, p<0.05), advice from a doctor/health worker (β 0.38, p<0.05), that drinking was too expensive (β 0.42, p<0.01) and detoxification (β 0.42, p<0.01). Lower AUDIT-C scores were noted among those who reported that they knew someone who was cutting down (β -0.67, p<0.05), that there was no reason (β -0.36, p<0.05), or they didn’t know why they were cutting down (β -0.25, p<0.05). Conclusions Around a fifth of high-risk drinkers in England report trying to reduce their drinking, particularly older, high-socioeconomic female drinkers from the south of England. Attempts to cut down appear to be driven by a

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  9. VALIDATION OF AN AUDIO COMPUTER ASSISTED SELF INTERVIEW (ACASI) VERSION OF THE ALCOHOL, SMOKING AND SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCREENING TEST (ASSIST) IN PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rotrosen, John; Ramautar, Arianne; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To address barriers to implementing the “Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)” in medical settings, we adapted the traditional interviewer-administered (IA) ASSIST to an audio-guided computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. This study sought to validate the ACASI ASSIST by estimating the concordance, correlation, and agreement of scores generated using the ACASI versus the reference standard IA ASSIST. Secondary aims were to assess feasibility and compare ASSIST self-report to drug testing results. Design Participants completed the ACASI and IA ASSIST in a randomly assigned order, followed by drug testing. Setting Urban safety-net primary care clinic. Participants A total of 393 adult patients. Measurements Scores generated by the ACASI and IA ASSIST; drug testing results from saliva and hair samples. Findings Concordance between the ACASI and IA ASSIST in identifying moderate-high risk use was 92–99% for each substance class. Correlation was excellent for global scores (ICC=0.94, CI 0.92–0.95) and for substance-specific scores for tobacco (ICC=0.93, CI 0.91–0.94), alcohol (ICC=0.91, CI 0.89–0.93) and illicit drugs (ICC=0.85, CI 0.85–0.90), and good for prescription drugs (ICC=0.68, CI 0.61–0.73). Ninety-four percent of differences in global scores fell within anticipated limits of agreement. Among participants with a positive saliva test, 74% self-reported use on the ACASI ASSIST. The ACASI ASSIST required a median time of 3.7 minutes (range 0.7–15.4), and 21 (5.3%) participants requested assistance. Conclusions The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid alternative to the interviewer-administered approach for identifying substance use in primary care patients. PMID:26360315

  10. [Smoking habits of the elementary school teacher students in education faculty and related factors].

    PubMed

    Talay, Fahrettin; Kurt, Bahar; Tuğ, Tuncer

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the smoking habits of the elementary school teacher students and to examine the factors affecting smoking. The prepared questionnaires were applied to 3rd and 4th year students by selecting randomly. The ratio of the students smoking regularly and occasionally was 45.8%. The smoking frequency was higher in male and fourth year students [63 (53.8%) of males, 85 (41.3%) of females (p< 0.05); 102 (52.3%) students in 4th year and 46 (35.9%) students in 3rd year (p< 0.01)]. The most common reason of not smoking was the harmful effect of smoking to life (45.8%), the most common reason of initiating smoking was to decrease their stress (43.1%) and the most common reason to keep on smoking was difficulty of quitting (56.7%). When compared to nonsmokers, the smoking frequency of mothers, brothers, all family members and close friends of smoker students were higher (p< 0.05). There was significant difference between depression symptom scores of the students who were smoking and the ones who were nonsmokers (14.9 +/- 7.6 in smokers, 9.8 +/- 6.3 in nonsmokers; p< 0.05). The smoking frequency among school teacher students was very high. The smoking habits of close friends, regular alcohol intake, and presence of depressive symptoms were increasing the risk of smoking. It will be beneficial for public health to plan and apply appropriate education program for students who will be the first teachers of the primary school students, not to start smoking.

  11. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence.

  12. Alcohol and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large, prospective cohort of men and women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; O'Reilly, Eilis; Schwarzschild, Michael; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mayo, Tinisha; Gapstur, Susan M; Ascherio, Alberto A

    2012-07-01

    Addictive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with PD risk is less certain. We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and other risk factors. Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with PD risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the RR comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol per day (highest category) to nondrinker men was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 1.86; P trend: 0.40), and the RR comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to nondrinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45; P trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine, or liquor was also not associated with PD risk. The results of this large, prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of PD.

