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  1. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  2. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  3. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  4. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  5. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  6. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, J; Schenkel, J A; van Erp-Baart, A M; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C; Schaafsma, G; Ockhuizen, T

    1993-07-01

    The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on dietary habits and smoking. A strong relationship between alcohol consumption and energy intake was found. The energy derived from alcohol was not compensated for by lower intake of other nutrients. There was no increase in Quetelet's index with increasing alcohol consumption, except for non-smoking men who were heavy drinking on midweek days. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of an overall effect of alcohol calories are discussed. Alcohol consumption was much higher on weekend days than on midweek days. No differences in nutrient intake were found between non-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers on midweek days. On weekend days, however, there was a slightly higher total fat and saturated fat intake in moderately drinking men. For women cholesterol intake was found to be higher in moderate and heavy drinkers. Finally, a strong positive relationship between alcohol consumption and smoking was observed. It is concluded that the observations with respect to energy and nutrient intake and smoking habits are not indicative of a healthier lifestyle in moderate alcohol users between 22 and 49 years of age. Consequently, the more favourable prognosis of moderate drinkers cannot be ascribed to a more healthy lifestyle.

  7. Pulmonary impairment in a cotton textile factory in Nigeria: is lifetime alcohol intake with low cigarette smoking a confounding factor?

    PubMed

    Oleru, U G

    1987-01-01

    A study of 60 Nigerian workers who seldom smoked and who were exposed for 2-15 yr in the printing, dyeing, and maintenance sections of a cotton textile factory showed a 38% airway and 20% "probably airway" symptoms. The airway symptoms were significantly (p less than .005) associated with a decrement in spirometric lung function before and after adjustment for age, height, and duration of employment. The change in residual pulmonary function (PFT) per year of employment was three times higher for the subjects with airway symptoms than for subjects presenting no symptoms. Lifetime alcohol intake was significantly (.025 greater than p less than .01) negatively correlated with pulmonary function and obstructive and restrictive lung disease parameters. Together with body weight, alcohol bottle-years accounted for between 18 and 22% of the variation in lung function, in a forward and reverse stepwise regression analysis. When duration of employment was standardized, subjects with considerable alcohol intake had significantly (.025 greater than p less than .005) lower pulmonary function before and after adjustment for age and height. When the residual PFT was further adjusted for duration of employment, the subjects with higher alcohol intake had significantly (.01 greater than p less than .005) higher residual per year of employment. The subjects presenting airway symptoms had significantly (.05 greater than p less than .005) higher alcohol intake than those in other symptom categories. These data suggest that alcohol intake is a probable confounder in the observed airway and PFT changes.

  8. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  9. The influence of age, relative weight, smoking, and alcohol intake on the reproducibility of a dietary questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Sampson, L; Rosner, B; Hennekens, C H; Speizer, F E

    1987-09-01

    To evaluate factors that affect the reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study we compared an extended 99-item questionnaire with a shorter, 61-item form completed by 1497 women with an interval of nine months between. Correlation coefficients for individual items assessed by the two questionnaires were highest for beverages (Spearman r = 0.70). For other foods, coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.70 for items eaten frequently (or habitually), to values between 0.34 and 0.45 for foods, such as sweet potatoes and ready made pie, that were eaten less frequently. For food items, the correlation between mean frequency of consumption and the reproducibility coefficient (Spearman r) was 0.51 (p less than 0.01), formally confirming that the reproducibility of measurements was positively associated with frequency of use. Pearson correlation coefficients for calorie-adjusted intakes of nutrients between the two questionnaires ranged from 0.40 for trans-fatty acids to 0.71 for vitamin E (including supplements). These correlation coefficients did not vary materially between subjects in different categories of smoking status or tertiles of age or relative weight. Moderate alcohol use had minimal effect on correlation coefficients, but reproducibility was slightly reduced among heavier drinkers. These data indicate that this self-administered dietary questionnaire can provide reproducible information about individual food and nutrient intakes which is not altered materially by age and a number of important health habits.

  10. Smoking, alcohol drinking and serum carotenoids levels.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Ito, Y; Sasaki, R; Ohtani, M; Hamajima, N; Asano, A

    1987-10-01

    Serum carotenoids concentrations in healthy inhabitants, aged 40-79 years, of a community were measured. The results are as follows. 1. The alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene levels in serum were significantly higher in females than males. The alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations tended to increase with advancing age, this being especially marked for serum beta-carotene levels in males. However, beta-carotene levels were high in females throughout the age range of 50-69 years. There was no significant change in serum level of lycopene with age. 2. There was no significant difference in intake frequency of foods containing large amounts of carotenoids among the groups with or without smoking and drinking, as serum alpha- and beta-carotene levels were closely associated with intake frequency of green-yellow vegetables. 3. Regular alcohol drinkers or current smokers showed lower serum beta-carotene concentrations, and the effect of alcohol drinking on serum carotene level seemed to be larger than that of smoking. A synergistic lowering action of smoking and drinking on serum beta-carotene level was suggested. Among the alcohol drinkers, the more cigarettes consumed per day, the lower the serum beta-carotene level was, but this was not the case among the non-drinkers. Ex-smokers showed intermediate values between current smokers and non-smokers. The results suggest that alcohol drinking and smoking habit might be associated with lower serum beta-carotene level, which in turn may be related to excess incidence of cancer among smokers or drinkers.

  11. [Smoking and alcohol consumption among university students: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Habeyche, Esther Campos; Oliz, Manoela Maciel; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake among university students from the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil (UFPel), as well as to investigate factors associated with both habits. The sample included 485 students who were admitted to the university in 2008. Students were sampled randomly across all schools of the UFPel campus, and answered a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered in the classroom by a member of the research team. Of the individuals interviewed, 53.9% were females and 42.3% were under 20 years. Regarding alcohol intake, 75% used alcohol once a month or less frequently, and the prevalence of risk for abusive alcohol intake was 6.2%. Regarding smoking, 10.2% reported smoking regularly or on weekends. More than 90% of those who smoked or used alcohol started before entering the university. Smoking was directly related to age and inversely related to self-rated health. In terms of alcohol intake, those who lived with friends were more likely to use it. Our data suggest the need for implementing strategies to promote healthy lifestyles among university students. However, the fact that more than 90% of individuals started to smoke or drink before entering the university suggests that interventions should target adolescents as a whole, and not only those who are university students, because onset of smoking and alcohol intake seems to occur at earlier ages.

  12. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  13. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss. PMID:24899378

  14. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  15. Changes in Food Intake and Activity after Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated changes in food intake and activity levels among 95 subjects who quit smoking. Found significant increases in calories, sucrose, and fats 2 weeks after quitting. Total sugars changes were less consistent. Activity levels did not change significantly. At week 26, caloric intake for abstinent women was approximately equal to baseline…

  16. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  17. Length of smoking deprivation moderates the effects of alcohol administration on urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Day, Anne M; Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2014-05-01

    Although smoking deprivation is often used in laboratory studies to induce urges to smoke cigarettes, the optimal length of deprivation has not been established. Previous research showed that overnight abstinence from cigarettes led to high baseline urge to smoke that potentially masked alcohol's acute effects on urge to smoke (Kahler et al., 2012). The current study examined whether alcohol's effects on smoking urge were more pronounced when a shorter length of smoking deprivation was used (i.e., 3h instead of overnight abstinence). Using a balanced placebo design for alcohol administration, we found that participants experienced a significant increase in self-reported urge to smoke when administered alcohol after a 3-h smoking deprivation (n=32), whereas this effect was smaller and nonsignificant when smokers were required to be abstinent overnight (n=96). Research on factors that heighten smoking urges may find stronger effects if a 3-h deprivation is used compared to using overnight abstinence.

  18. PRAZOSIN REDUCES ALCOHOL INTAKE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF ALCOHOL RELAPSE

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett; Fischer, Stephen; Wise, Bradley; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many alcoholics and heavy drinkers undergo repeated cycles of alcohol abstinence followed by relapse to alcohol drinking; a pattern that contributes to escalated alcohol intake over time. In rodents, alcohol drinking that is interspersed with periods of alcohol deprivation (imposed abstinence) increases alcohol intake during reaccess to alcohol. This is termed the “alcohol deprivation effect” or “ADE” and is a model of alcohol relapse in humans. We have previously reported that prazosin reduces alcohol drinking during both brief and prolonged treatment in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (“P” rats). This study explores whether prazosin prevents alcohol “relapse” in P rats, as reflected by a reduced or abolished ADE. METHODS Adult male P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v solutions presented concurrently) for 2 hrs/day. After 5 weeks rats underwent imposed alcohol deprivation for 2 weeks, followed by alcohol reaccess for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were injected with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, IP) once a day for the first 5 days of each alcohol reaccess cycle. RESULTS Alcohol intake increased on the first day of each alcohol reaccess cycle, demonstrating the formation of an ADE. The ADE was short-lived, lasting only 1 day, during each of the three cycles. Prazosin, in all doses tested, prevented the expression of an ADE in all three alcohol reaccess cycles. CONCLUSIONS Prazosin decreases alcohol intake in P rats even in a situation that would be expected to increase alcohol drinking, namely following periods of alcohol deprivation. This suggests that prazosin may be effective in reducing alcohol relapse that often occurs during attempts to achieve permanent alcohol abstinence in treatment-seeking alcoholics and heavy drinkers. PMID:26207767

  19. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  20. Sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages mediate alcohol intake in of-age undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Sarah A; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2005-01-17

    Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking. Participants used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate PROP bitterness and tastes from and preference for Pilsner beer, blended scotch whiskey, instant espresso and unsweetened grapefruit juice. Alcohol intake was reported over a typical week. Regression analysis tested the hypothesis that PROP bitterness influenced alcohol bitterness and sweetness, which in turn predicted alcohol intake. Those who tasted less PROP bitterness tasted all beverages as less bitter and more preferred. Sweetness of scotch was significantly greater in those who tasted PROP as least bitter. For scotch, greater sweetness and less bitterness from sampled scotch were direct predictors of greater alcohol intake. For beer, preference ratings were better predictors of alcohol intake than the bitter or sweet tastes of the sampled beer. These findings support that PROP bitterness predicts both positive and negative tastes from alcoholic beverages and that those tastes may predict alcohol intake. The college environment may attenuate direct effects of PROP bitterness and intake. Here, PROP bitterness does not predict alcohol intake directly, but acts instead through sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15639168

  1. Alcohol intake and brain structure in a multiethnic elderly cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yian; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Short, Erica Eaton; Luchsinger, José A.; DeCarli, Charles; Stern, Yaakov; Manly, Jennifer J.; Schupf, Nicole; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Evidence suggests that consuming light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol reduces the risk of dementia and is associated better cognitive function and less cardiovascular disease, relative to those consuming no or heavy alcohol. There are only minimal data on the association between alcohol and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers. This study aimed to examine the association between alcohol and brain structure measured with MRI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, high-resolution structural MRI was collected on 589 multi-ethnic community residents of New York aged ≥65 with available alcohol intake assessments via a food frequency questionnaire. Total brain volume (TBV), white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), and presence of infarcts were derived from MRI scans with established methods. We examined the association of alcohol intake with these imaging markers using regression models adjusted for demographic, clinical, and vascular risk factors. Results Compared to non-drinking, light-to-moderate total alcohol (b=0.007, p=0.04) or wine (b= 0.008, p=0.05) intake, but not beer or liquor intake, was associated with larger TBV. Further analysis showed a dose-response association between alcohol (p-trend=0.03) or wine (p-trend=0.006)) and TBV. Overall, alcohol intake was not associated with WMHV or brain infarcts. Conclusions Our study suggests that among older adults in the community, light-to-moderate alcohol intake, in particular wine, is associated with larger TBV. These findings suggest that light to moderate alcohol consumption is potentially beneficial for brain aging, but replication is needed. PMID:24011900

  2. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental. PMID:26614014

  3. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental.

  4. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  5. The lipoprotein lipase S447X polymorphism and plasma lipids: interactions with APOE polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Tan, C S; Chia, K S; Tan, C E; Chew, S K; Ordovas, J M; Tai, E S

    2004-06-01

    We studied 4,058 subjects from a representative sample of the Singapore population 1) to determine the association between the S447X polymorphism at the LPL locus and serum lipid concentration in Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore and 2) to explore any interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, exercise, obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake. Information on obesity, lifestyle factors (including smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise frequency), glucose tolerance, and fasting lipids was obtained. Male and female carriers of the X447 allele had lower serum triglyceride concentrations and higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The association between the X447 allele and serum HDL-C concentration was modulated by APOE genotype in males and cigarette smoking and alcohol intake in females. The effect of the X447 allele was greatest in men who carried the E4 allele and women who smoked or consumed alcohol. The X447 allele at the LPL locus is common and associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile in Asian populations. Interactions with APOE genotype, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake reinforce the importance of examining genetic associations, such as this one, in the context of the population of interest. PMID:15060087

  6. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  7. Parenthood, Alcohol Intake, and Drinking Contexts: Occasio Furem Facit*

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. Method The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Results Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Conclusions Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person. PMID:21388599

  8. No Significant Effects of Smoking or Alcohol Consumption on Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking, but not higher alcohol consumption, is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to EAC. However, it is still unclear whether smoking or alcohol is implicated in the development of BE. Aim To evaluate the associations between smoking, alcohol and the risk of BE. Methods The study included eligible patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics. We compared 258 patients with definitive BE with two separate control groups: 453 patients from the primary care group (“colonoscopy controls”) and 1,145 patients from the elective EGD group (“endoscopy controls”) with no endoscopic or histopathologic BE. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Seventy-seven percent of BE cases, 75 % of colonoscopy controls and 72 % of endoscopy controls were ever smokers. Of these, approximately 45 % were current smokers. Overall, 91 % of study participants were ex or current alcohol drinkers, with the majority drinking beer. We found no association between various measure of smoking exposure (status, intensity, age at initiation, duration, pack-years and cessation) and risk of BE. Alcohol consumption was not associated with increased risk of BE. Conversely, moderate intake was associated with lower risk (14 to<28 drinks/week, OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.15–1.00). Conclusion Smoking and alcohol were not strong or consistent risk factors for BE. The likely role of smoking in increasing risk of EAC is through promoting progression from BE to cancer. PMID:24114046

  9. Non-daily Smoking and Alcohol Use, Hazardous Drinking, and Alcohol Diagnoses among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L.R.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-daily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with non-daily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between non-daily smoking and drinking behavior. Methods We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003; n=43,093). Young adults (age 18-25; n=5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, non-daily, and non-smokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Results 25% were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a non-daily basis. 71% were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared to non-daily smokers, with non-smokers consuming the least. Non-daily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, non-daily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with non-smoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46 — 26.48) in a non-daily smoker compared to a non-smoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54 — 9.36). A similar pattern of results was demonstrated

  10. Influence of moderate alcohol intake on wakening plasma thiopental concentration.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Jensen, V; Rørsgaard, S

    1983-06-01

    In an earlier study, an inverse correlation between thiopental-induced sleeping time and alcohol intake in the preceding week was demonstrated in women undergoing termination of pregnancy. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the apparent cross-tolerance, the relationship between alcohol consumption in the week preceding thiopental/nitrous oxide/oxygen anesthesia and wakening plasma thiopental concentration on one hand and sleeping time on the other was examined in 68 women scheduled for termination of pregnancy and in 37 women scheduled for diagnostic uterine dilatation and curettage. In terms of pure alcohol, the weekly intake (mean +/- s.d.) was 1.17 +/- 2.07 ml . kg-1 in the former and 1.49 +/- 1.70 ml . kg-1 in the latter group. A positive correlation between alcohol consumption and wakening plasma thiopental concentration was found in both groups, reaching statistical significance (P less than 0.05) in the group undergoing termination of pregnancy, but not in the other. The inverse correlation found earlier between alcohol intake and sleeping time was not reproduced significantly in any of the groups. The results indicate that moderate alcohol intake may induce cerebral tolerance to thiopental.

  11. Does the flushing response modify the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension in the Japanese population? NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Mana; Tsuchiya, Naho; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Tanaka, Hideo; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Takashima, Naoyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-09-01

    The influence of alcohol intake on hypertension may vary depending on the flushing response, but this relationship has not been confirmed. The relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension was examined according to the flushing response in a representative sample of the Japanese population. Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2010 were asked to participate in the baseline survey of NIPPON DATA2010. Here, we investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension according to the flushing response. Statistical analyses were performed in a cross-sectional manner using multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, present illness of diabetes mellitus and present illness of dyslipidemia. Of the 1139 men and 1263 women, 659 and 463, respectively, had hypertension. Among the men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension, regardless of the flushing response (P for linear trend both <0.05). This positive relationship was observed for both users and non-users of antihypertensive drugs. No interaction with the flushing response was observed (P for interaction=0.360). In women, although the direction differed between flushers and non-flushers, the association between alcohol intake and hypertension was not significant, regardless of flushing response. In conclusion, In Japanese men, alcohol intake was positively associated with hypertension in a manner that was not influenced by the flushing response. PMID:27169399

  12. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J.; Finn, Deborah A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (Cmax) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  13. Ivermectin reduces alcohol intake and preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Wyatt, Letisha; Khoja, Sheraz; Asatryan, Liana; Ramaker, Marcia J; Finn, Deborah A; Alkana, Ronald L; Huynh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Bortolato, Marco; Davies, Daryl L

    2012-08-01

    The high rate of therapeutic failure in the management of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) underscores the urgent need for novel and effective strategies that can deter ethanol consumption. Recent findings from our group showed that ivermectin (IVM), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic with high tolerability and optimal safety profile in humans and animals, antagonized ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that IVM may reduce alcohol consumption; thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of this agent on several models of alcohol self-administration in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Overall, IVM (1.25-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) significantly reduced 24-h alcohol consumption and intermittent limited access (4-h) binge drinking, and operant alcohol self-administration (1-h). The effects on alcohol intake were dose-dependent with the significant reduction in intake at 9 h after administration corresponding to peak IVM concentrations (C(max)) in the brain. IVM also produced a significant reduction in 24-h saccharin consumption, but did not alter operant sucrose self-administration. Taken together, the findings indicate that IVM reduces alcohol intake across several different models of self-administration and suggest that IVM may be useful in the treatment of AUDs. PMID:22465817

  14. Intake of volatile nitrosamines from consumption of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Castegnaro, M; Garren, L; Toussaint, G; Kowalski, B

    1979-10-01

    Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that for other drinks; the range was 0.2--8.6 micrograms/liter. Traces of nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were also detected in spirits and ciders. No significant increases in levels were found after nitrosation. Calculation of daily intake in the study region showed that the main intake of volatile nitrosamine is from NDMA in beer. The intake of NDEA through consumption of cider is about one-third that of NDMA from all sources. PMID:480387

  15. Estradiol valerate and alcohol intake: dose-response assessments

    PubMed Central

    Quirarte, Gina L; Reid, Larry D; de la Teja, I Sofía Ledesma; Reid, Meta L; Sánchez, Marco A; Díaz-Trujillo, Arnulfo; Aguilar-Vazquez, Azucena; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    Background An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This research extends the initial research by assessing 8 doses of EV (from .001 to 2.0 mg/female rat), as well assessing the effects of 2.0 mg EV in females with ovariectomies. Results With the administration of EV, there was a dose-related loss of bodyweight reaching the maximum loss, when it occurred, at about 4 days after injections. Subsequently, rats returned to gaining weight regularly. Of the doses tested, only the 2.0 mg dose produced a consistent increase in intake of ethanol during the time previous research indicated that the rats would show enhanced intakes. There was, however, a dose-related trend for smaller doses to enhance intakes. Rats with ovariectomies showed a similar pattern of effects, to intact rats, with the 2 mg dose. After extensive histories of intake of alcohol, both placebo and EV-treated females had estradiol levels below the average measured in females without a history of alcohol-intake. Conclusion The data support the conclusion that pharmacological doses of estradiol can produce enduring changes that are manifest as an enhanced appetite for alcoholic beverages. The effect can occur among females without ovaries. PMID:17335585

  16. [Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńiska, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments.

  17. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND RISK OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.

    2014-01-01

    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654

  18. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cho Y; Businelle, Michael S; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Social learning models of addiction hypothesize that situational factors interact with cognitive determinants to influence a person's motivation to use substances. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 113 female smokers who enrolled in a study that tested an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment. Participants carried a palm-top personal computer for 7 days and were instructed to complete 4 random assessments each day and to initiate an assessment when they were tempted to smoke. Multilevel mediational analyses were used to examine (a) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (Model 1) and (b) the effects of alcohol consumption before time j and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 (Model 2). Model 1 found a significant effect of alcohol consumption before time j on smoking urge at time j + 1 (p = .04), and this effect was significantly mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j (p < .0001). Model 2 failed to find a significant effect of alcohol consumption before time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1. The findings suggest that alcohol consumption is significantly associated with increased positive smoking outcome expectancies that, in turn, are associated with increased smoking urge in women seeking to quit smoking.

  19. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  20. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  1. Regulation of alcohol intake with advancing age.

    PubMed

    York, James L; Welte, John; Hirsch, Judith

    2005-05-01

    Previous surveys of alcohol use in the general population have not gathered sufficient data to allow for estimations of the blood alcohol levels (BACs) routinely achieved in survey participants. Our goal was to assess the influence of age on the estimated peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions in a representative sample (n=2,626) of the U.S. adult population. Variables related to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumption on typical drinking occasions were assessed by computer-assisted telephone interview. In addition, the height, weight, age, and gender of subjects were ascertained to be used in equations to predict the volume of distribution of ethanol (total body water). Prediction equations were used to estimate the probable peak BACs achieved during the typical drinking occasion. The survey identified 1,833 subjects ("current drinkers") of 18-89 years, who reported alcohol consumption within the past 12 months. Linear regression analyses performed on data from these "current drinkers" revealed that, for both men and women, there was an age-related decrease in the predicted peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions. The approaches used to modify the BAC with advancing age differed slightly for men and women, but both relied heavily upon a reduction in the quantity of consumption.

  2. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  3. Cigarette smoking and risk of alcohol use relapse among adults in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Platt, Jonathan; Jiang, Bianca; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking status and risk of AUD relapse in adults with remitted AUDs among adults in the United States. Methods Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Analyses included the subsample of respondents who completed both waves of data collection reported a history of alcohol abuse and/or dependence prior to Wave 1 (N=9,134). Relationships between Wave 1 cigarette smoking status (non-smoker, daily cigarette smoker, non-daily cigarette smoker) and Wave 2 alcohol use, abuse, and dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for Wave 1 demographics; mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders; nicotine dependence; and AUD severity. Results Both daily and non-daily cigarette smoking at Wave 1 were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol use and a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse and dependence at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1 non-smoking. These relationships remained significant after adjusting for demographics, psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, AUD severity, and nicotine dependence. Conclusions Among adults with remitted AUDs, daily and non-daily use of cigarettes was associated with significantly decreased likelihood of alcohol use and increased likelihood of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence three years later. Concurrent treatment of cigarette smoking when treating AUDs may help improve long-term alcohol outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of both substances. PMID:26365044

  4. Total body water adjustment of mean alcohol intakes.

    PubMed

    Mirand, A L; Welte, J W

    1994-01-01

    Total body water volume (TBW) is one factor that determines the functional effect of a standard dose of alcohol. Because women and the elderly generally have lower TBW values than men and younger persons, respectively, less alcohol needs to be consumed by women and elders to achieve the same or higher blood alcohol levels compared to men and younger persons. An existing data set on elderly drinkers was analyzed with and without TBW adjustment of intakes using mean TBW estimates per decade for each gender. The estimates were obtained from a published report that pooled cross-sectional data to produce mean TBW values and TBW prediction equations applicable to Western populations. As the analyses confirm, the use of cutoff points of alcohol intake not adjusted for TBW results in drinking-level misclassification and findings biased towards younger males. This report supports the standard use of TBW-adjusted alcohol intakes in analyses of samples with both genders and/or a wide age range.

  5. Lunar rhythms of the meal and alcohol intake of humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, J M; Pearcey, S M

    1995-03-01

    Lunar variations in the nutrient intakes and the meal patterns of humans were investigated by reanalyzing the data previously collected by paying 694 adult humans to maintain a 7-day diary of everything they ate, when they ate it, and their subjective state of hunger. A small but significant lunar rhythm of nutrient intake was observed with an 8% increase in meal size and a 26% decrease in alcohol intake at the time of the full moon relative to the new moon. This effect was present for meals ingested either during the daytime or the evening, indicating that nocturnal illumination level was not the critical variable. The results suggest that there is a true internal lunar rhythm which influences nutrient intakes of normal humans free-living in their natural environments.

  6. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in Busselton, 1966-1978.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Stenhouse, N S; McCall, M G; Wearne, K L; Murphy, B P

    1980-07-26

    In Busselton, mass health examination (MHE) questionnaires about alcohol consumption indicate that more people are drinking wine and fewer people are drinking beer. The evidence suggests an increase in the number of women consuming alcohol. The proportion of drinkers was higher among patients attending doctors with interests in wineries and/or vineyards compared with those patients attending doctors without such interests. More patients of doctors who smoked were smokers compared with those patient of doctors who were non-smokers. Smoking in Busselton appears to be declining at the rate of 0.5% to 1% of the population per annum; this decline is more marked in people who had attended one or more MHEs than in newcomers to MHEs. These trends have encouraged a more active approach to the prevention of smoking in school children.

  7. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  8. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors: A Mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Won, Sungho; Relton, Caroline L; Davey Smith, George; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women – who drank little in these populations – provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population. PMID:26687910

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption is lower and saturated fat intake is higher among Canadians reporting smoking.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, U; Jacobs Starkey, L; O'Loughlin, J; Gray-Donald, K

    2001-07-01

    Understanding differences in dietary patterns by smoking status is important for nutritionists and health educators involved in helping individuals to make healthy dietary and lifestyle choices. Although smokers have a poor quality diet compared with nonsmokers, no study has examined nutritional adequacy and variability in the nutrient intake of smokers. The aim of this study was to compare dietary habits of smokers with nonsmokers in terms of nutrient intake, food groups contributing to nutrient intake, nutritional adequacy and day-to-day variation in nutrient intake. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 18--65 y (n = 1543) who participated in the Food Habits of Canadians Survey (1997--1998) were studied. Subjects, selected from across Canada using a multistage, random-sampling strategy, completed an in-home 24-h dietary recall. Repeat interviews were conducted in a subsample to estimate variability in nutrient intake. Smokers had higher intakes of total and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, vitamin C and fiber than nonsmokers. There were no significant differences in calcium, zinc and vitamin A intakes or day-to-day variation in nutrient intake by smoking status. Smokers consumed significantly fewer fruits and vegetables than nonsmokers, leading to lower intakes of folate and vitamin C. In conclusion, smokers have a less healthy diet than nonsmokers, placing them at higher risk for chronic disease as a result of both dietary and smoking habits. Diet may act as a confounder in smoking-disease relationships.

  10. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  11. Blood pressure, smoking and alcohol use, association with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The success of the ageing global population brings with it a growth in the number of dementia sufferers. Older adults are at highest risk of dementia and are likely to manifest both vascular and Alzheimer's pathology. Blood pressure also changes with ageing and there is evidence linking high blood pressure in midlife to an increased risk of later dementia. Data from later life is sparser. A number of intervention trials have been carried out with antihypertensives and have shown mixed results with regard to cognitive and dementia outcomes (both dementia overall and of vascular and Alzheimer's types). Meta-analyses have in general not found an association between blood pressure lowering and reduced dementia incidence, although the number of cases reported in the placebo controlled trials is invariably lower in the actively treated group. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also been published with regard to smoking and alcohol use and incident dementia. Despite mixed reports, overall smoking was associated with an increased risk of later dementia and alcohol with a 'U' or 'J' shaped relationship. Following the systematic reviews subsequent publications tend to report similar findings. The literature in this area suffers from differing populations, lengths of follow up and assessments of both risk factor and outcome. However, at present, maintenance of cognitive function would seem to be best served by treating cardiovascular risk factors in accordance with current guidelines, controlling blood pressure, reducing smoking and if consuming alcohol doing so in moderation. This review will concentrate on the prevention of dementia and attempt to provide an overview of the evidence relating to vascular related dementia and the potential risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use and smoking behaviour.

  12. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  13. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  14. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  15. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    PubMed

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  16. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  17. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  18. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  19. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  20. [Effect of alcohol intake on the ability to pilot aircraft].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Egorov, S V

    1996-01-01

    During the initial 4 hours after alcohol intake at a dose of 1.9 g/kg aircraft operators displayed disturbances in the psychic processes and functions responsible for each (from information reception and processing up to decision-making and building-up the controlling actions) structural elements in their activity resulting in considerable limitation or a complete failure to pilot aircraft. Main disorders included inability to correctly analyse flight situation and loss of skills to automatically control simulator, a sudden depletion of psychophysiological reserves and deterioration of operator's reliability. Less elaborated professional skills appear to be the most vulnerable.

  1. Ethnic differences in alcohol treatment outcomes and the effect of concurrent smoking cessation treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; Kodl, Molly; Willenbring, Mark; Nelson, David B; Nugent, Sean; Gravely, Amy A; Joseph, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation (TASC) Study tested the optimal timing of smoking cessation treatment in an alcohol-dependent population. Previously reported results suggest that providing concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate whether there are ethnic differences in alcohol and tobacco outcomes among a diverse sample of alcohol-dependent smokers using data from the TASC trial in which 499 participants were randomized to either concurrent (during alcohol treatment) or delayed (6 months later) smoking intervention. This analysis focused on smokers of Caucasian (n=381) and African American (n=78) ethnicity. Alcohol outcomes included 6 months sustained alcohol abstinence rates and time to first use of alcohol post-treatment. Tobacco outcomes included 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence. Random effects logistic regression analysis was used to investigate intervention group and ethnic differences in the longitudinally assessed alcohol outcomes. Alcohol abstinence outcomes were consistently worse in the concurrent group than the delayed group among Caucasians, but this was not the case for African Americans. No significant ethnic differences were observed in smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this analysis suggest that concurrent smoking cessation treatment adversely affects alcohol outcomes for Caucasians but not necessarily for African Americans.

  2. Fetal growth retardation in cigarette-smoking mothers is not due to decreased maternal food intake.

    PubMed

    Haworth, J C; Ellestad-Sayed, J J; King, J; Dilling, L A

    1980-07-15

    To determine whether the fetal growth-retarding effect of maternal cigarette smoking could be due to a lower dietary intake in smokers than in nonsmokers, the energy and nutrient intake of 302 smoking and 234 nonsmoking women were assessed toward the end of the last trimester of pregnancy. The women were from two socioeconomic groups which differed greatly in age, height, education, family income, racial origin, and pregnancy weight gain. Within each group, smokers had significantly smaller infants, but pregnancy weight gain was not different. Daily dietary intake of the smokers was not less than that of the nonsmokers; in fact, for some nutrients it was significantly greater. Therefore, fetal growth retardation due to smoking is not caused by the mother's diminished intake of food. PMID:7395936

  3. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  4. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  5. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  6. Testosterone and oestradiol in relation to tobacco smoking, body mass index, energy consumption and nutrient intake among adult men.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, R; Mucci, L A; Spanos, E; Lagiou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D

    2001-06-01

    There is substantial evidence linking steroid hormones and diet to cancer aetiology. The evidence on lifestyle determinants of steroid hormones, however, is limited. We have conducted a study to identify dietary and other lifestyle predictors of testosterone and oestradiol among adult men. Subjects were 112 healthy Greek men, recruited as controls in a case-control study on the aetiology of liver cancer. Demographic data and detailed histories of smoking habits and alcohol consumption were recorded. Diet was assessed through an interviewer-administered validated food-frequency questionnaire. Serologic measurements of oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin were also conducted. We developed linear regression models to evaluate the associations of smoking and dietary factors with serum testosterone and oestradiol. The results indicate that, among men, both testosterone and oestradiol serum levels decline with age, whereas body mass index may be inversely related with testosterone and positively with oestradiol. The evidence concerning alcohol in relation to these hormones is inconclusive. Emerging evidence concerning smoking suggests positive associations with both hormones in the blood. The principal nutritional findings are a positive association of carbohydrate intake with testosterone levels and a set of inverse associations of vitamins with oestradiol.

  7. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  8. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I

    2010-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster's alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure to either: alcohol, sucrose or saccharin. In Experiments 1 and 2, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v) and water; once alcohol consumption steadied, a bottle containing an ascending concentration of sucrose (99-614 mM) or saccharin (2-10 mM), or water was added. In Experiment 3, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v), sucrose (614 mM), saccharin (4 mM), or a second water bottle for 14 days. After the second bottle was removed, measurements continued for 14days. Sucrose exposure suppressed alcohol consumption at concentrations lower in calories than the alcohol solution. Saccharin exposure failed to suppress alcohol consumption. Exposure to sucrose and alcohol but not saccharin decreased food intake. Decreased alcohol consumption in response to a caloric sweetener and decreased food intake during alcohol exposure support that alcohol consumption by the hamster is mediated by caloric content. However, suppression of alcohol intake by a sucrose solution of lower caloric content and the equivalent intake of individual alcohol, sucrose and saccharin solutions support a role for reward value in alcohol consumption. PMID:20688091

  9. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  10. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  11. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  12. Defining and predicting short-term alcohol use changes during a smoking cessation attempt

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kristin M.; Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol and nicotine are commonly used substances in the U.S., with significant impacts on health. Using both substances concurrently impacts quit attempts. While studies have sought to examine changes in alcohol use co-occurring with tobacco cessation, results have not been consistent. Understanding these changes has clinical implications. The objective of this study is to identify changes in alcohol consumption that occur following tobacco cessation, as well as predictors of alcohol use patterns following a smoking cessation attempt. Methods A secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of five tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies. Participants (N = 1301) reported their smoking and alcohol consumption daily for two weeks prior to, and two weeks after, the target quit date (TQD). Results Generally, alcohol use decreased post-TQD. Smokers who reported less pre-quit alcohol use, as well as smokers who were female, non-white, and had a history of alcohol dependence tended to use less alcohol post-quit. Pre- and post-quit alcohol use were more strongly related among men and among those without a history of alcohol dependence. Conclusions For most smokers alcohol use decreased following smoking cessation. These results suggest that the expectation should be of decreased alcohol use post cessation. However, attention may be warranted for those who drink higher amounts of alcohol pre-cessation because they may be more likely to drink more in the post-quit period which may influence smoking cessation success. PMID:25997014

  13. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajès, Véronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós García, José Ramón; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of >5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption.

  14. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajès, Véronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós García, José Ramón; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of >5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption. PMID:25677034

  15. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.

  16. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake. PMID:18266487

  17. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  18. Reciprocal Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine in Smoking Cessation Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Carmody, Timothy P.; Humfleet, Gary; Delucchi, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Smoking and alcohol use are highly related; as such the present study investigated whether alcohol use is associated with failure in tobacco cessation attempts. We first examined the self-reported drinking behavior and smoking over the course of a year at a basic level. Next, we addressed two hypotheses to characterize this relationship at a deeper level: (H1) Alcohol use would be lower for those who attempted to quit smoking (quit for one or more days) during the year compared to those who never quit, and (H2) for those who relapsed to smoking after a quit increases in alcohol consumption would be positively associated with increases in smoking. Method Subjects were participants in two smoking cessation programs. One group of participants (N = 139) were part of a smoking cessation study in alcohol dependent smokers in early recovery and the other participants (N = 163) were drawn from a smoking cessation study for HIV positive smokers. H1 was tested using t-tests. For H2, a time series analysis examined relationships between smoking and alcohol use within person over a one year period. For D1 and for H4, the analyses utilized bivariate time series procedures. Timeline follow-back data allowed for detailed daily reports of both tobacco and alcohol use. Results In the overall sample, there was no difference in alcohol use between those who stopped smoking and those who never stopped. However, when broken up by study, a difference was found in the alcohol dependent sample such that mean drinks were higher for those who stopped compared to those who never stopped smoking (H1). The results indicated a high number of positive significant cross-correlations between tobacco and alcohol use such that one substance predicted current, as well as past and future use of the alternate substance. Same-day cross-correlations were the most common, and dissipated with time (H2). Conclusions This analysis provided insights into the proximal influence of one substance on

  19. A High Throughput Method for Estimating Mouth-Level Intake of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xizheng; Zhang, Liqin; Hearn, Bryan A.; Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Polzin, Gregory M.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We developed a high throughput method for estimating smoker’s mainstream smoke intake on a per-cigarette basis by analyzing discarded cigarette butts. This new method utilizes ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric analysis of isopropanol-soluble smoke particulate matter extracted from discarded cigarette filters. Methods When measured under a wide range of smoking conditions for a given brand variant, smoking machine delivery of nicotine, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines can be related to the overall filter extract absorbance at 360 nm. Once this relationship has been established, UV-Vis analysis of a discarded cigarette filter butt gives a quantitative measure of a smoker’s exposure to these analytes. Results The measured mainstream smoke constituents correlated closely (correlation coefficients from 0.9303 to 0.9941) with the filter extract absorbance. These high correlations held over a wide range of smoking conditions for 2R4F research cigarettes as well as popular domestic cigarette brands sold in the United States. Conclusions This low cost, high throughput method is suitable for high volume analyses (hundreds of samples per day) because UV-Vis spectrophotometry, rather than mass spectrometry, is used for the cigarette filter butt analysis. This method provides a stable and noninvasive means for estimating mouth-level delivery of many mainstream smoke constituents. The ability to gauge the mouthlevel intake of harmful chemicals and total mainstream smoke for cigarette smokers in a natural setting on a cigarette-by-cigarette basis can provide insights on factors contributing to morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking, as well as insights on strategies related to smoking cessation. PMID:25649054

  20. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  2. Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

    2014-06-01

    Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake.

  3. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  4. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  5. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population.

  6. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  7. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  8. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  9. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Padrão, Patrícia; Lunet, Nuno; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men). Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification), using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR) favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68) in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65) in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69) and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44). Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89). When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70) in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61) in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23.1; 95%CI: 12.2

  10. Alcohol and Smoking Affect Risk of Uncomplicated Colonic Diverticulosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Sekine, Katsunori; Tanaka, Shohei; Aoki, Tomonori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Junichi; Yanase, Mikio; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Mizokami, Masashi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are located predominantly on the right side in Asia and on the left side in Europe and the United States. Factors associated with uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis and its distribution pattern have been unknown. Our aims are to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in adults who underwent colonoscopy. Alcohol, alcohol related flushing, smoking, medications, and comorbidities were assessed by interview on the colonoscopy day. Alcohol consumption was categorized as nondrinker, light (1–180 g/week), moderate (181–360 g/week), and heavy (≥361 g/week). Smoking index was defined as the number of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of smoking years and categorized as nonsmoker, <400, 400–799, and ≥800. A total of 2,164 consecutive patients were enrolled. Overall, 542 patients (25.1%) had uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis located on the right side (50%), bilaterally (29%), and on the left side (21%). Univariate analysis revealed age, male, smoking index, alcohol consumption, aspirin use, anticoagulants use, corticosteroid use, hypertension, and atherosclerotic disease as factors significantly associated with diverticulosis. Alcohol related flushing was not associated with the disease. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age (P<0.01), increasing alcohol consumption (P<0.01) and smoking (P<0.01), and atherosclerotic disease (P<0.01) as significantly associated factors. Alcohol and smoking were associated with right-sided and bilateral diverticula. In conclusion, one in four Japanese adults have colonic diverticulosis (50% right-sided). Age, alcohol consumption, and smoking were found to be significant risk factors for uncomplicated colonic diverticulosis, particularly right-sided and bilateral. PMID:24339905

  11. Pulmonary cytokine composition differs in the setting of alcohol use disorders and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Davis, Christopher S

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, and cigarette smoking are widely acknowledged and common risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia. Reasons for these associations are likely complex but may involve an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines within the lung. Delineating the specific effects of alcohol, smoking, and their combination on pulmonary cytokines may help unravel mechanisms that predispose these individuals to pneumococcal pneumonia. We hypothesized that the combination of AUD and cigarette smoking would be associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and diminished anti-inflammatory cytokines, compared with either AUDs or cigarette smoking alone. Acellular BAL fluid was obtained from 20 subjects with AUDs, who were identified using a validated questionnaire, and 19 control subjects, matched on the basis of age, sex, and smoking history. Half were current cigarette smokers; baseline pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs were normal. A positive relationship between regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) with increasing severity of alcohol dependence was observed, independent of cigarette smoking (P = 0.0001). Cigarette smoking duration was associated with higher IL-1β (P = 0.0009) but lower VEGF (P = 0.0007); cigarette smoking intensity was characterized by higher IL-1β and lower VEGF and diminished IL-12 (P = 0.0004). No synergistic effects of AUDs and cigarette smoking were observed. Collectively, our work suggests that AUDs and cigarette smoking each contribute to a proinflammatory pulmonary milieu in human subjects through independent effects on BAL RANTES and IL-1β. Furthermore, cigarette smoking additionally influences BAL IL-12 and VEGF that may be relevant to the pulmonary immune response.

  12. Influence of alcohol intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Jain, B K; Nag, A K

    1994-01-01

    To study the influence of alcohol (ethanol) intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels, we studied 210 healthy middle-aged men (age 45 +/- 8 years). Other factors influencing HDLC (physical exercise, diet, smoking and body mass index) were also studied. Individuals were classified according to daily ethanol consumption. There were 39 teetotallers, 29 took drink, 30 took 1-1.9, 25 took 2-2.9, 26 took 3-3.9, 28 took 4-4.9 and 33 took 5 or more drinks per day (1 drink = 14 gm ethanol). The overall mean serum total cholesterol was 191.4 +/- 53 mg/dl and HDLC was 46.4 +/- 9 mg/dl. Total cholesterol in teetotallers was not different from those consuming different amounts of alcohol. HDLC in teetotallers (44.5 +/- 8 mg/dl) was significantly lower than in those taking 1-1.9 drinks (46.7 +/- 11 mg/dl, p < 0.05) and 2-2.9 drinks/day (51.4 +/- 9 mg/dl, p < 0.01) but was not different from those consuming > or = 3.0 drinks. There was a weak positive linear correlation between ethanol and HDLC (r = 0.016). HDLC levels were significantly lower in smokers (43.5 +/- 9 vs 47.2 +/- 11 mg/dl in non-smokers), in non-vegetarians (43.5 +/- 10 vs 46.2 +/- 9 mg/dl in vegetarians) and in those with sedentary habits (42.4 +/- 7 vs 46.1 +/- 10 mg/dl in physically active). Low level ethanol consumption (< 3 drinks or 42 gm per day) is associated with increased HDLC levels.

  13. Middle and high school students' exposure to alcohol- and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B Lynette; Shadel, William G

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors.

  14. Smoking, Alcohol Use, Obesity, and Overall Survival from Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Susan M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Allmer, Cristine; Davis, Scott; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Lynch, Charles F.; Wang, Sophia S.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Hartge, Patricia; Cerhan, James R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking, alcohol use, and obesity appear to increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few studies have assessed their impact on NHL prognosis. METHODS We evaluated the association of pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index (BMI) on overall survival in 1,286 patients enrolled through population-based registries in the United States from 1998–2000. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS Through 2007, 442 patients died (34%), and the median follow-up on living patients was 7.7 years. Compared to never smokers, former (HR=1.59; 95% CI 1.12–2.26) and current (HR=1.50; 95% CI 0.97–2.29) smokers had poorer survival, and poorer survival was positively associated with smoking duration, number of cigarettes smoked per day, pack-years of smoking, and shorter time since quitting (all p-trend<0.01). Alcohol use was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.03); compared to non-users, those drinking more than 43.1 grams/week (median of intake among drinkers) had poorer survival (HR=1.55; 95% CI 1.06–2.27) while those drinkers consuming less than this amount showed no survival disadvantage (HR=1.13; 95% CI 0.75–1.71). Greater body mass index was associated with poorer survival (p-trend=0.046), but the survival disadvantage was only seen among obese individuals (HR=1.32 for BMI ≥30 versus 20–24.9 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.02–1.70). These results held for lymphoma-specific survival and were broadly similar for DLBCL and follicular lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS NHL patients who smoked, consumed alcohol or were obese prior to diagnosis had a poorer overall and lymphoma-specific survival. PMID:20564404

  15. Opioidergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic manipulations and rats' intake of a sweetened alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, C L; Marglin, S H; Spitalnic, S J; Abelson, M L; Wild, K D; Reid, L D

    1991-01-01

    Groups of rats were maintained on a daily regimen of 22 h of water deprivation followed by a 2-h opportunity to take either water or a sweetened ethanol solution (ES). In one experiment, it was shown that previous morphine (M) dependence had no effect on initial daily intakes of fluids. After stable ES intakes were achieved, a variety of pharmacological manipulations were assessed for their effects on intake of the ES. Nalmefene, an opioid antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES, and was effective across days of injections. Fluoxetine (FX), a serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, also reduced ES intakes dose relatedly, and across days of injections, but the reduction was not as great as that seen with opioid antagonists. A small dose of M increased ES intakes when given in combination with an ineffective dose of FX, just as it does by itself. However, M had no effect on ES intakes in combination with an effective dose of FX. Pimozide (PIM), a dopaminergic antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES and water, and responding for positively reinforcing intracranial stimulation (ICS). When given in combination, M blunted PIM's reduction of ES intake, but had no effect on PIM's ability to decrease either intake of water or responding for ICS. Amphetamine did not reliably affect rats' intakes of ES across a range of doses. The data, in addition to previous work, lead to the idea that endogenous opioid systems are more salient, with respect to intake of alcoholic beverages, than the other tested neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the collective data suggest that a long-lasting opioid antagonist may be an effective pharmacological adjunct to other treatments for alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  16. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  17. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p < 0.001). In smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  19. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. PMID:27180107

  20. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  1. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  2. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  3. Conditioning Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laura P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Classical conditioning procedures were used to change the attitudes and choice of social behavior of elementary and secondary students associated with drinking, smoking, and the use of drugs. The experimental group expressed more negative attitudes toward smoking and drinking and chose the use of drugs less frequently. (Author/BW)

  4. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work from our laboratory. After summarizing evidence showing that adolescents differ considerably from adults in their sensitivity to various effects of alcohol, potential contributors to these age-typical sensitivities will be discussed, and the degree to which these findings are generalizable to other drugs and to human adolescents will be considered. Recent studies are then reviewed to illustrate that repeated alcohol exposure during adolescence induces behavioral, cognitive, and neural alterations that are highly specific, replicable, persistent and dependent on the timing of the exposure. Research in this area is in its early stages, however, and more work will be necessary to characterize the extent of these neurobehavioral alterations and further determine the degree to which observed effects are specific to alcohol exposure during adolescence. PMID:24291291

  5. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  6. ALCOHOL INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF FOURTEEN COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Leitzmann, Michael; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Reding, Douglas J.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Verhage, Bas AJ; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few risk factors have been implicated in pancreatic cancer etiology. Alcohol has been theorized to promote carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results relating alcohol intake to pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies. The study sample consisted of 862,664 individuals among whom 2,187 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS A slight positive association with pancreatic cancer risk was observed for alcohol intake (pooled multivariate RR =1.22, 95% CI 1.03–1.45 comparing ≥ 30 to 0 grams/day of alcohol; p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity= 0.80). For this comparison, the positive association was only statistically significant among women although the difference in the results by gender was not statistically significant (p-value, test for interaction = 0.19). Slightly stronger results for alcohol intake were observed when we limited the analysis to cases with adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. No statistically significant associations were observed for alcohol from wine, beer, and spirits comparing intakes of ≥ 5 to 0 grams/day. A stronger positive association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed among normal weight individuals compared to overweight and obese individuals (p-value, test for interaction = 0.01). DISCUSSION Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day. PMID:19258474

  7. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (p<0.05) CYP2B6 protein was seen in four brain regions of smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking non-alcoholics: hippocampus (5.8-fold), caudate nucleus (3.3-fold), putamen (3.0-fold) and cerebellar hemisphere (1.6-fold). The genetic variant C1459T (R487C) has been associated with reduced hepatic enzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  8. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  9. Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats.

    PubMed

    Audi, Sumedha S; Abraham, Marjorie E; Borker, Abhaya S

    2006-07-01

    One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

  10. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  11. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Uslu Yuvaci, Hilal; Yazici, Esra; Halimoglu Caliskan, Ebru; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan; Erol, Atila

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy. Method This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively), alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively), and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively). Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes) in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, also considered to be risky substances. A high incidence of smoking regularly during pregnancy was found in daily smokers. It is recommended that physicians should sensitively ask pregnant females presenting at clinics about all forms of substance use, including alcohol and synthetic cannabinoids, and to include such questions in their routine enquiries. PMID:27785104

  12. [Frequency of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and using drugs by the junior high school youth].

    PubMed

    Rzeńicki, Adam; Kowalska, Alina; Krakowiak, Jan; Chowański, Kamil; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    There is systematic decrease in the age of tobacco, alcohol and drug initiation in Poland among children and adolescents. Education concerning damage caused by smoking tobacco drinking alcohol and taking drugs, if started in due course, is of essence when it comes to the inhibition of these unfavourable phenomena. The aim of this work was to recognise the participation of smokers, people who drink alcohol and take drugs among students of junior high school as well as checking the dependency between early tobacco initiation and taking to drugs and alcohol among the youth. In March 2014, 288 students of 1-3 grades were included in the study of some selected junior high schools from the Moniecki region in Podlaskie voivodeship. While collecting empirical material, anonymous survey was carried out including 35 questions. Students were asked to fill it in freely during a lesson. In order to elaborate the collected data, descriptive meth, ods were used as well as methods of statistical interference. 163 women (56.6%) and 125 men (43.4%) were included in the survey. The most numerous group consisted of respondents at the age of 15 (40.1%) In the surveyed group, 100 students (34.7%) admitted to smoking at least one cigarette in their life. 6.3% of the respondents (18 people) smoked daily, whereas 9.0% (26 people) claimed they smoked occasionally. Majority of the surveyed people (51%, 147 people) answered that they had already drunk alcohol. 2.4% of the respondents (7 people) declared drinking daily whereas 18.4% (53 people) claimed to be drinking occasionally. Every tenth junior high school student stated the had used drugs at least once in their life (10.1%, 29 people). Despite the law in Poland prohibiting drug possession and trade as well as alcohol and tobacco purchase and consumption among minors, frequency of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette, and using drugs was high among the junior high school students.