  13. Alcohol and Risk of Parkinson Disease in a Large Prospective Cohort of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, N.; Gao, X.; O’Reilly, E.; Schwarzschild, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Mayo, T.; Gapstur, S.M.; Ascherio, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Addictive behaviors such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson disease. Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with risk is less certain. Methods We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of Parkinson Disease (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking and other risk factors. Results Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with Parkinson Disease risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the Relative Risk comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) to non-drinker men was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.86, p-trend: 0.40) and the Relative Risk comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to non-drinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45, p-trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine or liquor was also not associated with Parkinson Disease risk. Conclusions The results of this large prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of Parkinson disease. PMID:22714720

  14. Effects of beta-lactam Compounds on GLT1 and xCT Expression levels as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakami, Alqassem

    Drug abuse is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis. Glutamate transporters are the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentrations. Considering the importance of glutamate transporters, pharmacological management of the transporter functions can be used as very promising therapeutic targets. Ceftriaxone (beta-lactam antibiotic) has been shown to attenuate ethanol consumption and cocaine-seeking behavior in part by restoring glutamate homeostasis in mesocorticolimbic regions. Furthermore, recent studies from our lab have demonstrated the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on upregulating GLT-1 expression level as well as reducing ethanol consumption in male P rats. Therefore, in this project, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on other glutamate transporters (xCT and GLAST) expression levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, we also investigated the effects of clavulanic acid administration on alcohol consumption as well as GLT-1 and xCT expression levels in NAc. Additionally, we also determined whether oral Augmentin have any effect in reducing alcohol intake in male P rats. Rats were exposed to free choice of ethanol (15% and 30%), water, and food for a period of five weeks. During week six, rats were given five consecutive daily i.p. injections of saline vehicle, 100 mg/kg amoxicillin injections or 100 mg/kg Augmentin injections. Both compounds significantly increased xCT expression level in NAc. Augmentin also increased xCT expression level in PFC. In the clavulanic acid study, rats were given five consecutive i.p. injections of 5 mg/kg clavulanic acid for the treatment group and the saline injections for the saline group. Clavulanic acid significantly reduced ethanol consumption and significantly upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expression levels in NAc. In oral Augmentin study, oral gavage of Augmentin (100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated

  15. Sensitive and precise monitoring of phosphatidylethanol in human blood as a biomarker for alcohol intake by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siming; Yang, Ruiyue; Ji, Fusui; Li, Hongxia; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated. The extraction efficiencies for all the four PEth species were markedly increased compared with the traditional extractions. A limit of detection below 0.56ngmL(-1) was obtained. This high sensitivity makes it possible to monitor various alcohol consumption levels in light to heavy drinkers. Good linearity was obtained for all the analytes without interference from the sample matrix. The imprecisions of the intra-run and total assays were lower than 3.1% and 6.5%, respectively, with an average recovery of 99.87%. In addition, the utility of the method was evaluated in an alcohol intake status study. The results indicate that the developed protocol is simple, precise, and sensitive, and can be easily adapted for objective and reliable assessments of alcohol intake in clinical research.

  16. Alcohol, smoking and papillomavirus infection as risk factors for esophageal squamous-cell papilloma and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Capelli, P; Zamboni, G; Mastromauro, M; Pasetto, M; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Bassi, C; Scarpa, A

    2000-06-15

    Esophageal papilloma, an infrequent benign tumor, and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma sometimes appear to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV being implicated in anogenital carcinogenesis. Our aim was to assess whether there is any epidemiological difference in terms of risk factors for papilloma and cancer. From 1989 to 1996, a total of 12,011 patients (53% male, median age 52.7 years) were submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy by our Digestive Endoscopy Service. The genome of HPV was sought by PCR using 2 different primer sets. Of the total, 42 subjects (0.35%), 50% male with a mean age of 45.1 years, were suffering from esophageal squamous-cell papilloma and 45 (0.37%), 91% male with a mean age of 63.0 years, from esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Of these patients, only 2 with papilloma were HPV(+). Compared with the general endoscopic population, patients with papilloma do not present significantly different characteristics (even in terms of frequency of esophagitis and hiatal hernia). Those with carcinoma differ significantly both from the general endoscopic population and from those with papilloma in that they are more often male (p < 0. 0001), older (p < 0.0001) and drinkers (p < 0.0001); they differ significantly only from the general population, but not from the papilloma patients, in smoking habits. Papilloma appears to be neither a lesion involving a risk of development into a malignancy nor a marker for any such risk. Environmental factors, such as alcohol and smoking, appear to play a decisive role in esophageal carcinogenesis in northern Italy.

  17. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  18. Does nausea and vomiting of pregnancy play a role in the association found between maternal caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction?

    PubMed

    Boylan, S M; Greenwood, D C; Alwan, N; Cooke, M S; Dolby, V A; Hay, A W M; Kirk, S F L; Konje, J C; Potdar, N; Shires, S; Simpson, N A B; Taub, N; Thomas, J D; Walker, J J; White, K L M; Wild, C P; Cade, J E