  13. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  14. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  15. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  16. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor.

  17. Regulation of Milk Intake After Exposure to Alcohol in Mothers’ Milk

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Contrary to the folklore which claims that drinking alcohol during lactation benefits both mother and infant, previous research in our laboratory revealed that breastfed infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers’ consumption of an alcoholic beverage. Because breastfed infants are clearly capable of regulating milk intake, the present study tested the hypothesis that infants would compensate for the diminished milk intake if their mothers then refrained from drinking alcohol. Methods A within-subjects design that controlled for time of day was implemented because of the great individual and daily variation in both milk composition and intake. To this end, 12 exclusively breastfed infants and their mothers were tested on 2 days separated by 1 week. Each woman drank a 0.3 g/kg dose of alcohol in orange juice on one testing day and orange juice alone on the other; the order was counterbalanced. The infants’ behaviors were monitored for the next 16 hr, the first 4 hr of monitoring on each test day occurred at the Monell Center. The infants fed on demand and immediately before and after each feeding, infants were weighed without a change in clothing. Results Consistent with previous findings, infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4 hr immediately after exposure to alcohol in mothers’ milk compared with the control condition. Compensatory increases in intake were then observed during the 8 to 16 hr after exposure when mothers refrained from drinking alcohol. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that short-term exposure to small amounts of alcohol in mothers’ milk produces distinctive changes in the infants’ patterns of feeding. PMID:11329500

  18. Involvement of purinergic P2X4 receptors in alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Lasek, Amy W.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The P2X4 receptor is thought to be involved in regulating alcohol-consuming behaviors and ethanol (EtOH) has been reported to inhibit P2X4 receptors. Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic agent that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the P2X4 receptor. The current study examined the effects of systemically- and centrally-administered ivermectin on alcohol drinking of replicate lines of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD-1/HAD-2) rats, and the effects of lentiviral-delivered short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting P2rx4 on EtOH intake of female HAD2 rats. Method For the 1st experiment, adult male HAD-1 & HAD-2 rats were given 24-hr free-choice access to 15% EtOH vs. water. Dose-response effects of ivermectin (1.5 to 7.5 mg/kg i.p.) on EtOH intake were determined; the effects of ivermectin were then examined for 2% w/v sucrose intake over 5 consecutive days. In the 2nd experiment, female HAD-2 rats were trained to consume 15% EtOH under 2-hr limited access conditions, and dose-response effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ivermectin (0.5 to 2.0 μg) were determined over 5 consecutive days. The 3rd experiment determined the effects of microinfusion of a lentivirus expressing P2rx4 shRNAs into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) on 24-hr EtOH free-choice drinking of female HAD-2 rats. Results The highest i.p. dose of ivermectin reduced alcohol drinking (30-45%) in both rat lines, but did not alter sucrose intake. HAD-2 rats appeared to be more sensitive than HAD1 rats to the effects of ivermectin. ICV administration of ivermectin reduced 2-hr limited access intake (∼35%) of female HAD-2 rats; knockdown of P2rx4 expression in the posterior VTA reduced 24-hr free choice EtOH intake (∼20%). Conclusion Overall, the results of the current study support a role for P2X4 receptors within the mesolimbic system in mediating alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:26334550

  19. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  20. Frequency of alcohol and smoking cessation counseling in hepatitis C patients among internists and gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Tanu; Reyes, Mary; Nguyen, Huy; Borum, Marie

    2009-12-21

    Given the overwhelming evidence that both alcohol consumption and smoking accelerate the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease, we evaluated the frequency of alcohol and smoking counseling of patients with HCV-induced liver disease by their primary care internists and gastroenterologists. One hundred and twenty-three medical records of consecutive patients with HCV-induced liver disease referred by an internist to a gastroenterologist for its management were reviewed. Patient gender, race, history of and counseling against alcohol and tobacco use by a physician and a gastroenterologist were obtained. A database was created using Microsoft Excel. There were 105 African-Americans, 12 Caucasians and six patients of other races/ethnicities. Forty-six (37%) patients were daily tobacco users and 34 (28%) patients were daily alcohol consumers. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of alcohol (P = 0.0002) and smoking cessation (P = 0.0022) between gastroenterologists and internists. This study reveals that internists and gastroenterologists, alike, inadequately counsel patients with hepatitis C about tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:20014469

  1. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  2. Coffee intake, smoking, and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Follis, Jack L; Schabath, Matthew B

    2009-06-15

    Coffee contains polyphenolic antioxidants and caffeine, which may favorably affect pulmonary function. Therefore, the authors studied cross-sectional associations (1987-1989) between coffee intake and pulmonary function in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a population-based cohort study (analytic sample = 10,658). They also conducted analyses stratified by smoking status, since smoking is a strong risk factor for respiratory disease and could influence the effects of caffeine and antioxidants. Self-reported coffee intake was categorized as rare/never, <7 cups/week, 1 cup/day, 2-3 cups/day, and >or=4 cups/day. Pulmonary function was characterized by the spirometric measures forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). After adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, and dietary factors, pulmonary function values increased across increasing categories of coffee consumption in never and former smokers but not in current smokers. In never or former smokers who consumed >or=4 cups of coffee daily, FVC and FEV(1) were 2%-3% greater than in never or former smokers who rarely/never consumed coffee (P(trend) values: in never smokers, 0.04 for FVC and 0.07 for FEV(1); in former smokers, <0.001 for FVC and <0.001 for FEV(1)). These data show a possible beneficial effect of coffee (or a coffee ingredient) on pulmonary function, but it appears to be limited to nonsmokers.

  3. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  4. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future.

  5. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  6. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  7. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  8. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  9. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  10. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  11. Alcohol Intake is Associated with Increased Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Three US Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Satu; Han, Jiali; Li, Tricia; Cho, Eunyoung; Nijsten, Tamar; Qureshi, Abrar

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol intake and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is unclear. We studied the association between alcohol intake and incident invasive cSCC in three cohorts of women and men with repeated assessments of alcohol intake in the US. Information on alcohol intake was collected repeatedly during follow-up. Cumulative average of alcohol intakes was used. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent exposure were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals, followed by a meta-analysis. During a follow-up of 4,234,416 person-years, 2,938 cSCC were identified. Alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of cSCC with a dose-response relationship. Each additional drink (12.8 gram of alcohol) per day was associated with a 22% increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.31). White wine consumption of ≥5 times/wk was associated with an increased risk of cSCC (RR 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.59). We found no increased risk of cSCC with other alcoholic beverages. The population-attributable risk associated with alcohol intake of ≥20 grams/d was 3% of cSCCs. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with an elevated risk of cSCC. Among alcoholic beverages, white wine was associated with cSCC. PMID:27145335

  12. Combined Effects of Smoking and Alcohol on Metabolic Syndrome: The LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marieke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van Beek, André P.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI<25, normal weight; BMI 25–30, overweight; BMI≥30 kg/m2, obese). MetS was defined according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Within each BMI class and smoking subgroup (non-smoker, former smoker, <20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day), the cross-sectional association between alcohol and individual MetS components was tested using regression analysis. Results Prevalence of MetS varied greatly between the different smoking-alcohol subgroups (1.7–71.1%). HDL cholesterol levels in all alcohol drinkers were higher than in non-drinkers (0.02 to 0.29 mmol/L, P values<0.001). HDL cholesterol levels were lower when they were also a former or current smoker (<20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day). Consumption of ≤1 drink/day indicated a trend towards lower triglyceride levels (non-significant). Concurrent use alcohol (>1 drink/day) and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. Conclusion Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:24781037

  13. Integrating alcohol response feedback in a brief intervention for young adult heavy drinkers who smoke: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Cao, Dingcai; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Background More effective approaches are needed to enhance drinking and other health behavior (e.g., smoking) outcomes of alcohol brief intervention (BI). Young adult heavy drinkers often engage in other health risk behaviors and show sensitivity to alcohol’s stimulating and rewarding effects, which predicts future alcohol-related problems. However, standard alcohol BIs do not address these issues. The current pilot study tested the utility of including feedback on alcohol response phenotype to improve BI outcomes among young adult heavy drinkers who smoke (HDS). Methods Thirty-three young adult (M ± SD age = 23.8 ± 2.1 years) HDS (8.7 ± 4.3 binge episodes/month; 23.6 ± 6.3 smoking days/month) were randomly assigned to standard alcohol BI (BI-S; n = 11), standard alcohol BI with personalized alcohol response feedback (BI-ARF; n = 10), or a health behavior attention control BI (AC; n = 11). Alcohol responses (stimulation, sedation, reward, and smoking urge) for the BI-ARF were recorded during a separate alcohol challenge session (0.8 g/kg). Outcomes were past-month drinking and smoking behavior assessed at 1- and 6-months post-intervention. Results At 6-month follow-up, the BI-ARF produced significant reductions in binge drinking, alcohol-smoking co-use, drinking quantity and frequency, and smoking frequency, but not maximum drinks per occasion, relative to baseline. Overall, the BI-ARF produced larger reductions in drinking/smoking behaviors at follow-up than did the BI-S or AC. Conclusions Including personalized feedback on alcohol response phenotype may improve BI outcomes for young adult HDS. Additional research is warranted to enhance and refine this approach in a broader sample. PMID:26341847

  14. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identifies K-ras as a regulator of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; van der Stap, Lena D; Chen, Jihuan; Sabino, Valentina; Wagner, Ulrich; Zorrilla, Eric P; Schumann, Gunter; Roberts, Amanda J; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-06-21

    Adaptations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. To identify genes that may contribute to excessive drinking, here we performed microarray analyses in laser microdissected rat ACC after a single or repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol (3 g/kg). Expression of the small G protein K-ras was differentially regulated following both single and repeated alcohol administration. We also observed that voluntary alcohol intake in K-ras heterozygous null mice (K-ras(+/-)) did not increase after withdrawal from repeated cycles of intermittent ethanol vapor exposure, unlike in their wild-type littermates. To identify K-ras regulated pathways, we then profiled gene expression in the ACC of K-ras(+/-), heterozygous null mice for the K-ras negative regulator Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) and wild-type mice following repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol. Pathway analysis showed that alcohol differentially affected various pathways in a K-ras dependent manner - some of which previously shown to be regulated by alcohol - including the insulin/PI3K pathway, the NF-kappaB, the phosphodiesterases (PDEs) pathway, the Jak/Stat and the adipokine signaling pathways. Altogether, the data implicate K-ras-regulated pathways in the regulation of excessive alcohol drinking after a history of dependence.

  15. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Peng, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia A.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tobacco smoke are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers to VOCs from secondhand smoke (SHS) in vehicles using mercapturic acid metabolites. Methods Fourteen nonsmokers were individually exposed in the backseat to one hour of SHS from a smoker seating in the driver’s seat who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 minute intervals in a stationary car with windows opened by 10 cm. Baseline and 0-8 h post-exposure mercapturic acid metabolites of 9 VOCs were measured in urine. Air-to-urine VOC ratios were estimated based on respirable particulates (PM2.5) or air nicotine concentration, and lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene was estimated for adults. Results The greatest increase in 0-8 h post-exposure concentrations of mercapturic acids from baseline was MHBMA-3 (parent, 1,3-butadiene) (2.1-fold), then CNEMA (acrylonitrile) (1.7-fold), PMA (benzene) (1.6-fold), MMA (methylating agents) (1.6-fold), and HEMA (ethylene oxide) (1.3-fold). The LER of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene in SHS for 5 hour a week ranged from 15.5×10−6 to 28.1×10−6 for adults, using air nicotine and PM2.5 to predict air VOC exposure, respectively. Conclusion Nonsmokers have significant intake of multiple VOCs from breathing SHS in cars, corresponding to health risks that exceed the acceptable level. Impact Smoking in cars may be associated with increased risks of cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases among nonsmokers. PMID:25398951

  16. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD.

  17. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  18. Does maternal tobacco smoking modify the effect of alcohol on fetal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Pereira, A da C; Olsen, S F

    1991-01-01

    Smoking and drinking habits were registered by a self-administered questionnaire in 36th week of gestation in 11,698 pregnant women, more than 80 percent of all such women in two Danish cities 1984-87. Alcohol consumption of 120 g/week or more was associated with a greater reduction in the average birthweight in the babies of smokers than of non-smokers (about 40 grams for the non-smokers and about 200 grams for the smokers). This is particularly striking considering that the average birthweight for smokers is lower than for non-smokers. A birthweight difference of more than 500 grams was found between babies of mothers who neither smoked nor drank and mothers who smoked and drank heavily. Our data suggest that women's smoking habits should be taken into consideration when giving pregnant women advice about drinking. PMID:1983919

  19. An Indian herbal formula (SKV) for controlling voluntary ethanol intake in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, E R; Shanmugasundaram, K R

    1986-08-01

    Chronic ethanol ingestion in rats showed metabolic and physiological changes similar to alterations reported in human alcoholics. There was a lowering of blood glucose concentration, urea and plasma proteins and elevated concentrations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Administration of SKV, an Ayurvedic formula produced by fermentation of cane sugar with raisins and 12 herbal ingredients brought down voluntary ethanol ingestion in the rats and increased food intake. ECG and EEG studies in alcoholic rats showed cardiac depression, augmentation of frequency and amplitude of the alpha, delta and theta waves and weakness in the beta waves. These changes were reversed during SKV-induced voluntary alcohol restriction. The involvement in the ECG and EEG wave patterns was associated with improvement in blood glucose, plasma protein levels and reduction in gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities. SKV appeared to have no adverse reaction with ethanol (it contains 1-2% ethanol) and appears to be a promising way to combat alcoholism. PMID:3796018

  20. Caffeinated and alcoholic beverage intake in relation to ovulatory disorder infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined whether caffeine, alcohol, or specific beverages containing these affect fertility in women. However most of these studies have retrospectively collected information on alcohol and caffeine intake, making the results susceptible to biases. Methods We followed 18,555 married women without a history of infertility for 8 years as they attempted to become (or became) pregnant. Diet was measured twice during this period and prospectively related to the incidence of ovulatory disorder infertility. Results There were 438 incident report of ovulatory disorder infertility during follow-up. Intakes of alcohol and caffeine were unrelated to the risk of ovulatory disorder infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), P for trend comparing the highest to lowest categories of intake were 1.11 (0.76–1.64; 0.78) for alcohol and 0.86 (0.61–1.20; 0.44) for total caffeine. However, intake of caffeinated soft drinks was positively related to ovulatory disorder infertility. The multivariate-adjusted RR 95% CI, and P for trend comparing the highest to lowest categories of caffeinated soft drink consumption were 1.47 (1.09–1.98; 0.01). Similar associations were observed for noncaffeinated, sugared, diet and total soft drinks. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that alcohol and caffeine impair ovulation to the point of decreasing fertility. The association between soft drinks and ovulatory disorder infertility appears not to be attributable to their caffeine or sugar content, and deserves further investigation. PMID:19279491

  1. Smoking and alcohol consumption patterns among elderly Canadians with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobility disability is a major adverse health outcome associated with aging and an impediment to older adults’ well-being and behaviors in social and leisure activities. It has been shown that lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption, have been used as coping strategies to deal with the negative impact of disability. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among older Canadians with different levels of mobility disabilities and to examine factors associated with these two lifestyle patterns among those with disabilities. Methods Secondary data analysis was performed using individuals (n = 6,038) aged 65 years and older from both the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey and the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the relationship between disability severity and smoking as well as alcohol consumption while controlling for potential confounding socioeconomic factors. Results The proportion of current smokers among seniors with less-severe and more-severe mobility disabilities and those in the general population was comparable with 12.55%, 11.57% and 11.93%, respectively. Forty-eight percent of seniors in the general population consumed alcohol regularly, compared to only 12.85% with more-severe mobility disabilities. No significant association was shown between the severity level of mobility disabilities and smoking (odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.08). However, seniors having more-severe disability were less likely to consume alcohol regularly (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.89). Other variables including age, gender, income, living status, and social participation also impacted these lifestyle patterns among the study population. Conclusions Smoking and alcohol patterns present different associations with the severity level of mobility disabilities. Compared with the general

  2. Chronic alcohol intake upregulates hepatic expression of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and PPAR in rats.

    PubMed

    Luvizotto, Renata A M; Nascimento, André F; Veeramachaneni, Sudipta; Liu, Chun; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2010-10-01

    Excessive and chronic alcohol intake leads to a lower hepatic vitamin A status by interfering with vitamin A metabolism. Dietary provitamin A carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A mainly by carotenoid 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (CMO1) and, to a lesser degree, carotenoid 9'10'-monooxygenase 2 (CMO2). CMO1 has been shown to be regulated by several transcription factors, such as the PPAR, retinoid X receptor, and thyroid receptor (TR). The regulation of CMO2 has yet to be identified. The impact of chronic alcohol intake on hepatic expressions of CMO1 and CMO2 and their related transcription factors are unknown. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were pair-fed either a liquid ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet (n = 10) or a control diet (n = 10) for 11 wk. Hepatic retinoid concentration and expressions of CMO1, CMO2, PPARγ, PPARα, and TRβ as well as plasma thyroid hormones levels were analyzed. We observed that administering alcohol decreased hepatic retinoid levels but increased mRNA concentrations of CMO1, CMO2, PPARγ, PPARα, and TRβ and upregulated protein levels of CMO2, PPARγ, and PPARα. There was a positive correlation of PPARγ with CMO1 (r = 0.89; P < 0.0001) and both PPARγ and PPARα with CMO2 (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 and r = 0.62, P < 0.01, respectively). Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations did not differ between the control rats and alcohol-fed rats. This study suggests that chronic alcohol intake significantly upregulates hepatic expression of CMO1 and, to a much lesser extent, CMO2. This process may be due to alcohol-induced PPARγ expression and lower vitamin A status in the liver.

  3. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  4. Neighborhood environment perceptions and the likelihood of smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Heinrich, Katie M; Haddock, Christopher K; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, LaVerne; Poston, Walker S C

    2015-01-14

    Neighborhood characteristics are important correlates for a variety of health outcomes. Among several health risk behaviors, smoking and alcohol use have significant consequences. Perceptions of neighborhood problems are associated with depressive symptoms, lower physical activity, and lower quality of life. However, it is unclear which perceived aspects of neighborhoods might be related to smoking and drinking. We examined whether perceived neighborhood characteristics were associated with smoking and drinking patterns using data from US metropolitan Midwestern area adults. Participants completed surveys including sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood perceptions, behavioral and psychological health. For men, negative perceptions of neighborhood infrastructures were significant predictors for smoking and binge drinking. Among women, no perceived environmental factors were associated with smoking or drinking. However, education was a significant negative predictor for smoking. As age increased, the likelihood of using cigarettes, heavy and binge drinking in women decreased significantly. Depression was a positive predictor for smoking and heavy drinking in men and women, respectively. These findings indicate that the perceived neighborhood infrastructure was predictive of health behaviors among men, even after adjusting for key confounders. Closer attention may need to be paid to the role of neighborhood environmental characteristics along with individual-level characteristics in influencing unhealthy behaviors.

  5. Factors associated with readiness to stop smoking among patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anne; Lexau, Ben; Willenbring, Mark; Nugent, Sean; Nelson, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation (TASC) Study is a randomized controlled trial that examines the optimal timing of intervention for nicotine dependence in patients with alcohol use disorders. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline characteristics of study participants was used to identify characteristics associated with readiness of patients in intensive treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence to quit smoking. Baseline characteristics of 499 subjects enrolled in the TASC trial were analyzed. Readiness to quit was assessed by two self-rated measures: being in the preparation/action stages of change and scoring at least an 8 on the Contemplation Ladder. Univariate analyses showed a higher prevalence of African-Americans and other minorities than Caucasian, among participants planning to quit in the next month (p = 0.005). There were no other differences between groups. Participants in the preparation/action stages of change experienced significantly lower rates of current (p = 0.011) and past (p = 0.014) major depressive disorder and displayed significantly less current depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory (p = 0.008). Patients with Contemplation Ladder ratings between 8 and 10 showed similar results. Logistic regression models consistently confirmed that the degree of depression was negatively associated with the intention to quit, but different models suggested that increasing age, shorter duration of smoking history, race other than white, and a greater number of past quit attempts were positively associated with readiness to quit. Among patients in intensive treatment for alcohol use disorders who smoke, a history of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms predict less interest in quitting smoking.

  6. Activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide produces a prolonged increase of voluntary alcohol intake in mice

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Geil, C.; Perra, S.; Morikawa, H.; Harris, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mice with genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption as well as human alcoholics show changes in brain expression of genes related to immune signaling. In addition, mutant mice lacking genes related to immune function show decreased alcohol consumption (Blednov et al., in press), suggesting that immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption. To test the possibility that activation of immune signaling will increase alcohol consumption, we treated mice with lipopolysaccaride (LPS; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested alcohol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. To take advantage of the long-lasting activation of brain immune signaling by LPS, we measured drinking beginning one week or one month after LPS treatment and continued the studies for several months. LPS produced persistent increases in alcohol consumption in C57/Bl6 J (B6) inbred mice, FVBxB6F1 and B6xNZBF1 hybrid mice, but not in FVB inbred mice. To determine if this effect of LPS is mediated through binding to TLR4, we tested mice lacking CD14, a key component of TLR4 signaling. These null mutants showed no increase of alcohol intake after treatment with LPS. LPS treatment decreased ethanol-conditioned taste aversion but did not alter ethanol-conditioned place preference (B6xNZBF1 mice). Electro-physiological studies of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area showed that pretreatment of mice with LPS decreased the neuronal firing rate. These results suggest that activation of immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption and alters certain aspects of alcohol reward/aversion. PMID:21266194

  7. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  8. Alcoholic fatty liver in rats: Role of fat and ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W. ); Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1991-03-11

    The claim that high intake of both ethanol and fat is essential to induce fatty liver and high blood alcohol levels (BAL) was tested. Two groups of rats were fed liquid diets containing 26% and 36% of calories as ethanol respectively. After 4 weeks, all rats were bled for BAL and some were sacrificed to obtain liver morphology. Remaining rats in Group 1 (26% ethanol) were switched to 36% ethanol diet and Group 2 (36% ethanol) to 26% ethanol diet. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks to obtain blood for BAL and liver morphology. The results indicate that high ethanol intake and high fat ingestion is not the criterion for induction of fatty liver. Inadequate ingestion of macronutrients plays a major role in alcoholic fatty liver and BAL.