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and (a) fetal growth restriction; and (b) maternal caffeine metabolism and fetal growth restriction. A cohort of 2,643 pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, attending two UK maternity units between 8 and 12 weeks gestation, was recruited. A validated tool assessed caffeine intake at different stages of pregnancy and caffeine metabolism was assessed from a caffeine challenge test. Experience of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was self-reported for each trimester. Adjustment was made for confounders, including salivary cotinine as a biomarker of current smoking status. There were no significant associations between fetal growth restriction and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, even after adjustment for smoking and alcohol intake. There were no significant differences in the relationship between caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction between those experiencing symptoms of nausea and vomiting and those who did not, for either the first (p = 0.50) or second trimester (p = 0.61) after adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake and caffeine half-life. There were also no significant differences in the relationship between caffeine half-life and fetal growth restriction between those experiencing symptoms of nausea and vomiting and those who did not, for either the first trimester (p = 0.91) or the second trimester (p = 0.45) after adjusting for smoking, alcohol intake and caffeine intake. The results from this study show no evidence that the relationship between maternal caffeine intake and fetal growth restriction is modified by nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

  19. Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2002-04-01

    Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were first admission or death, with alcohol-induced cirrhosis obtained from death certificates and from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed by means of multiplicative Poisson regression models. We confirmed the increasing risk for cirrhosis with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total intake had a relative risk of 0.4 (95% confidence limits, 0.3-0.6) and those drinking 51% or more of wine had a relative risk of 0.3 (95% confidence limits, 0.2-0.5) for developing cirrhosis. In conclusion, the results suggest that a high intake of all 3 types of alcohol conveys an increased risk for cirrhosis, but wine drinkers are at a lower risk than beer and spirits drinkers.

  20. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    PubMed

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  1. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  2. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  3. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden.

  4. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Williams, Paige L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility center between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy, or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% Confidence Interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p, linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART. PMID:26825777

  5. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART.

  6. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Suzanne E.; Shedlin, Michele; Gilberti, Brian; Fiellin, Maya; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of a computer self-administered approach to substance use screening from the perspective of primary care patients. Methods Forty-eight patients from a large safety net hospital in New York City completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and a qualitative interview to assess feasibility and acceptability; comprehension; comfort with screening questions; and preferences for screening mode (interviewer or computer). Qualitative data analysis organized the participants’ feedback into major themes. Results Participants overwhelmingly reported being comfortable with the ACASI ASSIST. Mean administration time was 5.2 minutes (range 1.6 – 14.8). The major themes from the qualitative interviews were 1) ACASI ASSIST is feasible and acceptable to patients, 2) Social stigma around substance use is a barrier to patient disclosure, and 3) ACASI screening should not preclude personal interaction with providers. Conclusions The ACASI ASSIST is an appropriate and feasible approach to substance use screening in primary care. Because of the highly sensitive nature of substance use, screening tools must explain the purpose of screening, assure patients that their privacy is protected, and inform patients of the opportunity to discuss their screening results with their provider. PMID:26158798

  7. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  8. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    Twose, Jorge; Schiaffino, Anna; García, Montse; Borras, Josep Maria; Fernández, Esteve

    2007-01-01

    Background To describe the socio-demographic factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in different settings (home, leisure, and workplace). Methods We analysed cross-sectional data on self-reported SHS exposure in 1059 non-daily smokers interviewed in the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study in 2002. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates and prevalence rate ratios of SHS exposure at home, at the workplace, during leisure time, and in any of these settings. Results The age-standardized prevalence rate of SHS exposure in any setting was 69.5% in men and 62.9% in women. Among men, 25.9% reported passive smoking at home, 55.1% during leisure time, and 34.0% at the workplace. Among women, prevalence rates in these settings were 34.1%, 44.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Overall exposure to SHS decreased with age in both men and women. In men, SHS exposure was related to marital status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. In women, SHS exposure was related to educational level, marital status, occupational status, self-perceived health, smoking-related illness, and alcohol intake. Conclusion The prevalence of SHS exposure in this population was high. The strongest association with exposure were found for age and occupational status in men, and age and educational level in women. PMID:17683585

  9. Cigarette smoking, exercise and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Papanek, P; Cresanta, M

    1984-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depressed levels of HDL-C, whereas exercise is associated with elevated levels of HDL-C. The purpose was to determine effects of smoking and exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins in middle-aged males. It was hypothesized that smoking may attenuate the effects of exercise to elevate HDL-C. A total of 269 males (70 smokers) met all criteria for inclusion in the study population. Age, height, weight, body fatness via hydrostatic weighing, daily caloric consumption and alcohol intake, and smoking habits and history were determined. Interviews concerning physical activity patterns were conducted and cardiovascular responses to treadmill exercise were determined. Subjects were grouped as sedentary (low activity), participants in vigorous recreational activities (moderate activity) and joggers/runners (high activity). Analysis of covariance with adjustments for factors which may affect blood lipids and lipoproteins was employed. Smokers demonstrated lower HDL-C and higher total cholesterol levels than nonsmokers. High activity subjects demonstrated significantly higher HDL-C levels than the low and moderate groups which did not differ. High activity smokers did not differ from low activity nonsmokers with respect to HDL-C. This supports the proposed hypothesis. Nonsmokers were higher in weight and body fatness than smokers even though smokers consumed 288 more calories per day on the average. This suggests that smoking may account for a significant number of calories through altered metabolism or some other means.

  10. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk among Vietnamese Men

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hang Thi Minh; Koriyama, Chihaya; Tokudome, Shinkan; Tran, Hoc Hieu; Tran, Long Thanh; Nandakumar, Athira; Akiba, Suminori; Le, Ngoan Tran

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking with gastric cancer (GC) risk was suggested. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to examine the association of WPT with GC risk among Vietnamese men, in Hanoi city, during the period of 2003–2011. Newly-diagnosed GC cases (n = 454) and control patients (n = 628) were matched by age (+/- 5 years) and the year of hospitalization. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking habits and diet including salty food intake and fruits/vegetables consumption were obtained by the interview. Maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. Results The group with the highest consumption of citrus fruits showed a significantly low GC risk (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4–0.8, P for trend = 0.002). However, there was no association of raw vegetable consumption with GC risk. Referring to never smokers, GC risk was significantly higher in current WPT smokers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.3–2.4), and it was more evident in exclusively WPT smokers (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2–6.5). GC risk tended to be higher with daily frequency and longer duration of WPT smoking but these trends were not statistically significant (P for trend: 0.144 and 0.154, respectively). GC risk of those who started smoking WPT before the age of 25 was also significantly high (OR = 3.7, 95%CI = 1.2–11.3). Neither cigarette smoking nor alcohol drinking was related to GC risk. Conclusion The present findings revealed that WPT smoking was positively associated with GC risk in Vietnamese men. PMID:27802311

  12. CLPTM1L genetic polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol drinking in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in the Han population from northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Xiaojie; Wang, Huijuan; Yang, Hua; Wang, Hong; Wang, Bo; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Genetic variants of cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) genes in the p15.33 region of chromosome 5 were previously identified to influence susceptibility to lung cancer. We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CLPTM1L genes with lung cancer and explored their potential effects on the relationship between environmental risk factors (smoking, drinking) and lung cancer in a Chinese Han population. We genotyped 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CLPTM1L in a case-control study with 228 lung cancer cases and 301 controls from northwest China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. We identified that the minor alleles of rs451360, rs402710, and rs31484 in CLPTM1L were associated with a 0.52-fold, 0.76-fold, and 0.70-fold decreased risk of lung cancer in allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, we found rs402710 and rs401681 were associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Further stratification analysis showed that rs380286 displayed a significantly decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.65, P=0.041) in the non-drinkers. In addition, Haplotype "GTTATCTGT" was found to be associated with decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.50, P=0.033). Our results verified that genetic variants of CLPTM1L contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in the northwest Chinese Han population. Additionally, we found that consumption of alcohol may interact with CLPTM1L polymorphisms to contribute to overall lung cancer susceptibility.

  13. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  14. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  15. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (β ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [γ = −0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  16. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. ); Ernouf, D. ); Breton, P. ); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  17. Using the alkanes and long-chain alcohols of plant cuticular wax to estimate diet composition and the intakes of mixed forages in sheep consuming a known amount of alkane-labelled supplement.

    PubMed

    Dove, H; Charmley, E

    2008-10-01

    In a feeding trial with 24 sheep, we used the alkanes, long-chain alcohols (LCOH) or both of these plant wax markers, to estimate the diet composition of animals offered diets comprising alkane-labelled cottonseed meal (CSM) together with up to four forages. The diets used were: Diet 1 subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum); Diet 2 subterranean clover + phalaris (Phalaris aquatica); Diet 3 subterranean clover, phalaris + annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum); and Diet 4 subterranean clover, phalaris, annual ryegrass + wheat straw (Triticum aestivum). Estimates of diet composition were made following correction of faecal alkane or LCOH concentrations for incomplete faecal recovery, using recovery estimates derived from individual animals, mean recoveries for a given dietary treatment or grand mean recoveries. Estimated dietary proportions of CSM and known intakes of CSM were used to estimate forage intake. The LCOH concentrations of the diet components were much higher than their alkane concentrations, especially for phalaris. Multivariate analyses showed that the discriminatory information provided by the LCOH was additional to that provided by the alkanes, and that a combination of (LCOH + alkanes) discriminated better between diet components than either class of marker alone. Faecal recoveries of LCOH increased with increasing carbon-chain length; there were no differences in recovery attributable to diet. The most accurate estimates of diet composition were obtained with the combination of (LCOH + alkanes). Estimates of diet composition based on LCOH alone were not as good as alkanes alone, due to the high correlation between the LCOH profiles of phalaris and ryegrass. Total grass content of the diet was very accurately estimated using LCOH. Diet composition estimates provided estimates of whole-diet digestibility, which did not differ from the measured values. Trends in the accuracy of forage intake estimates reflected those found with diet composition and

  18. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  19. Changes in Energy Balance Following Smoking Cessation and Resumption of Smoking in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Prospectively examined caloric intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), leisure time physical activity, and sensitivity and preference for sweet taste in seven female smokers during normal smoking, complete cessation, and resumption of smoking. Findings suggest that smoking cessation may cause rapid change in energy balance which is quickly reversed…