  9. [Smoking behavior and alcohol drinking in students in a rural area of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, R; Zirm, E; Uischner, C

    2001-06-01

    The present investigation ("Torgau Study") provides epidemiological information on a target population which in the past has hardly been in the focus of health promotion activities: the subgroup of children and adolescents of rural regions in Eastern Germany. A total survey was conducted that encompassed all classes from grade 6 to 10 of all schools in the district of Torgau (Saxony). Together, 5,925 students in the age range 12 to 16 years participated in this study (participation rate: 81.3%). The results provide a differentiated picture of their smoking behavior and alcohol use broken down by gender, school-type and grade. With respect to smoking the data show that the prevalence of regular smokers (i.e., daily smokers) in grade 10 is 41% in the Mittelschule (the school-type with a stronger vocational orientation) and 29% in the Gymnasium (the school-type with a university-preparatory curriculum). 51.9% of all students report that at least one parent smokes. There is a highly significant association between smoking status of the parents and smoking status of their children. The analysis of reasons for smoking highlight the stepwise transition into nicotine dependency from a psychological perspective. Most of the adolescents (about 80%) know about the dangers of passive smoking. However, with increasing age this knowledge loses its subjective relevance because dissonance-reducing strategies are applied ("doesn't matter"-attitude). Among girls, even in grade 10, there are almost no daily alcohol consumers (less than 1%); among boys in grade 10 the rate of daily alcohol users is about 8%. The rate of those 10th graders who consume alcoholic beverages at least once a week is however 30.6% (girls: 18.7%; boys: 44.2%). The longer the alcohol experience the more specific become the social and emotional motives for drinking. Altogether, the results suggest that efforts to prevent substance misuse in the rural regions of Eastern Germany are as necessary as in other

  10. Homer2 within the nucleus accumbens core bidirectionally regulates alcohol intake by both P and Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Arshad; Woodward, Nicholas C.; Lominac, Kevin D.; Sacramento, Arianne D.; Klugmann, Matthias; Bell, Richard L.; Szumlinski, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    In murine models of alcoholism, the glutamate receptor scaffolding protein Homer2 bidirectionally regulates alcohol intake. Although chronic alcohol drinking increases Homer2 expression within the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-preferring P rats, the relevance of this neuroadaptation for alcohol intake has yet to be determined in rats. Thus, the present study employed an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) strategy to over-express and knock down the major rodent isoform Homer2b within the NAc of both P and outbred Wistar rats to examine for changes in alcohol preference and intake (0–30% v/v) under continuous-access procedures. The generalization of AAV effects to non-drug, palatable, sweet solutions was also determined in tests of sucrose (0–5% w/v) and saccharin (0–0.125% w/v) intake/preference. No net-flux in vivo microdialysis was conducted for glutamate in the NAc to relate Homer2-dependent changes in alcohol intake to extracellular levels of glutamate. Line differences were noted for sweet solution preference and intake, but these variables were not affected by intra-NAc AAV infusion in either line. In contrast, Homer2b over-expression elevated, while Homer2b knock-down reduced, alcohol intake in both lines, and this effect was greatest at the highest concentration. Strikingly, in P rats there was a direct association between changes in Homer2b expression and NAc extracellular glutamate levels, but this effect was not seen in Wistar rats. These data indicate that NAc Homer2b expression actively regulates alcohol consumption by rats, paralleling this previous observation in mice. Overall, these findings underscore the importance of mesocorticolimbic glutamate activity in alcohol abuse/dependence and suggest that Homer2b and/or its constituents may serve as molecular targets for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:26254965

  11. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: evidence for correlated genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jenny H.D.A.; de Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Sinke, Michel R.T.; de Geus, Eco. J.C.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Kluft, Cornelis; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT to alcohol use, which may result from genetic differences between individuals. This study aimed to determine whether the epidemiological association between alcohol intake and GGT at the population level is necessarily a causal one or may also reflect effects of genetic pleiotropy (genes influencing multiple traits). Methods Data on alcohol intake (grams alcohol/day) and GGT, originating from twins, their siblings and parents (N=6,465), were analyzed with structural equation models. Bivariate genetic models tested whether genetic and environmental factors influencing alcohol intake and GGT correlated significantly. Significant genetic and environmental correlations are consistent with a causal model. If only the genetic correlation is significant, this is evidence for genetic pleiotropy. Results Phenotypic correlations between alcohol intake and GGT were significant in men (r=.17) and women (r=.09). The genetic factors underlying alcohol intake correlated significantly with those for GGT, whereas the environmental factors were weakly correlated (explaining 4-7% vs. 1-2% of the variance in GGT respectively). Conclusions In this healthy population sample, the epidemiological association of alcohol intake with GGT is at least partly explained by genetic pleiotropy. Future longitudinal twin studies should determine whether a causal mechanism underlying this association might be confined to heavy drinking populations. PMID:24120856

  12. Associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with low-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M

    1997-06-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with LDL subclasses in 355 individuals. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.05 nm within seven LDL subclasses: LDL-IVB (22.0 to 23.2 nm), LDL-IVA (23.3 to 24.1 nm), LDL-IIIB (24.2 to 24.6 nm), LDL-IIIA (24.7 to 25.5 nm), LDL-II (25.5 to 26.4 nm), LDL-I (26.0 to 28.5 nm), and intermediate-size lipoproteins (ISL, 28.0 to 32.0 nm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements of weight and height. In adult men, body mass index correlated positively with LDL-III, and alcohol intake correlated positively with larger LDL-I. Age was positively correlated with LDL-IIIA and ISL in both men and women and with LDL-IIIB and LDL-II in women. Postmenopausal women had higher LDL-IIIA, LDL-II, and ISL than both premenopausal and premenarchal females. Adult males, > or = 18 years old, had higher levels of LDL-IIIA and LDL-II than younger males. Adjustment for fasting plasma triglyceride levels eliminated the significant associations between age and LDL-IIIA in both men and women and between age and LDL-II in women. Partial correlation analyses showed that reductions in the LDL peak diameter associated with increasing age, male sexual maturation, menopause, and adiposity are attributable to increases in the LDL-IIIA subclass. Thus, densitometric measurements of protein-stained gradient gels reveal specific relationships between LDL subclasses and age, adiposity, and alcohol intake beyond those identified by the LDL peak or average diameter.

  13. Nicotine Blocks the Depressogenic Effects of Alcohol: Implications for Drinking-Smoking Co-Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Kalejaiye, Olubukola; Bhatti, Babur H; Taylor, Robert E; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are two very commonly abused legal substances. Although various hypotheses for such co-dependence have been suggested, it is not known whether the effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood behavior may also contribute to such co-abuse. Chronic exposure to high alcohol levels may lead to various neurochemical changes and precipitate depressive-like behavior. Nicotine, on the other hand, may exert an antidepressant-like effect. Here, we sought to determine whether nicotine may also block or mitigate the "depressogenic" effects of alcohol in a rat model. Moreover, since hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been strongly implicated in mood regulation and effectiveness of antidepressants, the level of this neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus was also evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were injected (i.p.) with alcohol (1.0 g/kg), nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) or their combination once daily for 14 days. Controls received saline. The behavior of these rats in open field locomotor activity (LMA), the forced swim test (FST), a measure of helplessness, and sucrose intake, a measure of anhedonia were evaluated 16-18 h after the last injection. Chronic alcohol did not affect LMA, but increased immobility in FST and decreased sucrose consumption, suggesting a "depressogenic" effect. Nicotine by itself did not affect any of the measured behavior but blocked alcohol-induced changes in FST and sucrose intake. Parallel to the behavioral changes, chronic alcohol resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampal BDNF, which was normalized by nicotine. These findings suggest that the opposing effects of alcohol and nicotine on depressive-like behavior may contribute to their co-abuse. PMID:25309774

  14. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  15. Contextual and individual demographic determinants of alcohol consumption and smoking: a comparative study in southwestern China and southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Le, Cai; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Apakupakul, Nualta

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between contextual and individual demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption and smoking in southwestern China and southern Thailand. In 2000, a cross-sectional study was carried out in southern Thailand on 703 subjects > or = 45 years old, and in 2005 in southwestern China on 6,006 subjects. Each participant was interviewed by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Information regarding demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was obtained. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model variation in the prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. The findings in both countries indicate that age was negatively associated with the probability of consuming alcohol and males were more likely to consume alcohol and tobacco than females. Chinese communities with a lower level of education were more likely to smoke. Thai individuals with a higher educational level were less likely to smoke. Yi ethnicity was associated with a higher probability of drinking both at the contextual level and at the individual level in China. Non-Muslims were more likely to consume alcohol in Thailand. Future contextual and individual level interventions regarding alcohol drinking and smoking are needed in China, and further studies with larger sample sizes are needed in Thailand before conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  17. EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON D2/D3 STRIATAL RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN ALCOHOLICS AND SOCIAL DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Daniel S.; Kareken, David A.; Yoder, Karmen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies have reported lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D2/D3 receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D2/D3 receptor availability. Method Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [11C]raclopride scans. D2/D3 binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs). Results Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smoking controls. Conclusions Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability. PMID:23649848

  18. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. PMID:23148856

  19. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value.

  20. Driving impairment due to sleepiness is exacerbated by low alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J; Reyner, L; Barrett, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve healthy young men drove for two hours in the afternoon, in an instrumented car on a simulated motorway. In a repeated measures, counterbalanced design, they were given alcohol or placebo under conditions of normal sleep or prior sleep restriction. Measurements were: driving impairment (lane drifting), subjective sleepiness, and EEG measures of sleepiness. Results: Whereas sleep restriction and alcohol each caused a significant deterioration in all indices, the combined alcohol and sleep restriction further and significantly worsened lane drifting (which typifies sleep related crashes). This combined effect was also reflected to a significant extent in the EEG, but not with subjective sleepiness. That is, alcohol did not significantly increase subjective sleepiness in combination with sleep loss when compared with sleep loss alone. Conclusions: Modest, and apparently "safe" levels of alcohol intake exacerbate driving impairment due to sleepiness. The sleepy drivers seemed not to have realised that alcohol had increased their sleepiness to an extent that was clearly reflected by a greater driving impairment and in the EEG. PMID:12937193

  1. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life With Regard to Smoking, Consumption of Alcohol, and Sports Participation

    PubMed Central

    Emamvirdi, Rezvan; Hosseinzadeh Asl, Navidreza; Colakoglu, Filiz Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important determinant in a person’s life. Objectives In this study aimed at physical education students, alcohol consumption and smoking as risk factors and sports as a healthy factor could affect HRQoL. Patients and Methods This study was an analytical cross-sectional study. For our purpose, the subjects (n = 519) were asked to answer the SF-36 questionnaire (short form health survey for HRQOL). To analyze the data, two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the independent-samples t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were conducted. In this study, the P < 0.05 was considered a significant difference, and due to a Bonferroni correction, for ANOVAs tests, a P < 0.0125 was considered a significant difference. Results The results suggest that statistically significant differences for alcohol consumption were only obtained from the role-emotional (RE) scale, in which drinkers had lower mean scores than nondrinkers. For smoking, significant differences were obtained from the scales of RE, vitality (VT), emotional well-being (EW), social functioning (SF), and general health (GH), in which nonsmokers outdid smokers. The combination of alcohol drinking and smoking led to statistically significant lower scores on the RE scale and strongly destroyed the role-emotional part of HRQOL. Conclusions It can be concluded that smoking and alcohol consumption may be related to poor HRQOL in physical education and sports students despite the fact that they regularly engage in sports programs that could positively affect their HRQOL. PMID:27651950

  3. Dual association between polyphenol intake and breast cancer risk according to alcohol consumption level: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the association between polyphenols dietary intake and breast cancer risk have been limited due to the lack of detailed food composition tables. In addition, none has examined this association according to alcohol intake, despite the facts that alcohol is an established risk factor for breast cancer and that the contribution of alcoholic beverages to polyphenol intake varies according to the level of alcohol consumption. Our objectives were (1) to estimate the associations between breast cancer risk and a wide range of dietary polyphenols using the recently published Phenol-Explorer database; and (2) to evaluate if/how alcohol intake modulates these relationships. 4,141 women from the SU.VI.MAX prospective cohort were followed from 1994 to 2007 (median followup: 12.6 years); 152 developed a first incident invasive primary breast cancer. Dietary intakes were assessed by repeated 24-h records. The Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for quartiles of polyphenol intake. Analyses were stratified by median alcohol intake (< vs. ≥ 6.5 g/d). In non-to-low alcohol drinkers, intakes of some classes of polyphenols were associated with decreased breast cancer risk: hydroxybenzoic acids (HR(Q4vsQ1) = 0.38, 95 % CI: 0.17-0.86, P (trend) = 0.005), flavonoids (0.35, 0.17-0.75, P (trend) = 0.02), flavonols (0.36, 0.18-0.74, P (trend) = 0.002), catechins (0.48, 0.22-1.05, P (trend) = 0.02), theaflavins (0.42, 0.19-0.93, P (trend) = 0.02), and proanthocyanidins (0.39, 0.18-0.84, P (trend) = 0.02). In contrast, in women with higher alcohol use, intakes of hydroxybenzoic acids (2.28, 1.16-4.49, P (trend) = 0.04), flavonoids (2.46, 1.23-4.92, P (trend) = 0.01), anthocyanins (2.94, 1.32-6.53, P (trend) = 0.01), catechins (2.28, 1.19-4.36, P (trend) = 0.02), and proanthocyanidins (2.98, 1.40-6.33, P (trend) = 0.006) were

  4. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  5. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  6. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  7. [Consumption of medications, alcohol and smoking in pregnancy and assessment of teratogenic risks].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rebeca Silveira; Bezerra, Samara Cavalcante; Lima, José Welington de Oliveira; Costa, Fabrício da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Medications, alcohol and smoking can cause fetal damage. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 mothers of the Fortaleza General Hospital to evaluate the use of drugs, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy and its relation to teratogenic potential in different population characteristics, between 2006 and 2007. Postpartum women who had their babies in the research site were included and those whose babies were not admitted as hospital inpatients were excluded. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used in the analysis, with a p value <0.05 considered significant. 96.6% of the mothers took medications (2.8 drugs/ pregnancy) and self-medication occurred in 11.3% of the cases. Single women took more drugs with high teratogenic potential (p=0.037). 11 cases of fetal malformation were observed, five of them were exposed to high teratogenic risks. Smoking occurred in 11.3% and alcohol use in 16%. Being single was found to be a risk factor for exposure to high teratogenic potential. Quality of prenatal care and other sociodemographic variables weren't related to exposure to teratogenic risks.

  8. The amount of alcohol intake and some associated factors in a representative sample of 691 French boys aged 13-18.

    PubMed

    Weill, J; Le Bourhis, B

    1991-08-01

    As a first step in a longitudinal study, we studied a sample of 691 French boys selected at random so that the region, the type of dwelling, and the profession of the wage-earner agreed with the latest official census. About 200 questions were asked by professional interviewers. The amount of alcohol intake was calculated from questions concerning type and amount of drinks consumed on all possible occasions. The mean yearly alcohol consumption was 0.91 liters of pure ethanol at 13-14 years, 2.08 at 15-16, and 5.88 at 17-18 (national average in Frenchmen 15 years and over: 16.5). Alcohol intake increases significantly with frequency of café and public dance attendance in all three age groups. Other factors, such as cigarette smoking, pop concerts or night club attendance, familial environment, show significant difference in only one or two age groups. Type of habitation, number of siblings, church attendance, etc., are not significant.

  9. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study.

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, M.; Tessari, E.; Bortolomasi, M.; Piasere, O.; Semenzin, M.; Garzotto, N.; Tansella, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test in screening primary care attenders for alcohol problems. DESIGN: A validity study among consecutive primary care attenders aged 18-65 years. Every third subject completed the alcohol use disorders identification test (a 10 item self report questionnaire on alcohol intake and related problems) and was interviewed by an investigator with the composite international diagnostic interview alcohol use module (a standardised interview for the independent assessment of alcohol intake and related disorders). SETTING: 10 primary care clinics in Verona, north eastern Italy. PATIENTS: 500 subjects were approached and 482 (96.4%) completed evaluation. RESULTS: When the alcohol use disorders identification test was used to detect subjects with alcohol problems the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. The cut off score of 5 was associated with a sensitivity of 0.84, a specificity of 0.90, and a positive predictive value of 0.60. The screening ability of the total score derived from summing the responses to the five items minimising the probability of misclassification between subjects with and without alcohol problems provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93. A score of 5 or more on the five items was associated with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol use disorders identification test performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Using five of the 10 items on the questionnaire gives reasonable accuracy, and these are recommended as questions of choice to screen patients for alcohol problems. PMID:9040389

  10. Technology-based support via telephone or web: a systematic review of the effects on smoking, alcohol use and gambling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Allebeck, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the literature on telephone or internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: The design being a randomized control trail (RCT), focused on effects of telephone or web based interventions, focused on pure telephone or internet-based self-help, provided information on alcohol or tobacco consumption, or gambling behavior, as an outcome, had a follow-up period of at least 3months, and included adults. Seventy-four relevant studies were found; 36 addressed the effect of internet interventions on alcohol consumption, 21 on smoking and 1 on gambling, 12 the effect of helplines on smoking, 2 on alcohol consumption, and 2 on gambling. Telephone helplines can have an effect on tobacco smoking, but there is no evidence of the effects for alcohol use or gambling. There are some positive findings regarding internet-based support for heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students. However, evidence on the effects of internet-based support for smoking, alcohol use or gambling are to a large extent inconsistent.

  11. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  12. Real-time patterns of smoking and alcohol use: an observational study protocol of risky-drinking smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Brandon, Thomas; Armeli, Stephen; Ehlke, Sarah; Bowers, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the strong relationship between smoking and health-related consequences, very few smokers quit. Heavy drinking is a significant risk factor for health consequences, and is implicated in persistent smoking and less success at quitting smoking. Self-efficacy (SE) to abstain from smoking is an important determinant of smoking outcomes and may link alcohol use to poor quit rates. Even though research has demonstrated a strong association between drinking and smoking, and the multiplicative effect of these substances on cancer-related, heavy-drinking smokers has been largely ignored in the literature. Further, research has not taken advantage of innovative methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, to capture the impact of daily factors on smoking cessation outcomes in this particular group. The proposed study identifies daily changing factors that impede or promote SE and future smoking cessation efforts in risky-drinking smokers. Methods and analysis This is an observational study of 84 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day) who drink at risky levels, report a desire to quit in the next 6 months, and show no evidence of psychiatric disturbance, severe history of alcohol withdrawal or drug dependence (excluding nicotine and caffeine). Participants report on their smoking, alcohol consumption and SE related to smoking twice a day for 28 days using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. Multilevel regression and path models will examine within-person daily associations among drinking, smoking and SE, and how these variables predict the likelihood of future smoking behaviour at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by an accredited Institutional Review Board. The findings will help us understand the factors that promote or impede smoking cessation among a high-risk group of smokers (heavy-drinking smokers) and will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at

  13. Non-oxidative ethanol metabolites as a measure of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Thomas M; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2013-01-16

    Recent alcohol intake can be monitored by the measurement of indirect biomarkers. Elevated levels of liver enzymes (i.e. gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST)) in blood are commonly used in clinical practice as an indicator of alcohol-induced liver damage. With the exception of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the specificity of indirect markers is only moderate because many cases of elevated levels are unrelated to alcohol consumption. Because of their intermediate half-life and tendency to accumulate in hair, non-oxidative ethanol metabolites can be used as markers with an intermediate timeframe between ethanol measurements and GGT and CDT with regard to recent alcohol consumption occurring between hours to 1 week. Additionally, these biomarkers offer a high ethanol-specificity in combination with approximately a two-fold higher sensitivity in comparison with indirect alcohol markers. In case of forensic use of direct ethanol metabolites, caution has to be taken in interpretation and pre-analytical pitfalls should be considered.

  14. Association of intakes of fat, dietary fibre, soya isoflavones and alcohol with uterine fibroids in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Oba, Shino; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2009-05-01

    Certain dietary components which could affect oestrogen may have implications in the aetiology of uterine fibroids. We previously found that soya intake was inversely associated with a subsequent risk of hysterectomy, suggesting a potentially protective effect of soya against uterine fibroids, the major clinical indication for hysterectomy. We cross-sectionally assessed the associations of intakes of fat, soya foods, dietary fibre and alcohol with uterine fibroids. Study subjects were 285 premenopausal Japanese women participating in a health-check up programme, including gynaecological examinations, provided by a general hospital between October 2003 and March 2006. The presence of fibroids was confirmed by transvaginal sonogram. If women had undergone hysterectomy, self-report of fibroids was accepted. Each subject's usual diet, including alcohol, was determined with the use of a validated FFQ. Fifty-four women were identified as prevalent cases of fibroids or having had hysterectomy due to fibroids. The mean alcohol intake was statistically significantly higher among women with fibroids than among those without fibroids after controlling for known or suspected risk factors. For the highest compared with the lowest tertile of alcohol intake, the OR of uterine fibroids was 2.78 (95% CI 1.25, 6.20). There was no significant association of intake of fats, soya isoflavones or dietary fibre with uterine fibroids. The data suggest that higher alcohol intake is associated with a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids. Further studies on diet, especially phyto-oestrogens, and uterine fibroids are needed given the limited data currently available.

  15. Online Health Check for Reducing Alcohol Intake among Employees: A Feasibility Study in Six Workplaces across England

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Murray, Elizabeth; Shenker, Don; Marston, Louise; Kaner, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Most hazardous and harmful drinkers are of working age and do not seek help with their drinking. Occupational health services are uniquely placed to universally screen employees across the range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The aim was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering electronic screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in the context of a health check in six different workplace settings. Methods and Findings Employees were recruited from six workplaces across England, including three local authorities, one university, one hospital and one petro-chemical company. A total of 1,254 (8%) employees completed the health check and received personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Most participants were female (65%) and of ‘White British’ ethnicity (94%), with a mean age of 43 years (SD 11). Participants were mostly in Intermediate occupations (58%), followed by Higher managerial / professional (39%) and Routine and manual occupations (2%). A quarter of participants (25%) were drinking at hazardous levels (33% male, 21% female), which decreased with age. Sixty-four percent (n=797) of participants completed online follow-up at three months. Most participants were supportive of workplaces offering employees an online health check (95%), their preferred format was online (91%) and many were confident of the confidentiality of their responses (60%). Whilst the feedback reminded most participants of things they already knew (75%), some were reportedly motivated to change their behaviour (13%). Conclusions Online health screening and personalised feedback appears feasible and acceptable, but challenges include low participation rates, potentially attracting ‘worried well’ employees rather than those at greatest health risk, and less acceptance of the approach among older employees and those from ethnic minority backgrounds and

  16. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  17. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  18. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved.

  19. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  20. Hyperlipoproteinaemia in primary gout: hyperlipoproteinaemic phenotype and influence of alcohol intake and obesity in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, S; Kameda, K; Matsuzawa, Y; Tarui, S

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were investigated in 108 male patients with primary gout before treatment to elucidate the prevalence of each individual phenotype of coexisting hyperlipoproteinaemia and pathogenic factors responsible for it. The mean serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in the patients with gout were 2.10 +/- 0.14 mmol/l and 5.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) respectively, which were significantly higher (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05 respectively) than the levels in age matched controls without gout (1.30 +/- 0.07 mmol/l and 4.77 +/- 0.08 mmol/l respectively). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were slightly decreased in patients with gout compared with controls (1.24 +/- 0.08 mmol/l v 1.40 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p less than 0.05). Hyperlipoproteinaemia was seen in 61 patients (56%), of whom patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV hyperlipoproteinaemia formed 13, 15, and 69% respectively. Thus the prevalence of type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia was high in primary gout as compared with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia (69% v 43%, p less than 0.01). The independent and relative influences of clinical data of the patients upon the concentrations of serum lipids were assessed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two major predictors of serum TG level were alcohol intake (p less than 0.01) and serum uric acid level (p less than 0.05). The most significant predictive variable was alcohol intake, but its influence was judged to be small (r2 = 0.067). None of the other variables, including obesity index, had any significant influence. The relationships between any of these variables and serum TC or HDL-C levels were not significant. In addition, serum lipid levels were investigated in patients with neither obesity (defined as 120% or more of ideal body weight) nor a history of alcohol intake. Their serum TG and TC concentrations were also significantly higher than the respective

  1. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  2. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women.

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  4. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  5. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-01

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  6. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  7. Stimulation of mono-ADP ribosylation in rat liver plasma membranes after long-term alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Nomura, F; Noda, M

    1993-10-01

    ADP ribosylation is considered one of the important covalent modifications of cellular proteins catalyzed by ADP ribosyltransferase, which transfers ADP ribose moiety of NAD to an acceptor protein. Because a growing body of evidence has suggested significant biological roles for mono-ADP ribosylations in transmembrane signal transduction and other cell metabolism, how alcohol intake alters them is of interest. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin have been widely used as probes to investigate the roles of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the transduction of hormonal and sensory signals. We first tested effects of long-term alcohol intake on these toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylations of G-proteins in rat liver plasma membranes. Treatment of rat liver plasma membrane with [32P]NAD and thiol-preactivated cholera toxin resulted in the labeling of a 44-kD band, most likely an alpha-subunit of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein, the extent of which was much greater in alcohol-fed rats than in pair-fed controls. Analogous experiments with pertussis toxin also demonstrated enhancement of toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of the inhibitory GTP-binding protein after long-term alcohol intake. More interesting was that long-term alcohol intake remarkably stimulated endogenous mono-ADP ribosylation of a 58-kD protein in a GTP-dependent manner. In vitro, ethanol (50 mmol/L) or a single load of ethanol (3 gm/kg) did not stimulate the reaction. Thus long-term alcohol intake stimulated both toxin-catalyzed and endogenous mono-ADP ribosylations of proteins in rat liver plasma membranes. Pursuit of alcohol interaction with mono-ADP ribosylation may provide an interesting approach to the study of alcohol's effects on the liver.

  8. Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A; Quintana, M J

    1999-08-27

    To estimate the independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, we analyzed data from a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas in South America. A total of 830 case subjects and 1779 control subjects were included in the pooled analysis. All exposure characteristics of amount, duration, cessation and type of alcohol and tobacco consumed were strongly related to esophageal-cancer risk in both sexes. Women had the same exposure profile as men, but the magnitudes of the associations were lower than were those among men. Black-tobacco smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk as compared with the smoking of blond or mixed tobacco. Quitting either of the 2 habits significantly reduced esophageal-cancer risk. Alcohol and tobacco alone were strongly related to the risk of esophageal cancer, even in the absence of the other exposure. A history of simultaneous exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a strong multiplicative effect on risk. Concomitant exposure to heavy alcohol drinking and black-tobacco smoking identified the group with the highest risk for developing esophageal cancer (odds ratio = 107). A synergistic interaction was found between the 2 habits, particularly in women and in moderately exposed men. Moderate cigarette smoking without drinking and moderate alcohol drinking without smoking had a negligible effect on esophageal-cancer risk. However, simultaneous exposure to the same moderate amounts increased the risk 12- to 19-fold in men and in women respectively. The overall public-health implications of these findings are obvious for a tumor that depends on preventive strategies for its control.