  20. Polymorphisms in metabolic genes, their combination and interaction with tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in an Italian population

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Stefania; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Fakhredin A; Persiani, Roberto; Gianfagna, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Arzani, Dario; La Greca, Antonio; D'Ugo, Domenico; La Torre, Giuseppe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    Background The distribution and the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interaction of selected metabolic genetic polymorphisms was investigated in relation to gastric cancer risk in an Italian population. Methods One hundred and seven cases and 254 hospital controls, matched by age and gender, were genotyped for CYP1A1, CYP2E1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis was performed for EPHX1 exons 3 and 4, as well as CYP2E1 RsaI (*5 alleles) and CYP2E1 DraI (*5A or *6 alleles). The effect modification by alcohol and cigarette smoking was tested with the heterogeneity test, while the attributable proportion (AP) was used to measure the biological interaction from the gene-gene interaction analysis. Results Gastric cancer risk was found to be associated with the inheritance of GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.27–3.44) and the SULT1A1 His/His genotype (OR = 2.46, 95%CI: 1.03–5.90). No differences were observed for the haplotype distributions among cases and controls. For the first time an increased risk was detected among individuals carrying the *6 variant allele of CYP2E1 if ever-drinkers (OR = 3.70; 95%CI: 1.45–9.37) with respect to never-drinkers (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.22–1.46) (p value of heterogeneity among the two estimates = 0.001). Similarly, the effect of SULT1A1 variant genotype resulted restricted to ever-smokers, with an OR of 2.58 (95%CI: 1.27–5.25) for the carriers of His allele among smokers, and an OR of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.45–1.64) among never-smokers (p value of heterogeneity among the two estimates = 0.03). The gene-gene interaction analyses demonstrated that individuals with combined GSTT1 null and NAT2 slow acetylators had an additional increased risk of gastric cancer, with an OR of 3.00 (95%CI: 1.52–5.93) and an AP of 52%. Conclusion GSTT1, SULT1A1 and NAT2 polymorphisms appear to modulate individual's susceptibility to gastric cancer in this Italian population, particularly when more than one

  1. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T K; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-11-15

    During 1992-1995, 430 Danish couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20-35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no children. The couples were enrolled into the study when they discontinued birth control, and they were followed for six menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure in utero was evaluated by using a logistic regression model with pregnancy outcome of each cycle in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds ratio. After adjustment for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases in female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual cycle, the fecundability odds ratio for smoking women exposed in utero was 0.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.91) compared with unexposed nonsmokers. Fecundability odds ratio for nonsmoking women exposed in utero was 0.70 (95% CI 0.48-1.03) and that for female smokers not exposed in utero was 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Exposure in utero was also associated with a decreased fecundability odds ratio in males (0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97), whereas present smoking did not reduce fecundability significantly. It seems advisable to encourage smoking cessation prior to the attempt to conceive as well as during pregnancy.

  2. Intake of Japanese and Chinese teas reduces risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Oeda, Tomoko; Miki, Takami; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Sakae, Nobutaka; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hirota, Yoshio; Nagai, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Studies that have addressed the association between the intake of coffee or caffeine and Parkinson's disease (PD) were conducted mainly in Western countries. Little is known about this relationship in an Asian population. Therefore, we performed an assessment of the association of the intake of coffee, other caffeine-containing beverages, and caffeine with the risk of PD in Japan. The study involved 249 PD cases and 368 control subjects. Information on dietary factors was obtained through a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, educational level, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, the dietary glycemic index, and intake of cholesterol, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6,) alcohol, and iron. Intake of coffee, black tea, and Japanese and Chinese teas was significantly inversely associated with the risk of PD: the adjusted odds ratios in comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile were 0.52, 0.58, and 0.59, respectively (95% confidence intervals = 0.30-0.90, 0.35-0.97, and 0.35-0.995, respectively). A clear inverse dose-response relationship between total caffeine intake and PD risk was observed. We confirmed that the intake of coffee and caffeine reduced the risk of PD. Furthermore, this is the first study to show a significant inverse relationship between the intake of Japanese and Chinese teas and the risk of PD.

  3. Diet, cigarettes and alcohol in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenheim, J.L.; Graham, S.; Byers, T.E.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.K.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the larynx were examined in a case-control study among white males in Western New York, conducted in 1975-1985. Incident, pathologically-confirmed cases and age- and neighborhood-matched controls were interviewed to determine usual diet, and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol. Because response rates were low for both cases and controls, this cannot be considered a population-based study. A strong association of risk with cigarette but not pipe and cigar smoking was found. Beer and hard liquor but not wine were associated with increased risk. After control for cigarettes, alcohol and education, the upper quartile odds ratio for fat was 2.40, while the odds ratio for high intake of carotenoids was 0.51. There was effect modification by smoking. Carotenoids were most negatively associated with risk among lighter smokers; dietary fat was most positively associated with risk among heavier smokers. Total calories, protein, and retinol were associated with increased risk; there was no relationship between laryngeal cancer and vitamins C and E or carbohydrate. This study again demonstrates the strong association between tobacco and alcohol and laryngeal cancer and also suggests that diets low in carotenoids and high fat may increase risk.