  9. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Hu, Xiao-Shu; Wang, Pei-Hua; Qin, Yu; Lu, Yin-Chang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Ai-Min; Wu, De-Lin; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Frans, Kok J; Veer, Pieter van’t

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: Since 2003, a population-based case-control study has been conducted simultaneously in low-risk (Ganyu County) and high-risk (Dafeng County) areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Using identical protocols and pre-tested standardized questionnaire, following written informed consent, eligible subjects were inquired about their detail information on potential determinants of EC, including demographic information, socio-economic status, living conditions, disease history, family cancer history, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habits, frequency, amount of food intake, etc. Conditional logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95% CI), after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the preliminary analysis of the ongoing study, we recruited 291 pairs of cases and controls in Dafeng and 240 pairs of cases and controls in Ganyu, respectively. In both low-risk and high-risk areas, EC was inversely associated with socio-economic status, such as level of education, past economic status and body mass index. However, this disease was more frequent among those who had a family history of cancer or encountered misfortune in the past 10 years. EC was also more frequent among smokers, alcohol drinkers and fast eaters. Furthermore, there was a geographic variation of the associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and EC risk despite the similar prevalence of these risk factors in both low-risk and high-risk areas. The dose-response relationship of smoking and smoking related variables, such as age of the first smoking, duration and amount were apparent only in high-risk areas. On the contrary, a dose-response relationship on the effect of alcohol drinking on EC was observed only in low-risk areas

  10. Dopamine Release Dynamics Change during Adolescence and after Voluntary Alcohol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum. PMID:24788731

  11. Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Murphy, James M; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J

    2009-04-01

    High-alcohol-drinking rats, given access to 10% ethanol, expressed an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) only after multiple deprivations. In alcohol-preferring (P) rats, concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations combined with repeated cycles of EtOH access and deprivation produced excessive ethanol drinking. The current study was undertaken to examine the effects of repeated alcohol deprivations with concurrent access to multiple concentrations of ethanol on ethanol intake of HAD replicate lines of rats. HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats received access to 10, 20 and 30% (v/v) ethanol for 6 weeks. Rats from each replicate line were assigned to: (1) a non-deprived group; (2) a group initially deprived of ethanol for 2 weeks; or (3) a group initially deprived for 8 weeks. Following the restoration of the ethanol solutions, cycle of 2 weeks of ethanol exposure and 2 weeks of alcohol deprivation was repeated three times for a total of four deprivations. Following the initial ethanol deprivation period, deprived groups significantly increased ethanol intakes during the initial 24-hour re-exposure period. Multiple deprivations increased ethanol intakes, shifted preference to higher ethanol concentrations and prolonged the duration of the elevated ethanol intakes for up to 5 days. In addition, repeated deprivations increased ethanol intake in the first 2-hour re-exposure period as high as 5-7 g/kg (which are equivalent to amounts consumed in 24 hours by HAD rats), and produced blood ethanol levels in excess of 150 mg%. The results indicate that HAD rats exhibit 'loss-of-control' of alcohol drinking with repeated deprivations when multiple ethanol concentrations are available.

  12. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations. PMID:25466934

  13. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  14. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population.

  15. Alcohol abuse and smoking alter inflammatory mediator production by pulmonary and systemic immune cells.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Jeanette; McNally, Alicia; Guo, Ruixin; Vandivier, R William; Simonian, Philip L; Burnham, Ellen L

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and tobacco smoking are associated with an increased predisposition for community-acquired pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms are incompletely established but may include alterations in response to pathogens by immune cells, including alveolar macrophages (AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We sought to determine the relationship of AUDs and smoking to expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα by AMs and PBMCs from human subjects after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). AMs and PBMCs from healthy subjects with AUDs and controls, matched on smoking, were cultured with LPS (1 μg/ml) or LTA (5 μg/ml) in the presence and absence of the antioxidant precursor N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. Expression of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα in AMs and PBMCs was significantly increased in response to stimulation with LPS and LTA. AUDs were associated with augmented production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IFNγ and IL-1β, by AMs and PBMCs in response to LPS. Smoking diminished the impact of AUDs on AM cytokine expression. Expression of basal AM and PBMC Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 was not clearly related to differences in cytokine expression; however, addition of N-acetylcysteine with LPS or LTA led to diminished AM and PBMC cytokine secretion, especially among current smokers. Our findings suggest that AM and PBMC immune cell responses to LPS and LTA are influenced by AUDs and smoking through mechanisms that may include alterations in cellular oxidative stress.

  16. Alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking are associated with global DNA hypermethylation: results from the German Investigation on Neurobiology in Alcoholism (GINA).

    PubMed

    Semmler, Alexander; Heese, Peter; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Muschler, Marc; Heberlein, Annemarie; Bigler, Laurent; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Frieling, Helge; Kornhuber, Johannes; Banger, Markus; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that smoking and alcoholism may be associated with altered DNA methylation and that alcohol consumption might induce changes in DNA methylation by altering homocysteine metabolism. In this monocenter study, we included 363 consecutive patients referred for hospitalization for alcohol detoxification treatment. Blood samples were obtained on treatment days 1, 3, and 7 for measurement of global DNA methylation in leukocytes by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping the following seven genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism: cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) c.844_855ins68, dihydrofolate-reductase (DHFR) c.594 + 59del19bp, methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) c.677C > T and c.1298A > C, methyltetrahydrofolate-transferase (MTR) c.2756A > G, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) c.80G > A, and transcobalamin 2 c.776C > G. Multivariate linear regression showed a positive correlation of global DNA methylation with alcohol consumption and smoking on day 1 of hospitalization. DNA methylation was not correlated with homocysteine or vitamin plasma levels, nor with the tested genetic variants of homocysteine metabolism. This suggests a direct effect of alcohol consumption and smoking on DNA methylation, which is not mediated by effects of alcohol on homocysteine metabolism.

  17. Determinants of alcohol preference in the AA and ANA rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Kiianmaa, K; Stenius, K; Sinclair, J D

    1991-01-01

    A selective breeding program conducted in this laboratory has resulted in the establishment of the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko Nonalcohol) rat lines. These lines have been used as a tool for attempting to identify the behavioral, neurochemical, and biochemical correlates of differential voluntary ethanol consumption. Some of the differences that have been found between the lines involve differential reinforcement: AA rats, but not ANA rats, rapidly acquire an ethanol-reinforced operant response. The AA's greater development of tolerance to the depressant effects of ethanol and their faster ethanol metabolism would also allow them to drink more. Neurochemical studies have suggested differential functioning of brain monoaminergic mechanisms. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase, and the brain dopamine concentrations are higher in the AA rats than in the ANA rats, and the maximal number of dopamine D2 receptors is lower in the AA rats. The concentration of noradrenaline is higher in the brain of ANA rats than in that of AA rats, while the 5-hydroxytryptamine levels do not seem to differ greatly. The importance of these differences to the line difference in ethanol intake is not, however, clear, since there appears to be no difference in the sensitivity of monoamine systems of the two lines to ethanol. PMID:1726981

  18. Alcohol intake alters immune responses and promotes CNS viral persistence in mice.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Taylor, Jonathan; Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K; Huang, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to progressive liver disease and is associated with a variety of extrahepatic effects, including central nervous system (CNS) damage and neuropsychiatric impairments. Alcohol abuse can exacerbate these adverse effects on brain and behavior, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of alcohol in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for HCV infections in humans. Female and male BALB/c mice (n=94) were exposed to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) and water (or water only) using a two-bottle choice paradigm, followed one week later by infection with either LCMV clone 13 (causes chronic infection similar to chronic HCV), LCMV Armstrong (causes acute infection), or vehicle. Mice were monitored for 60days post-infection and continued to receive 24-h access to EtOH and water. Animals infected with LCMV clone 13 drank more EtOH, as compared to those with an acute or no viral infection. Six weeks after infection with LCMV clone 13, mice with EtOH exposure evidenced higher serum viral titers, as compared to mice without EtOH exposure. EtOH intake was also associated with reductions in virus-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies (particularly CD11a(hi) subsets) and evidence of persistent CNS viremia in chronically infected mice. These findings support the hypothesis that EtOH use and chronic viral infection can result in combined toxic effects accelerating CNS damage and neuropsychiatric dysfunction and suggest that examining the role of EtOH in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with LCMV can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of comorbid alcohol use disorder and chronic viral infection. PMID:27269869

  19. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  20. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  1. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure.

  2. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  3. Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the

  4. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition. PMID:26339168

  5. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  6. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J M; Lorenz, Robert C; Buchert, Ralph; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Plotkin, Michail; Kumakara, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A; Rapp, Michael A; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such 'hijacked' dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[(18) F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation by RPEs nor striatal dopamine synthesis capacity differed between groups. However, ventral striatal coding of RPEs correlated inversely with craving in patients. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between ventral striatal coding of RPEs and dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy controls, but not in alcohol-dependent patients. Moderator analyses showed that the magnitude of the association between dopamine synthesis capacity and RPE coding depended on the amount of chronic, habitual alcohol intake. Despite the relatively small sample size, a power analysis supports the reported results. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study suggests that dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals is disrupted in alcohol dependence in proportion to long-term alcohol intake of patients. Alcohol intake may perpetuate itself by interfering with dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals in the ventral striatum, thus increasing craving for habitual drug intake. PMID:25546072

  7. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  8. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  9. The quinoline compound, S4 effectively antagonizes alcohol intake in mice: Possible association with the histone H3 modifications.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tuhin Suvro; Hazra, Abhijit; Mondal, Nirup Bikash; Das, Sumantra

    2015-08-01

    Opioidergic system plays an important role in controlling alcohol seeking behavior. We have previously shown that a quinoline compound, S4 (2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino)-N-phenyl acetamide), having dual affinity for µ- and κ-opioid receptors, could successfully inhibit withdrawal symptoms in mice rendered dependent on morphine. Accordingly, in the present study, we sought to determine the potential of S4 in attenuating voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring (AP) mice and the mechanism thereof. The study was conducted in different mice strains initially screened for AP and alcohol-avoiding (AA) behavior. S4 was injected subcutaneously (20 mg/kg) to evaluate its efficacy in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption along with prevention of body weight loss during withdrawal from alcohol after discontinuation of the drug. The results showed that S4 significantly reduced the alcohol intake in AP mice and also in a dose dependent manner. Mechanistic studies on the post translational histone H3 modifications in brain of AP mice compared to the AA mice were determined. Compared to AA mice, histone H3 trimethylation at lys9 and its regulators, jumonji domain containing 2A and phosphorylated histones H3 at thr11 as well as the expression of 14-3-3 protein and phosphorylated histones H3 at ser28, were altered in the AP animals, most of which were restored post S4 treatment in the AP mice. Together, the present results suggest that S4 effectively blocked alcohol drinking behavior by restoring the altered epigenetic signature in the AP mice. The study provides a novel compound which could lead to developing effective drugs against alcoholism/alcohol abuse.

  10. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  11. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  12. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  13. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  14. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomomi; Kato, Keizo; Long, Nguyen Khanh; Makita, Hiroki; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kazuki; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity. PMID:24772313

  15. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, TOMOMI; KATO, KEIZO; LONG, NGUYEN KHANH; MAKITA, HIROKI; YONEMOTO, KAZUHIRO; IIDA, KAZUKI; TAMAOKI, NARITAKA; HATAKEYAMA, DAIJIRO; SHIBATA, TOSHIYUKI

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity. PMID:24772313

  16. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  17. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26339173

  18. Effects of Moderate Alcohol Intake in the Bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is related with a number of cystopathic complications. However, there have been no studies about the influence of alcohol consumption in the bladder of type 2 diabetes. Thus, we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake in the bladder of the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rat. The non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO, n=14) and the OLETF control group (n=14) were fed an isocaloric diet; the LETO (n=14) and the OLETF ethanol group (n=14) were fed 36% ethanol 7 g/kg/day. After ten weeks, muscarinic receptors, RhoGEFs, myogenic change, and the level of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moderate alcohol intake significantly decreased excessive muscarinic receptor and Rho kinase expressions in the OLETF rats compared with the LETO rats. In addition, iNOS and collagen expression were not changed in the OLETF rats in spite of alcohol consumption. Superoxide dismutase levels, which is involved in antioxidant defense, in the LETO rats were significantly decreased after alcohol consumption, however those in the OLETF rats were similar. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the oxidative stress, and may prevent molecular and pathologic changes of the bladder of rats with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  20. Brain-Specific Inactivation of the Crhr1 Gene Inhibits Post-Dependent and Stress-Induced Alcohol Intake, but Does Not Affect Relapse-Like Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1NestinCre) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1NestinCre mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1NestinCre mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load. PMID:22113086

  1. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1(NestinCre) mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1(NestinCre) mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load.

  2. Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology. Methods We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2). Results The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population. Conclusion The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:24505444

  3. Increased risk of preterm birth among non- smoking, non- alcohol drinking women with maternal periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Le, Hang Thi Thu; Jareinpituk, Sutthi; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to examine the association between periodontitis and preterm birth among non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking women. The cases were 130 women who delivered a live singleton newborn before 37 weeks gestation. A random sample of 260 women who delivered a normal child on the same day as the cases were selected as controls. Periodontal examinations were performed during 24-hour period postpartum at bedside. Other related information was collected by structured questionnaire and medical records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, place of residence, education, occupation, income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, antenatal care (ANC), parity, systematic infections, genitourinary infections, antibiotics used, and history of periodontal treatment. Periodontitis (defined as presence of at least 4 teeth having > or = 1 site with a probing depth (PD) > or = 4 mm, clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or = 3 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) after 10 seconds at the same site) was diagnosed in 33.9% of cases and 10.4% of controls. Periodontitis was significantly associated with preterm birth (adjusted OR = 4.47, 95%Cl= 2.43, 8.20). These findings suggest that periodontitis may increase the risk of preterm delivery even among women who do not smoke or drink. PMID:17877238

  4. Effects of Forced Alcohol Intake Associated with Chronic Stress on the Severity of Periodontitis: An Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Vedove Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Miranda; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando de Oliveira; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca

    2012-01-01

    This study histometrically evaluated the effect of forced alcohol intake by stressed animals on the severity of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided in four groups: group GAL—alcohol and ligature; group GASL—alcohol, chronic physical stress, and ligature; GNC—negative control; GPC—positive control. GAL and GASL received 20% ethanol ad libitum, and GNC received water ad libitum for 60 days. After 24 hours of exposition to alcohol intake—by GAL and GASL—immobilization was applied as a chronic stressor in the GASL group for a two-month period, six times a week, in random hours. The means of the respective groups were statistically compared (Analysis of Variance and Tukey tests, P < 0.05). The most severe periodontal breakdown was observed in nonstressed animals which drank alcohol (GAL), followed by stressed animals exposed to alcohol (GASL). GASL did not differ from the positive control group (GPC). The negative control group showed the lowest values of periodontal breakdown (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Non-stressed alcohol consumer animals showed the most severe pattern of periodontal breakdown. Although stressed animals which were forced to drink alcohol showed poorer periodontal status than the negative controls, their results were similar to those of positive controls. PMID:23209469

  5. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  6. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  7. Smoking, alcohol, occupation, and hair dye use in cancer of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N

    1989-12-01

    This case-control study was based on 137 Caucasian and 124 Japanese cases of urinary tract cancer identified in Hawaii between 1977 and 1986. Each case was matched on sex, age, and race to two population-based controls. Heavy cigarette smokers (41 or more pack-years for men; 21 or more pack-years for women) had a significantly elevated risk compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio (OR) = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.1 for the men; OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3 for the women). When the men and women were combined, employment in high-risk industries (includes machinery, automotive, and textiles, among others) was significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Alcohol intake and hair dye use showed weaker positive associations with risk that were not statistically significant.

  8. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  9. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  10. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  11. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  12. The defense response and alcohol intake: A coronary artery disease risk? The SABPA Study.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Woudri; Malan, Leoné; Scheepers, Jacobus D; Cockeran, Marike; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral defense coping response (DefS) as a measure of coping with emotional stress may increase alcohol intake (gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT)), the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). We assessed associations between coping and cardiometabolic risk markers in a bi-ethnic cohort (N = 390) from South Africa. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and ECG, fasting blood and coping scores were obtained. Africans, and mostly when utilizing DefS, showed higher 24h BP, a low-grade inflammatory state, central obesity, increased HOMA [4.07 (3.66, 4.47)] and more ST events compared to their Caucasian counterparts. ROC γ-GT analyses predicting 24-h ambulatory hypertension showed a higher γ-GT cut-point in Africans (55.4 U/l) than in Caucasians (19.5 U/l). Odds ratios (ORs) of γ-GT cut-points predicting 24-h ambulatory hypertension was evident in DefS African men [OR: 7.37 (95% CI: 6.71-8.05), p = 0.003] and in DefS Caucasians, albeit at a lower γ-GT cut-point (19.5 U/l). Higher γ-GT cut-points in DefS Africans or Caucasians were not associated with HOMA > 3. DefS accompanied by alcohol abuse in taxing emotional situations, if no social support is forthcoming, underscores a profile of reduced coronary perfusion. It may enhance vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries, with compensatory increases in BP, and induce a risk for future coronary artery disease. PMID:27399032

  13. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Jacobs, David R.; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A.; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Data on 6,680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Results Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. PMID:20609433

  14. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  15. Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking

  16. Is household smoking status associated with expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance? Results from the 1998–99 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine how household expenditure on food at restaurants, alcohol, gambling and insurance vary between smoking and non-smoking households. Design: Cross sectional survey of households from private dwellings, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), using a stratified multistage area sample design. Setting: Australia, 1998–99. Participants: Nationally representative sample of households (n = 6892). Main outcome measures: Expenditure on meals at restaurants, alcohol, alcoholic beverages at licensed premises, gambling, and insurance. Results: The odds of reporting expenditure on restaurant food and health insurance were 20% and 40% smaller for smoking than non-smoking households, respectively. The odds of reporting expenditure on alcohol (not including expenditure at licensed premises), drinking at licensed premises, and gambling were 100%, 50%, and 40% greater for smoking than for non-smoking households, respectively. Conclusions: The study suggests that smokers are more likely to engage in risky behaviour. Implementing smoking bans in licensed premises and gambling venues can provide an opportunity to reduce smoking prevalence. Quitting or cutting down smoking can provide opportunities for expenditure on other products or services, and enhance standards of living. PMID:15564627

  17. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A.; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The multifaceted gut‐brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR‐1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre‐clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR‐1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre‐proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR‐1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population‐based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  18. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders.

  19. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: Implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M.; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R.; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Prior work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM’s ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM’s effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABA ARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAA receptor function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs. PMID:24451653

  20. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs. PMID:24451653

  1. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  2. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leichter, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  4. Effects of state cigarette excise taxes and smoke-free air policies on state per capita alcohol consumption in the U.S., 1980–2009

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Plunk, Andrew D.; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing state cigarette excise taxes and strengthening smoke-free air laws are known to reduce smoking prevalence. Some studies suggest that such policies may also reduce alcohol use, but results for cigarette taxes have been mixed and associations with smoke-free air policies have been limited to some demographic subgroups. To shed further light on the potential secondary effects of tobacco control policy, we examined whether increases in cigarette taxes and strengthening of smoke-free air laws were associated with reductions of per capita alcohol consumption and whether any reductions were specific to certain beverage types. Methods State per capita alcohol consumption from 1980–2009 was modeled as a function of state price per pack of cigarettes and smoke-free air policy scores while controlling for secular trends and salient state covariates. Both policy measures also accounted for local policies. Total alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits consumption per capita were modeled separately. For each type of beverage, we used a nested models approach to determine whether the two policies together were associated with reduced consumption. Results For total alcohol consumption, and for beer or spirits (but not wine), one or both tobacco policies were associated with reductions in consumption. A one percent increase in cigarette price per pack was associated with a 0.083% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0002% to 0.166%, p=.0495), and a one point increase in SFA policy score, measured on a 6-point scale, was associated with a 1.1% decrease in per capita total alcohol consumption (95% CI 0.4% to 1.7%, p=.001; p<.001 for the hypothesis that the two policies are jointly associated with reduced alcohol consumption). Conclusions The public health benefits of increasing cigarette taxes and smoke-free policies may go beyond the reduction of smoking and extend to alcohol consumption, specifically beer and spirits

  5. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696.

  6. Effect of chronic acamprosate treatment on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma levels in rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Górska, Dorota; Dyr, Wanda; Czarnecka, Elzbieta

    2008-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that repeated acamprosate administration to ethanol-naive Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats resulted in increased plasma beta-endorphin levels and at least partially prevents increases in levels of this peptide after a single administration of ethanol compared with untreated control rats. The objective of the present study, which included 45 WHP rats, was to continue the past research and investigate the effect of 10-day acamprosate treatment (200 mg/kg p.o.) on alcohol intake using a free-choice procedure and on changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels while alcohol is available, and 10 days after alcohol withdrawal. Voluntary alcohol consumption increases plasma levels of beta-endorphin from 440+/-25 pg/ml to 711+/-57 pg/ml (p=0.0002). After a 10-day of alcohol withdrawal, the levels of this peptide were significantly reduced compared with levels in rats with free access to ethanol (711+/-57 pg/ml vs. 294+/-38 pg/ml, p=0.000001) and in control naive rats (440+/-25pg/ml vs. 294+/-38pg/ml, p=0.044). Chronic treatment with acamprosate increased plasma beta-endorphin levels both in WHP rats with free access to ethanol (440+/-25 pg/ml vs. 616+/-49 pg/ml, p=0.008) and in rats after ethanol withdrawal (440+/-25 pg/ml vs. 620+/-56 pg/ml, p=0.007). In the group with free access to ethanol, there was a significant reduction in mean ethanol intake, from 6.75+/-0.20 g/kg body weight/day to 4.68+/-0.25 g/kg/day. Our results indicate that chronic acamprosate treatment may have beneficial effects, as it increases the beta-endorphin concentration thereby compensating for beta-endorphin deficiency during ethanol withdrawal. As the endogenous opioid system has an important role in the development of craving for alcohol, restoring the alcohol-induced deficits in beta-endorphin levels may be an important factor to prevent craving and maintaining abstinence. We suppose that the anti-craving mechanism of acamprosate that has been reported to abolish

  7. Concomitant intake of alcohol may increase the absorption of poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Sjögren, Erik; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-01-25

    Ethanol can increase the solubility of poorly soluble and hence present a higher drug concentration in the gastrointestinal tract. This may produce a faster and more effective absorption resulting in variable and/or high drug plasma concentrations, both of which can lead to adverse drug reactions. In this work we therefore studied the solubility and absorption effects of nine diverse compounds when ethanol was present. The apparent solubility was measured using the μDiss Profiler Plus (pION, MA) in four media representing gastric conditions with and without ethanol. The solubility results were combined with in-house data on solubility in intestinal fluids (with and without ethanol) and pharmacokinetic parameters extracted from the literature and used as input in compartmental absorption simulations using the software GI-Sim. Apparent solubility increased more than 7-fold for non-ionized compounds in simulated gastric fluid containing 20% ethanol. Compounds with weak base functions (cinnarizine, dipyridamole and terfenadine) were completely ionized at the studied gastric pH and their solubility was therefore unaffected by ethanol. Compounds with low solubility in intestinal media and a pronounced solubility increase due to ethanol in the upper gastric compartments showed an increased absorption in the simulations. The rate of absorption of the acidic compounds indomethacin and indoprofen was slightly increased but the extent of absorption was unaffected as the complete doses were readily absorbed even without ethanol. This was likely due to a high apparent solubility in the intestinal compartment where the weak acids are ionized. The absorption of the studied non-ionizable compounds increased when ethanol was present in the gastric and intestinal media. These results indicate that concomitant intake of alcohol may significantly increase the solubility and hence, the plasma concentration for non-ionizable, lipophilic compounds with the potential of adverse drug

  8. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Karsten Fleischer; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in Arctic populations and high alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of a number of diseases. Yet, a description of the influence of alcohol intake in persons with HBV infection on liver biochemistry is lacking. Objective We aimed to describe the association between reported alcohol intake and liver biochemistry taking into account also HBV infection, ethnicity, Inuit diet, body mass index (BMI), gender and age in an Arctic population. Design and methods Population-based investigation of Inuit (n=441) and non-Inuit (94) in Greenland and Inuit living in Denmark (n=136). Participants filled in a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other life style factors. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody. We also performed physical examinations. Results Participation rate was 95% in Greenland and 52% in Denmark. An alcohol intake above the recommended level was reported by 12.9% of non-Inuit in Greenland, 9.1% of Inuit in East Greenland, 6.1% of Inuit migrants and 3.4% of Inuit in the capital of Greenland (p=0.035). Alcohol intake was associated with AST (p<0.001) and GGT (p=0.001), and HBV infection was associated with ALP (p=0.001) but not with AST, GGT, bilirubin or albumin in the adjusted analysis. Inuit had higher AST (p<0.001), GGT (p<0.001) and ALP (p=0.001) values than non-Inuit after adjustment for alcohol, diet, BMI and HBV exposure. Ethnic origin modified the association between alcohol and AST, while HBV infection did not modify the associations between alcohol and liver biochemistry. Conclusions Non-Inuit in Greenland reported a higher alcohol intake than Inuit. Ethnic origin was more markedly associated with liver biochemistry than was alcohol intake, and Greenlandic ethnicity modified the effect

  9. Chronic cigarette smoking in alcohol dependence: associations with cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate levels in the extended brain reward system.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic smoking in alcohol dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain morphology and metabolite levels in large lobar regions (e.g. frontal lobe). Here, we evaluated if these abnormalities are specifically apparent in several cortical and select subcortical components of the extended brain reward system (BRS), a network that is critically involved in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. We studied 33 non-smoking and 43 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) with 1 week of abstinence and 42 non-smoking Controls. At 1.5 Tesla, we obtained regional measures of cortical thickness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA; a surrogate marker of neuronal integrity) concentration in major components of the BRS as well as the corresponding measures throughout the cortex. Smoking ALC and non-smoking ALC demonstrated decreased thickness compared with Controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the total BRS, total frontal cortex and global cortex. Smoking ALC had significantly decreased thickness compared to non-smoking ALC in the ACC, insula, the total BRS and total frontal cortex. Smoking ALC had also lower NAA concentrations than both non-smoking ALC and Controls in the DLPFC, insula, superior corona radiata and the total BRS. Alcohol consumption and common medical and psychiatric co-morbidities did not mediate differences between smoking and non-smoking ALC. This dual modality magnetic resonance (MR) study indicated that chronic smoking in ALC was associated with significant cortical thinning and NAA abnormalities in anterior brain regions that are implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders.

  10. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065

  11. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  12. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  13. Older versus younger treatment-seeking smokers: differences in smoking behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychosocial and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sharon M; Humfleet, Gary L; Gorecki, Julie A; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Reus, Victor I; Prochaska, Judith J

    2008-03-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet few recent studies have described older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers aged 50 years or older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50) presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002-2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers aged 50+, and a second open to smokers aged 18 or older. As predicted, smokers aged 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and had poorer physical functioning than those aged <50. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women aged 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women aged <50, and less likely than men to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or as having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers aged <50. We found no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  14. Older versus Younger Treatment-Seeking Smokers: Differences in Smoking Behavior, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Psychosocial and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet there are few recent data describing older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers age 50 years and older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50), presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002–2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers age 50+, and a second open to smokers age18 and older. As predicted, smokers age 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and poorer physical functioning than those <50. Contrary to predictions, there were no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women age 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women <50, and less likely to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse then men. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers <50. There were no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both, the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  15. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  16. Pilot study on the effects of a 1-day sleep education program: influence on sleep of stopping alcohol intake at bedtime.

    PubMed

    Morita, Emi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Okawa, Masako

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether sleep was improved by a 1-day sleep education program in an occupational setting and whether stopping alcohol intake at bedtime might influence sleep. Subjects were 40 high school employees. The sleep education program lasted 4.5 hours and consisted of sleep science information, and sleep hygiene education including the risk of sleep related breathing disorder resulting from alcohol intake. Sleep conditions were evaluated by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and approximately 1 month later. The mean the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was significantly decreased by 1.2 points (P = 0.04), while the mean sleep duration was significantly decreased by 10 minutes (P = 0.02). Shortened sleep duration coincided with a decrease in sleepiness. This may indicate an improvement in sleep quality. The percentage of habitual alcohol intake at bedtime was significantly decreased (from 38.5% (15/39) to 20.5% (8/39), P = 0.04). Subjects who stopped alcohol intake at bedtime (n = 8) received the most benefit, with decreased scores of ESS and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), although the reductions were not significant. This education program offers the possibility of improving sleep conditions among the general population, especially in those who cease habitual alcohol intake at bedtime. Further larger, randomized, controlled studies are warranted.

  17. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  18. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  19. Systemic immune modulation induced by alcoholic beverage intake in obese-diabetes (db/db) mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Seol-Hee; Baek, So-Young; Go, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol over-consumption is generally immunosuppressive. In this study, the effects of single or repetitive alcohol administration on the systemic immunity of db/db mice were observed to clarify the possible mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of obese individuals to alcohol-related immunological health problems. Alcohol (as a form of commercially available 20% distilled-alcoholic beverage) was orally administered one-time or seven times over 2 weeks to db/db mice and normal C57BL/6J mice. Immunologic alterations were analyzed by observation of body weight and animal activity, along with proportional changes of splenocytes for natural killer cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Modulation of plasma cytokine level and immune-related genes were also ascertained by micro-bead assay and a microarray method, respectively. The immune micro-environment of db/db mice was an inflammatory state and adaptive cellular immunity was significantly suppressed. Low-dose alcohol administration reversed the immune response, decreasing inflammatory responses and the increment of adaptive immunity mainly related to CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, to normal background levels. Systemic immune modulation due to alcohol administration in the obese-diabetic mouse model may be useful in the understanding of the induction mechanism, which will aid the development of therapeutics for related secondary diseases. PMID:23261674

  20. Associations of age, adiposity, alcohol intake, menstrual status, and estrogen therapy with high-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Vranizan, K M; Austin, M A; Krauss, R M

    1993-11-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, alcohol intake, and exogenous estrogen with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses in 427 members of 51 principally Mormon kindreds. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 mm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements as weight (kg)/height (m)2. The results suggest that HDL3b concentrations were higher after menopause than before. Adult men (> or = 18 years old) had significantly higher HDL3c and HDL3b and significantly lower HDL2b and HDL2a levels than younger boys. Compared with the women, adult men had higher levels of HDL3c and HDL3b and lower levels of HDL2b, HDL2a, and larger-diameter HDL3a particles. There were no significant differences between the HDL profiles of women and younger boys, suggesting that divergence in HDL occurs during puberty. Eighty-eight percent of the increase in HDL associated with estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women occurred within HDL3a and HDL2a. Reported alcohol intake in adult men correlated with two HDL regions: one within the HDL2b region and a second within the HDL3a/2a region, whereas in women the positive correlation between alcohol and HDL levels was within the HDL2b region only. In both men and premenopausal adult women, increasing levels of body mass index were associated with higher levels of HDL3b and lower levels of HDL2b.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [The connection between food and alcohol intake habits among 48.763 Danish men and women. A cross-sectional study in the project "Food, cancer and health"].

    PubMed

    Tjønneland, A M; Grønbaek, M N; Stripp, C; Overvad, O K

    1999-12-13

    Variation in diet associated with drinking patterns may partly explain why wine seems to reduce ischaemic heart disease mortality. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Copenhagen and Aarhus from 1995 to 1997 including 23,284 men and 25,479 women aged 50-64 years, the relation between intake of different alcoholic beverages and selected indicators of a healthy diet was investigated. In multivariate analyses, wine, as compared with other alcoholic drinks, was associated with a higher intake of fruit, fish, cooked vegetables, salad, the use of olive oil for cooking and not using fat spread on rye bread. In conclusion, the association between wine drinking and an intake of a healthy diet may have implications for the interpretation of previous reports of the relation between type of alcoholic beverage and ischaemic heart disease mortality.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  3. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  4. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  5. Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol habits are more rarely addressed than other health behavior topics in Swedish health care. This study examined whether differences between topics could be explained by their different associations with patient characteristics or by the differences in the prevalence of the disadvantageous health behavior, i.e., excessive alcohol use and smoking. The study moreover examined whether simply being asked questions about behavior, i.e., alcohol use or smoking, was associated with reported change. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional postal survey (n = 4 238, response rate 56.5 percent) representative of the adult population in Stockholm County in 2003. Retrospective self-reports were used to assess health care visits during the past 12 months, the questions and advice received there, patients characteristics, health behavior, and the present stage of change. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among the 68 percent who had visited health care. Results Among the health care visitors, 23 percent reported being asked about their alcohol habits, and 3 percent reported receiving advice or/and support to modify their alcohol use - fewer than for smoking, physical exercise, or diet. When regression models adjusted for patient characteristics, the differences between health behaviors in the extent of questioning and advice remained. However, when the models also adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption there was no difference between smoking and alcohol-related advice. In fact one-third of the present smokers and two-fifths of the persons dependent on alcohol reported having receiving advice the previous 12 months. Those who reported being asked questions or receiving advice more often reported a decreased alcohol use and similarly intended to cease smoking within 6 months. Questions about alcohol use were moreover related to a later stage of stage of change independently of advice among women but not among men

  6. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  7. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  8. Associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with advanced or multiple colorectal adenoma risks: a colonoscopy-based case-control study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Hong, Chang Won; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Chang Kim, Byung; Han, Kyung Su; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2011-09-01

    The associations between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking habits and the risk for colorectal adenomatous polyps according to the detailed clinical information about polyps were assessed in a large colonoscopy-based study. The study enrolled participants who visited the National Cancer Center of the Republic of Korea for cancer screening between April 2007 and April 2009. In 1,242 newly diagnosed colorectal adenoma patients and 3,019 polyp-free controls, past smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.65) and current smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.11) had increased risks for adenomas compared with nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking conferred an even higher risk for advanced adenomas and 3 or more adenomas than for low-risk adenomas or a single adenoma. Dose-response relations were observed among the daily number of cigarettes smoked, the duration of smoking, the pack-years of smoking, and the risk for adenomas. A longer duration of alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk for advanced adenomas (for >28 years of consumption: OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.64) and 3 or more adenomas (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.76). In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption play roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, and the association differs by the clinical features of the adenomas.

  9. Alternative sampling strategies for the assessment of alcohol intake of living persons.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered. This review covers dried blood spots (CDT%, EtG/EtS, PEths), dried urine spots (EtG/EtS), sweat and skin surface lipids (ethanol, EtG, FAEEs), oral fluid (ethanol, EtG), exhaled breath (PEths), hair (EtG, FAEEs), nail (EtG), meconium (EtG/EtS, FAEEs), umbilical cord and placenta (EtG/EtS and PEth 16:0/18:1). Main results, issues and considerations specific to each matrix are reported. Details about sample preparation and analytical methods are not within the scope of this review.

  10. Alternative sampling strategies for the assessment of alcohol intake of living persons.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered. This review covers dried blood spots (CDT%, EtG/EtS, PEths), dried urine spots (EtG/EtS), sweat and skin surface lipids (ethanol, EtG, FAEEs), oral fluid (ethanol, EtG), exhaled breath (PEths), hair (EtG, FAEEs), nail (EtG), meconium (EtG/EtS, FAEEs), umbilical cord and placenta (EtG/EtS and PEth 16:0/18:1). Main results, issues and considerations specific to each matrix are reported. Details about sample preparation and analytical methods are not within the scope of this review. PMID:27208822

  11. Association of Smoking with Mu- Opioid Receptor Availability Before and During Naltrexone Blockade in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Frost, J.James; Wong, Dean F.; McCaul, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared to social drinkers or nondrinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [11C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BPND) across mesolimbic regions including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BPND in mesolimbic regions Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BPND in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BPND across multiple brain regions in AD subjects. PMID:23252742

  12. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  13. Chronic Moderate Alcohol Intakes Accelerate SR-B1 Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Menghua; Diao, Yan; Liu, Ying; Huang, Hui; Li, Yanze; Tan, Peizhu; Liang, Huan; He, Qi; Nie, Junhui; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However, a high level of cholesterol in the body is strongly associated with the progression of various severe diseases. In our study, the potential involvement of alcohol in the regulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B and type I (SR-B1)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport was investigated. We separated male C57BL/6 mice into four diets: control, alcohol, Control + HC and alcohol + HC. The SR-B1 level and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate- high- density lipoprotein (DiI-HDL) uptake were also measured in AML12 cells and HL7702 cells treated with alcohol. The control + HC diet led to increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels while alcohol + HC led no significant change. Compared with that of the control group, the SR-B1 mRNA level was elevated by 27.1% (P < 0.05), 123.8% (P < 0.001) and 343.6% (P < 0.001) in the alcohol, control + HC and alcohol + HC groups, respectively. In AML12 and HL7702 cells, SR-B1 level and DiI-HDL uptake were repressed by SR-B1 siRNA or GW9662. However, these effects were reversed through alcohol treatment. These data suggest that a moderate amount of alcohol plays a novel role in reverse cholesterol transport, mainly mediated by PPARγ and SR-B1. PMID:27618957

  14. Chronic Moderate Alcohol Intakes Accelerate SR-B1 Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Menghua; Diao, Yan; Liu, Ying; Huang, Hui; Li, Yanze; Tan, Peizhu; Liang, Huan; He, Qi; Nie, Junhui; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However, a high level of cholesterol in the body is strongly associated with the progression of various severe diseases. In our study, the potential involvement of alcohol in the regulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B and type I (SR-B1)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport was investigated. We separated male C57BL/6 mice into four diets: control, alcohol, Control + HC and alcohol + HC. The SR-B1 level and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate- high- density lipoprotein (DiI-HDL) uptake were also measured in AML12 cells and HL7702 cells treated with alcohol. The control + HC diet led to increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels while alcohol + HC led no significant change. Compared with that of the control group, the SR-B1 mRNA level was elevated by 27.1% (P < 0.05), 123.8% (P < 0.001) and 343.6% (P < 0.001) in the alcohol, control + HC and alcohol + HC groups, respectively. In AML12 and HL7702 cells, SR-B1 level and DiI-HDL uptake were repressed by SR-B1 siRNA or GW9662. However, these effects were reversed through alcohol treatment. These data suggest that a moderate amount of alcohol plays a novel role in reverse cholesterol transport, mainly mediated by PPARγ and SR-B1. PMID:27618957

  15. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Gerry; Mahmood, Lamia; Leyland, Alastair H; Batty, G David

    2011-01-01

    Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe. Conclusions Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades. PMID:21228431

  16. Effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiangjin; Feng, Xiugao; Yang, Dawei; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently understated. Present study aims to investigate the relationship between them. A total of 425 patients with AS were recruited in the study and their smoking and drinking habit were investigated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) were evaluated. Parameters including fingertip-to-floor distance, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain, total back pain and morning stiffness were analyzed as well. Blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. For 118 (27.8%) AS patients with smoking habit, the scorings of BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and other physical parameters (including fingertip-to-floor, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain and total back pain) were higher than those in patients without smoking. 101 (23.8%) AS patients with alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher scores in BASMI (P < 0.05). In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption variables contributed to the variance in BASDAI scores, adding an additional 1.6% to the overall R-square, resulting in a final R-square of 5.1%. Smoking has a negative effect on disease activity of patients with AS and the patients' physical functioning. Alcohol consumption would aggravate the overall physical functioning of AS patient. The results indicated the potential benefit of quitting smoking and drinking for AS patients. PMID:26550348

  17. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. PMID:27565749

  18. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans.

  19. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Al Mansouri, Shamma; Ojha, Shreesh; Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Nurulain, Syed M; Bahi, Amine

    2014-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors play a major role in alcohol reward. In fact, the implication of cannabinoid neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) is becoming increasingly evident. The CB2 receptor agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP) was used to investigate the role of the CB2 receptors in mediating alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) and sensitivity in mice. The effect of BCP on alcohol intake was evaluated using the standard two-bottle choice drinking method. The mice were presented with increasing EtOH concentrations and its consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was measured following the EtOH preference tests. Finally, the effect of BCP on alcohol reward and sensitivity was tested using an unbiased EtOH-CPP and loss of righting-reflex (LORR) procedures, respectively. BCP dose-dependently decreased alcohol consumption and preference. Additionally, BCP-injected mice did not show any difference from vehicle mice in total fluid intake in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded concentrations of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the CB2 receptor activation did not alter taste function. More importantly, BCP inhibited EtOH-CPP acquisition and exacerbated LORR duration. Interestingly, these effects were abrogated when mice were pre-injected with a selective CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Overall, the CB2 receptor system appears to be involved in alcohol dependence and sensitivity and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism.

  20. Aging, chronic alcohol consumption, and low folate intake are determinants of genomic DNA methylation in the liver and colon of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors in the development of colon and liver cancer. Both factors are known to be associated with altered DNA methylation. Inadequate folate intake can also derange biological methylation pathways. We investigated the effects of aging,...

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  4. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  5. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  6. Personality and the effects of acute alcohol intake. A contingent negative variation study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fattapposta, Francesco; Venturi, Piero; Carella Prada, Ozrem; Costamagna, Luisa; D'Alessio, Carmelo; Mostarda, Mirella; Mina, Concetta; Parisi, Leoluca; Pirro, Cristina; Amabile, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Fourteen healthy subjects were divided on the basis of their personality profiles--the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hs+Hy+D/3)--into a high score (HS) and low score (LS) subgroup. The CNV was recorded using a choice-reaction time (RT) task. CNV recording was performed in two conditions: inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 1500 ms and 2500 ms at three different BACs (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 g/L) after acute alcohol administration. At the high BAC (0.8 g/L), both subgroups showed a reduced CNV amplitude area and a longer RT (p<.05) in both ISI conditions. No effects either on the CNV or on the RT were observed at the low BAC (0.3 g/L). At the intermediate BAC (0.5 g/L), the HS subgroup displayed an increased CNV amplitude (p<.05), not accompanied by a significantly longer RT (short ISI condition), and a reduced late CNV (p<.05) with a longer RT (p<.05) (long ISI condition). In the LS group, only a longer RT was observed in the long ISI condition. CNV modifications point to an individual, apparently personality-related, threshold of sensitivity to different alcohol levels. PMID:15212113

  7. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  8. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  9. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Four Second-Generation Antipsychotics and One First-Generation Antipsychotic on Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use in Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A; Lin, Haiqun; Swartz, Marvin; McEvoy, Joseph; Stroup, Scott

    2015-07-01

    No large-scale randomized trial has compared the effect of different second-generation antipsychotic drugs and any first-generation drug on alcohol, drug and nicotine use in patients with schizophrenia. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study randomly assigned 1432 patients formally diagnosed with schizophrenia to four second-generation antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone quetiapine, and ziprasidone) and one first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) and followed them for up to 18 months. Secondary outcome data documented cigarettes smoked in the past week and alcohol and drug use severity ratings. At baseline, 61% of patients smoked, 35% used alcohol, and 23% used illicit drugs. Although there were significant effects of time showing reduction in substance use over the 18 months (all p < 0.0001), this study found no evidence that any antipsychotic was robustly superior to any other in a secondary analysis of data on substance use outcomes from a large 18-month randomized schizophrenia trial.

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  11. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  12. Tolcapone suppresses ethanol intake in alcohol preferring rats performing a novel cued access protocol

    PubMed Central

    McCane, Aqilah M.; Czachowski, Cristine L.; Lapish, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine (DA) has been shown to play a central role in regulating motivated behavior and encoding reward. Chronic drug abuse elicits a state of hypodopaminergia in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system in both humans and preclinical rodent models of addiction, including those modeling alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Working under the hypothesis that reductions in the bioavailability of DA play an integral role in the expression of the excessive drinking phenotype, the COMT inhibitor Tolcapone was used as a means to amplify cortical DA efflux and drinking behaviors were then assessed. Sucrose and ethanol consumption were measured in P and Wistar rats in both a free choice drinking protocol and a novel cued access protocol. Results Tolcapone attenuated the consumption of ethanol, and to a lesser extent sucrose, in P rats in the cued access protocol, while no effect was observed in the free choice drinking protocol. Tolcapone also decreased ethanol consumption in high drinking Wistar rats. A follow-up experiment using the DA agonist D-amphetamine (AMPH) showed no change in ethanol consumption. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that COMT inhibitors may be capable of alleviating the extremely motivating or salient nature of stimuli associated with alcohol. The hypothesis is put forth that the relative specificity of Tolcapone for cortical DA systems may mediate the suppression of the high seeking/drinking phenotype. PMID:25257296

  13. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  14. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  15. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  16. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Garmienė, Asta; Žemaitienė, Nida; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2006-01-01

    Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2%) boys and 158 (42.8%) girls) and 565 parents: 323 (57.2%) mothers and 242 (48.2%) fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5%) of parents (248 (77.0%) mothers and 207 (85.9%) fathers (p < 0.05)) reported frequenting alcohol furnished parties at least once a month. About half of the surveyed fathers (50.6%) together with one fifth of the mothers (19.9%) (p < 0.001) were smokers. More frequently than girls, boys reported having tried smoking (6.6% and 23.0% respectively; p < 0.001) as well as alcohol (31.16% and 40.1% respectively; p < 0.05). Child alcohol use was associated both with paternal alcohol use, and with the time, spent in joint family activities. For instance, boys were more prone to try alcohol, if their fathers frequented alcohol furnished parties, whereas girls were more prone to try alcohol, if family members spent less time together. Conclusion

  17. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism.

  18. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  19. Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L

    2012-08-15

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) = 0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87; p(trend) < 0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.77; p(trend) = 0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; p(trend) = 0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk.

  20. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  1. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  2. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  3. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning.

  4. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  5. [Fatal accidents in house fires. The most significant causes, such as smoking and alcohol abuse, multiplied by four the incidence during the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Leth, P M; Gregersen, M; Sabroe, S

    1998-06-01

    A population-based descriptive investigation of housefire accidents in Denmark was carried out for the two five year periods 1953-58 and 1988-93, based on death certificates, police reports and autopsy reports. The number of deaths due to housefire accidents in Denmark has increased (1953-58: 136 (66 men and 70 women), 1988-93: 363 (212 men and 150 women), mostly due to an increase in tobacco-smoking related fire accidents. In 1988-93 the three common causes of housefire deaths were tobacco-smoking, often in combination with alcohol intoxication or handicap (51%), cooking-accidents (10%) and accidents with candles (9%). The largest risk groups were chronic alcoholics, handicapped and elderly people. In conclusion, warnings should be issued against smoking in bed and use of loose-fitting clothing while cooking on an open fire. Protective aprons and devices for use while smoking, self-extinguishing cigarettes and use of fireproof materials in furniture and clothing may prevent ignition. Smoke-alarms may secure early warning. PMID:9627509

  6. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  7. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  8. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  9. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  10. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  11. Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviors on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang, C.S.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of smoking and drinking status in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and Materials: All patients with all stages and sites were included if complete information was available on baseline smoking and alcohol behavior (never, former, active), disease stage, primary site, radiation dose, sex, and age. Treatment was radiotherapy in 973 patients, postoperative radiotherapy in 469, and chemoradiotherapy in 429. Statistical analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods. Results: Data from 1,871 patients were available. At baseline, 9% of patients never smoked, 40% were former smokers, and 51% were active smokers; 20% never drank, 25% were former drinkers, and 55% were active drinkers. Smoking was associated with inferior local control and survival. For local control, the hazard ratio (HR) of active smokers vs. former smokers was 1.5 (p = 0.0001). For survival, the HRs of former smokers and active smokers vs. those who never smoked were also statistically significant (1.3 and 1.7, respectively, p = 0.000001). Alcohol drinking was associated with local control (p = 0.03), and was associated with survival. For survival, HRs of former and active drinkers compared with those who never drank were, respectively, 1.1 (p = 0.01) and 1.28 (p = 0.001). Adjusted 5-year local control and survival rates for those who never smoked and never drank were 87% and 77%, respectively, and for those who were both active smokers and active drinkers were 72% (p = 0.007) and 52% (p = 0.0009), respectively. Conclusion: Smoking and drinking at baseline were associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

  12. Limbic activation to novel versus familiar food cues predicts food preference and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Subrize, Mike; Kim, Ronald; Robison, Lisa; Hurd, Yasmin L; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2013-05-28

    Expectation of salient rewards and novelty seeking are processes implicated in substance use disorders but the neurobiological substrates underlying these associations are not well understood. To better understand the regional circuitry of novelty and reward preference, rats were conditioned to pair unique cues with bacon, an initially novel food, or chow, a familiar food. In the same animals, after training, cue-induced brain activity was measured, and the relationships between activity and preference for three rewards, the conditioned foods and ethanol (EtOH), were separately determined. Activity in response to the food paired cues was measured using brain glucose metabolism (BGluM). Rats favoring bacon-paired (BAP) cues had increased BGluM in mesocorticolimbic brain regions after exposure to these cues, while rats favoring chow-paired (CHP) cues showed relative deactivation in these regions. Rats exhibiting BAP cue-induced activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) also consumed more EtOH while rats with cortical activation in response to CHP cues showed lower EtOH consumption. Additionally, long-term stable expression levels of PFC Grin2a, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, correlated with individual differences in EtOH preference insomuch that rats with high EtOH preference had enduringly low PFC Grin2a mRNA expression. No other glutamatergic, dopaminergic or endocannabinoid genes studied showed this relationship. Overall, these results suggest that natural variation in mesocorticolimbic sensitivity to reward-paired cues underlies behavioral preferences for and vulnerability to alcohol abuse, and support the notion of common neuronal circuits involved in food- and drug-seeking behavior. The findings also provide evidence that PFC NMDA-mediated glutamate signaling may modulate these associations.