  4. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  5. Teaching Units on Smoking, Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Helen M.

    Smoking, tobacco, and health are presented in this resource unit for grades four, five, and six. One of three units on smoking, drugs, and alcohol, this guide for teachers outlines information about the physiological and socio-economic effects of smoking, effects of smoking on physical performance, man's use of tobacco and tobacco production,…

  6. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  7. The oslo health study: a dietary index estimating frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  8. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  9. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  10. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  11. The association between the intake of specific dietary components and lifestyle factors and microscopic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, J K; Sonestedt, E; Ohlsson, B; Manjer, J; Sjöberg, K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The incidence of microscopic colitis (MC) has increased over the previous decades. In addition to smoking and drugs, currently unidentified environmental factors may have a role. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific dietary or other lifestyle factors were associated with the development of MC. Subject/Methods: The population-based cohort Malmö Diet and Cancer Study of 28 095 individuals was examined. Information about dietary habits was collected by a modified diet history method. Data on anthropometry were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were collected by questionnaires. Cases of MC were identified in medical registers. Associations were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Results: During a 22-year period, 135 patients were diagnosed with MC. Intakes of protein, carbohydrates, sucrose, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, fibre and zinc were not associated with MC. We could verify the previously reported association between MC and smoking (hazard ratio (HR): 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–3.84) and the female gender (HR: 3.57; 95% CI: 2.22–5.74). High alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk for MC (HR: 1.89 for the highest quartile; 95% CI: 0.82–4.33, P for trend=0.032). In a post hoc analysis, alcohol intake including all patients independently of consumption seemed to reduce the smoking-related risk. Conclusions: Despite a large cohort and a long follow-up period, we could not detect any dietary risk factors for MC. The aetiological mechanisms behind the positive impact of smoking and alcohol on MC risk should be investigated. PMID:27460269

  12. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... entrance doorways and air intake ducts? 102-74.335 Section 102-74.335 Public Contracts and Property... entrance doorways and air intake ducts? Federal agency building managers are responsible for furnishing and... intake ducts, reading “No Smoking,” “No Smoking Except in Designated Areas,” “No Smoking Within 25...

  14. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  15. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T K; Hjollund, N H; Henriksen, T B; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-08-22

    The effect of alcohol consumption on the probability of conception was investigated in a prospective study of 430 Danish couples seeking to achieve pregnancy for the first time. Couples were recruited through a national mailing to trade union members and followed for six menstrual cycles after contraception discontinuation or until a clinically recognized pregnancy occurred. Mean weekly alcohol intake was 4.0 drinks among women and 9.5 drinks among their male partners; 73 women (17%) abstained from alcohol drinking throughout the six cycles. During the study period, 179 (64%) of the 280 women with an average weekly alcohol intake of less than five drinks and 75 (55%) of the 136 women with a higher intake conceived. Among male partners, these rates were 67% and 58%, respectively. After adjustment for cycle number, smoking, enrollment center, diseases of the reproductive system, body mass index, sperm concentration, and menstrual cycle duration, the odds ratio decreased with increasing alcohol consumption from 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.93) among women who consumed 1-5 drinks a week to 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.85) among those reporting 6-10 drinks a week to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.52) among women consuming 11-15 drinks a week compared with women with no alcohol intake. No dose-response relationship was found in male partners after adjustment for the same confounders. Although these findings require further corroboration, they suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption has a significant adverse effect on fecundability.

  16. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  17. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and smoking in Koreans: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ho Jung; Lim, Jung-eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on the associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and smoking according to gender and smoking amount (cigarettes/day) are limited, and the results regarding the relationship between POPs and smoking are not completely consistent across studies. Objectives The smoking rate in Korea is one of the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. We investigated the association between serum concentrations of POPs and cigarette smoking in Koreans by smoking status (never-smoker/ever-smoker) and smoking amount (cigarettes/day) according to gender. Methods Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 401 participants (232 men and 169 women) who received health examinations during the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II. We compared POP levels in ever-smokers and never-smokers and conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify associations between POPs and smoking. Results Among women, the concentrations of PCB 156, PCB 167, and PCB 180 were significantly higher in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. After adjustments for age, body mass index, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alcohol intake, serum PCB 157 concentration was positively associated with male ever-smokers (OR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.01–5.04). In addition, trans-nonachlordane in OCPs as well as PCBs was significantly positively related with female ever-smokers (OR 3.21; 95% CI, 1.04–9.86). We found that subjects who smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes/day had a higher risk of having high POP concentrations than never-smokers. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may be associated with human serum POPs levels. PMID:28142013