  13. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  14. mGluR1 within the nucleus accumbens regulates alcohol intake in mice under limited-access conditions.

    PubMed

    Lum, Emily N; Campbell, Rianne R; Rostock, Charlotte; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic or alcohol-induced increases in the expression and function of the Group1 metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) within the extended amygdala are theorized to contribute to an individual's propensity to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. In the past, the detailed study of the functional relevance of mGluR1 for alcoholism-related behaviors in animal models was hampered by the poor solubility and non-specific side effects of available inhibitors; however, the advent of the highly potent and soluble mGluR1 negative allosteric modulator JNJ-16259685 [(3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] has instigated a re-examination of the role for this mGluR subtype in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol. In this regard, systemic pretreatment with JNJ-16259685 was proven effective at reducing alcohol reinforcement and motivation for the drug. mGluR1 is a Gαq/o-coupled receptor, the stimulation of which activates phospholipase C (PLC). Thus, the present study investigated potential neuroanatomical substrates and intracellular molecules involved in the ability of JNJ-16259685 to reduce alcohol intake. JNJ-16259685 (0-30 pg/side) was infused into the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of C57BL/6J and Homer2 knock-out (KO) mice, either alone or in combination with the PLC inhibitor U-73122 (5.8 fg/side). Alcohol intake was then assessed under Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) procedures. Intra-NAC JNJ-16259685 infusion dose-dependently reduced alcohol consumption by C57BL/6J mice; this effect was not additive with that produced by U-73122, nor was it present in Homer2 KO animals. These data provide novel evidence in support of a critical role for mGluR1-PLC signaling, scaffolded by Homer2, within the NAC shell, in maintaining alcohol consumption under limited access procedures. Such findings have relevance for both the pharmacotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics of risky alcohol drinking and alcoholism.

  15. Boost Your High: Cigarette Smoking to Enhance Alcohol and Drug Effects among Southeast Asian American Youth.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined: 1) whether using cigarettes to enhance the effects of other drugs (here referred to as "boosting") is a unique practice related to blunts (i.e., small cheap cigars hollowed out and filled with cannabis) or marijuana use only; 2) the prevalence of boosting among drug-using young people; and 3) the relationship between boosting and other drug-related risk behaviors. We present data collected from 89 Southeast Asian American youth and young adults in Northern California (35 females). 72% respondents reported any lifetime boosting. Controlling for gender, results of linear regression analyses show a significant positive relationship between frequency of boosting to enhance alcohol high and number of drinks per occasion. Boosting was also found to be associated with use of blunts but not other forms of marijuana and with the number of blunts on a typical day. The findings indicate that boosting may be common among drug-using Southeast Asian youths. These findings also indicate a need for further research on boosting as an aspect of cigarette uptake and maintenance among drug- and alcohol-involved youths.

  16. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  17. Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Population of Mainly Women Who Do Not Drink Alcohol: The MEC Study.

    PubMed

    Gram, Inger T; Park, Song-Yi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-12-01

    We prospectively examined the association between smoking and the risk of breast cancer in a racially/ethnically diverse population comprising mainly women who did not drink alcohol. From 1993 to 2010, we followed 83,300 women who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study at 45-75 years of age. We identified cancer cases via linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries that covered the states of Hawaii and California through December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for confounders that were decided a priori. During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 4,484 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared with parous never smokers, women who had smoked for more than 20 pack-years and initiated smoking more than 5 years before their first childbirth had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 35% higher (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.63). Among women who did not drink alcohol, the risk was 40% higher (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.81). This higher risk did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups (P(interaction) = 0.82). We found that various measures of smoking exposure were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially smoking initiated many years before first childbirth, and that risk did not differ by alcohol consumption (yes vs. no) or racial/ethnic group.

  18. A Propensity Scoring Approach to Characterizing the Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring's Initial Responses to Cigarettes and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    When examining the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on later offspring substance use, it is critical to consider familial environments confounded with MSDP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MSDP on offspring's initial reactions to cigarettes and alcohol, which are indicators of future substance-use related problems. We tested these effects using two propensity score approaches (1) by controlling for confounding using the MSDP propensity score and (2) examining effects of MSDP across the MSDP risk distribution by grouping individuals into quantiles based on their MSDP propensity score. This study used data from 829 unrelated mothers with a reported lifetime history of smoking to determine the propensity for smoking only during their first trimester (MSDP-E) or throughout their entire pregnancy (MSDP-T). Propensity score analyses focused on the offspring (N = 1616 female twins) of a large subset of these mothers. We examined the effects of levels of MSDP-E/T on offspring initial reactions to their first experiences with alcohol and cigarettes, across the distribution of liability for MSDP-E/T. MSDP-E/T emerged as significant predictors of offspring reactions to alcohol and cigarettes, but the effects were confounded by the familial liability for MSDP. Further, the unique MSDP effects that emerged were not uniform across the MSDP familial risk distribution. Our findings underscore the importance of properly accounting for correlated familial risk factors when examining the effects of MSDP on substance related outcomes. PMID:27098899

  19. Marijuana, Alcohol Use and Attempted Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Kong, Grace; Bagot, Kara; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between the frequency of current marijuana and alcohol use and cigarette-quit attempts in male and female adolescent smokers. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors in high-school-age adolescents were analyzed. Current cigarette smokers (n=804) who reported use of at least 1 cigarette in the past month were divided into those with and without a history of at least 1 quit attempt (a self-reported episode of trying to “stop smoking”). Logistic regression models were fit to describe the association between the frequency of marijuana/alcohol use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts. Results Among the total sample, higher frequency marijuana use (more than six times in the past 30 days) and frequent binge drinking (more than 5 days of binge drinking in the past 30 days) decreased the odds of having a past cigarette-quit attempt (higher frequency marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.36–0.86) (frequent binge drinking AOR=0.49; 95%CI=0.29–0.83). A significant gender interaction was observed for the relationship between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts (p=0.03), with decreased odds in boys (AOR=0.41; 95% CI=0.22–0.77) but not in girls (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.37–1.33). Conclusions Adolescent smokers who report higher frequency marijuana use or frequent binge drinking have a decreased likelihood of a history of a cigarette-quit attempt. The gender-related association between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of quit attempts suggests that boys with greater substance use may need particularly intensive support to initiate quit attempts. PMID:25174418

  20. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  1. Secondary prevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in areas where smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing are prevalent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Lun; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2010-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  2. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  3. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  4. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. Methods We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992–2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Results Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Conclusions Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight. PMID:26910775

  5. Associations Between Anthropometry, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Jesse D.; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Oken, Martin M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55–74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993–2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (Ptrend < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: Ptrend = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  6. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development.

  7. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development. PMID:27090561

  8. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  9. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  10. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Method Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81–110.15 mg/day, 110.16–146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. Result The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54–0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72–1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53–0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. Conclusion There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population. PMID:26824361

  11. Prevalence of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, Alcohol Intake and Nicotine Consumption in Rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Torsten; Behere, Prakash; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization. Methods The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ), and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15–21) was detected in 1862 (39.6%) individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women), and major depression (CESD sum score >21) in 613 (13.0%) individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women). Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2%) participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1%) individuals. There were 887 (18.9%) smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8%) subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0%) participants; 283 (6.0%) subjects had an AUDIT score ≥8 (hazardous drinking), and 108 (4.63%) subjects a score ≥13 (women) or ≥15 (men) (alcohol dependence). Conclusions In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India. PMID:25409441

  12. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2013-08-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  14. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use as predictors of HIV testing in the United States: results from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Conserve, Donaldson; King, Gary; Turo, Angela; Wafula, Edith; Sevilla, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between HIV risk perception and HIV testing among cigarette smokers, alcohol users, dual consumers of cigarette and alcohol, and abstainers. Data were analyzed from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey of the full sample of 22,946 and separately for 1547 African Americans. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that alcohol users and dual consumers were significantly more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk of acquiring HIV. Cigarette smokers and alcohol users who considered themselves to be at risk for HIV and dual consumers who reported no perceived HIV risk were more likely to have been tested for HIV than abstainers who perceived no risk of acquiring HIV. Among African Americans, dual consumers and cigarette smokers only who perceived themselves at risk for HIV were more likely to have been tested for HIV than abstainers who perceived no risk of HIV infection. This study demonstrated that among the full sample and African Americans, cigarette smoking and alcohol use were significantly associated with HIV testing regardless of HIV risk perceptions.

  15. Effects of smoking and alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in heavy drinking, HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Lee, Hana; Pantalone, David W; Mayer, Kenneth H; Cohen, Ronald A; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of cognitive impairment persist in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite improved health outcomes and reduced mortality through widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking are potential contributors to neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few studies have examined their influence concurrently. Here we investigated the effects of self-reported alcohol use and smoking on learning, memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function in 124 HIV-positive men who have sex with men [age (mean ± SD) = 42.8 ± 10.4 years], engaged with medical care. All participants were heavy drinkers. Duration of HIV infection averaged 9.9 ± 7.6 years, and 92.7% were on a stable ART regimen. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and assessment of past 30-day substance use. Average number of drinks per drinking day (DPDD) was 5.6 ± 3.5, and 33.1% of participants were daily smokers. Rates of neurocognitive impairment were the highest in learning (50.8%), executive function (41.9%), and memory (38.0%). Multiple regression models tested DPDD and smoking status as predictors of neurocognitive performance, controlling for age and premorbid intelligence. Smoking was significantly, negatively related to verbal learning (p = .046) and processing speed (p = .001). DPDD was a significant predictor of learning (p = .047) in a model that accounted for the interaction of DPDD and smoking status. As expected, premorbid intelligence significantly predicted all neurocognitive scores (ps < .01), and older age was associated with slower processing speed (ps < .01). In conclusion, smoking appears to be associated with neurocognitive functioning deficits in PLWH beyond the effects of heavy drinking, aging, and premorbid intelligence. Smoking cessation interventions have the potential to be an important target for improving functional outcomes

  16. A potential role for adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) in the regulation of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Berton, Fulvia; Cottone, Pietro; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Roberts, Amanda J; Morales, Marisela; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-06-21

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. We recently identified the small G protein K-ras as an alcohol-regulated gene in the ACC by gene expression analysis. We show here that the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) was differentially regulated by alcohol in the ACC in a K-ras-dependent manner. Additionally, withdrawal-associated increased drinking was attenuated in AdipoR2 null mice. Intracellular recordings revealed that adiponectin increased the excitability of ACC neurons and that this effect was more pronounced during alcohol withdrawal, suggesting that AdipoR2 signaling may contribute to increased ACC activity. Altogether, the data implicate K-ras-regulated pathways involving AdipoR2 in the cellular and behavioral actions of alcohol that may contribute to overactivity of the ACC during withdrawal and excessive alcohol drinking.

  17. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  18. Effects of varenicline on operant self-administration of alcohol and/or nicotine in a rat model of co-abuse.

    PubMed

    Funk, D; Lo, S; Coen, K; Lê, A D

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine (in the form of tobacco) are often taken together, with increased negative health consequences. Co-use may modify intake of one or both of the drugs, or the effects of drugs used to treat nicotine or alcohol addiction. Varenicline is commonly prescribed as an aid to enhance quitting smoking. More recently it has been shown to reduce alcohol intake in humans and laboratory animals. There is little work investigating the role of co-exposure to alcohol and nicotine in the effects of varenicline. In pilot clinical studies, it has been reported that smoking enhances varenicline's effectiveness as a treatment for alcohol misuse, but this relationship has not been systematically investigated. To help resolve this, we examined if the effects of varenicline on alcohol and nicotine self-administration (SA) in rats are modified when the two drugs are taken together. Rats were trained on alcohol SA, and some were implanted with i.v. catheters for nicotine SA. Groups of animals then lever pressed for alcohol or nicotine alone, and another group lever pressed for alcohol and nicotine, using a two lever choice procedure. Varenicline did not affect alcohol SA. Varenicline reduced nicotine SA modestly. Access to both alcohol and nicotine reduced self-administration of either drug, but did not change the effects of varenicline. We found that in rats with a history of alcohol SA, varenicline reduced reinstatement of extinguished alcohol seeking induced by exposure to an alcohol prime combined with cues previously associated with alcohol.

  19. Effects of varenicline on operant self-administration of alcohol and/or nicotine in a rat model of co-abuse.

    PubMed

    Funk, D; Lo, S; Coen, K; Lê, A D

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine (in the form of tobacco) are often taken together, with increased negative health consequences. Co-use may modify intake of one or both of the drugs, or the effects of drugs used to treat nicotine or alcohol addiction. Varenicline is commonly prescribed as an aid to enhance quitting smoking. More recently it has been shown to reduce alcohol intake in humans and laboratory animals. There is little work investigating the role of co-exposure to alcohol and nicotine in the effects of varenicline. In pilot clinical studies, it has been reported that smoking enhances varenicline's effectiveness as a treatment for alcohol misuse, but this relationship has not been systematically investigated. To help resolve this, we examined if the effects of varenicline on alcohol and nicotine self-administration (SA) in rats are modified when the two drugs are taken together. Rats were trained on alcohol SA, and some were implanted with i.v. catheters for nicotine SA. Groups of animals then lever pressed for alcohol or nicotine alone, and another group lever pressed for alcohol and nicotine, using a two lever choice procedure. Varenicline did not affect alcohol SA. Varenicline reduced nicotine SA modestly. Access to both alcohol and nicotine reduced self-administration of either drug, but did not change the effects of varenicline. We found that in rats with a history of alcohol SA, varenicline reduced reinstatement of extinguished alcohol seeking induced by exposure to an alcohol prime combined with cues previously associated with alcohol. PMID:26365457

  20. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  1. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L.; Jensen, Paul N.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R.; Chen, Lin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21–2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69–1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65–74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes. PMID:26756465

  2. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes. PMID:26756465

  3. The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on markers of systemic inflammation, immunoglobulin levels and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this research was to study the influence of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on immune response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, immunoglobulin levels (Ig) and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathy (SpA). Methods In total, 505 patients were vaccinated. Six pre-specified groups were enrolled: RA on methotrexate (MTX) treatment in some cases other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (I); RA on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as monotherapy (II); RA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (III); SpA on anti-TNF as monotherapy (IV); SpA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (V); and SpA on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or analgesics (VI). Smoking (pack-years) and alcohol consumption (g/week) were calculated from patient questionnaires. Ig, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined at vaccination. IgG antibodies against serotypes 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and after four to six weeks using standard ELISA. Immune response (ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibodies; immune response (IR)) and positive immune response (≥2-fold increase in pre-vaccination antibodies; posIR) were calculated. Results Eighty-eight patients (17.4%) were current smokers. Smokers had higher CRP and ESR, lower IgG and lower IR for both serotypes (P between 0.012 and 0.045). RA patients on MTX who smoked ≥1pack-year had lower posIR for both serotypes (P = 0.021; OR 0.29; CI 0.1 to 0.7) compared to never-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with lower CRP (P = 0.05) and ESR (P = 0.003) but did not influence IR or Ig levels. Conclusion Smoking predicted impaired immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in RA patients on MTX. Smokers with arthritis had higher inflammatory markers and lower IgG regardless of diagnosis and treatment. Low to moderate alcohol consumption was related

  4. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  5. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. Conclusion High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed. PMID:24112218

  6. The economic burden of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking, excess weight, alcohol use, and physical inactivity in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, H.; Andres, E.N.; Koot, J.M.; Reilly, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to calculate the proportion of cancers in Canada attributable to tobacco smoking (ts), alcohol use (au), excess weight (ew), and physical inactivity (pia); to explore variation in the proportions of those risk factors (rfs) over time by sex and province; to estimate the economic burden of cancer attributable to the 4 rfs; and to calculate the potential reduction in cancers and economic burden if all provinces achieved rf prevalence rates equivalent to the best in Canada. Methods We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions (pafs) to estimate the cancer-related economic burden associated with the four rfs. Sex-specific relative risk and age- and sex-specific prevalence data were used in the modelling. The economic burden was adjusted for potential double counting of cases and costs. Results In Canada, 27.7% of incident cancer cases [95% confidence interval (ci): 22.6% to 32.9%] in 2013 [47,000 of 170,000 (95% ci: 38,400–55,900)] were attributable to the four rfs: ts, 15.2% (95% ci: 13.7% to 16.9%); ew, 5.1% (95% ci: 3.8% to 6.4%); au, 3.9% (95% ci: 2.4% to 5.3%); and pia, 3.5% (95% ci: 2.7% to 4.3%). The annual economic burden attributable to the 47,000 total cancers was $9.6 billion (95% ci: $7.8 billion to $11.3 billion): consisting of $1.7 billion in direct and $8.0 billion in indirect costs. Applying the lowest rf rates to each province would result in an annual reduction of 6204 cancers (13.2% of the potentially avoidable cancers) and a reduction in economic burden of $1.2 billion. Conclusions Despite substantial reductions in the prevalence and intensity of ts, ts remains the dominant risk factor from the perspective of cancer prevention in Canada, although ew and au are becoming increasingly important rfs. PMID:27536174

  7. Test-retest reliability of a self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Wright, Shana; Rotrosen, John; Khan, Rubina; Lee, Joshua D.; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    The time required to conduct drug and alcohol screening has been a major barrier to its implementation in mainstream healthcare settings. Because patient self-administered tools are potentially more efficient, we translated the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) into an audio guided computer assisted self interview (ACASI) format. This study reports on the test-retest reliability of the ACASI ASSIST in an adult primary care population. Adult primary care patients completed the ACASI ASSIST, in English or Spanish, twice within a 1–4 week period. Among the 101 participants, there were no significant differences between test administrations in detecting moderate to high risk use for tobacco, alcohol, or any other drug class. Substance risk scores from the two administrations had excellent concordance (90–98%) and high correlation (ICC 0.90–0.97) for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The ACASI ASSIST has good test-retest reliability, and warrants additional study to evaluate its validity for detecting unhealthy substance use. PMID:24629887

  8. Little evidence that hepatitis C virus leads to a higher risk of mortality in the absence of cirrhosis and excess alcohol intake: the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, L; Spicher, V M; Negro, F; Rickenbach, M; Zwahlen, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause mortality of participants in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort compared to the Swiss general population. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection attending secondary and tertiary care centres in Switzerland. One thousand six hundred and forty-five patients with HCV infection were followed up for a mean of over 2 years. We calculated all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using age, sex and calendar year-specific Swiss all-cause mortality rates. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to model the variability of SMR by cirrhotic status, HCV genotype, infection with hepatitis B virus or HIV, injection drug use and alcohol intake. Sixty-one deaths were recorded out of 1645 participants. The crude all-cause SMR was 4.5 (95% CI: 3.5-5.8). Patients co-infected with HIV had a crude SMR of 20 (95% CI: 11.1-36.1). The SMR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.63-2.03) for patients who were not cirrhotic, not infected with HBV or HIV, did not inject drugs, were not heavy alcohol consumers (alcohol intake, in those infected with HCV. PMID:19243494

  9. Sexual orientation identity in relation to smoking history and alcohol use at age 18/19: cross-sectional associations from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE)

    PubMed Central

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Taibjee, Rafik; Semlyen, Joanna; Fitchie, Isla; Fish, Julie; Meads, Catherine; Varney, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Information about the health behaviours of minority groups is essential for addressing health inequalities. We evaluated the association among lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) sexual orientation identity and smoking and alcohol use in young people in England. Design Data drawn from wave 6 of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE). Setting Self-completion questionnaires during home visits, face-to-face interviews and web-based questionnaires. Participants Data from 7698 participants (3762 men) with information on sexual orientation identity and health behaviours at age 18/19. Outcome measures Cigarette smoking history, alcohol drinking frequency and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). Results LGB identity was reported by 3.1% of participants (55 gay, 33 lesbian, 35 bisexual male, 111 bisexual female), 3.5% when adjusting for the survey design. Adjusting for a range of covariates, identification as lesbian/gay was found to be associated with smoking (OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.51), alcohol drinking >2 days/week (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.17) and RSOD (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.86) more than weekly. Bisexual identity was associated with smoking history (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.61) but not alcohol drinking >2 days/week (OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.81) or RSOD (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.86). Conclusions In a sample of more than 7600 young people aged 18/19 years in England, lesbian/gay identity is associated with cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol frequency and RSOD. Bisexual identity is associated with smoking but not RSOD or frequent alcohol drinking. PMID:23985386

  10. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1.

  11. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day), alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day). PMID:23917813

  12. Mitochondrial DNA content increase in response to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Masayesva, Brett G; Mambo, Elizabeth; Taylor, Rodney J; Goloubeva, Olga G; Zhou, Shaoyu; Cohen, Yoram; Minhas, Khalid; Koch, Wayne; Sciubba, James; Alberg, Anthony J; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and decline in mitochondrial function occurs with aging and in response to DNA-damaging agents, including tobacco smoke. We did a cross-sectional study and quantified changes in mtDNA content in a population of individuals with varied smoking and alcohol exposure. Age, smoking history, ethanol intake, and other demographic data were characterized for 604 individuals participating in a screening study for smoking-related upper aerodigestive malignancy. Total DNA was extracted from exfoliated cells in saliva. DNA from a nuclear gene, beta-actin, and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I and II (Cox I and Cox II), were quantified by real-time PCR. mtDNA content was correlated with age, exposure history, and other variables using multivariate regression analyses. A significant increase (P<0.001) in mtDNA content was noted in smokers (31% and 29% increase for Cox I and Cox II, respectively) and former smokers (31% and 34%) when compared with never smokers. This association persisted after adjustment for other significant factors including age, alcohol drinking, and income (P<0.001). Increased mtDNA content was positively associated with pack-years of smoking (P=0.02). Despite an average smoking cessation interval of 21 years in former smokers, tobacco cessation interval was not statistically significantly associated with mtDNA content. Smoking is associated with increased mtDNA content in a dose-dependent fashion. Mitochondrial DNA alterations in response to smoking persist for several decades after smoking cessation, consistent with long-term, smoking-related damage.

  13. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  14. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  15. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  16. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Hammad, Alaa M.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  17. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake.

  18. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  20. Recommendations Regarding Dietary Intake and Caffeine and Alcohol Consumption in Patients With Cardiac Arrhythmias: What Do You Tell Your Patients To Do or Not To Do?

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, Kathryn A.; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement The etiology of arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. Most arrhythmias are associated with comorbid illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, or advanced age. Although it is tempting to blame a stimulant like caffeine as a trigger for arrhythmias, the literature does not support this idea. There is no real benefit to having patients with arrhythmias limit their caffeine intake. Caffeine is a vasoactive substance that also may promote the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, acute ingestion of caffeine (as coffee or tea) does not cause atrial fibrillation. Even patients suffering a myocardial infarction do not have an increased incidence of ventricular or other arrhythmias after ingesting several cups of coffee. Large epidemiologic studies have also failed to find a connection between the amount of coffee/caffeine used and the development of arrhythmias. As such, it does not make sense to suggest that patients with palpitations, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia, abstain from caffeine use. Energy drinks are a new phenomenon on the beverage market, with 30-50 % of young adults and teens using them regularly. Energy drinks are loaded with caffeine, sugar, and other chemicals that can stimulate the cardiac system. There is an increasing body of mainly anecdotal case reports describing arrhythmias or even sudden death triggered by exercise plus using energy drinks. Clearly, there must be more study in this area, but it is wise to either limit or avoid their use in patients with arrhythmias. Moderate to heavy alcohol use seems to be associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. The term “holiday heart” was coined back in 1978, to describe patients who had atrial fibrillation following binge alcohol use. Thus, it is reasonable to recommend to patients with arrhythmias that they limit their alcohol use, although unfortunately this treatment will likely not

  1. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  2. Effects of ceftriaxone on ethanol, nicotine or sucrose intake by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and its association with GLT-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Toalston, Jamie E; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L

    2016-06-21

    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol (EtOH). We have shown that administration of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, reduced EtOH intake and increased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in mesocorticolimbic regions of male and female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In the present study, we tested whether CEF administration would reduce nicotine (NIC) and/or EtOH intake by adult female P rats. P rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (a) 5% sucrose (SUC) or 10% SUC [SUC], (b) 5% SUC+0.07mg/ml NIC and 10% SUC+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-SUC], 15% EtOH and 30% EtOH [EtOH] and (d) 15% EtOH+0.07mg/ml NIC and 30% EtOH+0.14mg/ml NIC [NIC-EtOH]. After achieving stable intakes (4weeks), the rats were administered 7 consecutive, daily i.p. injections of either saline or 200mg/kg CEF. The effects of CEF on intake were significant but differed across the reinforcers; such that ml/kg/day SUC was reduced by ∼30%, mg/kg/day NIC was reduced by ∼70% in the NIC-SUC group and ∼40% in the EtOH-NIC group, whereas g/kg/day EtOH was reduced by ∼40% in both the EtOH and EtOH-NIC group. The effects of CEF on GLT-1 expression were also studied. We found that CEF significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the NIC and NIC-EtOH rats as compared to NIC and NIC-EtOH saline-treated rats. These findings provide further support for GLT-1-associated mechanisms in EtOH and/or NIC abuse. The present results along with previous reports of CEF's efficacy in reducing cocaine self-administration in rats suggest that modulation of GLT-1 expression and/or activity is an important pharmacological target for treating polysubstance abuse and dependence.