  18. Association between Dietary Sodium Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Toni M; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Laughlin, Gail A; Fung, Teresa T; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth L; McEvoy, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study SETTING Southern California community PARTICIPANTS White men (n=373) and women (n=552), aged 50–96 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease risk factors and healthy aging. MEASUREMENTS During the 1992–1996 research clinic visit, a food frequency questionnaire was used to determine daily sodium intake; cognitive function was assessed with Trails Making Test, part B (Trails B), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT); and medical, clinical and demographic information was obtained. Linear regression was used to assess the association between calorie-adjusted sodium intake and cognitive test scores with adjustment for demographic, behavioral and health measures. Logistic regression examined the odds of having cognitive impairment by sodium intake. RESULTS Lower sodium intake was associated with poorer performance on Trails B (p=0.008) and MMSE (p=0.003) after controlling for age, sex, and education. Associations did not differ by sex, but there was a significant interaction by age for the Trails B: older (≥80 years), but not younger, adults showed worse performance with lower sodium intake (p=0.03). Associations remained significant after additional adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, diuretic medication use, and diet quality. Lower daily sodium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment on the MMSE (score < 26; OR per SD decrease = 1.12, 95% CI 1.08, 1.16). CONCLUSION Lower sodium intake was associated with worse cognitive function in older community-dwelling adults. For the maintenance of cognitive health, older adults may be advised to avoid very low sodium diets. PMID:28244567

  19. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  20. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  1. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  2. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  3. Teen Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ... org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teen-smoking/art-20047069 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  4. Caffeine intake and fecundability: a follow-up study among 430 Danish couples planning their first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T K; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Fecundability has been defined as the ability to achieve a recognized pregnancy. Several studies on caffeine and fecundability have been conducted but have been inconclusive. This may be explained partly by lack of stratification by smoking. Furthermore, few researchers have tried to separate the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience. At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association between caffeine intake and fecundability was analyzed in a logistic regression model with the outcome at each cycle (pregnant or not pregnant) in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds-ratio (FR). Compared to nonsmoking women with caffeine intake less than 300 mg/d, nonsmoking women who consumed 300 to 700 mg/d caffeine had a FR of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.31], whereas women with a higher caffeine intake had a FR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.25-1.60) after adjusting for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases of the female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose

  5. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you quit, ... In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of ...

  6. Chronic alcohol intake promotes tumor growth in a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mouse model through increased Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism is involved in both initiating and promoting mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma progression in chronic alcoholics. In this study, we developed a mouse model to test the hypothesis that chronic EtOH consumption promotes tumor growth irrespective of EtOH-related initiati...

  7. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: a European population-based multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Erik; Topsakal, Vedat; Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Van Eyken, Els; Lemkens, Nele; Hannula, Samuli; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Jensen, Mona; Demeester, Kelly; Tropitzsch, Anke; Bonaconsa, Amanda; Mazzoli, Manuela; Espeso, Angeles; Verbruggen, Katia; Huyghe, Joke; Huygen, Patrick L M; Kunst, Sylvia; Manninen, Minna; Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Steffens, Michael; Wienker, Thomas F; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Cremers, Cor W R J; Kremer, Hannie; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Stephens, Dafydd; Orzan, Eva; Pfister, Markus; Bille, Michael; Parving, Agnete; Sorri, Martti; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Camp, Guy

    2008-09-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (>1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (<2 kHz). A high body mass index (BMI) correlated with hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high as well as in the low frequencies. The results suggest that a healthy lifestyle can protect against age-related hearing impairment.

  8. Occupational Noise, Smoking, and a High Body Mass Index are Risk Factors for Age-related Hearing Impairment and Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective: A European Population-based Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Erik; Topsakal, Vedat; Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Van Eyken, Els; Lemkens, Nele; Hannula, Samuli; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Jensen, Mona; Demeester, Kelly; Tropitzsch, Anke; Bonaconsa, Amanda; Mazzoli, Manuela; Espeso, Angeles; Verbruggen, Katia; Huyghe, Joke; Huygen, Patrick L. M.; Kunst, Sylvia; Manninen, Minna; Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Steffens, Michael; Wienker, Thomas F.; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Cremers, Cor W. R. J.; Kremer, Hannie; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Stephens, Dafydd; Orzan, Eva; Pfister, Markus; Bille, Michael; Parving, Agnete; Sorri, Martti; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pure-tone average [PTA]) were collected and the participants filled out a questionnaire on environmental risk factors and medical history. People with a history of disease that could affect hearing were excluded. PTAs were adjusted for age and sex and tested for association with exposure to risk factors. Noise exposure was associated with a significant loss of hearing at high sound frequencies (>1 kHz). Smoking significantly increased high-frequency hearing loss, and the effect was dose-dependent. The effect of smoking remained significant when accounting for cardiovascular disease events. Taller people had better hearing on average with a more pronounced effect at low sound frequencies (<2 kHz). A high body mass index (BMI) correlated with hearing loss across the frequency range tested. Moderate alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with hearing loss. Significant associations were found in the high as well as in the low frequencies. The results suggest that a healthy lifestyle can protect against age-related hearing impairment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10162-008-0123-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18543032

  9. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed.

  10. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration.

  11. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  12. Inverse associations of outdoor activity and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Liu, Gui-you; Lv, Zheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Bi, Sheng; Wang, Wei-zhi

    2014-10-01

    Early studies had suggested that vitamin D intake was inversely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the associations of vitamin D intake and outdoor activities with Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear, so this study is to evaluate these relationships from a case-control study in elderly Chinese. The study population involved 209 cases with new onsets of PD and 210 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. The data on dietary vitamin D and outdoor activities were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary outdoor activities, vitamin D intake and PD. Adjustment was made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD in quartiles for outdoor physical activity were 1 (reference), 0.739 (0.413, 1.321), 0.501 (0.282, 0.891), and 0.437 (0.241, 0.795), respectively (P=0.002 for trend). Adjusted ORs for PD in quartiles for total vitamin D intake were 1 (reference), 0.647 (0.357, 1.170), 0.571 (0.318, 1.022), and 0.538 (0.301, 0.960), respectively (P=0.011 for trend). Our study suggested that outdoor activity and total vitamin D intake were inversely associated with PD, and outdoor activity seems to be more significantly associated with decreased risk for PD.

  13. Smoke-free laws and smoking and drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; Butler, Karen M; Zhang, Mei; Staten, Ruth R

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking and drinking alcohol among college students. The purpose was to examine whether strength and duration of municipal smoke-free laws are associated with cigarette and alcohol use among college students. Full-time undergraduates from two Southeastern universities participated in mailed (Site A) or electronic (Site B) surveys assessing tobacco and alcohol use and other risk behaviors pre and post comprehensive municipal smoke-free laws (Site A, N = 1,366. Site B, N = 1,404). The first cohort at each site participated prior to a municipal smoke-free law in the community. The second survey was conducted post-law (Site A, 3.5 years, Site B, 8 months). Past 30-day cigarette and alcohol use and other demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. At Site A, controlling for demographic differences and current alcohol use, the odds of being a current smoker were 32% lower post-law (28% pre-law vs. 19% post-law; odds ratio = 0.68, P = 0.02). At Site B, with demographics and drinking status in the model, the decrease in smoking rate from pre- to post-law was not significant. At both sites, controlling for demographics and current smoking status, change in the likelihood of drinking was not significant. Comprehensive smoke-free laws in the surrounding community may reduce smoking rates among college students who live, work and recreate there, particularly after the laws are well-established. While alcohol prevalence is very high among college students, enacting smoke-free legislation was not associated with alcohol use.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  15. 27 CFR 555.212 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Smoking and open flames..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.212 Smoking and open flames. Smoking, matches, open flames, and spark producing devices are not permitted: (a) In...

  16. 27 CFR 555.212 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoking and open flames..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.212 Smoking and open flames. Smoking, matches, open flames, and spark producing devices are not permitted: (a) In...

  17. 27 CFR 555.212 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Smoking and open flames..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.212 Smoking and open flames. Smoking, matches, open flames, and spark producing devices are not permitted: (a) In...

  18. 27 CFR 555.212 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoking and open flames..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.212 Smoking and open flames. Smoking, matches, open flames, and spark producing devices are not permitted: (a) In...

  19. 27 CFR 555.212 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoking and open flames..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.212 Smoking and open flames. Smoking, matches, open flames, and spark producing devices are not permitted: (a) In...

  20. Person- and People-Centered Integrated Health Care for Alcohol Dependence - Whether It Is Real in the Present Moment.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Mirjana; Antunovic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome violations that are related to alcohol use, etc.). It is well known that the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g., acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death) create a great burden for the economic development of society. Persons who have been diagnosed with alcoholism and currently drinking have a less chance to achieve a life insurance cover. On the contrary, recovering alcoholic with a significant abstinent period can get a good life insurance quote. The abstinence of a year or 2 is usually enough for a person to get an average price of life insurance. Furthermore, new consequent relapses could also be considered as potential aggravating factor to accomplish this kind of financial benefits. So far, the research (and interventions) focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans, and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level. The models of the treatment should be designed according to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate not only the reduction of alcohol intake but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual) needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol dependence and health status and also include the needs of the

  1. Person- and People-Centered Integrated Health Care for Alcohol Dependence – Whether It Is Real in the Present Moment

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Mirjana; Antunovic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome violations that are related to alcohol use, etc.). It is well known that the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g., acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death) create a great burden for the economic development of society. Persons who have been diagnosed with alcoholism and currently drinking have a less chance to achieve a life insurance cover. On the contrary, recovering alcoholic with a significant abstinent period can get a good life insurance quote. The abstinence of a year or 2 is usually enough for a person to get an average price of life insurance. Furthermore, new consequent relapses could also be considered as potential aggravating factor to accomplish this kind of financial benefits. So far, the research (and interventions) focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans, and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level. The models of the treatment should be designed according to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate not only the reduction of alcohol intake but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual) needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol dependence and health status and also include the needs of the

  2. Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and i