  3. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  4. Additive effect of alcohol and nicotine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashakumary, L; Vijayammal, P L

    1996-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and also for lung cancer. Nicotine is one of the major toxic components of cigarette smoke that is believed to be partly responsible for the deleterious effect of cigarette smoke. Alcohol intake is another major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Lipid peroxidation is a process associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The concentration of lipid peroxides is found to be increased in alcohol-treated rats. On nicotine administration along with alcohol, an additive effect was observed in lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence mechanism. The activity of scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase was found to be decreased, while the activity of glutathione peroxidase and the concentration of glutathione were increased. PMID:8854216

  5. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  6. Calcium intake and blood pressure in blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Freudenheim, J L; Russell, M; Trevisan, M; Doemland, M

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on 1790 residents of Erie County, New York, over age 19, who participated in a study of blood pressure in 1986. Subjects were selected using a highly stratified sampling procedure to obtain a sample that included approximately equal numbers of blacks and whites in three educational strata (less than 12 years, 12 years, and more than 12 years of education). Calcium intake was estimated using questions regarding usual frequency of intake of foods high in calcium and of calcium-containing supplements and antacids. Calcium intake by normotensives tended to be higher than intake by hypertensives; differences were significant for females but not for males. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with systolic blood pressure for black females and diastolic blood pressure in black and white females after control for age, education, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol. For other sex-race groups, there was generally a trend (although not significant) toward decreased blood pressure with increased calcium intake. Diastolic blood pressure was inversely associated with calcium from milk and yogurt (but not cheese) for white females. A similar association (although not significant) was found for black females; no association was found for males. No differences were found between blacks and whites in response to calcium. This cross-sectional study provides some additional evidence of a protective effect of calcium intake on blood pressure in both black and white females.

  7. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  8. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Blood pressure and salt intake in Malawi: an urban rural study.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D; Barbour, G; Congleton, J; Levy, J; Meacher, P; Saul, H; Sowerby, T

    1986-06-01

    A significant difference between the blood pressures of rural and urban Malawians was found in both sexes, was present at the age of 15 years, and was associated with obesity but not with smoking, alcohol consumption, occupation or housing. Pulse rate was significantly lower in the urban group. These differences were accompanied by low potassium and sodium intake although the sodium intake in the urban group was double that in the rural group. No direct relation between blood pressure and urinary electrolytes was found.

  10. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  11. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Dietary Patterns: The FinDrink Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O.; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53–73 years were included in the study in 1998–2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12–167.9 grams for men, 12–83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥168 grams for men, ≥84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to

  13. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  14. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART.

  15. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ahn, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary fat intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between dietary fat and specific types of fat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods The study population included 1,662 healthy adults who were 50.2 years of age and had no known hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome at the initial visit. Dietary intake was obtained from a 1-day food record. During 20.7 months of follow-up, we documented 147 cases of metabolic syndrome confirmed by self-report, anthropometric data, and blood test results. The intakes of total fat, vegetable fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and cholesterol level divided by quintile. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, total calorie, and protein intake. Results Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.76). Total fat, animal fat, SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and cholesterol intakes showed no association with metabolic syndrome. Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among the components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion These data support an inverse association between vegetable fat and the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26435816

  16. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

    2015-01-15

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  17. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

    2015-01-15

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors.

  18. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden.

  19. Urinary and blood cadmium levels in relation to types of food and water intake and smoking status in a Thai population residing in cadmium-contaminated areas in Mae Sot.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Kongjam, Panida; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-11-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) produces a wide variety of toxic effects involving many organs and systems, but the kidney is the main organ affected among long-term Cd-exposed people. In the general population, the primary sources of Cd exposure are cigarette smoke and food (shellfish, offal and certain vegetables). The aims of the study were to investigate the association between urinary and blood Cd levels and personal habits relating to Cd intake (consumption of food stuff, water and tobacco smoking), levels of renal biomarkers in the urine or serum of 314 Thai subjects (85 males, 229 females) who resided in Cd-contaminated areas of Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Based on the cut-off levels of 1 microg/g creatinine and 5 microg/l for urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively, nearly all subjects had urinary Cd levels lower than cut-off values for urine and blood (88.2 and 77.7%, respectively). Binary logistic backward stepwise regression analysis with five covariates (gender, residential areas, consumption of bamboo or chicken, and smoking status), and eight covariates (residential areas, consumption of beans, pork, fish or liver, types and sources of rice consumed and smoking status) best predicted urinary and blood Cd levels, respectively. For renal biomarkers, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) best predicted both urinary and blood Cd with good accuracy. A larger sample size with equal distribution of subjects with low (< 2 microg/g creatinine) and high (> 2 microg/g creatinine) urinary Cd levels should be studied to obtain the regression equation that would best predict Cd body burden. PMID:22299424

  20. Intake of Soy Products and Other Foods and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Pil; Park, Sue K.; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Gwack, Jin; Shin, Aesun; Kim, YeonJu; Kang, Daehee; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC). Methods The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Results Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52–1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268). Conclusions Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23812102

  1. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  2. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD. PMID:21943357

  3. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ≥27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland

  4. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  5. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets sup 3 H-paroxetine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P. ); Ernouf, D. ); Breton, P. ); Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in {sup 3}H-paroxetine binding. When binding and {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology.

  6. Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ros, Martine M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, Frederike L; Aben, Katja K H; Kampman, Ellen; Egevad, Lars; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Steffen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Stasinopulou, Georgia; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Chirlaque, Maria D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina, Esther; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Manjer, Jonas; Ehrnström, Roy; Ljungberg, Börje; Allen, Naomi E; Roddam, Andrew W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Michaud, Dominique S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95%CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted.

  7. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    Twose, Jorge; Schiaffino, Anna; García, Montse; Borras, Josep Maria; Fernández, Esteve

    2007-01-01

    Background To describe the socio-demographic factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in different settings (home, leisure, and workplace). Methods We analysed cross-sectional data on self-reported SHS exposure in 1059 non-daily smokers interviewed in the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study in 2002. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates and prevalence rate ratios of SHS exposure at home, at the workplace, during leisure time, and in any of these settings. Results The age-standardized prevalence rate of SHS exposure in any setting was 69.5% in men and 62.9% in women. Among men, 25.9% reported passive smoking at home, 55.1% during leisure time, and 34.0% at the workplace. Among women, prevalence rates in these settings were 34.1%, 44.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Overall exposure to SHS decreased with age in both men and women. In men, SHS exposure was related to marital status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. In women, SHS exposure was related to educational level, marital status, occupational status, self-perceived health, smoking-related illness, and alcohol intake. Conclusion The prevalence of SHS exposure in this population was high. The strongest association with exposure were found for age and occupational status in men, and age and educational level in women. PMID:17683585

  8. ME 03-2 HIGH SALT INTAKE AS A CAUSE OF OBESITY.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Graham

    2016-09-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10 ± 4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49 ± 17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval,1.12-1.45; P = 0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P < 0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P = 0.001) and adults (P = 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:27643150

  9. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  10. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  11. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  12. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  13. Correlates of high fat/calorie food intake in a worksite population: the Healthy Worker Project.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; French, S A; Jeffery, R W; McGovern, P G; Forster, J L; Lando, H A

    1993-01-01

    Behavioral and sociodemographic correlates of high fat/calorie food consumption were examined in a population-based sample of working adults (N = 2038 men; N = 2335 women). Relative weight, dieting history, and cigarette smoking were significantly related to total energy intake from high fat/calorie foods. Relative weight was positively related to the intake of meat, eggs, fried potatoes, and fats. Current dieting to lose weight was associated with a lower intake of all foods, except alcohol and fats. These foods were unrelated to dieting status in men and positively related to dieting status in women. Physical activity and smoking were related to higher intake of high fat/calorie foods. Smokers consumed fewer sweet foods than nonsmokers, however. These results underscore the importance of controlling for dieting status, as well as other behavioral and demographic variables, in population studies of dietary intake. They also suggest factors that may be important in the etiology of unhealthy eating patterns and potential targets for dietary intervention.

  14. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  15. Soy isoflavone intake and the likelihood of ever becoming a mother: the Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Knutsen, Synnøve F; Fan, Jing; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives As little is known about the possible relationship between the intake of phytoestrogens and female fertility, we investigated the relationship between soy isoflavone intake and the risk of nulliparity and nulligravidity. Methods A cross-sectional study of 11,688 North American Adventist women aged 30–50 years old with data regarding childbearing. These women were, as a group, characterized by a high proportion (54%) of vegetarians and a healthy lifestyle with a very low prevalence of smoking and alcohol use. Results The mean isoflavone intake (17.9 mg per day) was very high compared to other Western populations. Only 6% of the women indicated no intake of isoflavones. We found, after adjustment for age, marital status, and educational level, an inverse relationship (P=0.05) between isoflavone intake and the likelihood of ever having become a mother. In women with high (≥40 mg/day) isoflavone intake (12% of this group of women), the adjusted lifetime probability of giving birth to a live child was reduced by approximately 3% (95% CI: 0, 7) compared to women with low (<10 mg/day) intake. No relationships were found between the isoflavone intake and parity or age at first delivery in parous women. A similar inverse relationship (P=0.03) was found between the isoflavone intake and the risk of nulligravidity with a 13% (95% CI: 2, 26) higher risk of never have been pregnant in women with high (≥40 mg/day) isoflavone intake. These relationships were found mainly in women who reported problems becoming pregnant. Conclusion The findings suggest that a high dietary isoflavone intake may have significant impact on fertility. PMID:24741329

  16. Diet, cigarettes and alcohol in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenheim, J.L.; Graham, S.; Byers, T.E.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.K.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the larynx were examined in a case-control study among white males in Western New York, conducted in 1975-1985. Incident, pathologically-confirmed cases and age- and neighborhood-matched controls were interviewed to determine usual diet, and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol. Because response rates were low for both cases and controls, this cannot be considered a population-based study. A strong association of risk with cigarette but not pipe and cigar smoking was found. Beer and hard liquor but not wine were associated with increased risk. After control for cigarettes, alcohol and education, the upper quartile odds ratio for fat was 2.40, while the odds ratio for high intake of carotenoids was 0.51. There was effect modification by smoking. Carotenoids were most negatively associated with risk among lighter smokers; dietary fat was most positively associated with risk among heavier smokers. Total calories, protein, and retinol were associated with increased risk; there was no relationship between laryngeal cancer and vitamins C and E or carbohydrate. This study again demonstrates the strong association between tobacco and alcohol and laryngeal cancer and also suggests that diets low in carotenoids and high fat may increase risk.

  17. Does personality affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Trevor E; Nowson, Caryl A; Worsley, Anthony; Torres, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence for an association between the Big Five dimensions of personality, dietary intake, and compliance to dietary recommendations. Poor diet is a known risk factor for overweight and obesity and associated chronic lifestyle diseases and it has been proposed that personality may be linked to dietary choices. Findings from cross-sectional surveys from different countries and cultures show a positive association between Openness and consumption of fruits and vegetables and between Conscientiousness and healthy eating. Although no evidence has been found that personality dimensions are associated with adherence to dietary recommendations over time, Conscientiousness is associated with a number of prosocial and health-promoting behaviors that include avoiding alcohol-related harm, binge-drinking, and smoking, and adherence to medication regimens. With emerging evidence of an association between higher Conscientiousness and lower obesity risk, the hypothesis that higher Conscientiousness may predict adoption of healthy dietary and other lifestyle recommendations appears to be supported.

  18. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  19. Changes in Energy Balance Following Smoking Cessation and Resumption of Smoking in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Prospectively examined caloric intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), leisure time physical activity, and sensitivity and preference for sweet taste in seven female smokers during normal smoking, complete cessation, and resumption of smoking. Findings suggest that smoking cessation may cause rapid change in energy balance which is quickly reversed…

  20. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  2. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  3. Breakfasts that release glucose at different speeds interact with previous alcohol intake to influence cognition and mood before and after lunch.

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Nabb, Samantha

    2004-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and the glycemic load (GL) of a meal interact to influence both mood and memory. The authors compared the effects of eating a high GL lunch on mood and memory after consumption of a breakfast high in either rapidly (RAG) or slowly (SAG) available glucose. When less than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the eating of a high RAG meal was associated with better memory later in the morning. In contrast, after more than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the SAG meal resulted in better memory. After lunch, if more than 4.5 g alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the RAG breakfast, but neither the SAG meal nor fasting, resulted in a more confused feeling. PMID:15506876

  4. Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Bladder Cancer: Case-Control Study from a Nationwide Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tonooka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Takumi; Homma, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common in Western countries, but not in Japan. Established risk factors are smoking and high-risk jobs such as printing and manufacturing. The risk of alcohol consumption in bladder cancer has been the recent focus; however, available literature on alcohol consumption and bladder cancer has been limited from Japanese population, thought to have a weak genetic tolerance to acetaldehyde. We aimed to determine whether alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for bladder cancer among Japanese. The study was a matched case-control study from the nationwide Japanese clinical database administered by the Rosai Hospital group. We identified 739 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 2005 (when the database was established) and 2014 and 7,196 controls matched by sex, age, hospital, and admission period. We estimated the odds ratio of alcohol consumption for bladder cancer adjusted for the amount of smoking, high-risk occupations, and comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and obesity) with conditional logistic regression. The risk of bladder cancer was significantly higher in ever drinkers than in never drinkers (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.66). Furthermore, the risk threshold for alcohol consumption was more than 15 g of alcohol intake per day (one, 180-mL cup equivalent to 6 ounces of Japanese sake containing 23 grams of alcohol). Among Japanese, alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor for bladder cancer, with a lower risk threshold. PMID:27098227

  5. Teaching Units on Smoking, Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Helen M.

    Smoking, tobacco, and health are presented in this resource unit for grades four, five, and six. One of three units on smoking, drugs, and alcohol, this guide for teachers outlines information about the physiological and socio-economic effects of smoking, effects of smoking on physical performance, man's use of tobacco and tobacco production,…

  6. Cannabis, tobacco and domestic fumes intake are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, B-J; Khyatti, M; Ben-Ayoub, W; Dahmoul, S; Ayad, M; Maachi, F; Bedadra, W; Abdoun, M; Mesli, S; Bakkali, H; Jalbout, M; Hamdi-Cherif, M; Boualga, K; Bouaouina, N; Chouchane, L; Benider, A; Ben-Ayed, F; Goldgar, D E; Corbex, M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The lifestyle risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in North Africa are not known. Methods: From 2002 to 2005, we interviewed 636 patients and 615 controls from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, frequency-matched by centre, age, sex, and childhood household type (urban/rural). Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of lifestyles with NPC risk, controlling for socioeconomic status and dietary risk factors. Results: Cigarette smoking and snuff (tobacco powder with additives) intake were significantly associated with differentiated NPC but not with undifferentiated carcinoma (UCNT), which is the major histological type of NPC in these populations. As demonstrated by a stratified permutation test and by conditional logistic regression, marijuana smoking significantly elevated NPC risk independently of cigarette smoking, suggesting dissimilar carcinogenic mechanisms between cannabis and tobacco. Domestic cooking fumes intake by using kanoun (compact charcoal oven) during childhood increased NPC risk, whereas exposure during adulthood had less effect. Neither alcohol nor shisha (water pipe) was associated with risk. Conclusion: Tobacco, cannabis and domestic cooking fumes intake are risk factors for NPC in western North Africa. PMID:19724280

  7. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  8. Teaching Unit on Alcohol, Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Helen M.

    Alcohol--its use and abuse--is presented in this resource unit for grades four, five, and six. One of three units on alcohol, smoking, and drugs, this guide for teachers outlines information about the history of alcohol; types of alcohol and alcoholic beverages; physiological, psychological, and socio-economic effects of alcohol on people; and…

  9. Association of higher saturated fat intake with higher risk of hypertension in an urban population of Trivandrum in south India.

    PubMed

    Beegom, R; Singh, R B

    1997-01-01

    Saturated fat intake appears to be a risk factor of insulin resistance which is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to demonstrate whether saturated fat intake may be a risk factor of hypertension. Cross-sectional survey in six randomly selected streets in Trivandrum city in south India was conducted to study 1497 randomly selected subjects (737 males and 760 females) of 25-64 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension by Joint National Committee V criteria (> 140/90 were 34.6% (n = 255) in males and 30.7% (n = 234) in females. The consumption of food groups showed that they were within desirable limits. However, the intake of fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts was lower and saturated fat intake higher (> 10% kcal/day), although total fat intake was within desirable limits. Total and saturated fat intake, and the consumption of coconut oil and butter, flesh foods, milk and yogurt as well as sugar and jaggery were significantly associated with hypertension. Total visible fat (> 20 g/day) intake was positively associated whereas fruit, vegetable, legume and coconut intake (< 400 g/day) was inversely associated with hypertension. Salt intake (> 8 g/day), smoking and illiteracy were not associated with hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that saturated fat intake, age and body mass index were independently and strongly associated with hypertension whereas fruits, vegetable, legume and coconuts, coconut oil and butter and alcohol (males) intakes were weakly associated with hypertension. The odds ratio indicate higher risk of hypertension due to higher intake of saturated fat in both sexes (mean: odds ratio, 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.09; women, 1.08, 1.06-1.12, P < 0.01). Significant determinants of hypertension were higher saturated fat, particularly coconut oil, and lower fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts, particularly legumes and coconuts in the diet, apart from

  10. Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and blood pressure, suggesting that soup intake reduces metabolic risk. However, the correlation between soup intake and various metabolic risk factors has not been well-established. Especially, it has not been investigated in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. A cross-sectional study of 103 Japanese men aged 24 to 75 years was conducted. The intake of soup and other food was investigated by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. The correlation between the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis with a linear model. The median value of frequency of soup intake was 7.0 times per week. After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, energy intake, energy from alcohol intake, current smoking, and estimated energy expenditure, the frequency of soup intake was found to have a significant inverse association with BMI (P=0.040), waist circumference (P=0.024), and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.001). However, no significant associations with other metabolic risk factors were found. Frequency of soup intake is negatively correlated with obesity-related physical parameters in Japanese men.

  11. Smoking and poverty.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2006-06-01

    The problem of poverty leads to increased use of both legal and illegal drugs. Tobacco and alcohol are legal drugs that cause particular concern. Both drugs are widely abused in Germany by people attempting to escape their everyday problems. For decades it has been known that tobacco and alcohol use are more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups of society (those with low educational achievement, compared with people with further or higher education qualifications). Tobacco and alcohol use is particularly high among the unemployed, either temporarily or long-term, as well as people living alone. Children and women are more concerned about smoking than men. Female loneliness, often accompanied by the appearance of depressive reactions or of depression, increases the likelihood of cigarette smoking. Poor people spend up to 20% of their income on tobacco. In many industrialized countries, the age of onset of smoking is becoming younger and younger, increasing the risk of development of avoidable tobacco-related illnesses at an earlier age. This means that young smokers who develop chronic tobacco-related illnesses will require medical care over many years, increasing the cost of treating tobacco-related disease. Within the next few years, effective prevention programs against smoking must be developed, particularly for the lower socio-economic populations, in order to stop the cost of healthcare systems spiraling over the coming decades. PMID:16926658

  12. Smoking and risk for acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuhara, Hiroki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Muneki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to better understand the relationship between smoking and a risk for acute pancreatitis (AP) in existing observational studies. We identified studies by searching the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases (from inception through August 31, 2013) and by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with fixed-effects and random-effects models. A total of 5 studies met inclusion criteria for analysis. Both current smoking (summary RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.39-2.17; n = 5 studies) and former smoking (summary RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71; n = 4 studies) were associated with an increased risk for AP. The positive association of current smoking and risk for AP remained when we limited the meta-analysis to studies that controlled for alcohol intake and body mass index (summary RR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.31-2.36; n = 4 studies). Both current and former smoking are associated with increased risk for AP. Further investigations, both epidemiological and mechanistic, are needed to establish the extent to which the association can be explained by a causal link and whether smoking cessation can prevent the occurrence and development of AP.

  13. Effects of Varenicline on Neural Correlates of Alcohol Salience in Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Gowin, Joshua L.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Momenan, Reza; Coe, Marion A.; Cooke, Megan E.; Hommer, Daniel W.; Bartlett, Selena; Heilig, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and emerging clinical evidence indicates that varenicline, a nicotinic partial agonist approved for smoking cessation, attenuates alcohol seeking and consumption. Reductions of alcohol craving have been observed under varenicline treatment and suggest effects of the medication on alcohol reward processing, but this hypothesis remains untested. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized experimental medicine study, 29 heavy drinkers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan after 2 weeks of varenicline (2mg/d) or placebo administration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed the Alcohol-Food Incentive Delay task, where they could earn points for snacks or alcohol. At baseline and after 3 weeks of medication, participants underwent intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions in the laboratory. Results: During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, participants in the varenicline group (N=17) reported lower feelings of happiness and excitement on subjective mood scales when anticipating alcohol reward compared with the placebo group (N=12). Linear mixed effects analysis revealed that anticipation of alcohol reward was associated with significant blood oxygen level dependent activation of the ventral striatum, amygdala, and posterior insula in the placebo group; this activation was attenuated in the varenicline group. The varenicline group showed no difference in intravenous alcohol self-administration relative to the placebo group for either session. Participants with higher insula activation when anticipating alcohol reward showed higher alcohol self-administration behavior across groups. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that varenicline decreases blood oxygen level dependent activation in striato-cortico-limbic regions associated with motivation and incentive salience of alcohol in heavy drinkers. This mechanism may underlie the clinical effectiveness of varenicline

  14. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  15. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted. PMID:26627094

  16. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment: Effect on Daily Process Measures of Alcohol Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Sevarino, Kevin A.; Levy, Lucienne; Kranitz, Linda S.; Sackler, Helen; Cooney, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of alcohol treatment along with concurrent smoking treatment or delayed smoking treatment on process measures related to alcohol relapse risk. Method Alcohol dependent smokers (N = 151) who were enrolled in an intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program and were interested in smoking cessation were randomized to a concurrent smoking cessation (CSC) intervention or to a waiting list for delayed smoking cessation (DSC) intervention scheduled to begin three months later. Daily assessments of relapse process measures were obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for 12 weeks after the onset of smoking treatment in the CSC condition, and before beginning smoking treatment in the DSC condition. Smoking outcomes were assessed at 2 and 13 weeks after starting treatment. Results Seven-day CO-verified smoking abstinence in the CSC condition was 50.5% at 2 weeks and 19.0% at 13 weeks compared to 2.2% abstinence at two weeks and 0% abstinence at 13 weeks for those in the DSC condition. Drinking outcomes were not significantly different for CSC vs. DSC treatment conditions. On daily IVR assessments, CSC participants had significantly lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies relative to DSC participants. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses of within-person effects across the 12 weeks of daily monitoring showed that daily smoking abstinence was significantly associated with same day reports of lower alcohol consumption, lower urge to drink, lower negative affect, lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies, greater alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, greater alcohol abstinence readiness to change, and greater perceived self-control demands. Conclusions; Analyses of process measures provide support for recommending smoking intervention concurrent with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. Public Health Significance Statement Study results support conveying a message to alcohol dependent smokers that

  19. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  20. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  1. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed.

  2. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed. PMID:27375266

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  5. Interactions between alcohol intake and the polymorphism of rs708272 on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yijiang; Yin, Ruixing; Deng, Yaju; Li, Yiyang; Wu, Jinzhen

    2008-11-01

    Both alcohol consumption and the polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB gene (rs708272) influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. However, their interactions on serum HDL-C levels is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions between alcohol consumption and the rs708272 polymorphism on serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang population. Genotyping of the rs708272 in 342 nondrinkers and 416 drinkers aged 15-70 years was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Interactions between rs708272 genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Statistical significance was evaluated with analysis of co-variance. The frequency of B1 allele was 65.8% in nondrinkers and 64.7% in drinkers (P>.05), respectively. The frequencies of B1B1, B1B2, and B2B2 genotypes were 45.0%, 41.5%, and 13.5% in nondrinkers, and 41.3%, 46.6%, and 12.0% in drinkers (P>.05), respectively. The levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI in nondrinkers were higher in B2B2 genotype than in B1B1 genotype (P<.05 for each), whereas triglyceride (TG) levels in drinkers were higher in B1B1 genotype than in B1B2 genotype (P<.05). The levels of TG, HDL-C, Apo AI in B1B1 genotype, and HDL-C and Apo AI in B1B2 genotype were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P<.05-.01), whereas the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Apo B in B2B2 genotype, and the levels of LDL-C in B1B1 genotype were lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P<.05-.01). The levels of HDL-C were positively correlated with female sex and genotype in nondrinkers (P<.001 for each), and were positively associated with age and alcohol consumption in drinkers (P<.005 and<.01, respectively). This study suggests that the B1 carriers benefited more from alcohol consumption than the B2 carriers in increasing serum HDL

  6. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration.