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Sample records for alcohol intestinal bacterial

  1. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria

  2. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect Against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E.; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B.; Brenner, David A.; Hooper, Lora V.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Summary Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the 10th leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  3. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  4. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  5. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-10-21

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence.

  6. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  7. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signaling molecules protect from alcohol-induced liver disease, bacterial translocation (BT), qualitative, and quantitative changes of the enteric microbiome are considered as being of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of ALD. Recent enhancements in diagnostic technologies provide a better insight into these shifts. This review highlights vital events in ALD such as BT, the importance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO), and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, a treatment trial section of patients reviews possible future options of therapy for ALD modifying the enteric microbiome.

  8. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Wang, Hui J.; Wang, Lirui; McCole, Declan F.; Brandl, Katharina; Stärkel, Peter; Belzer, Clara; Hellerbrand, Claus; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2−/− mice. Muc2−/− mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2−/− mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2−/− mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2−/− mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2−/− mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2−/− mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. PMID:23408358

  9. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Engen, Phillip A; Green, Stefan J; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies.

  10. Alcohol-related changes in the intestinal microbiome influence neutrophil infiltration, inflammation and steatosis in early alcoholic hepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Satishchandran, Abhishek; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Ambade, Aditya; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Ward, Doyle V.; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology. Materials and methods Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge. 16S rDNA sequencing defined the bacterial communities in the cecum of alcohol- and pair-fed animals. Some mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to and throughout alcohol feeding. Liver neutrophils, cytokines and steatosis were evaluated. Results Acute-on-chronic alcohol administration induced shifts in various bacterial phyla in the cecum, including increased Actinobacteria and a reduction in Verrucomicrobia driven entirely by a reduction in the genus Akkermansia. Antibiotic treatment reduced the gut bacterial load and circulating bacterial wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that bacterial load suppression prevented alcohol-related increases in the number of myeloperoxidase- (MPO) positive infiltrating neutrophils in the liver. Expression of liver mRNA tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and circulating protein monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also reduced in antibiotic-treated alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis measured by Oil-Red O staining was significantly reduced in antibiotic treated mice. Genes regulating lipid production and storage were also altered by alcohol and antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, antibiotic treatment did not protect from alcohol-induced increases in serum aminotransferases (ALT/AST). Conclusions Our data indicate that acute-on-chronic alcohol feeding alters the microflora at multiple taxonomic levels and identifies loss of Akkermansia as an

  11. Endogenous alcohol production by intestinal fermentation in sudden infant death.

    PubMed

    Geertinger, P; Bodenhoff, J; Helweg-Larsen, K; Lund, A

    1982-01-01

    In some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the intestinal flora was found to be dominated by Candida albicans. Microbiologic investigations of the various organs showed the occasional presence of different Candida species, but not in the form of massive growth as in sepsis. There is no basis to assume that the activity of yeasts, first of all of Candida albicans, is a contributory factor in the occurrence of SIDS. Candida albicans was shown to produce alcohol from glucose at a rate of maximally 1 mg of alcohol per gram of intestinal content per hour. It is concluded that the intestinal production of alcohol in vivo from cases showing a Candida albicans dominated intestinal flora will not be able to surpass the normal alcohol metabolizing capacity of the liver. Thus, measurable concentrations of alcohol in the blood from such cases cannot be expected.

  12. Upper intestinal bacterial flora during transpyloric feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Dellagrammaticas, H D; Duerden, B I; Milner, R D

    1983-01-01

    Samples from the pharynx, stomach, duodenum or jejunum, and faeces were collected on 7 days between 1st and 28th day from neonates weighing less than 1.5 kg at birth who were fed by transpyloric tube. These were cultured on selective and non-selective media, and the results were expressed in a semi-quantitative manner. The number of bacterial species and the density of their growth increased with the patient's age; this was particularly noticeable with Gram-negative bacteria and the ratio of Gram-negative to Gram-positive organisms increased steadily in specimens from all sites with increasing age. The upper small intestine was more heavily colonised than the stomach early in life and the microflora present was predominantly faecal in nature. The species isolated from all sites were mainly aerobes or facultative anaerobes; strict anaerobes did not form a significant proportion of the microflora in these infants. Necrotising enterocolitis developed only after heavy jejunal colonisation with Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:6402990

  13. Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The liver is the first line of defence against continuously occurring influx of microbial-derived products and bacteria from the gut. Intestinal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Escape of intestinal bacteria into the ascites is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. The association between faecal bacterial populations and alcoholic liver cirrhosis has not been resolved. Methods Relative ratios of major commensal bacterial communities (Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium leptum group, Enterobactericaea and Lactobacillus spp.) were determined in faecal samples from post mortem examinations performed on 42 males, including cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 13), non-cirrhotic alcoholics (n = 15), non-alcoholic controls (n = 14) and in 7 healthy male volunteers using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Translocation of bacteria into liver in the autopsy cases and into the ascites of 12 volunteers with liver cirrhosis was also studied with RT-qPCR. CD14 immunostaining was performed for the autopsy liver samples. Results Relative ratios of faecal bacteria in autopsy controls were comparable to those of healthy volunteers. Cirrhotics had in median 27 times more bacterial DNA of Enterobactericaea in faeces compared to the healthy volunteers (p = 0.011). Enterobactericaea were also the most common bacteria translocated into cirrhotic liver, although there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups. Of the ascites samples from the volunteers with liver cirrhosis, 50% contained bacterial DNA from Enterobactericaea, Clostridium leptum group or Lactobacillus spp.. The total bacterial DNA in autopsy liver was associated with the percentage of CD14 expression (p = 0.045). CD14 expression percentage in cirrhotics was significantly higher than in the autopsy controls (p = 0

  14. Dysbiosis-induced intestinal inflammation activates TNFRI and mediates alcoholic liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Stärkel, Peter; Turner, Jerrold R.; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important contributor to alcoholic liver disease. Translocated microbial products trigger an inflammatory response in the liver and contribute to steatohepatitis. Our aim was to investigate mechanisms of barrier disruption following chronic alcohol feeding. A Lieber-DeCarli model was used to induce intestinal dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and liver disease in mice. Alcohol feeding for 8 weeks induced intestinal inflammation in the jejunum, which is characterized by an increased number of TNFα producing monocytes and macrophages. These findings were confirmed in duodenal biopsies from patients with chronic alcohol abuse. Intestinal decontamination with non-absorbable antibiotics restored eubiosis, decreased intestinal inflammation and permeability, and reduced alcoholic liver disease in mice. TNF-receptor I (TNFRI) mutant mice were protected from intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease. To investigate whether TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells mediates intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease, we used TNFRI mutant mice carrying a conditional gain-of-function allele for this receptor. Reactivation of TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased intestinal permeability and liver disease that is similar to wild type mice after alcohol feeding, suggesting that enteric TNFRI promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a downstream target of TNFα and was phosphorylated in intestinal epithelial cells following alcohol administration. Using MLCK deficient mice, we further demonstrate a partial contribution of MLCK to intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease following chronic alcohol feeding. In conclusion, dysbiosis-induced intestinal inflammation and TNFRI signaling on intestinal epithelial cells are mediating a disruption of the intestinal barrier. Therefore, intestinal TNFRI is a crucial mediator of alcoholic liver disease

  15. Fucose sensing regulates bacterial intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Alline R; Curtis, Meredith M; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Waldor, Matthew K; Moreira, Cristiano G; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-12-06

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract provides a complex and competitive environment for the microbiota. Successful colonization by pathogens requires scavenging nutrients, sensing chemical signals, competing with the resident bacteria and precisely regulating the expression of virulence genes. The gastrointestinal pathogen enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) relies on inter-kingdom chemical sensing systems to regulate virulence gene expression. Here we show that these systems control the expression of a novel two-component signal transduction system, named FusKR, where FusK is the histidine sensor kinase and FusR the response regulator. FusK senses fucose and controls expression of virulence and metabolic genes. This fucose-sensing system is required for robust EHEC colonization of the mammalian intestine. Fucose is highly abundant in the intestine. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron produces multiple fucosidases that cleave fucose from host glycans, resulting in high fucose availability in the gut lumen. During growth in mucin, B. thetaiotaomicron contributes to EHEC virulence by cleaving fucose from mucin, thereby activating the FusKR signalling cascade, modulating the virulence gene expression of EHEC. Our findings suggest that EHEC uses fucose, a host-derived signal made available by the microbiota, to modulate EHEC pathogenicity and metabolism.

  16. Diagnosis and management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Siwiec, Robert M; Wo, John M

    2013-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can result from failure of the gastric acid barrier, failure of small intestinal motility, anatomic alterations, or impairment of systemic and local immunity. The current accepted criteria for the diagnosis of SIBO is the presence of coliform bacteria isolated from the proximal jejunum with >10(5) colony-forming units/mL. A major concern with luminal aspiration is that it is only one random sampling of the small intestine and may not always be representative of the underlying microbiota. A new approach to examine the underlying microbiota uses rapid molecular sequencing, but its clinical utilization is still under active investigation. Clinical manifestations of SIBO are variable and include bloating, flatulence, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Severe cases may present with nutrition deficiencies due to malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The current management strategies for SIBO center on identifying and correcting underlying causes, addressing nutrition deficiencies, and judicious utilization of antibiotics to treat symptomatic SIBO.

  17. Intestine immune homeostasis after alcohol and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Hammer, Adam M; Rendon, Juan L; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic injury remains one of the most prevalent reasons for patients to be hospitalized. Burn injury accounts for 40,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually, resulting in a large burden on both the health and economic system and costing millions of dollars every year. The complications associated with postburn care can quickly cause life-threatening conditions including sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction and failure. In addition, alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury has been shown to exacerbate these problems. One of the biggest reasons for the onset of these complications is the global suppression of the host immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. It has been hypothesized that infections after burn and other traumatic injury may stem from pathogenic bacteria from within the host's gastrointestinal tract. The intestine is the major reservoir of bacteria within the host, and many studies have demonstrated perturbations of the intestinal barrier after burn injury. This article reviews the findings of these studies as they pertain to changes in the intestinal immune system after alcohol and burn injury.

  18. Intestine Immune Homeostasis after Alcohol and Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Hammer, Adam M.; Rendon, Juan L.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury remains one of the most prevalent reasons for patients to be hospitalized. Burn injury accounts for 40,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually, resulting in a large burden on both the health and economic system and costing millions of dollars every year. The complications associated with post-burn care can quickly cause life-threatening conditions including sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction and failure. In addition, alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury has been shown to exacerbate these problems. One of the biggest reasons for the onset of these complications is the global suppression of the host immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. It has been hypothesized that infections following burn and other traumatic injury may stem from pathogenic bacteria from within the host’s gastrointestinal tract. The intestine is the major reservoir of bacteria within the host, and many studies have demonstrated perturbations of the intestinal barrier following burn injury. This article reviews the findings of these studies as they pertain to changes in the intestinal immune system following alcohol and burn injury. PMID:25692258

  19. Bacterial Intestinal Superinfections in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Beyond Clostridum difficile.

    PubMed

    Lobatón, Triana; Domènech, Eugeni

    2016-07-01

    Besides genetics and environmental factors, intestinal microbiota seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. For many decades, it has been said that some enteropathogens may even trigger both inflammatory bowel disease development and disease flares. For this reason, stool testing had been performed in inflammatory bowel disease flares but current guidelines only recommend to rule out Clostridium difficile infection and there is no clear advice for other enteropathogens given that the scarce available evidence points at a low prevalence of this sort of intestinal superinfections with no clear impact on disease course. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the role of bacterial enteropathogens on disease pathogenesis and flares beyond C. difficile.

  20. Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D

    2014-02-01

    Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens.

  1. Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth and Environmental Enteropathy in Bangladeshi Children

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rashidul; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Alam, Masud; Lu, Miao; Kabir, Mamun; Kakon, Shahria Hafiz; Islam, Bushra Zarin; Afreen, Sajia; Musa, Abu; Khan, Shaila Sharmeen; Colgate, E. Ross; Carmolli, Marya P.; Ma, Jennie Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90) of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60) and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62). Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02) and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004) were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation. PMID:26758185

  2. Pentanol and Benzyl Alcohol Attack Bacterial Surface Structures Differently

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takehisa; Miyahara, Yoshiko; Morii, Noriyuki; Okano, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium tolerates hygiene agents like benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and infection with this organism is an important public health issue. Here, we found that the combination of BAC with particular alcohols at nonlethal concentrations in terms of their solitary uses significantly reduced bacterial viability after only 5 min of exposure. Among the alcohols, Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that pentanol (pentyl alcohol [PeA]) and benzyl alcohol (BzA) accelerated the cellular accumulation of BAC. Fluorescence spectroscopic assays and morphological assays with giant vesicles indicated that PeA rarely attacked membrane structures, while BzA increased the membrane fluidity and destabilized the structures. Other fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that PeA and BzA inactivate bacterial membrane proteins, including an efflux pump for BAC transportation. These findings suggested that the inactivation of membrane proteins by PeA and BzA led to the cellular accumulation but that only BzA also enhanced BAC penetration by membrane fluidization at nonlethal concentrations. PMID:26519389

  3. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  4. The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Burn Injury on the Expression of Claudins and Mucins in the Small and Large Intestines.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Adam M; Khan, Omair M; Morris, Niya L; Li, Xiaoling; Movtchan, Nellie V; Cannon, Abigail R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury exacerbates postburn pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest gut barrier integrity is compromised after combined alcohol and burn insult, which could contribute to these complications. Tight junction proteins and mucins play critical roles in keeping the gut barrier intact. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol and burn injury on claudin and mucin expression in the intestines. We also evaluated if the combined insult differentially influences their expression in the small and large intestines. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 2.9 g/kg ethanol before an approximately 12.5% body area burn. One and three days after injury, we profiled expression of several tight junction proteins, mucin, and bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the small and large intestines, using qPCR. We observed >50% decrease in claudin-4 and claudin-8 genes in both ileal and colonic epithelial cells 1 day after injury. Claudin-2 was significantly upregulated, and occludin was downregulated in the small intestine 1 day after injury. Mucin-3 expression was substantially elevated (>50%) in the small intestine, whereas mucin-2 and mucin-4 were considerably diminished in the colon (>50%) 1 day after injury. Most of the parameters were normalized to sham levels on day 3, except for mucin-3 and claudin-8, which remained decreased in the large intestine. Neither alcohol nor burn alone resulted in changes in junction or mucin gene expression compared to shams. This was accompanied with increases in the family of Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, in both the small and the large intestines 1 day after injury. These findings suggest that alcohol and burn injury disrupts the normal gut microbiota and alters tight junction and mucin expression in the small and large intestines.

  5. The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Burn Injury on the Expression of Claudins and Mucins in the Small and Large Intestines

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Adam M.; Khan, Omair M.; Morris, Niya L.; Li, Xiaoling; Movtchan, Nellie V.; Cannon, Abigail R.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury exacerbates post-burn pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest gut barrier integrity is compromised after combined alcohol and burn insult, which could contribute to these complications. Tight junction proteins and mucins play critical roles in keeping the gut barrier intact. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol and burn injury on claudin and mucin expression in the intestines. We also evaluated if the combined insult differentially influences their expression in the small and large intestines. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 2.9g/kg ethanol prior to a ~12.5% body area burn. One and three days following injury, we profiled expression of several tight junction proteins, mucin, and bacterial 16S rRNA genes in small and large intestine using qPCR. We observed >50% decrease in claudin-4 and claudin-8 genes in both ileal and colonic epithelial cells one day after injury. Claudin-2 was significantly upregulated, and occludin was down-regulated in small intestine one day following injury. Mucin-3 expression was substantially elevated (>50%) in small intestine, whereas mucin-2, and mucin-4 were considerably diminished in the colon (>50%) one day following injury. Most parameters were normalized to sham levels on day three, except for mucin-3 and claudin-8, which remained decreased in large intestine. Neither alcohol nor burn alone resulted in changes in junction or mucin gene expression compared to shams. This was accompanied with increases in the family of Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, in both small and large intestine one day following injury. These findings suggest that alcohol and burn injury disrupts normal gut microbiota and alters tight junction and mucin expression in the small and large intestines. PMID:26368926

  6. Contrasting Ecological Processes and Functional Compositions Between Intestinal Bacterial Community in Healthy and Diseased Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinyong; Dai, Wenfang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jinjie; Xiong, Jinbo

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities play a pivotal role in promoting host health; therefore, the disruption of intestinal bacterial homeostasis could result in disease. However, the effect of the occurrences of disease on intestinal bacterial community assembly remains unclear. To address this gap, we compared the multifaceted ecological differences in maintaining intestinal bacterial community assembly between healthy and diseased shrimps. The neutral model analysis shows that the relative importance of neutral processes decreases when disease occurs. This pattern is further corroborated by the ecosphere null model, revealing that the bacterial community assembly of diseased samples is dominated by stochastic processes. In addition, the occurrence of shrimp disease reduces the complexity and cooperative activities of species-to-species interactions. The keystone taxa affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in healthy shrimp gut shift to Gammaproteobacteria species in diseased shrimp. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities significantly alter biological functions in shrimp. Within a given metabolic pathway, the pattern of enrichment or decrease between healthy and deceased shrimp is correlated with its functional effects. We propose that stressed shrimp are more prone to invasion by alien strains (evidenced by more stochastic assembly and higher migration rate in diseased shrimp), which, in turn, disrupts the cooperative activity among resident species. These findings greatly aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern shrimp intestinal community assembly between health statuses.

  7. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  8. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    MedlinePlus

    Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; SIBO ... intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. Excess bacteria in the small intestine may use ...

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application.

  10. Characterisation of the bacterial community structures in the intestine of Lampetra morii.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Xie, Wenfang; Li, Qingwei

    2016-07-01

    The metagenomic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing method were used to investigate the bacterial community in the intestines of Lampetra morii. The bacterial community structure in L. morii intestine was relatively simple. Eight different operational taxonomic units were observed. Chitinophagaceae_unclassified (26.5 %) and Aeromonas spp. (69.6 %) were detected as dominant members at the genus level. The non-dominant genera were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (1.4 %), Candidatus Bacilloplasma (2.5 %), Enterobacteria spp. (1.5 %), Shewanella spp. (0.04 %), Vibrio spp. (0.09 %), and Yersinia spp. (1.8 %). The Shannon-Wiener (H) and Simpson (1-D) indexes were 0.782339 and 0.5546, respectively. The rarefaction curve representing the bacterial community richness and Shannon-Wiener curve representing the bacterial community diversity reached asymptote, which indicated that the sequence depth were sufficient to represent the majority of species richness and bacterial community diversity. The number of Aeromonas in lamprey intestine was two times higher after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide than PBS. This study provides data for understanding the bacterial community harboured in lamprey intestines and exploring potential key intestinal symbiotic bacteria essential for the L. morii immune response.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: When Natural Friends Turn into Enemies—The Importance of CpG Motifs of Bacterial DNA in Intestinal Homeostasis and Chronic Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Obermeier, Florian; Hofmann, Claudia; Falk, Werner

    2010-01-01

    From numerous studies during the last years it became evident that bacteria and bacterial constituents play a decisive role both in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis as well as in the development and perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation. In this review we focus on the role of bacterial DNA which is a potent immunomodulatory component of the bacterial flora. Bacterial DNA has been shown to be protective against experimental colitis. In contrast bacterial DNA essentially contributes to the perpetuation of an already established chronic intestinal inflammation in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)9-dependent manner. This dichotomic action may be explained by a different activation status of essential regulators of TLR signaling like Glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) depending on the pre-activation status of the intestinal immune system. In this review we suggest that regulators of TLR signaling may be interesting therapeutic targets in IBD aiming at the restoration of intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:21188217

  12. Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  13. Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

  14. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  16. Intestinal bacterial flora of the household lizard, Gecko gecko.

    PubMed

    Tan, R J; Lim, E W; Ishak, B

    1978-03-01

    A total of 114 isolates was recovered from the intestines of 43 househould lizards, Gecko gecko. Among the important ones were Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Edwardsiella tarda.

  17. Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. )

    1991-08-01

    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

  18. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  19. Oleyl alcohol inhibits intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Murota, K; Kawada, T; Matsui, N; Sakakibara, M; Takahashi, N; Fushiki, T

    2000-12-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important nutrients, but obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of oleyl alcohol on the intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats. We administered [14C]oleic acid and oleyl alcohol as lipid emulsion intraduodenally in unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats and measured the lymphatic output of oleic acid. Second, we orally administered lipid emulsion with a stomach tube and measured the luminal and mucosal oleic acid residues. Furthermore, rats were fed oleyl alcohol as a dietary component for 20 days, and fecal lipid and the weight of adipose tissues were measured. In lymph-cannulated rats, triglyceride and [14C]oleic acid output in the lymph were significantly lower in the presence of oleyl alcohol when compared with the absence of oleyl alcohol in a dose-dependent manner. The radioactivity remaining in the intestinal lumen was more strongly detected in rats that had been orally administered oleyl alcohol than in the controls. The feces of rats fed an oleyl-alcohol-added diet contained much higher amounts of lipids, and the weights of their adipose tissues were significantly lower than in the control group. These results suggest that oleyl alcohol inhibits the rat gastrointestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids in vivo.

  20. The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are α2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and α2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

  1. Fermented liquid feed enhances bacterial diversity in piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Aminov, Rustam I; Kobashi, Yuri; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2010-02-01

    Because of limitations imposed on the antibiotic use in animal industry, there is a need for alternatives to maintain the efficiency of production. One of them may be the use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) but how it affects gut ecology is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of three diets, standard dry feed (control), dry feed supplemented with antibiotics, and fermented liquid feed (FLF, fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum), on gut bacterial diversity in piglets. The structure of the ileal and caecal communities was estimated by sequencing the SSU rRNA gene libraries. Antibiotic-supplemented feed slightly increased bacterial diversity in the ileum but reduced it in the caecum while in FLF-fed animals bacterial diversity was elevated. The majority of bacterial sequences in the ileum of all three groups belonged to lactobacilli (92-98%). In the caecum the lactobacilli were still dominant in control and antibiotic-fed animals (59% and 64% of total bacterial sequences, respectively) but in FLF-fed animals they fell to 31% with the concomitant increase in the Firmicutes diversity represented by the Dorea, Coprococcus, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera. Thus FLF affects the gut ecology in a different way than antibiotics and contributes to the enhanced bacterial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds.

  3. Bacterial diversity in the intestine of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Congyao; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jianfeng; Ma, Yuexin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the bacterial community associated with the intestinal mucus of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes. Polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing was performed on DNA from bacteria cultivated on Zobell 2216E medium. All the isolates were classified into two phyla—Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria were the dominant, culturable intestinal microbiota (68.3%). At the genus level, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella were isolated from the intestine, with representatives of the genera Vibrio, Enterobacter and Bacillus accounting for 70.7% of the total. This is the first report of Enterobacter, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium and Staphylococcus as part of the intestinal bacterial microflora in T. rubripes. The profile of the culturable bacterial community differed between samples collected from the same tank at 2-month intervals, as indicated by Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices, and the impact on the intestinal physiology and health of puffer fish requires further investigation.

  4. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents.

  5. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  6. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment.

  7. The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenq, Robert R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R.; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B.; Ponce, Doris M.; Barker, Juliet N.; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

  8. Identification of Population Bottlenecks and Colonization Factors during Assembly of Bacterial Communities within the Zebrafish Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, W. Zac; Wiles, Travis J.; Martinez, Emily S.; Jemielita, Matthew; Burns, Adam R.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a powerful model for studying bacterial colonization of the vertebrate intestine, but the genes required by commensal bacteria to colonize the zebrafish gut have not yet been interrogated on a genome-wide level. Here we apply a high-throughput transposon mutagenesis screen to Aeromonas veronii Hm21 and Vibrio sp. strain ZWU0020 during their colonization of the zebrafish intestine alone and in competition with each other, as well as in different colonization orders. We use these transposon-tagged libraries to track bacterial population sizes in different colonization regimes and to identify gene functions required during these processes. We show that intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition with a previously established bacterial population greatly reduces the ability of these two bacterial species to colonize. Further, using a simple binomial sampling model, we show that under conditions of interspecific competition, genes required for colonization cannot be identified because of the population bottleneck experienced by the second colonizer. When bacteria colonize the intestine alone or at the same time as the other species, we find shared suites of functional requirements for colonization by the two species, including a prominent role for chemotaxis and motility, regardless of the presence of another species. PMID:26507229

  9. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = −0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  10. [Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

    2007-08-01

    The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  12. Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  13. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  14. Lipocalin 2 prevents intestinal inflammation by enhancing phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, Takahiko; Matsuura, Minoru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Honzawa, Yusuke; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taku; Hibi, Toshifumi; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-10-13

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), also called neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is an anti-microbial peptide originally identified in neutrophil granules. Although Lcn2/NGAL expression is increased in the inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the role of Lcn2/NGAL in the development of intestinal inflammation remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of Lcn2/NGAL in intestinal inflammation using a spontaneous mouse colitis model, interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10 KO) mice. Lcn2 expression in the colonic tissues of IL-10 KO mice increased with the development of colitis. Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice showed a more rapid onset and development of colitis compared to IL-10 KO mice. Lcn2 enhanced phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages in vitro after infection with Escherichia coli. Transfer of Lcn2-repleted macrophages prevented the development of colitis in Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice in vivo. Our findings revealed that Lcn2 prevents the development of intestinal inflammation. One crucial factor seems to be the enhancement of phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages by Lcn2.

  15. Lipocalin 2 prevents intestinal inflammation by enhancing phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Toyonaga, Takahiko; Matsuura, Minoru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Honzawa, Yusuke; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taku; Hibi, Toshifumi; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), also called neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is an anti-microbial peptide originally identified in neutrophil granules. Although Lcn2/NGAL expression is increased in the inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the role of Lcn2/NGAL in the development of intestinal inflammation remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of Lcn2/NGAL in intestinal inflammation using a spontaneous mouse colitis model, interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10 KO) mice. Lcn2 expression in the colonic tissues of IL-10 KO mice increased with the development of colitis. Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice showed a more rapid onset and development of colitis compared to IL-10 KO mice. Lcn2 enhanced phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages in vitro after infection with Escherichia coli. Transfer of Lcn2-repleted macrophages prevented the development of colitis in Lcn2/IL-10 double-KO mice in vivo. Our findings revealed that Lcn2 prevents the development of intestinal inflammation. One crucial factor seems to be the enhancement of phagocytic bacterial clearance in macrophages by Lcn2. PMID:27734904

  16. Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yujie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-28

    The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei, Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

  17. Flow and active mixing have a strong impact on bacterial growth dynamics in the proximal large intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jonas; Segota, Igor; Yang, Chih-Yu; Arnoldini, Markus; Groisman, Alex; Hwa, Terence

    2016-11-01

    More than half of fecal dry weight is bacterial mass with bacterial densities reaching up to 1012 cells per gram. Mostly, these bacteria grow in the proximal large intestine where lateral flow along the intestine is strong: flow can in principal lead to a washout of bacteria from the proximal large intestine. Active mixing by contractions of the intestinal wall together with bacterial growth might counteract such a washout and allow high bacterial densities to occur. As a step towards understanding bacterial growth in the presence of mixing and flow, we constructed an in-vitro setup where controlled wall-deformations of a channel emulate contractions. We investigate growth along the channel under a steady nutrient inflow. Depending on mixing and flow, we observe varying spatial gradients in bacterial density along the channel. Active mixing by deformations of the channel wall is shown to be crucial in maintaining a steady-state bacterial population in the presence of flow. The growth-dynamics is quantitatively captured by a simple mathematical model, with the effect of mixing described by an effective diffusion term. Based on this model, we discuss bacterial growth dynamics in the human large intestine using flow- and mixing-behavior having been observed for humans.

  18. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth includes potential pathogens in the carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-10-12

    Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model.

  19. Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrer, Andrea; Sprenger, Norbert; Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Borsig, Lubor; Chassard, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development of the intestinal environment by acting as decoy receptors for pathogens and as prebiotics, which promote the colonization of commensal bacteria. Here, using α2,3- and α2,6-sialyltransferase-deficient mice, we investigated the role of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides sialyl(α2,3)lactose and sialyl(α2,6)lactose on mucosal immunity. The exposure of newborn mice to milk containing or deficient in sialyllactose had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. However, when challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, adult mice that had been fostered on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to colitis compared with mice fostered on normal milk or sialyl(α2,6)lactose-deficient milk. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed different colonization patterns depending on the presence or absence of sialyl(α2,3)lactose in the milk. Germ-free mice reconstituted with intestinal microbiota isolated from mice fed on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than germ-free mice reconstituted with standard intestinal microbiota. Thus, exposure to sialyllactose during infancy affects bacterial colonization of the intestine, which influences the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in adult mice. PMID:21098096

  20. Methods to determine intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation during liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Hartmann, Phillipp; Yang, An-Ming; Chen, Peng; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is often times associated with increased intestinal permeability. A disruption of the gut barrier allows microbial products and viable bacteria to translocate from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal organs. The majority of the venous blood from the intestinal tract is drained into the portal circulation, which is part of the dual hepatic blood supply. The liver is therefore the first organ in the body to encounter not only absorbed nutrients, but also gut-derived bacteria and pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Chronic exposure to increased levels of PAMPs has been linked to disease progression during early stages and to infectious complications during late stages of liver disease (cirrhosis). It is therefore important to assess and monitor gut barrier dysfunction during hepatic disease. We review methods to assess intestinal barrier disruption and discuss advantages and disadvantages. We will in particular focus on methods that we have used to measure increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation during experimental liver disease models. PMID:25595554

  1. Active Transport of Phosphorylated Carbohydrates Promotes Intestinal Colonization and Transmission of a Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Brandon; Crowley, Shauna M.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Tang, Calvin; Hooda, Yogesh; Calmettes, Charles; Khambati, Husain; Ma, Caixia; Brumell, John H.; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient acquisition of extracellular nutrients is essential for bacterial pathogenesis, however the identities and mechanisms for transport of many of these substrates remain unclear. Here, we investigate the predicted iron-binding transporter AfuABC and its role in bacterial pathogenesis in vivo. By crystallographic, biophysical and in vivo approaches, we show that AfuABC is in fact a cyclic hexose/heptose-phosphate transporter with high selectivity and specificity for a set of ubiquitous metabolites (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate). AfuABC is conserved across a wide range of bacterial genera, including the enteric pathogens EHEC O157:H7 and its murine-specific relative Citrobacter rodentium, where it lies adjacent to genes implicated in sugar sensing and acquisition. C. rodentium ΔafuA was significantly impaired in an in vivo murine competitive assay as well as its ability to transmit infection from an afflicted to a naïve murine host. Sugar-phosphates were present in normal and infected intestinal mucus and stool samples, indicating that these metabolites are available within the intestinal lumen for enteric bacteria to import during infection. Our study shows that AfuABC-dependent uptake of sugar-phosphates plays a critical role during enteric bacterial infection and uncovers previously unrecognized roles for these metabolites as important contributors to successful pathogenesis. PMID:26295949

  2. Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

    2014-07-01

    The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions.

  3. Postnatal regulation of MAMDC4 in the porcine intestinal epithelium is influenced by bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Alex J; Hamonic, Glenn M; Van Kessel, Andrew; Wilson, Heather L

    2016-11-01

    The MAM domain-containing 4 (MAMDC4) protein is associated with the unique endocytotic mechanism observed in the intestine of mammals during the immediate postnatal period. Transcriptional expression of MAMDC4 was substantially upregulated at birth in both the piglet jejunum and ileum and its expression decreases after birth. The protein was found localized specifically to the apical region of the luminal epithelium, however, MAMDC4 protein expression was lost at day 10 and 15 in the jejunum and ileum, respectively, and was not associated with "fetal" enterocyte replacement. Although spatial variation in the subcellular localization of Claudin 1 (CLDN1) was noted at day 3, the loss of MAMDC4 at later stages of development did not appear to have any effect on the tight junction structure. Germ-free (GF) piglets and piglets whose gastrointestinal flora consists exclusively of Escherichia coli (EC) or Lactobacillus fermentum (LF) maintained MAMDC4 protein expression to 14 days of age in distal regions of the small intestine whereas those with conventionalized intestinal flora (CV) showed no MAMDC4 protein at this age. MAMDC4 protein expression was most pronounced in the LF and GF colonized piglets which showed staining in the epithelial cells at 75% and 95% of the length of the small intestine, respectively, which matched that of the newborn. In contrast, EC animals showed only a low abundance at these regions as well as a discontinuous staining pattern. Collectively these results suggest that maturation of MAMDC4 expression in the porcine epithelium occurs more rapidly than what is reported in previously studied rodent species. Furthermore, intestinal bacterial colonization is a major regulator of MAMDC4 in a manner specific to bacterial species and independent of enterocyte turnover.

  4. Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Chien; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Hsing; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of Wistar rats were orally administered with L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and L. lactis NZ9000 for 6 weeks. Fecal and cecal contents were collected to determine the number of L. lactis NZ9000, L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK, Lactobacillus, coliform bacteria, beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and harmful bacteria Clostridium perfringens. The liver, spleen, kidney and blood were evaluated for the bacterial translocation. After 6 weeks consumption with GM and non-GM Lactococcus, no adverse effects were observed on the rat's body weight, hematological or serum biochemical parameters, or intestinal microflora. The bacterial translocation test showed that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK did not translocate to any organ or blood. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in feces after administration of both Lactococcus strains (L. lactis NZ9000 and L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK), while C. perfringens remained undetectable during the experiment. These results suggested that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK could be safe in animal experiments and monitoring of the interaction between test strains and intestinal microflora might be applied as a method for other GMM safety assessments.

  5. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  6. Hydrogen sulphide in exhaled breath: a potential biomarker for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gourab Dutta; De, Anulekha; Som, Suman; Jana, Subhra; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-05-10

    There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria. Subsequently, by analyzing the excretion kinetics of breath H2S, we found a missing link between breath H2S and SIBO when HBT often fails to diagnose SIBO. Moreover, breath H2S can track the precise evolution of SIBO, even after the eradication of bacterial overgrowth. Our findings suggest that the changes in H2S in the bacterial environment may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIBO and the breath H2S as a potential biomarker for non-invasive, rapid and precise assessment of SIBO without the endoscopy-based microbial culture of jejunal aspirates, and thus may open new perspectives into the pathophysiology of SIBO in IBS subjects.

  7. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  8. The impact of hypoxia on intestinal epithelial cell functions: consequences for invasion by bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zeitouni, Nathalie E; Chotikatum, Sucheera; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y

    2016-12-01

    The maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in human tissues is mediated by several cellular adaptations in response to low-oxygen stress, called hypoxia. A decrease in tissue oxygen levels is initially counteracted by increasing local blood flow to overcome diminished oxygenation and avoid hypoxic stress. However, studies have shown that the physiological oxygen concentrations in several tissues are much lower than atmospheric (normoxic) conditions, and the oxygen supply is finely regulated in individual cell types. The gastrointestinal tract has been described to subsist in a state of physiologically low oxygen level and is thus depicted as a tissue in the state of constant low-grade inflammation. The intestinal epithelial cell layer plays a vital role in the immune response to inflammation and infections that occur within the intestinal tissue and is involved in many of the adaptation responses to hypoxic stress. This is especially relevant in the context of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this review aims to describe the intestinal epithelial cellular response to hypoxia and the consequences for host interactions with invading gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens.

  9. Probiotic yogurt in the elderly with intestinal bacterial overgrowth: endotoxaemia and innate immune functions.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Eduardo J; Parlesak, Alexandr; Bode, Christiane; Bode, J Christian; van't Hof, Martin A; Grathwohl, Dominik; Guigoz, Yves

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted in healthy elderly living independently in senior housing to assess the impact of a probiotic yoghurt supplement on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Twenty-three participants with positive and thirteen participants with negative hydrogen breath test were studied before and after a period of 4 weeks of probiotic yoghurt administration. Intestinal permeability, plasma endotoxin levels, phagocytic activity of leucocytes, cytokine production by monocytes and free radical response of neutrophils were determined. Intestinal permeability was similar for the two groups and was unaffected by probiotic treatment. Both plasma endotoxin levels and the basal phagocytic activity of leucocytes decreased after yoghurt intake in the two groups. Exposure of monocytes and neutrophils ex vivo led to an increased cytokine response and free radical response, respectively. The normalisation of the various cytokine responses was more apparent in the group with positive breath test. In addition, the plasma levels of lipoplysaccharide binding protein and soluble CD14, lipoplysaccharide pattern recognition receptors and surrogate markers of lipoplysaccharide permeability were diminished by the end of the study. In conclusion, probiotic administration in the elderly normalises the response to endotoxin, and modulates activation markers in blood phagocytes, and therefore may help reduce low-grade chronic inflammation.

  10. Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Lígia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ≥ 20 ppm or CH4 ≥ 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for

  11. The Bacterial Virulence Factor Lymphostatin Compromises Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function by Modulating Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Brian A.; Sasaki, Maiko; Gerner-Schmidt, Kirsten W.; Nusrat, Asma; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocyte inhibitory factor A (lifA) in Citrobacter rodentium encodes the large toxin lymphostatin, which contains two enzymatic motifs associated with bacterial pathogenesis, a glucosyltransferase and a protease. Our aim was to determine the effects of each lymphostatin motif on intestinal epithelial-barrier function. In-frame mutations of C. rodentium lifA glucosyltransferase (CrGlM21) and protease (CrPrM5) were generated by homologous recombination. Infection of both model intestinal epithelial monolayers and mice with C. rodentium wild type resulted in compromised epithelial barrier function and mislocalization of key intercellular junction proteins in the tight junction and adherens junction. In contrast, CrGlM21 was impaired in its ability to reduce barrier function and influenced the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. CrPrM5 demonstrated decreased effects on the adherens junction proteins β-catenin and E-cadherin. Analysis of the mechanisms revealed that C. rodentium wild type differentially influenced Rho GTPase activation, suppressed Cdc42 activation, and induced Rho GTPase activation. CrGlM21 lost its suppressive effects on Cdc42 activation, whereas CrPrM5 was unable to activate Rho signaling. Rescue experiments using constitutively active Cdc42 or C3 exotoxin to inhibit Rho GTPase supported a role of Rho GTPases in the epithelial barrier compromise induced by C. rodentium. Taken together, our results suggest that lymphostatin is a bacterial virulence factor that contributes to the disruption of intestinal epithelial-barrier function via the modulation of Rho GTPase activities. PMID:19286565

  12. Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Lochs, Herbert; Hale, Laura P.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control. PMID:15754393

  13. Inactivation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α mediates alcohol-induced downregulation of intestinal tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure has been shown to increase the gut permeability in the distal intestine, in part, through induction of zinc deficiency. The present study evaluated the molecular mechanisms whereby zinc deficiency mediates alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Examination of zinc finger transcription factors in the gastrointestinal tract of mice revealed a prominent distribution of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). HNF-4α exclusively localizes in the epithelial nuclei and exhibited an increased abundance in mRNA and protein levels in the distal intestine. Chronic alcohol exposure to mice repressed the HNF-4α gene expression in the ileum and reduced the protein level and DNA binding activity of HNF-4α in all of the intestinal segments with the most remarkable changes in the ileum. Chronic alcohol exposure also decreased the mRNA levels of tight junction proteins, particularly in the ileum. Caco-2 cell culture studies were conducted to determine the role of HNF-4α in regulation of the epithelial tight junction and barrier function. Knockdown of HNF-4α in Caco-2 cells decreased the mRNA and protein levels of tight junction proteins in association with disruption of the epithelial barrier. Alcohol treatment inactivated HNF-4α, which was prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine or zinc. The link between zinc and HNF-4α function was confirmed by zinc deprivation, which inhibited HNF-4α DNA binding activity. These results indicate that inactivation of HNF-4α due to oxidative stress and zinc deficiency is likely a novel mechanism contributing to the deleterious effects of alcohol on the tight junctions and the intestinal barrier function. PMID:20576917

  14. Bacterial strains isolated from river water having the ability to split alcohol ethoxylates by central fission.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Irena; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a major component of the surfactant stream discharged into surface water. The "central fission" of AE with the formation of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) is considered to be the dominant biodegradation pathway. However, information as to which bacterial strains are able to perform this reaction is very limited. The aim of this work was to establish whether such an ability is unique or common, and which bacterial strains are able to split AE used as a sole source of organic carbon. Four bacterial strains were isolated from river water and were identified on the basis of phylogenetic trees as Enterobacter strain Z2, Enterobacter strain Z3, Citrobacter freundii strain Z4, and Stenotrophomonas strain Z5. Sterilized river water and "artificial sewage" were used for augmentation of the isolated bacteria. The test was performed in bottles filled with a mineral salt medium spiked with surfactant C12E10 (10 mg L(-1)) and an inoculating suspension of the investigated bacterial strain. Sequential extraction of the tested samples by ethyl acetate and chloroform was used for separation of PEG from the water matrix. LC-MS was used for PEG determination on the basis of single-ion chromatograms. All four selected and investigated bacterial strains exhibit the ability to split fatty alcohol ethoxylates with the production of PEG, which is evidence that this property is a common one rather than specific to certain bacterial strains. However, this ability increases in the sequence: Stenotrophomonas strain Z5 < Enterobacter strain Z2 < Enterobacter strain Z3 = Citrobacter freundii strain Z4. Graphical Abstract Biodegradation by central fission of alcohol ethoxylates by bacterial strains isolated from river water.

  15. Neutrophil priming by hypoxic preconditioning protects against epithelial barrier damage and enteric bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Zhen; Wu, Chi-Chin; Huang, Yi-Chen; Huang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Chau-Fong; Yu, Linda Chia-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation (BT). Neutrophil-derived oxidative free radicals have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury in various organs, but their role in the bacteria-containing intestinal tract is debatable. Primed neutrophils are characterized by a faster and higher respiratory burst activity associated with more robust bactericidal effects on exposure to a second stimulus. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) attenuates ischemic injury in brain, heart, lung and kidney; no reports were found in the gut. Our aim is to investigate whether neutrophil priming by HPC protects against intestinal I/R-induced barrier damage and bacterial influx. Rats were raised in normoxia (NM) or kept in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber (380 Torr) 17 h/day for 3 weeks for HPC, followed by sham operation or intestinal I/R. Gut permeability was determined by using an ex vivo macromolecular flux assay and an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging-based method. Liver and spleen homogenates were plated for bacterial culturing. Rats raised in HPC showed diminished levels of BT, and partially improved mucosal histopathology and epithelial barrier function compared with the NM groups after intestinal I/R. Augmented cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and -3 levels and myeloperoxidase activity correlated with enhanced infiltration of neutrophils in intestines of HPC-I/R compared with NM-I/R rats. HPC alone caused blood neutrophil priming, as shown by elevated production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide on stimulation, increased membrane translocation of cytosolic p47(phox) and p67(phox), as well as augmented bacterial-killing and phagocytotic activities. Neutrophil depletion reversed the mucosal protection by HPC, and aggravated intestinal leakiness and BT following I/R. In conclusion, neutrophil priming by HPC protects against I/R-induced BT via direct antimicrobial activity by oxidative

  16. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Simon; Sidani, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or significant clinical gastroparesis. SIBO was detected using a standard lactulose breath test (LBT). A healthy control group also underwent LBT. Results. Thirty-one patients and 40 controls were included. The patient group was significantly older (53.8 versus 38.7 years; P < 0.01). The proportion of positive LBTs was significantly higher in CP patients (38.7 versus 2.5%: P < 0.01). A trend toward a higher proportion of positive LBTs in women compared with men was observed (66.6 versus 27.3%; P = 0.056). The subgroups with positive and negative LBTs were comparable in demographic and clinical characteristics, use of opiates, pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy (PERT), and severity of symptoms. Conclusion. The prevalence of SIBO detected using LBT was high among patients with CP. There was no association between clinical features and the risk for SIBO. PMID:27446865

  17. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  18. Coffee, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for cancer and adenoma of the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J; Kronborg, O

    1993-06-01

    Our aim was to estimate the association between smoking history, alcohol and tobacco smoking and tumours of the large intestine. Associations were studied at an early stage of colorectal cancer in order to avoid bias in the information. In order to estimate the link between adenoma and cancer the exposures were analysed separately for cancer and adenoma patients. The study was conducted as a case-control study within a randomized trial for colorectal cancer among males and females aged 45-74 years. Cases initially included all individuals with a positive Haemoccult-II test in three screens and an age- and sex-matched reference group was selected from the test negatives. Subsequent colonoscopy defined the final case group, which consisted of 49 colorectal cancer patients, 171 with adenoma and 177 test positives with no diagnosis or with non-adenomatous polyps or haemorrhoids. Controls were 362 age- and sex-matched test negatives. Data were collected by blind telephone interviewing before the first clinical examinations of test positives. Smoking history, coffee or alcohol intake were not statistically significantly associated with colorectal cancer. For adenomas, the odds ratios (OR) were between 2.0 and 2.7 in all smoking categories. For smokers with > 40 years duration OR = 2.7 (95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.6-4.7). Coffee consumption showed a clear protective effect. Consumers of 4-7 cups per day had an OR of 0.5 (95% Cl: 0.3-0.8) and heavy consumers of > or = 8 cups had an OR of 0.3 (95% Cl: 0.1-0.6). Neither tea nor alcohol consumption was related to adenoma risks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells.

  20. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Peterson, Courtney M.; Raggio, Anne; Keenan, Michael J.; Martin, Roy J.; Ravussin, Eric; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 regions of bacterial community DNA extracted from the stools showed that the fecal microbiota remained distinct between individuals, independent of processing method. Moreover, the different stool preparation approaches did not alter intra-individual bacterial diversity. Distinctions were found at the level of individual taxa, however. Stools that were frozen and then homogenized tended to have higher proportions of Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased quantities of Oscillospira, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides compared to stools that were collected in small quantities and not mixed prior to DNA extraction. These findings indicate that certain taxa are at particular risk for under or over sampling due to protocol differences. Importantly, homogenization by any method significantly reduced the intra-individual variation in bacteria detected per stool. Our results confirm the robustness of fecal homogenization for microbial analyses and underscore the value of collecting and mixing large stool sample quantities in human nutrition intervention studies. PMID:27812352

  1. Light/Dark Shifting Promotes Alcohol-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Possible Role of Intestinal Inflammatory Milieu and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Saadalla, Abdulrahman; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Engen, Phillip A.; Voigt, Robin M.; Shetuni, Brandon B.; Forsyth, Christopher; Shaikh, Maliha; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Turek, Fred; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption—a frequent habit of majority of modern societies—increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption—another modern life style habit—in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. Method: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)lox468 mice underwent (a) an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b) an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle. Mice were sacrificed after eight weeks of full alcohol and/or LD shift to collect intestine samples. Tumor number, size, and histologic grades were compared between animal groups. Mast cell protease 2 (MCP2) and 6 (MCP6) histology score were analyzed and compared. Stool collected at baseline and after four weeks of experimental manipulations was used for microbiota analysis. Results: The combination of alcohol and LD shifting accelerated intestinal polyposis, with a significant increase in polyp size, and caused advanced neoplasia. Consistent with a pathogenic role of stromal tryptase-positive mast cells in colon carcinogenesis, the ratio of mMCP6 (stromal)/mMCP2 (intraepithelial) mast cells increased upon LD shifting. Baseline microbiota was similar between groups, and experimental manipulations resulted in a significant difference in the microbiota composition between groups. Conclusions: Circadian disruption by Light:dark shifting exacerbates alcohol-induced polyposis and CRC. Effect of circadian disruption could, at least partly, be mediated by promoting a pro-tumorigenic inflammatory milieu via changes in microbiota. PMID:27918452

  2. Clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Kyoung; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Seon Min; Jang, Ji Won; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is an important cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We retrospectively analyzed data from 409 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary referral center with ALD diagnosis. Of a total of 544 admissions, 133 (24.4%) cases presented with bacterial infection, of which 116 were community-acquired whereas 17 were hospital-acquired. The common types of infection were pneumonia (38%), biliary tract infection (17%), soft tissue infection (12%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (9%). Diabetes, serum Na <135 mM/L, albumin <2.5 g/dL, C-reactive protein ≥20 mg/L, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) positivity were independently associated with bacterial infection in patients with ALD. Overall 30-day and 90-day mortalities in patients with bacterial infection were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those without infection (22.3% vs. 5.1% and 32.3% vs. 8.2%, respectively). Furthermore, bacterial infection (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.049-4.579, P = 0.037), SIRS positivity (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.240-4.861, P = 0.010), Maddrey's discriminant function score ≥32 (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.036-5.222, P = 0.041), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.081-5.450, P = 0.032) were independent predictors of short-term mortality. In conclusion, bacterial infection and SIRS positivity predicted short-term prognosis in hospitalized patients with ALD. A thorough evaluation at admission or on clinical deterioration is required to detect possible infection with prompt management.

  3. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. CONCLUSION SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures. PMID:28275304

  4. In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2014-03-01

    Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 μg/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 μg/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans.

  5. Protective effects of terminal ileostomy against bacterial translocation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Tan, Shan-Jun; Duan, Kai-Peng; Dong, Yi; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Xu, Lin; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of terminal ileostomy on bacterial translocation (BT) and systemic inflammation after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were assigned to either the sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R + resection and anastomosis group, or the I/R + ileostomy group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. After 4 h, tissue samples were collected for analysis. BT was assessed by bacteriologic cultures, intestinal permeability and serum levels of endotoxin; systemic inflammation was assessed by serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, as well as by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and by intestinal histopathology. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury not only caused morphologic damage to ileal mucosa, but also induced BT, increased MPO activity and promoted the release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum. BT and ileal mucosa injuries were significantly improved and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum were decreased in the I/R + ileostomy group compared with the I/R + resection and anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Terminal ileostomy can prevent the detrimental effects of intestinal I/R injury on BT, intestinal tissue, and inflammation. PMID:25548488

  6. Malabsorption, Orocecal Transit Time and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Connection.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V; Malik, Aastha; Bhadada, Sanjay K; Sachdeva, Naresh; Morya, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Gaurav

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility. The present study was planned to measure various malabsorption parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. 175 patients and 175 age and sex matched healthy controls attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured by using non-invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Urinary d-xylose and fecal fat were estimated using standard methods. Orocecal transit time and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were measured using non-invasive lactulose and glucose breath test respectively. Out of 175 diabetic patients enrolled, 87 were males while among 175 healthy subjects 88 were males. SIBO was observed in 14.8 % type 2 diabetic patients and in 2.8 % of controls. There was statistically significant increase (p < 0.002) in OCTT in type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls. OCTT was observed to be more delayed (p < 0.003) in patients who were found to have SIBO than in patients without SIBO. Lactose intolerance was observed in 60 % diabetic patients and 39.4 % in controls. Urinary d-xylose levels were also lower in case of diabetic patients but no significant difference was found in 72 h fecal fat excretion among diabetic patients and controls. Urinary d-xylose and lactose intolerance in SIBO positive type 2 diabetic patients was more severe as compared to SIBO negative diabetic patients. From this study we can conclude that delayed OCTT may have led to SIBO which may

  7. Alcoholic liver disease: the gut microbiome and liver cross talk.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with ALD have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier, or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental ALD. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of ALD. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship, and consequences for ALD. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota.

  8. Loss of Sirt1 Function Improves Intestinal Anti-Bacterial Defense and Protects from Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int−/−) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

  9. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Bridge between Functional Organic Dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Shukla, Ratnakar; Ghoshal, Ujjala

    2017-03-15

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be largely psychogenic in origin, is now understood to be multifactorial. One of the reasons for this paradigm shift is the realization that gut dysbiosis, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), causes IBS symptoms. Between 4% and 78% of patients with IBS and 1% and 40% of controls have SIBO; such wide variations in prevalence might result from population differences, IBS diagnostic criteria, and, most importantly, methods to diagnose SIBO. Although quantitative jejunal aspirate culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, noninvasive hydrogen breath tests have been popular. Although the glucose hydrogen breath test is highly specific, its sensitivity is low; in contrast, the early-peak criteria in the lactulose hydrogen breath test are highly nonspecific. Female gender, older age, diarrhea-predominant IBS, bloating and flatulence, proton pump inhibitor and narcotic intake, and low hemoglobin are associated with SIBO among IBS patients. Several therapeutic trials targeting gut microbes using antibiotics and probiotics have further demonstrated that not all symptoms in patients with IBS originate in the brain but rather in the gut, providing support for the micro-organic basis of IBS. A recent proof-of-concept study showing the high frequency of symptom improvement in patients with IBS with SIBO further supports this hypothesis.

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Refractory Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Shino; Ishimura, Norihisa; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Uno, Goichi; Tamagawa, Yuji; Aimi, Masahito; Oshima, Naoki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). However, the prevalence and clinical conditions of SIBO in patients with FGID remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the frequency of SIBO in patients with refractory FGID. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with refractory FGID based on Rome III criteria. A glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) was performed using a gas analyzer after an overnight fast, with breath hydrogen concentration measured at baseline and every 15 minutes after administration of glucose for a total of 3 hours. A peak hydrogen value ≥ 10 ppm above the basal value between 60 and 120 minutes after administration of glucose was diagnosed as SIBO. Results A total of 38 FGID patients, including 11 with functional dyspepsia (FD), 10 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 17 with overlapping with FD and IBS, were enrolled. Of those, 2 (5.3%) were diagnosed with SIBO (one patient diagnosed with FD; the other with overlapping FD and IBS). Their symptoms were clearly improved and breath hydrogen levels decreased to normal following levofloxacin administration for 7 days. Conclusions Two patients initially diagnosed with FD and IBS were also diagnosed with SIBO as assessed by GHBT. Although the frequency of SIBO is low among patients with FGID, it may be important to be aware of SIBO as differential diagnosis when examining patients with refractory gastrointestinal symptoms, especially bloating, as a part of routine clinical care. PMID:26554916

  11. Intestinal Dysbiosis, Gut Hyperpermeability and Bacterial Translocation: Missing Links Between Depression, Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Slyepchenko, Anastasiya; Maes, Michael; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Anderson, George; Solmi, Marco; Sanz, Yolanda; Berk, Michael; Köhler, Cristiano A; Carvalho, André F

    2016-01-01

    The comorbid prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus reflects the existence of a subset of individuals with a complex common pathophysiology and overlapping risk factors. Such comorbid disease presentations imply a number of difficulties, including: decreased treatment responsivity and adherence; altered glycemic control and increased risk of wider medical complications. A number of factors link MDD to metabolic-associated disorders, including: higher rates of shared risk factors such as poor diet and physical inactivity and biological elements including increased inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and mitochondrial dysfunction. All of these biological factors have been extensively investigated in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as MDD. In this review, we aim to: (1) overview the epidemiological links between MDD, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; (2) discuss the role of synergistic neurotoxic effects in MDD comorbid with obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; (3) review evidence of intestinal dysbiosis, leaky gut and increased bacterial translocation, in the pathophysiology of MDD, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (4) propose a model in which the gut-brain axis could play a pivotal role in the comorbidity of these disorders.

  12. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Bridge between Functional Organic Dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C.; Shukla, Ratnakar; Ghoshal, Ujjala

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be largely psychogenic in origin, is now understood to be multifactorial. One of the reasons for this paradigm shift is the realization that gut dysbiosis, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), causes IBS symptoms. Between 4% and 78% of patients with IBS and 1% and 40% of controls have SIBO; such wide variations in prevalence might result from population differences, IBS diagnostic criteria, and, most importantly, methods to diagnose SIBO. Although quantitative jejunal aspirate culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, noninvasive hydrogen breath tests have been popular. Although the glucose hydrogen breath test is highly specific, its sensitivity is low; in contrast, the early-peak criteria in the lactulose hydrogen breath test are highly nonspecific. Female gender, older age, diarrhea-predominant IBS, bloating and flatulence, proton pump inhibitor and narcotic intake, and low hemoglobin are associated with SIBO among IBS patients. Several therapeutic trials targeting gut microbes using antibiotics and probiotics have further demonstrated that not all symptoms in patients with IBS originate in the brain but rather in the gut, providing support for the micro-organic basis of IBS. A recent proof-of-concept study showing the high frequency of symptom improvement in patients with IBS with SIBO further supports this hypothesis. PMID:28274108

  13. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and thiamine deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Shilen V; Shah, Hiral N; Alexander, Kenneth; Finelli, Frederick C; Kirkpatrick, John R; Koch, Timothy R

    2008-05-01

    It has been proposed that thiamine deficiency after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients results from prolonged nausea and emesis. We hypothesized that thiamine deficiency is induced by altered gut ecology. This report includes 2 retrospective studies of obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery at our institution from 1999 to 2005. In the first study, 80 patients (52 women and 28 men) had measurement of whole-blood thiamine diphosphate level and serum folate level. In these 80 patients, 39 (49%) had thiamine diphosphate levels less than the lower limit of the reference range, and 28 (72%) of the 39 had folate levels higher than the upper limit of the reference range, an indicator of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. In 41 patients with normal thiamine levels, only 14 (34%) had folate levels higher than the upper limit of the reference range (chi(2) test, P < .01). In the second study, 21 patients (17 women and 4 men) had thiamine diphosphate levels less than the lower limit of the reference range and abnormal glucose-hydrogen breath tests, consistent with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Fifteen patients received oral thiamine supplements, but repeated thiamine levels remained low in all 15. Nine of these patients then received oral antibiotic therapy; repeated thiamine levels were found to be normal in all 9 patients. These results support the hypothesis that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth results from altered gut ecology and induces thiamine deficiency after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients.

  14. Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O.; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B.; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. Design: One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Results: Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). Conclusion: SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals

  15. Differentiation of epithelial cells to M cells in response to bacterial colonization on the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patch in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Chin, Keigi; Onishi, Sachiko; Yuji, Midori; Inamoto, Tetsurou; Qi, Wang-Mei; Warita, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between M cells and intestinal microflora, histoplanimetrical investigation into the bacterial colonization and the differentiation to M cells was carried out in rat Peyer's patch under physiological conditions. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), except for the narrow area of apical region, was closely covered with both neighboring intestinal villi and a thick mucous layer, the latter of which also filled the intervillous spaces as well as the space between the FAE and the neighboring intestinal villi. Indigenous bacteria adhered almost constantly to the narrow areas of apical regions of both intestinal villi and the FAE. Bacterial colonies were occasionally located on the basal to middle region of FAE, where M cells also appeared, forming large pockets. When bacterial colonies were located on the basal to middle region of FAE, bacteria with the same morphological characteristics also proliferated in the intervillous spaces neighboring the Peyer's patch. In cases with no bacterial colonies on the basal to middle region of FAE, however, M cells were rare in the FAE. Histoplanimetrical analysis showed the similar distribution pattern of bacterial colonies on the FAE and M cells in the FAE. M cells ultrastructurally engulfed indigenous bacteria, which were then transported to the pockets. These results suggest that indigenous bacterial colonization on the FAE stimulates the differentiation of M cells in the FAE under physiological conditions. The uptake of bacteria by M cells might contribute the regulation of the development of indigenous bacterial colonies in the small intestine.

  16. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  17. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine.

  18. Prevalence and treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    DENG, LIHUA; LIU, YANG; ZHANG, DONGSHENG; LI, YUAN; XU, LIN

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) after surgical treatment and observe whether gastrointestinal symptoms may improve with rifaximin, 43 postoperative CRC patients (CRC group) and 30 healthy individuals (normal group) were subjected to the glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). All the patients were asked to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms using the visual analogue scale (VAS). SIBO-positive patients were administered rifaximin for 10 days on the basis of the original treatment. After the treatment, the patients were asked to undergo GHBT and re-evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms score (GISS). The results demonstrated that 18 of the 43 postoperative patients with CRC were SIBO-positive (41.86%), which was significantly higher compared with the incidence in normal controls (6.67%) (P<0.05). GISS was higher in SIBO-positive patients (P<0.05). Following rifaximin treatment, 6 of the 18 (33.33%) SIBO-positive patients had improved, as evaluated by GHBT and VAS. Additionally, the GISS in the SIBO-turned-negative group had improved significantly compared with that in the non-turned-negative group (P<0.05). The symptoms of all 18 SIBO-positive patients following rifaximin treatment improved notably, particularly diarrhea (P<0.05). In conclusion, postoperative CRC patients are more likely to develop SIBO compared with healthy individuals, and SIBO may aggravate digestive symptoms. The administration of rifaximin improved the overall gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea, in SIBO-positive patients. PMID:27123301

  19. Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Marianne; Tournier, Laurent; Moncaut, Elisabeth; Son, Olivier; Langella, Philippe; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Temperate phages, the bacterial viruses able to enter in a dormant prophage state in bacterial genomes, are present in the majority of bacterial strains for which the genome sequence is available. Although these prophages are generally considered to increase their hosts’ fitness by bringing beneficial genes, studies demonstrating such effects in ecologically relevant environments are relatively limited to few bacterial species. Here, we investigated the impact of prophage carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of monoxenic mice. Combined with mathematical modelling, these experimental results provided a quantitative estimation of key parameters governing phage-bacteria interactions within this model ecosystem. We used wild-type and mutant strains of the best known host/phage pair, Escherichia coli and phage λ. Unexpectedly, λ prophage caused a significant fitness cost for its carrier, due to an induction rate 50-fold higher than in vitro, with 1 to 2% of the prophage being induced. However, when prophage carriers were in competition with isogenic phage susceptible bacteria, the prophage indirectly benefited its carrier by killing competitors: infection of susceptible bacteria led to phage lytic development in about 80% of cases. The remaining infected bacteria were lysogenized, resulting overall in the rapid lysogenization of the susceptible lineage. Moreover, our setup enabled to demonstrate that rare events of phage gene capture by homologous recombination occurred in the intestine of monoxenic mice. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative characterization of temperate phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified gut environment. The high prophage induction rate detected reveals DNA damage-mediated SOS response in monoxenic mouse intestine. We propose that the mammalian gut, the most densely populated bacterial ecosystem on earth, might foster bacterial evolution through high temperate phage activity. PMID:26871586

  20. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-03-15

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated.Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10(5) colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) (P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) (P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine (P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  1. Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Torralba, Manolito; Tan, Justin; Embree, Mallory; Zengler, Karsten; Stärkel, Peter; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; DePew, Jessica; Loomba, Rohit; Ho, Samuel B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Nelson, Karen E.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Methods We used the Tsukamoto-French mouse model which involves continuous intragastric feeding of isocaloric diet or alcohol for 3 weeks. Bacterial DNA from the cecum was extracted for deep metagenomic sequencing. Targeted metabolomics assessed concentrations of saturated fatty acids in cecal contents. To maintain intestinal metabolic homeostasis, diets of ethanol-fed and control mice were supplemented with saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, amounts of lactobacilli, and saturated LCFA were measured in fecal samples of non-alcoholic individuals and patients with active alcohol abuse. Results Analyses of intestinal contents from mice revealed alcohol-associated changes to the intestinal metagenome and metabolome, characterized by reduced synthesis of saturated LCFA. Maintaining intestinal levels of saturated fatty acids in mice resulted in eubiosis, stabilized the intestinal gut barrier and reduced ethanol-induced liver injury. Saturated LCFA are metabolized by commensal Lactobacillus and promote their growth. Proportions of bacterial genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were lower in feces from patients with active alcohol abuse than controls. Total levels of LCFA correlated with those of lactobacilli in fecal samples from patients with active alcohol abuse but not in controls. Conclusion In humans and mice, alcohol causes intestinal dysbiosis, reducing the capacity of the microbiome to synthesize saturated LCFA and the proportion of Lactobacillus species. Dietary approaches to restore levels of saturated fatty acids in the intestine might reduce ethanol

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p = 0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p = 0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p < 0.0001). Rosacea skin lesions decreased markedly in 6/7 (85.7%) after eradication of SIBO whereas of the two patients who did not eradicate SIBO, one (50%) showed an improvement in rosacea (p = 0.284). Conclusions Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than control group, whereas SIBO prevalence was comparable between the two groups. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement of skin symptoms in rosacea patients. PMID:25653855

  3. Antibiotics conspicuously affect community profiles and richness, but not the density of bacterial cells associated with mucosa in the large and small intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Nathan J; Uwiera, Richard R E; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-02-01

    The influence of three antibiotics (bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate) on the mucosa-associated enteric microbiota and the intestines of mice was examined. Antibiotics caused conspicuous enlargement of ceca and an increase in overall length of the intestine. However, there were no pathologic changes associated with increased cecal size or length of the intestine. Conspicuous reductions in the richness of mucosa-associated bacteria and changes to community profiles within the small (duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum) and large (cecum, ascending colon, and descending colon) intestine occurred in mice administered antibiotics. Communities in antibiotic-treated mice were dominated by a limited number of Clostridium-like (i.e. clostridial cluster XIVa) and Bacteroides species. The richness of mucosa-associated communities within the small and large intestine increased during the 14-day recovery period. However, community profiles within the large intestine did not return to baseline (i.e. relative to the control). Although antibiotic administration greatly reduced bacterial richness, densities of mucosa-associated bacteria were not reduced correspondingly. These data showed that the antibiotics, bacitracin, enrofloxacin, and neomycin sulfate, administered for 21 days to mice did not sterilize the intestine, but did impart a tremendous and prolonged impact on mucosa-associated bacterial communities throughout the small and large intestine.

  4. Low dietary iron intake restrains the intestinal inflammatory response and pathology of enteric infection by food-borne bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus AM; Mulder, Michelle LM; Richters, Thijs JW; Shanmugam, Nanda KN; Trebicka, Estela; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Roelofs, Rian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bolhuis, Albert; Cherayil, Bobby J; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Orally administrated iron is suspected to increase susceptibility to enteric infections among children in infection endemic regions. Here we investigated the effect of dietary iron on the pathology and local immune responses in intestinal infection models. Mice were held on iron-deficient, normal-iron, or high-iron diets and after two weeks they were orally challenged with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed profound iron- and infection-induced shifts in microbiota composition. Fecal levels of the innate defensive molecules and markers of inflammation lipocalin-2 and calprotectin were not influenced by dietary iron intervention alone, but were markedly lower in mice on the iron-deficient diet after infection. Next, mice on the iron-deficient diet tended to gain more weight and to have a lower grade of colon pathology. Furthermore, survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was prolonged after iron-deprivation. Together, these data show that iron limitation restricts disease pathology upon bacterial infection. However, our data also showed decreased intestinal inflammatory responses of mice fed on high-iron diets. Thus additionally, our study indicates that the effects of iron on processes at the intestinal host-pathogen interface may highly depend on host iron status, immune status and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26046550

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal

  8. Levothyroxine therapy and impaired clearance are the strongest contributors to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Results of a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brechmann, Thorsten; Sperlbaum, Andre; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. METHODS Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system. Cases lacking or with substantially incomplete clinical data were excluded from the analysis. Suspected contributors were summarised under four different pathophysiological pathways (impaired gastric acid barrier, impaired intestinal clearance, immunosuppression and miscellaneous factors including thyroid gland variables) and investigated using the χ2 test, Student’s t-test and logistic regression models. RESULTS A total of 1809 patients who had undergone hydrogen breath testing were analysed. Impairment of the gastric acid barrier (gastrectomy, odds ratio: OR = 3.5, PPI therapy OR = 1.4), impairment of intestinal clearance (any resecting gastric surgery OR = 2.6, any colonic resection OR = 1.9, stenosis OR = 3.4, gastroparesis OR = 3.4, neuropathy 2.2), immunological factors (any drug-induced immunosuppression OR = 1.8), altered thyroid gland metabolism (hypothyroidism OR = 2.6, levothyroxine therapy OR = 3.0) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.9) were associated significantly to SIBO. Any abdominal surgery, ileocecal resection, vagotomy or IgA-deficiency did not have any influence, and a history of appendectomy decreased the risk of SIBO. Multivariate analysis revealed gastric surgery, stenoses, medical immunosuppression and levothyroxine to be the strongest predictors. Levothyroxine therapy was the strongest contributor in a simplified model (OR = 3.0). CONCLUSION The most important contributors for the

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarroeal human stools from Vhembe district, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Samie, A; Guerrant, R L; Barrett, L; Bessong, P O; Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections in relation to diarrhoea in Vhembe district and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial pathogens was conducted. Stool samples were collected from 528 patients attending major public hospitals and 295 children attending two public primary schools and were analyzed by standard microbiological and parasitological techniques. Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (34.2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (25.5%) were the most common parasitic causes of diarrhoea among the hospital attendees while Giardia lamblia (12.8%) was the most common cause of diarrhoea among the primary school children (p < 0.05). Schistosoma mansoni (14.4%) was more common in non-diarrhoeal samples at both hospitals (16.9%) and schools (17.6%). Campylobacter spp. (24.9%), Aeromonas spp. (20.8%), and Shigella spp. (8.5%) were the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea among the hospital attendees while Campylobacter (12.8%) and Aeromonas spp. (12.8%) were most common in diarrhoeal samples from school children. Vibrio spp. was less common (3% in the hospitals) and were all associated with diarrhoea. Antimicrobial resistance was common among the bacterial isolates but ceftriaxone (91%) and ciprofloxacin (88.6%) showed stronger activities against all the organisms. The present study has demonstrated that E. histolytica/dispar, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora are common parasitic causes of diarrhoea in Vhembe district while Campylobacter spp. and Aeromonas are the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in Vhembe district of South Africa.

  10. Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-α (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-γ (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-κB p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal

  11. Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

    2014-06-05

    T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into RORγt-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines.

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  13. [Effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Hou, H T; Qiu, Y M; Zhao, H W; Li, D H; Liu, Y T; Wang, Y Z; Su, S H

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, model group, and curcumin intervention group. The rats in the model group and the curcumin intervention group were given high-fat feed for 16 weeks, and those in the curcumin intervention group were given curcumin 200 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. The rats were sacrificed at the end of week 16. A light microscope was used to observe pathological changes in the liver, an electron microscope was used to observe the tight junction of the intestinal mucosa, an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), chromogenic substrate Limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to measure plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, spectrophotometric method was used to measure the activity of serum diamine oxidase, ELISA was used to measure the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of the tight junction protein occludin. One-way ANOVA test and SNK-q test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Under the light microscope, the control group had no hepatocyte steatosis, the model group had significant hepatocyte steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, and the curcumin intervention group had reduced hepatocyte steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Under the electron microscope, the control group had a clear and complete structure of the tight junction of the intestinal mucosa and normal structures of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum; in the model group, the structure of the tight junction of the intestinal mucosa was destroyed, the intercellular space was widened, the desmosomes had a loose structure, there was edema in some mitochondria

  14. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate/layered silicate based nanofibrous mats for bacterial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Xueyong; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Ting; Huang, Rong; Fan, Gang

    2013-02-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG)/organic rectorite (OREC) composite nanofibrous mats are fabricated by electrospinning aqueous solutions with different mixing ratios. Both good fiber shape and three-dimensional structure of nanofibrous mats can be observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows the existence of OREC in the as-spun composite mats. In addition, small-angle X-ray diffraction confirms that the interlayer of OREC is intercalated by ALG/PVA chains, and the distance between OREC interlayers is increased from 4.50 to 4.74 nm. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra further verify the intercalation is between polymers and layered silicate. Moreover, the thermal gravimetric analysis shows that the addition of OREC has only a small effect on the thermal stability of composites. Furthermore, the antibacterial experiments illustrate that OREC can enhance the bacterial inhibition ability of nanofibrous mats against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Role of Bacterial Endotoxins of Intestinal Origin in Rat Heat Stress Mortality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-19

    Intestinal Origin in M -4/81 litle U H a B. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(’) D. A. DuBose, K. Basamania, L. Maglione , and J. Rowlands 9. PERFORMING...mortality D. A. DuBOSE, K. BASAMANIA, L. MAGLIONE , AND J. ROWLANDS Department of the Army, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine...Natick, Massachusetts 01760 DX3BOSE, D. A., K. BASAMANIA, L. MAGLIONE , AND J. Row- mined the incidence of duodenal and extraintestinal in- LANDS. Role of

  16. Pseudomonas reactans, a bacterial strain isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica with anti-Beauveria bassiana activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yan Hong; Liu, Shu Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Bo Tai; Zhao, Xiao Xu; Fu, Ying; Liu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xue Xia

    2013-06-01

    Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi.

  17. Prostaglandin E1 maintains structural integrity of intestinal mucosa and prevents bacterial translocation during experimental obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Gurleyik, Emin; Coskun, Ozgur; Ustundag, Nil; Ozturk, Elif

    2006-01-01

    The absence of bile in the gut lumen induces mucosal injury and promotes bacterial translocation (BT). Prostaglandin E (PGE) has a protective effect on the mucosal layer of the alimentary tract. We hypothesize that PGE1 may prevent BT by its beneficial action on the mucosa of the small bowel. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided equally into 3 groups; Group 1 (control) underwent sham laparotomy, group 2 obstructive jaundice (OJ) and group 3 (OJ + PGE1) underwent common bile duct (CBD) ligation and transection. Groups 1 and 2 received; 1 mL normal saline and group 3 received 40 mg of the PGE1 analogue misoprostol dissolved in 1 mL normal saline administered by orogastric tube once daily. After 7 days, laparotomy and collection of samples for laboratory analyses were performed, including bacteriological analysis of intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and blood, and histopathologic examination of intestinal mucosa to determine mucosal thickness and structural damage. Serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels confirmed OJ in all animals with CBD transection. The mucosal damage score was significantly reduced in jaundiced animals receiving PGE1 compared to jaundiced controls (2.15 +/- 0.74 vs 5.3 +/- 0.59; p < .00001) and mucosal thickness was greater (607 +/- 59.1 microm vs. 393 +/- 40.3 microm; p < .00001). The incidence of BT to MLNs decreased from 90% to 30% (p < .02) when jaundiced rats received PGE1. PGE1 treatment reduced the detection rate of viable enteric bacteria in the blood from 60% to 10% (p < .057). We conclude that administration of PGE1 provides protection against OJ-induced atrophy and damage of intestinal mucosa, and thereby prevents translocation of enteric bacteria to underlying tissues.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  19. Intestinal Bacterial Infection Diagnosed by Histological Examination of Endoscopic Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Michiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3- to 4 μm-thick (average thickness, 3.4 μm) basophilic fringes or haze in HE-stained endoscopic biopsy specimens. The basophilic fringes were clearly labeled by Treponema pallidum antiserum. Because IS is relatively rare in developed countries, thin basophilic fringes characteristic of IS are readily overlooked. Thus, the recognition of histological characteristics of this disease is important for its diagnosis. PMID:27920653

  20. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  1. Protein synthesis of muscle fractions from the small intestine in alcohol fed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Preedy, V R; Peters, T J

    1990-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on the amounts and synthesis rates of cytoplasmic, contractile, and stromal protein fractions were investigated in the small intestine of eight pairs of immature and seven pairs of mature rats. Treated rats were fed ethanol as 36% of total energy in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet. Paired controls were fed isovolumetric amounts of the same diet in which ethanol was substituted by isocaloric glucose. After six weeks the total cytoplasmic and contractile protein content in immature rats was reduced by 18% and 31%, respectively (p less than or equal to 0.007). The decline in the stromal protein content (26%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.130). In mature rats the protein contents were also reduced in the cytoplasmic (25%, p = 0.035) and contractile (27%, p = 0.005) protein fractions, though the stromal protein fraction was unaltered (p = 0.913). In immature rats fractional rates of protein synthesis in cytoplasmic and contractile protein fractions of the small intestine were unaltered by chronic ethanol feeding (p less than or equal to 0.853). In mature rats, the synthesis rates of corresponding fractions declined, by 18% and 31%, respectively, but were also not statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.369). Absolute rates of protein synthesis in immature rats fell by 6% (p = 0.549) in the cytoplasmic and 31% in the contractile protein fraction (p = 0.045). In mature rats, the corresponding reductions were 38% (p = 0.106) and 48% (p = 0.033), respectively. Virtually no radioactivity could be detected in the stromal fraction, signifying very low synthesis rates. Chronic ethanol feeding reduces the amount of protein in the small intestine of the immature and mature rat with the contractile protein fraction showing the greatest decrease. In the absence of statistically significant reductions in fractional synthesis rates a partial adaptation in turnover rates may have occurred. PMID:2323594

  2. Translocation of coagulase-negative bacterial staphylococci in rats following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chih-Cheng; Shih, Hsiang-Hung; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    Many patients with sepsis have bacteremia for which no septic focus is identified either clinically or by autopsy. This study was designed to determine the relationship between the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and bacterial translocation that might be involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. In the first experiment, a total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into four groups. The mesentery to isolated loop was occluded for 30, 60, and 90 min following 30-min reperfusion in the three groups of experimental animals with a micro-bulldog clamp. A control group involved the same technique and exposure, without occlusion of the mesentery. Two sets of blood culture were taken through a catheter in the portal vein immediately and 15 min after the reperfusion, respectively. In another experiment, bacteria isolated were fed in different doses to control rats and those after 30- or 60-min ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. Two sets of blood culture were taken following the procedure. Invasion and transcytosis of the bacteria through epithelial cells were studied in vitro using a Madin-Derby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer model. PCR for delta toxin gene was performed on all bacteria isolated, using Staphylococcus epidermidis as the control. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were invariably isolated from mice with prolonged ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion. When bacteria were fed into mice with only 30-min ischemia, an inoculum as low as 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml could induce bacteremia. No bacterial translocation was found in control mice even fed with a higher dose of bacteria (5 x 10(8) CFU/ml). In vitro experiments showed that CoNS failed to transcytose MDCK monolayer. These isolates were not cytotoxic to MDCK cells and contained no delta toxin gene. Bacterial translocation of CoNS occurred following severe bowel ischemia and reperfusion injury. Intact mucosa integrity readily prevented bacterial translocation; however

  3. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte; Foesel, Bärbel U; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Kumar, Neeraj; Bresciani, Anne; Martínez, Inés; Just, Sarah; Ziegler, Caroline; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Garzetti, Debora; Wenning, Mareike; Bui, Thi P N; Wang, Jun; Hugenholtz, Floor; Plugge, Caroline M; Peterson, Daniel A; Hornef, Mathias W; Baines, John F; Smidt, Hauke; Walter, Jens; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nielsen, Henrik B; Haller, Dirk; Overmann, Jörg; Stecher, Bärbel; Clavel, Thomas

    2016-08-08

    Intestinal bacteria influence mammalian physiology, but many types of bacteria are still uncharacterized. Moreover, reference strains of mouse gut bacteria are not easily available, although mouse models are extensively used in medical research. These are major limitations for the investigation of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC), a public repository of bacterial strains and associated genomes from the mouse gut, and studied host-specificity of colonization and sequence-based relevance of the resource. The collection includes several strains representing novel species, genera and even one family. Genomic analyses showed that certain species are specific to the mouse intestine and that a minimal consortium of 18 strains covered 50-75% of the known functional potential of metagenomes. The present work will sustain future research on microbiota-host interactions in health and disease, as it will facilitate targeted colonization and molecular studies. The resource is available at www.dsmz.de/miBC.

  4. Efficacy of soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol on aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves for serial mouse laparotomies.

    PubMed

    Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an α level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks pre- vented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice.

  5. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal >95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  7. Interactions Between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. PMID:24440671

  8. The influence of the immunostimulation by bacterial cell components derived from altered large intestinal microbiota on probiotic anti-inflammatory benefits.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hara, Kurt; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-04-01

    Using murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells and fecal precipitates prepared from the feces of elderly volunteers whose acute inflammation had been inhibited by LKM512 yogurt consumption, we investigated the likelihood that immunostimulation by altered intestinal bacterial cell components contribute to the anti-inflammatory benefits of this yogurt. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production due to stimulation by fecal precipitates obtained during LKM512 yogurt consumption tended to be higher than due to stimulation by precipitates obtained from preconsumption (P=0.0827), although acute phase response was suppressed by LKM512 yogurt consumption. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory benefits of LKM512 yogurt on elderly volunteers are independent of direct immunostimulation by the bacterial cell components derived from altered intestinal microbiota.

  9. Role of TLR4/NF-κB in Damage to Intestinal Mucosa Barrier Function and Bacterial Translocation in Rats Exposed to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Han; Guo, Ping; Zhou, Qiquan

    2012-01-01

    The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) in intestinal mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation under hypoxic exposure is unclear. Here, we investigated their role using an acute hypobaric hypoxia model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia+NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) (100 mg. kg) (HP), hypoxia+0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (HPL), and hypoxia+PDTC+LPS (HPL) group. Except control group, other four groups were placed in a hypobaric chamber set at 7000 m. Samples were collected at 72 h after pressure reduction. Damage in ultrastructure of the intestinal tract was examined by transmission electron microscopy and bacterial translocation was detected by cultivation. Kinetic turbidimetric assay was used to measure the serum LPS. ELISA was performed to detect TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations. Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure TLR4 mRNA levels was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and protein of NF-κB p65 was measured by western blotting. Different degrees of intestinal mucosa damage were observed in groups H and HL. The damage was significantly alleviated after blockage of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. PDTC- treatment also reversed hyoxia- and LPS-induced bacterial translocation rate and increased serum levels of LPS, TNF-α, and IL-6. TLR4 mRNA levels and NF-κB p65 expression were consistent with the serum factor results. This study suggested that TLR4 and NF-κB expression increased in rat intestinal tissues after acute hypoxia exposure. PDTC-treatment reversed TLR4 and NF-κB upregulation and alleviated damage to the intestinal tract and bacterial translocation. Thus, the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway may be critical to the mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced damage to intestinal barrier function and bacterial translocation. PMID:23082119

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hua; Fox, Mark; Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yanyong; Long, Yanqin; Huang, Zhihui; Du, Lijun; Xu, Fei; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent 99mTc scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; p = 0.026). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS. PMID:27379166

  11. Frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from the intestinal and female genital tracts.

    PubMed

    Sutter, V L

    1983-01-01

    In the selection of empiric therapy for infections of the female genital tract and intraabdominal infections in humans, the requisite information includes (1) the frequency of isolation of bacterial species dominant in the normal gastrointestinal and female genital tracts and in intraabdominal and female genital tract infections and (2) the in vitro susceptibilities of the dominant species to drugs that may be used against them (e.g., penicillin G, cefoperazone, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole). The predominant bacteria in fecal contents are not necessarily those most frequently found in infections. Intraabdominal and perirectal infections are usually polymicrobial, resulting from mixtures of facultative species (coliforms and streptococci) and anaerobes. The predominant bacteria of the normal vagina and cervix are lactobacilli, facultative streptococci, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species. Most infections of the female genital tract are due to mixtures of facultative enteric bacilli, streptococci, and anaerobes (Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides disiens, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides bivius, and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus). Of the antibiotics tested, clindamycin appears the most active against many of the groups of bacteria isolated.

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Peter; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kunwar, Prabesh Singh; Baruah, Kartik; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bossier, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The bacterial storage polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has the potential to be used as an alternative anti-infective strategy for aquaculture rearing. In this research, the effects of (partially) replacing the feed of European sea bass juveniles with PHB were investigated. During a 6-week trial period, the PHB showed the ability to act as an energy source for the fish. This indicated that PHB was degraded and used during gastrointestinal passage. The gut pH decreased from 7.7 to 7.2 suggesting that the presence of PHB in the gut led to the increased production of (short-chain fatty) acids. The diets supplemented with 2% and 5% PHB (w/w) induced a gain of the initial fish weight with a factor 2.4 and 2.7, respectively, relative to a factor 2.2 in the normal feed treatment. Simultaneously, these treatments showed the highest bacterial range-weighted richness in the fish intestine. Based on molecular analysis, higher dietary PHB levels induced larger changes in the bacterial community composition. From our results, it seems that PHB can have a beneficial effect on fish growth performance and that the intestinal bacterial community structure may be closely related to this phenomenon.

  15. Residual bacterial contamination after surgical preparation of the foot or ankle with or without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hort, Kurtis R; DeOrio, James K

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the usefulness of a standard surgical preparation in prevention of surgical site contamination, 49 consecutive patients undergoing foot or ankle surgery were randomly assigned to standard preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate home scrubs and preoperative povidone-iodine or to standard preparation plus preoperative preparation with 70% alcohol. Results were available for all 49 patients. Cultures were positive for normal aerobic bacteria from the toes of nine of 26 patients (35%) receiving standard surgical preparation and from the toes of 13 of 23 patients (57%) receiving standard preparation plus alcohol (P = 0.12). No patient had a positive culture for anaerobic organisms or clinical evidence of infection or wound problems. Standard surgical preparation did not provide a completely sterile field, and the inclusion of alcohol added no benefit.

  16. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Changqing; Qu, Changmin; Wang, Baoyan; Liang, Shuwen; Zeng, Bolun

    2017-04-01

    The present study conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of current evidence to assess the efficacy of probiotics in preventing or treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, until May 2016, were assimilated. The prevention efficacy was assessed by the incidence of SIBO in the probiotic group, and the treatment efficacy by the SIBO decontamination rate, reduction in H2 concentration, and symptom improvement. The relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used as effect measures and the random-effects model used for meta-analysis. A total of 14 full-text articles and 8 abstracts were included for the systematic review, and 18 studies were eligible for data synthesis. Patients on probiotic usage showed an insignificant trend toward low SIBO incidence [RR=0.54; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.19-1.52; P=0.24]. The pooled SIBO decontamination rate was 62.8% (51.5% to 72.8%). The probiotics group showed a significantly higher SIBO decontamination rate than the nonprobiotic group (RR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.19-2.17; P<0.05). Also, the H2 concentration was significantly reduced among probiotic users (WMD=-36.35 ppm; 95% CI, -44.23 to -28.47 ppm; P<0.05). Although probiotics produced a marked decrease in the abdominal pain scores (WMD=-1.17; 95% CI, -2.30 to -0.04; P<0.05), it did not significantly reduce the daily stool frequency (WMD=-0.09; 95% CI, -0.47 to 0.29). Therefore, the present findings indicated that probiotics supplementation could effectively decontaminate SIBO, decrease H2 concentration, and relieve abdominal pain, but were ineffective in preventing SIBO.

  17. Microbiota protects mice against acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Mazagova, Magdalena; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Eckmann, Lars; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, and translocation of microbial products from the intestine to the portal circulation and liver. Translocated microbial products contribute to experimental alcoholic liver disease. Aim To investigate the physiological relevance of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-induced liver injury. Methods We subjected germ-free and conventional C57BL/6 mice to a model of acute alcohol exposure that mimics binge drinking. Results Germ-free mice showed significantly greater liver injury and inflammation after oral gavage of ethanol compared with conventional mice. In parallel, germ-free mice exhibited increased hepatic steatosis and upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis compared with conventional mice after acute ethanol administration. The absence of microbiota was also associated with increased hepatic expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes, which led to faster ethanol elimination from the blood and lower plasma ethanol concentrations. Intestinal levels of ethanol metabolizing genes showed regional expression differences, and were overall higher in germ-free relative to conventional mice. Conclusion Our findings indicate that absence of the intestinal microbiota increases hepatic ethanol metabolism and the susceptibility to binge-like alcohol drinking. PMID:26556636

  18. Design and simulation of a poly(vinyl alcohol)-bacterial cellulose nanocomposite mechanical aortic heart valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, H; Boughner, D; Millon, L E; Wan, W K

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a polymeric aortic heart valve made of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-bacterial cellulose (BC) nanocomposite is simulated and designed using a hyperelastic non-linear anisotropic material model. A novel nanocomposite biomaterial combination of 15 wt % PVA and 0.5 wt % BC is developed in this study. The mechanical properties of the synthesized PVA-BC are similar to those of the porcine heart valve in both the principal directions. To design the geometry of the leaflets an advance surfacing technique is employed. A Galerkin-based non-linear finite element method is applied to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the leaflet in the closing and opening phases under physiological conditions. The model used in this study can be implemented in mechanical models for any soft tissues such as articular cartilage, tendon, and ligament.

  19. Bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Halton, K; Arora, V; Singh, V; Ghantoji, S S; Shah, D N; Garey, K W

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study examined bacterial colonization on writing pens touched by healthcare professionals and hospitalized patients with and without cleaning the pen with alcohol-based hand sanitizing agent after each patient visit. A significant reduction in potential healthcare-associated pathogens, especially Gram-positive cocci, was observed in the intervention group.

  20. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cotton, James A; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L Patrick; Hirota, Simon A; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain

  1. Refining small intestinal bacterial overgrowth diagnosis by means of carbohydrate specificity: a proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele; Stolba, Robert; Mangge, Harald; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) remains challenging. This study aimed at proving the diagnostic concept of carbohydrate-specific SIBO (cs-SIBO) using glucose, fructose and sorbitol hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath testing (HMBT). Methods: In this study 125 patients referred to our outpatient clinic for SIBO testing were included. All individuals underwent glucose (50 g), fructose (25 g) and sorbitol (12.5 g) HMBT at 3 consecutive days. Patients with cs-SIBO (i.e. early H2/CH4 peak) were given rifaximin (600 mg/day) in a 10-day treatment. HMBT results were reassessed in a subset of patients 3–6 months after antibiotic therapy. In view of cs-SIBO diagnosis, agreements between HMBT results obtained for different sugars were calculated using Cohen’s kappa (κ) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 59 (47.2%) patients presented an early H2/CH4 peak with one or more sugars. Among these, 21 (16.8%), 10 (8.0%) and 7 (5.6%) individuals had a positive HMBT result with either glucose, fructose or sorbitol, respectively. Another 21 (16.8%) patients with a positive glucose HMBT result were also found positive with an early H2/CH4 peak obtained after ingestion of fructose and/or sorbitol. Fair agreement was observed between glucose and fructose (κ = 0.26, p = 0.0018) and between glucose and sorbitol (κ = 0.18, p = 0.0178) HMBT results. Slight agreement was observed between fructose and sorbitol (κ = 0.03, p = 0.6955) HMBT results only. Successful antibiotic therapy with rifaximin could be demonstrated in 26/30 (86.7%) of patients as indicated by normal HMBT results and symptom remission. Conclusions: Combined glucose, fructose and sorbitol HMBT has the potential to optimize cs-SIBO diagnosis. Furthermore, the majority of patients with cs-SIBO seem to benefit from rifaximin therapy regardless of its carbohydrate specificity. PMID:27134657

  2. Ethanol production by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by expression of bacterial bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M; Crowley, Alexander T; Schut, Gerrit J; Scott, Israel; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-14

    Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear. As acetyl-CoA is a key central metabolite that can be generated from a wide range of substrates, AdhE can serve as a single gene fuel module to produce ethanol through primary metabolic pathways. The focus here is on the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows by fermenting sugar to acetate, CO2 and H2 . Previously, by the heterologous expression of adhA from a thermophilic bacterium, P. furiosus was shown to produce ethanol by a novel mechanism from acetate, mediated by AdhA and the native enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). In this study, the AOR gene was deleted from P. furiosus to evaluate ethanol production directly from acetyl-CoA by heterologous expression of the adhE gene from eight thermophilic bacteria. Only AdhEs from two Thermoanaerobacter strains showed significant activity in cell-free extracts of recombinant P. furiosus and supported ethanol production in vivo. In the AOR deletion background, the highest amount of ethanol (estimated 61% theoretical yield) was produced when adhE and adhA from Thermoanaerobacter were co-expressed.

  3. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Chris J.; Strube, Mikael L.; Hansen, Marie B.; Lindved, Bodil K.; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  4. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known.

  5. Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2008-05-31

    In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After

  6. Protective Capacity of Resveratrol, a Natural Polyphenolic Compound, against Deoxynivalenol-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka-Ho; Wan, Murphy Lam Yim; El-Nezami, Hani; Wang, Mingfu

    2016-05-16

    Contamination of food/feedstuffs by mycotoxins is a serious problem worldwide, causing severe economic losses and serious health problems in animals/humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxin contaminant and is known to impair intestinal barrier function. Grapes and red wine are rich in polyphenols, such as resveratrol (RES), which has striking antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. RES is a food-derived component; therefore, it may be simultaneously present with DON in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to explore in vitro protective effects of RES against DON-induced intestinal damage. The results showed that RES could protect DON-induced bacteria translocation because of enhanced of intestinal barrier function by restoring the DON-induced decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and increase in paracellular permeability. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that RES protects against DON-induced barrier dysfunction by promoting the assembly of claudin-4 in the tight junction complex. This is probably mediated through modulation of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways. Our results imply that RES can protect against DON-induced intestinal damage and that RES may be used as a novel dietary intervention strategy to reduce DON toxicity in animals/humans.

  7. Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

  8. The identification of a bacterial strain BGI-1 isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica, and its anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X

    2013-02-01

    A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi.

  9. CAP-D3 Promotes Bacterial Clearance in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Repressing Expression of Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Jacqueline R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Deutschman, Emily; Kim, Yeojung; West, Gail; Sadler, Tammy; Stylianou, Eleni; Krokowski, Dawid; Hatzoglou, Maria; de la Motte, Carol; Rubin, Brian P.; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Defects in colonic epithelial barrier defenses are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The proteins that regulate bacterial clearance in the colonic epithelium have not been completely identified. The chromosome-associated protein D3 (dCAP-D3), regulates responses to bacterial infection. We examined whether CAP-D3 promotes bacterial clearance in human colonic epithelium. METHODS Clearance of Salmonella or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82 was assessed by gentamycin protection assays in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressing small hairpin RNAs against CAP-D3. We used immunoblot assays to measure levels of CAP-D3 in colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC and healthy individuals (controls). RNA sequencing identified genes activated by CAP-D3. We analyzed the roles of CAP-D3 target genes in bacterial clearance using gentamycin protection and immunofluorescence assays and studies with pharmacologic inhibitors. RESULTS CAP-D3 expression was reduced in colonic epithelial cells from patients with active UC. Reduced CAP-D3 expression decreased autophagy and impaired intracellular bacterial clearance by HT-29 and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Lower levels of CAP-D3 increased transcription of genes encoding SLC7A5 and SLC3A2, whose products heterodimerize to form an amino acid transporter in HT-29 cells following bacterial infection; levels of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 were increased in tissues from patients with UC, compared with controls. Reduced CAP-D3 in HT-29 cells resulted in earlier recruitment of SLC7A5 to Salmonella-containing vacuoles, increased activity of mTORC1, and increased survival of bacteria. Inhibition of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 or mTORC1 activity rescued the bacterial clearance defects of CAP-D3– deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS CAP-D3 downregulates transcription of genes that encode amino acid transporters (SLC7A5 and SLC3A2) to promote bacterial autophagy by colon epithelial cells. Levels of CAP-D3 protein are reduced in patients with

  10. Silencing of ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes by bacterially produced double-stranded RNA affects larval growth and development in Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Israni, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses. Oral feeding of dsRNA led to significant reduction in transcripts of the target insect genes, which caused significant larval mortality with various moulting anomalies and an overall developmental delay. We also found a significant decrease in reproductive potential in female moths, with a drop in egg laying and compromised egg hatching from treated larvae as compared to controls. dsRNA was stable in the insect gut and was efficiently processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), thus accounting for the phenotypes observed in the present work. The study revealed the importance of these genes in core insect processes, which are essential for insect development and survival.

  11. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific

  12. Identification of intestinal bacterial flora in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks by conventional methods and PCR-DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing-Li; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Yang, Hu; Yan, Fen

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the intestinal microbial flora associated with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks using both culture-dependent and independent methods based on PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The R. microplus ticks were collected from cattle and goats in Jiangxi, Hunan and Guizhou Provinces of China. Three distinct strains of bacteria were isolated using culture-dependent methods: Staphylococcus simulans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus flexus strain. Nineteen distinct DGGE bands were found using PCR-DGGE analysis, and their search for identity shows that they belonged to Rickettsiaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Coxiella sp., Ehrlichia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ehrlichia sp., Orphnebius sp., Rickettsia peacockii, Bacillus flexus. Rickettsia peacockii and Coxiella genus were the dominant strain of the R. microplus ticks from cattle, Pseudomonas sp. and B. flexus strain were the most common species in all tick samples from goats. Ehrlichia canis were detected only in R. microplus ticks from Yongshun area in Hunan Province. The results indicate that the intestinal microbial diversity of R. microplus ticks was influenced by tick hosts and local differences in the sampling location and these two aspects may affect transmission of pathogen to humans and animals.

  13. Long-term changes of bacterial and viral compositions in the intestine of a recovered Clostridium difficile patient after fecal microbiota transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Klumpp, Jochen; Schuppler, Markus; Russo, Giancarlo; Biedermann, Luc; Hombach, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; Moelling, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs). However, long-term effects on the patients’ gut microbiota and the role of viruses remain to be elucidated. Here, we characterized bacterial and viral microbiota in the feces of a cured RCDI patient at various time points until 4.5 yr post-FMT compared with the stool donor. Feces were subjected to DNA sequencing to characterize bacteria and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses including phages. The patient's microbial communities varied over time and showed little overall similarity to the donor until 7 mo post-FMT, indicating ongoing gut microbiota adaption in this time period. After 4.5 yr, the patient's bacteria attained donor-like compositions at phylum, class, and order levels with similar bacterial diversity. Differences in the bacterial communities between donor and patient after 4.5 yr were seen at lower taxonomic levels. C. difficile remained undetectable throughout the entire timespan. This demonstrated sustainable donor feces engraftment and verified long-term therapeutic success of FMT on the molecular level. Full engraftment apparently required longer than previously acknowledged, suggesting the implementation of year-long patient follow-up periods into clinical practice. The identified dsDNA viruses were mainly Caudovirales phages. Unexpectedly, sequences related to giant algae–infecting Chlorella viruses were also detected. Our findings indicate that intestinal viruses may be implicated in the establishment of gut microbiota. Therefore, virome analyses should be included in gut microbiota studies to determine the roles of phages and other viruses—such as Chlorella viruses—in human health and disease, particularly during RCDI. PMID:27148577

  14. Consumption of a Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain for 4 Weeks Modulates Dominant Intestinal Bacterial Taxa and Fecal Butyrate in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gargari, Giorgio; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ferrario, Chiara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME) is a useful target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled intervention study to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb on the IME of adult healthy volunteers of both sexes. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota before and after 4 weeks of daily probiotic cell consumption. The intake of approximately one billion live B. bifidum cells affected the relative abundance of dominant taxa in the fecal microbiota and modulated fecal butyrate levels. Specifically, Prevotellaceae (P = 0.041) and Prevotella (P = 0.034) were significantly decreased, whereas Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.039) and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.010) were significantly increased. We also observed that the probiotic intervention modulated the fecal concentrations of butyrate in a manner dependent on the initial levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a single daily administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb can significantly modify the IME in healthy (not diseased) adults. These findings demonstrate the need to reassess the notion that probiotics do not influence the complex and stable IME of a healthy individual. IMPORTANCE Foods and supplements claimed to contain health-promoting probiotic microorganisms are everywhere these days and mainly intended for consumption by healthy people. However, it is still debated what actual effects probiotic products may have on the healthy population. In this study, we report the results of an intervention trial aimed at assessing the modifications induced in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults from the consumption of a probiotic product. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of a probiotic product in the dietary habits of healthy people may significantly modify dominant taxa of

  15. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P < 0.001), indicating that the relative bacterial load per fecal specimen was significantly associated with the culture results. In Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P < 0.001), and a significant linear trend was identified (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the fecal calprotectin concentrations and CT values were found to be correlated (r = −0.658). Our results demonstrate that molecular screening of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation. PMID:27307458

  16. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detecting Major Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens: Intestinal Inflammation and Bacterial Load Are Correlated in Campylobacter Infections.

    PubMed

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Tiermann, Sacha; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Bodmer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A total of 1,056 native or Cary-Blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (EBP) multiplex real-time PCR for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [EIEC]). Overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by PCR for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) Campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) Salmonella spp., and 20 (1.9%) Shigella spp./EIEC infections were detected. The respective positive stool culture rates were 75 (7.1%), 14 (1.3%), and 7 (0.7%). The median threshold cycle (CT) values of culture-positive specimens were significantly lower than those of culture-negative ones (CT values, 24.3 versus 28.7; P < 0.001), indicating that the relative bacterial load per fecal specimen was significantly associated with the culture results. In Campylobacter infections, the respective median fecal calprotectin concentrations in PCR-negative/culture-negative (n = 40), PCR-positive/culture-negative (n = 14), and PCR-positive/culture-positive (n = 15) specimens were 134 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 30 to 1,374 mg/kg), 1,913 mg/kg (IQR, 165 to 3,813 mg/kg), and 5,327 mg/kg (IQR, 1,836 to 18,213 mg/kg). Significant differences were observed among the three groups (P < 0.001), and a significant linear trend was identified (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the fecal calprotectin concentrations and CT values were found to be correlated (r = -0.658). Our results demonstrate that molecular screening of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp./EIEC using the BD Max EBP assay will result in timely diagnosis and improved sensitivity. The determination of inflammatory markers, such as calprotectin, in fecal specimens may aid in the interpretation of PCR results, particularly for enteric pathogens associated with mucosal damage and colonic inflammation.

  17. Can the use of 70% isopropyl alcohol swab or aspiration using 5 microm Filter Straw reduce bacterial contamination of fentanyl solution used for regional anaesthesia?

    PubMed

    Roshaliza, H M; Liu, C Y; Joanna, O S M

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to determine the extent of contamination of fentanyl solutions used for central neuraxial injection by wiping the neck of the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs (Kendall) before breaking open the ampoules and aspiration of fentanyl solutions using a 5 microm Filter Straw (B. Braun). In Group A, fifty fentanyl ampoules were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab prior to opening and the contents were aspirated immediately using a 21G needle and a 5 microm filter straw for culture. The same steps were repeated on the remaining solutions after two hours. In Group B, all the above steps were repeated but without wiping the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. None of the samples from the wiped ampoules or aspiration using filter straw grew microorganisms. Six percent of the samples from unwiped group grew microorganisms when fentanyl were aspirated using a 21G needle and the contamination increased to 16% when repeated after two hours. Wiping the outsides of the fentanyl ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs before opening or aspirating the contents using a 5 pm filter straw has been shown to be equally effective in avoiding bacterial contamination and should be practiced routinely when performing regional anaesthesia.

  18. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  19. Characterization of bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Adelfo; Rodríguez, María Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2004-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Sequenced clones identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus strain ASF360, L. kefir, L. acetotolerans, L. hilgardii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Microbacterium arborescens, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Acetobacter pomorium, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Hafnia alvei, were detected for the first time in pulque. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.

  20. Bacterial fermentation affects net mineral flux in the large intestine of pigs fed diets with viscous and fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Hooda, S; Mosenthin, R; Gänzle, M G; Zijlstra, R T

    2010-10-01

    The impact of colonic fermentation on postileal absorption of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was investigated in 8 ileally cannulated grower pigs (initial BW = 29.1 ± 1.6 kg) according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. A semi-purified diet was supplemented with 5.20% low viscous, low fermentable cellulose (CEL), 6.25% high viscous, low fermentable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 8.95% low viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (LG), or 9.25% high viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (HG), resulting in 5% actual added nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diets. Because of the intrinsic mineral content in LG and HG, pigs receiving the LG and HG diets had a greater (P < 0.05) daily intake of Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and also Ca for the HG diet compared with the CEL and CMC diets. Different amounts of minerals reached the large intestine for the 4 diets as indicated by the 60 to 86% less (P < 0.05) ileal flow of Ca, Mg, P, and Fe for CMC compared with CEL and HG. Apparent mineral retention was generally less (P < 0.05) for CEL compared with CMC. Regression analyses indicated that postileal flux of Ca, Cu, and Zn were related (R(2) = 0.24 to 0.99; P < 0.05) to short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in feces. Postileal Ca absorption was negatively related (R(2) = 0.24; P < 0.05) to fecal total SCFA concentrations when SCFA concentrations were greater than 95.6 mmol/kg of DM. Furthermore, postileal Zn (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.001) and Cu secretion (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) decreased with increasing total SCFA concentrations in feces. Additionally, postileal secretion of Fe increased (R(2) = 0.20; P < 0.05) with increasing 16S rRNA gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae in feces, whereas the secretion of Cu decreased (R(2) = 0.25; P < 0.01) with increasing gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the apparent retention of Ca, Mg, and P was 27 to 85% less (P < 0.05) for CEL and HG than for CMC, whereas the apparent retention of Fe, Mn, and Zn was less (P < 0.05) for

  1. Effects of dietary antibiotic growth promoter and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on production, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus female x Oreochromis aureus male).

    PubMed

    He, S; Zhou, Z; Meng, K; Zhao, H; Yao, B; Ringø, E; Yoon, I

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a dietary antibiotic growth promoter (florfenicol) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA) on growth, G:F, daily feed intake, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂), a 16-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Four feeding regimens were evaluated: control, dietary florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 16 wk), dietary DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 16 wk), and sequential use of florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 8 wk), and DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 8 wk). Each regimen had 4 replicate tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) and each tank contained 12 fish (initial BW: 46.88 ± 0.38 g). Dietary florfenicol improved growth (P = 0.089), G:F (P = 0.036), and serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) of hybrid tilapia. However, the compound decreased the estimated intestinal bacterial count estimated by rpoB quantitative PCR (P < 0.001) and bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index based on 16S rDNA V3 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints) compared with the control. Although sequential use of florfenicol and DVAQUA improved growth and G:F numerically to a similar extent as dietary florfenicol, and increased intestinal bacterial count to normal quantities, the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA decreased intestinal bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index) as well as serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) compared with their respective use and the control. These findings might be negatively related to disease control and host defense, and the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA should be practiced with caution. Feeding DAVQUA to the fish improved nonspecific immunity and increased intestinal bacterial count and bacterial diversity, but further research, including challenge studies, should be conducted

  2. Biotransformation on the flavonolignan constituents of Silybi Fructus by an intestinal bacterial strain Eubacterium limosum ZL-II.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Min; Li, Li-Li; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Eubacterium limosum ZL-II is an anaerobic bacterium with demethylated activity, which was isolated from human intestinal bacteria in our previous work. In this study, the flavonolignan constituents of Silybi Fructus were biotransformed by E. limosum(1) ZL-II, producing four new transformation products - demethylisosilybin B (T1), demethylisosilybin A (T2), demethylsilybin B (T3) and demethylsilybin A (T4), among which T1 and T2 were new compounds. Their chemical structures were identified by ESI-TOF/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMBC and CD spectroscopic data. The bioassay results showed that the transformation products T1-T4 exhibited significant inhibitory activities on Alzheimer's amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42(2)) aggregation with IC50 values at 7.49 μM-10.46 μM, which were comparable with that of the positive control (epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG(3), at 9.01 μM) and much lower than those of their parent compounds (at not less than 145.10 μM). The method of biotransformation by E. limosum ZL-II explored a way to develop the new and active lead compounds in Alzheimer's disease from Silybi Fructus. However, the transformation products T1-T4 exhibited decreased inhibitory activities against human tumor cell lines comparing with their parent compounds.

  3. Effects of dietary inclusion of silymarin on performance, intestinal morphology and ileal bacterial count in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, E; Mahdavi, A H; Asgary, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-01-04

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of silymarin on performance, jejunal morphology and ileal bacterial population in broiler chicks intoxicated with a mix of aflatoxins. A total of three hundred thirty six 7-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between seven experimental groups with four replicates of 12 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged), and a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, including two aflatoxin levels (0.5 and 2 ppm) and three levels of silymarin (0, 500 and 1000 ppm). Birds were challenged with a mix of aflatoxins from 7 to 28 days of age. Results showed that increasing aflatoxin level resulted in decreased average daily feed intake (ADFI) and weight gain (ADWG), consequently impaired feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout the trial period. Dietary supplementation of silymarin resulted in the marked increases in ADFI and ADWG, and improved FCR values in aflatoxin-challenged chicks. Ileal bacterial populations at days 28 and 42 of age were increased by incremental levels of aflatoxins. On the other hand, dietary silymarin supplementation suppressed ileal populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella and total negative bacteria in aflatoxicated birds. Increase in dietary aflatoxin level resulted in the decreased villi height, villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (VH:CD), villi surface area and apparent villi absorptive area, while it increased crypt depth, goblet cell count and lymphoid follicular diameter. Feeding silymarin at the level of 1000 ppm increased villi height and VH:CD in aflatoxicated birds. Present results indicate that dietary inclusion of silymarin could improve performance by suppressing ileal bacteria and enhancing absorptive surface area in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

  4. Gut-Liver Axis in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been amongst the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and liver-related death worldwide for decades. Early discoveries in alcoholic liver disease identified increased levels of bacterial endotoxin in the portal circulation suggesting a role for gut-derived “toxins” in ALD. Indeed, alcohol consumption can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and result in increased gut permeability that is increasingly recognized as a major factor in ALD. Bacterial endotoxin, LPS, is a prototypic microbe-derived inflammatory signal that contributes to inflammation in ALD through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Recent studies also demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and the dysbalance of pathogenic and commensal organisms in the intestinal microbiome may contribute to the abnormal gut-liver axis in ALD. Indeed, bacterial decontamination improves ALD both in human and animal models. This short review summarizes recent findings and highlights emerging trends in the gut-liver axis relevant to ALD. PMID:25447847

  5. What are the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the small intestine?

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shunji

    2015-06-14

    Generally, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have great benefit for patients with acid related disease with less frequently occurring side effects. According to a recent report, PPIs provoke dysbiosis of the small intestinal bacterial flora, exacerbating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal injury. Several meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported that patients treated with PPIs, as well as post-gastrectomy patients, have a higher frequency of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) compared to patients who lack the aforementioned conditions. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence that these conditions induce Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, PPI-induced dysbiosis is considered a type of SIBO. It now seems likely that intestinal bacterial flora influence many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune diseases. When attempting to control intestinal bacterial flora with probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, etc., the influence of acid suppression therapy, especially PPIs, should not be overlooked.

  6. Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol fixative with three less hazardous fixatives for detection and identification of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B; Kepley, W; Guarner, J; Anderson, K; Anderson, D; Clairmont, J; De L'aune, W; Austin, E H; Austin, G E

    2000-04-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing the fixative mercuric chloride is considered the "gold standard" for the fixation of ova and parasites in the preparation of permanently stained smears of stool specimens. However, mercuric chloride is potentially hazardous to laboratory personnel and presents disposal problems. We compared three new alternative, nontoxic fixatives with PVA, analyzing ease of sample preparation and quality of smears. Sixty-eight fresh stool specimens were divided into aliquots and placed in each of four different fixatives: PARASAFE (PS) (Scientific Devices Laboratory, Inc., Des Plaines, Ill.), ECOFIX (EC) (Meridian Diagnostics, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), Proto-Fix (PF) (Alpha-Tec Systems, Inc., Vancouver, Wash.), and low-viscosity PVA fixative (PVA) (Meridian). Specimens were processed and stained according to each manufacturer's directions. Parasites were found in 31 of 68 slide preparations with PVA, 31 with PF, 30 with EC, and 30 with PS. Blastocystis hominis and Iodamoeba bütschlii were preserved in a readily identifiable state by all methods of fixation. However, some parasites were more easily identified with some of the fixatives because of differences in parasite distortion. For example, Entamoeba histolytica (Entamoeba dispar) was detected in 13 stools fixed with PF, 7 with PVA, and 6 with EC but none with PS. Likewise, Chilomastix mesnili was identified in 13 specimens fixed with PF, 8 with EC, and 5 with PVA but only 1 with PS, while Entamoeba coli was seen much less frequently with PS than with the other three fixatives. A dirty background was observed in 41% of specimens prepared with PS, whereas background quality was acceptable with other fixatives. Sample preparation was most rapid with PS, although the EC method involved the fewest steps. In conclusion, PVA and PF produced the least parasite distortion, while PS proved unsatisfactory for the identification of E. histolytica, E. coli, and C. mesnili. Both PF and EC appear to be

  7. Comparison of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fixative with Three Less Hazardous Fixatives for Detection and Identification of Intestinal Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, B.; Kepley, W.; Guarner, J.; Anderson, K.; Anderson, D.; Clairmont, J.; De l'aune, William; Austin, E. H.; Austin, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing the fixative mercuric chloride is considered the “gold standard” for the fixation of ova and parasites in the preparation of permanently stained smears of stool specimens. However, mercuric chloride is potentially hazardous to laboratory personnel and presents disposal problems. We compared three new alternative, nontoxic fixatives with PVA, analyzing ease of sample preparation and quality of smears. Sixty-eight fresh stool specimens were divided into aliquots and placed in each of four different fixatives: PARASAFE (PS) (Scientific Devices Laboratory, Inc., Des Plaines, Ill.), ECOFIX (EC) (Meridian Diagnostics, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), Proto-Fix (PF) (Alpha-Tec Systems, Inc., Vancouver, Wash.), and low-viscosity PVA fixative (PVA) (Meridian). Specimens were processed and stained according to each manufacturer's directions. Parasites were found in 31 of 68 slide preparations with PVA, 31 with PF, 30 with EC, and 30 with PS. Blastocystis hominis and Iodamoeba bütschlii were preserved in a readily identifiable state by all methods of fixation. However, some parasites were more easily identified with some of the fixatives because of differences in parasite distortion. For example, Entamoeba histolytica (Entamoeba dispar) was detected in 13 stools fixed with PF, 7 with PVA, and 6 with EC but none with PS. Likewise, Chilomastix mesnili was identified in 13 specimens fixed with PF, 8 with EC, and 5 with PVA but only 1 with PS, while Entamoeba coli was seen much less frequently with PS than with the other three fixatives. A dirty background was observed in 41% of specimens prepared with PS, whereas background quality was acceptable with other fixatives. Sample preparation was most rapid with PS, although the EC method involved the fewest steps. In conclusion, PVA and PF produced the least parasite distortion, while PS proved unsatisfactory for the identification of E. histolytica, E. coli, and C. mesnili. Both PF and EC appear to be

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  9. Discovery and in vivo evaluation of alcohol-containing benzothiazoles as potent dual-targeting bacterial DNA supercoiling inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, James T; Axford, Lorraine C; Barker, Stephanie; Bennett, James M; Blair, Michael; Collins, Ian; Davies, David T; Ford, Leigh; Gannon, Carlie T; Lancett, Paul; Logan, Alastair; Lunniss, Christopher J; Morton, Craig J; Offermann, Daniel A; Pitt, Gary R W; Rao, B Narasinga; Singh, Amit K; Shukla, Tarun; Srivastava, Anil; Stokes, Neil R; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Yadav, Anju; Haydon, David J

    2014-09-01

    A series of dual-targeting, alcohol-containing benzothiazoles has been identified with superior antibacterial activity and drug-like properties. Early lead benzothiazoles containing carboxylic acid moieties showed efficacy in a well-established in vivo model, but inferior drug-like properties demanded modifications of functionality capable of demonstrating superior efficacy. Eliminating the acid group in favor of hydrophilic alcohol moieties at C(5), as well as incorporating solubilizing groups at the C(7) position of the core ring provided potent, broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial activity, lower protein binding, and markedly improved efficacy in vivo.

  10. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Debré, Patrice; Le Gall, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    The human body normally lives in symbiosis with a considerable microscopic environment present on all interfaces with the external environment; it hosts ten times more microbes (microbiota) that it has somatic or germ cells, representing a gene diversity (microbiome) 100-150 times higher than the human genome. These germs are located mainly in the gut, where they represent a mass of about one kilogram. The primary colonization of the gastrointestinal tract depends on the delivery route, the bacterial flora rewarding then depending on the environment, food hygiene, medical treatments. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maturation of the immune system and in different physiological functions: digestion of polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, vitamins biosynthesis, bile salt metabolism of some amino acids and xenobiotics. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbiota are observed in a wide range of diseases: obesity, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, allergies... pharmacobiotics aim to modify the intestinal microbiota in a therapeutic goal and this by various means: prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics or fecal transplants. Intestinal flora also plays a direct role in the metabolism of certain drugs and the microbiota should be considered as a predictive parameter of response to some chemotherapies.

  11. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies and methods to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Estela; Puhl, Nathan J; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a molecular technique used for comparative analysis of microbial community structure and dynamics. We evaluated three sampling methods for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation with PBS, hand washing with PBS containing Tween 80, and direct DNA extraction from mucosal plugs). In addition, the utility of two methods (i.e. Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease) to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts was tested. T-RFLP analysis indicated that diverse communities of bacteria are associated with mucosa of the ileum, cecum, and descending colon of mice. Although there was no significant difference in bacterial community structure between the mechanical agitation and direct DNA extraction methods regardless of intestinal location, community diversity was reduced for the hand wash method in the colon. The use of Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease have been reported to eliminate single-stranded DNA artifacts (i.e. pseudo-T-restriction fragments), but neither method was beneficial for characterizing mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse cecum. Our study showed that the mechanical agitation and direct plug extraction methods yielded equivalent bacterial community DNA from the mucosa of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We also applied a combination of different statistical approaches to analyze T-RFLP data, including statistical detection of true peaks, analysis of variance for peak number, and group significance test, which provided a quantitative improvement for the interpretation of the T-RFLP data.

  12. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  13. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  14. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  15. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. ... abdomen Inability to pass gas Constipation A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. ...

  16. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  17. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.μl-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.μl-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP

  18. Virulence attenuation of a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis S-type strain prepared from intestinal mucosa after bacterial culture. Evaluation in an experimental ovine model.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Miguel; Delgado, Laetitia; Sevilla, Iker A; Fuertes, Miguel; Castaño, Pablo; Royo, Marcos; Ferreras, M Carmen; Benavides, Julio; Pérez, Valentín

    2015-04-01

    The differences in pathogenicity between an inoculum derived directly from an intestinal tissue homogenate from a paratuberculosis affected sheep and the S-type Mycobacterium avium subsp. partuberculosis (Map) strain isolated in laboratory media from the mentioned homogenate were assessed in two experiments in lambs. Specific peripheral immune responses were significantly lower in animals inoculated with the cultured organisms that showed only granulomatous lesions in the intestinal lymphoid tissue. However, in the homogenate group, more abundant granulomata also occurred in the lamina propria. Map was isolated only in lambs infected with the culture strain. Map DNA was demonstrated by nested-PCR in all the lambs but in a lower proportion (57.1% vs 100%) in those from the culture group. Under these particular experimental conditions, the results suggest that an attenuation of Map virulence has occurred in the cultured strain compared to the initial tissue homogenate, even after a low number of passages.

  19. Changes in bacterial community composition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedder cattle occur in the lower intestine

    PubMed Central

    Cousteix, Elodie; Xu, Yong; Munns, Krysty; Selinger, Lorna J.; Barbieri, Rutn; Alexander, Trevor; McAllister, Tim A.; Selinger, L. Brent

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes ruminants. Cattle are considered the primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 with super-shedders, defined as individuals excreting > 104 E. coli O157:H7 CFU g-1 feces. The mechanisms leading to the super-shedding condition are largely unknown. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to examine the composition of the fecal bacterial community in order to investigate changes in the bacterial microbiota at several locations along the digestive tract (from the duodenum to the rectal-anal junction) in 5 steers previously identified as super-shedders and 5 non-shedders. The overall bacterial community structure did not differ by E. coli O157:H7 shedding status; but several differences in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between the two groups. The genus Prevotella was most enriched in the non-shedders while the genus Ruminococcus and the Bacteroidetes phylum were notably enriched in the super-shedders. There was greater bacterial diversity and richness in samples collected from the lower- as compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI). The spiral colon was the only GI location that differed in terms of bacterial diversity between super-shedders and non-shedders. These findings reinforced linkages between E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle and the nature of the microbial community inhabiting the digestive tract of super-shedders. PMID:28141846

  20. Changes in bacterial community composition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedder cattle occur in the lower intestine.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Rahat; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Holman, Devon; Cousteix, Elodie; Xu, Yong; Munns, Krysty; Selinger, Lorna J; Barbieri, Rutn; Alexander, Trevor; McAllister, Tim A; Selinger, L Brent

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes ruminants. Cattle are considered the primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 with super-shedders, defined as individuals excreting > 104 E. coli O157:H7 CFU g-1 feces. The mechanisms leading to the super-shedding condition are largely unknown. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to examine the composition of the fecal bacterial community in order to investigate changes in the bacterial microbiota at several locations along the digestive tract (from the duodenum to the rectal-anal junction) in 5 steers previously identified as super-shedders and 5 non-shedders. The overall bacterial community structure did not differ by E. coli O157:H7 shedding status; but several differences in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between the two groups. The genus Prevotella was most enriched in the non-shedders while the genus Ruminococcus and the Bacteroidetes phylum were notably enriched in the super-shedders. There was greater bacterial diversity and richness in samples collected from the lower- as compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI). The spiral colon was the only GI location that differed in terms of bacterial diversity between super-shedders and non-shedders. These findings reinforced linkages between E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle and the nature of the microbial community inhabiting the digestive tract of super-shedders.

  1. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ... Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of the Digestive ...

  2. The role of IL-17 signaling in regulation of the liver-brain axis and intestinal permeability in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Yunheng; Gao, Bin; Karin, Michael; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Jeste, Dilip V.; Grant, Igor; Roberts, Amanda J; Contet, Candice; Geoffroy, Cedric; Zheng, Binhai; Brenner, David; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) progresses from a normal liver, to steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite intensive studies, the pathogenesis of ALD is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of suitable animal models which mimic the stages of ALD progression. Furthermore, the role of IL-17 in ALD has not been evaluated. We and others have recently demonstrated that IL-17 signaling plays a critical role in development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Here we summarize the most recent evidence supporting the role of IL-17 in ALD. As a result of a collaborative effort of Drs. Karin, Gao, Tsukamoto and Kisseleva, we developed several improved models of ALD in mice: 1) chronic-plus-binge model that mimics early stages of steatohepatitis, 2) intragastric ethanol feeding model that mimics alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis, and 3) diethylnitrosamine (DEN)+alcohol model that mimics alcoholic liver cancer. These models might provide new insights into the mechanism of IL-17 signaling in ALD and help identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27239399

  3. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  4. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for

  5. The Circadian Clock Mutation Promotes Intestinal Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Summa, Keith C.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Engen, Phillip; Naqib, Ankur; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythm disruption is a prevalent feature of modern day society that is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory diseases and there is a clear need for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon. We have previously demonstrated that both environmental and genetic circadian rhythm disruption causes intestinal hyperpermeability and exacerbates alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability and liver pathology. The intestinal microbiota can influence intestinal barrier integrity and impact immune system function; thus, in the current study, we sought to determine if genetic alteration of the core circadian clock gene, Clock, altered the intestinal microbiota community. Methods Male ClockΔ19 mutant mice (mice homozygous for a dominant-negative mutant allele) or littermate wild-type mice were fed one of three experimental diets: (1) a standard chow diet, (2) an alcohol-containing diet, or (3) an alcohol-control diet in which the alcohol calories were replaced with dextrose. Stool microbiota was assessed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results The fecal microbial community of Clock mutant mice had lower taxonomic diversity, relative to wild type mice and the ClockΔ19 mutation was associated with intestinal dysbiosis when mice were fed either the alcohol-containing or the control diet. We found that alcohol consumption significantly altered the intestinal microbiota in both wild type and Clock mutant mice. Conclusion Our data support a model by which circadian rhythm disruption by the ClockΔ19 mutation perturbs normal intestinal microbial communities and this trend was exacerbated in the context of a secondary dietary intestinal stressor. PMID:26842252

  6. Diversity of culturable bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Haruo; Kitao, Shun; Narisawa, Satoshi; Minamishima, Ryosuke; Itoi, Shiro

    2017-01-26

    Intestinal bacteria isolated from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were identified based on 16 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences and screened for their ability to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), an autoinducer of the quorum sensing (QS) system. The 230 aerobes/facultative anaerobes that were isolated comprised members of the genera Aeromonas (184 isolates), Citrobacter (11), Enterobacter (2), Shewanella (28), Vagococcus (1), and Vibrio (4). Among these genera, the two most abundant species were Aeromonas veronii (163 isolates) and Shewanella xiamenensis (27). In addition, 142 obligate anaerobes consisting of Cetobacterium somerae (139 isolates), Clostridium frigidicarnis (2), and Cetobacterium sp. (1) were also isolated. One hundred seventy isolates (74.2%) belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Shewanella, and Vibrio produced AHL, while 155 (67.7%) and 91 (39.7%) isolates possessed the luxR and luxI gene homologs, respectively. None of the obligate anaerobes produced AHL or possessed luxRI homologs. Total viable counts ranged from 1.2 × 10(7) to 2.2 × 10(9) CFU/g, which were accounted for 0.8 to 15.2% of direct counts. Aeromonas veronii, S. xiamenensis, and C. somerae were detected from five goldfish at densities ranging from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.7 × 10(9) CFU/g, indicating that these bacteria are dominant components of the culturable gut flora in goldfish. In addition, members of the genera Aeromonas and Shewanella appeared to communicate with each other by using the QS system to some extent when the concentration of AHL reaches a certain threshold. It is therefore suggested that bacteria with the ability to disrupt AHL secretion in intestinal environments are potential candidates for probionts for preventing opportunistic infections in freshwater fish such as goldfish.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children: a novel approach?

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Radaelli, Giovanni; Soldati, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis. Indeed alteration of gut microbiota composition and increased intestinal permeability may rise the exposure of liver to gut-derived bacterial products, causing activation of signalling pathways implicated in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. This mechanism has been observed in vitro and animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease but also in a clinical study in adults. While evidence suggests that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation may decrease liver fat in adults, in pediatric population only a study examined this topic. In obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the possible efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid treatment, and underlying mechanisms, to identify the optimal required dose and to evaluate if the docosahexaenoic acid effect is limited to the duration of the treatment or it may continue after the end of treatment.

  8. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  9. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  10. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  11. Ethanol oxidation and the inhibition by drugs in human liver, stomach and small intestine: Quantitative assessment with numerical organ modeling of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Chou; Lee, Shou-Lun; Lai, Ching-Long; Lee, Yung-Pin; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2016-10-25

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the principal enzyme responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Human ADH constitutes a complex isozyme family with striking variations in kinetic function and tissue distribution. Liver and gastrointestinal tract are the major sites for first-pass metabolism (FPM). Their relative contributions to alcohol FPM and degrees of the inhibitions by aspirin and its metabolite salicylate, acetaminophen and cimetidine remain controversial. To address this issue, mathematical organ modeling of ethanol-oxidizing activities in target tissues and that of the ethanol-drug interactions were constructed by linear combination of the corresponding numerical rate equations of tissue constituent ADH isozymes with the documented isozyme protein contents, kinetic parameters for ethanol oxidation and the drug inhibitions of ADH isozymes/allozymes that were determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.5 and 25 °C containing 0.5 mM NAD(+). The organ simulations reveal that the ADH activities in mucosae of the stomach, duodenum and jejunum with ADH1C*1/*1 genotype are less than 1%, respectively, that of the ADH1B*1/*1-ADH1C*1/*1 liver at 1-200 mM ethanol, indicating that liver is major site of the FPM. The apparent hepatic KM and Vmax for ethanol oxidation are simulated to be 0.093 ± 0.019 mM and 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol/min, respectively. At 95% clearance in liver, the logarithmic average sinusoidal ethanol concentration is determined to be 0.80 mM in accordance with the flow-limited gradient perfusion model. The organ simulations indicate that higher therapeutic acetaminophen (0.5 mM) inhibits 16% of ADH1B*1/*1 hepatic ADH activity at 2-20 mM ethanol and that therapeutic salicylate (1.5 mM) inhibits 30-31% of the ADH1B*2/*2 activity, suggesting potential significant inhibitions of ethanol FPM in these allelotypes. The result provides systematic evaluations and predictions by computer simulation on potential ethanol FPM in target tissues and hepatic

  12. Intestinal mucin distribution in the germ-free rat and in the heteroxenic rat harbouring a human bacterial flora: effect of inulin in the diet.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, N; Meslin, J C; Lory, S; Andrieux, C

    1996-06-01

    presence of the bacterial flora and associated with inulin in the diet, mucin was extensively released from the mucosa to the colonic lumen. This might be related to the bacterial metabolites produced.

  13. [Value of intestinal decontamination by traditional Chinese medicine-X in the prevention of bacterial translocation complicated by severe acute pancreatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Qiao, A; Zhang, Z; Liu, X; Jiang, J

    2000-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese Medicine-X in preventing the necrotic infection of the pancreas in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty rats were randomly divided into five groups with 12 rats in each one: (1) normal control, (2) SAP + 0.9% normal saline (1 ml x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), (3) SAP + gentamycin (2000 u x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), (4) SAP + TCM-X (1.0 g x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), and (5) SAP + gentamycin (2000 u x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1) + TCM-X (1.0 g x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1). The medicines were given by way of gastrotube, once every 24 hours, twice in all. Pancreatitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg.100 g-1 of L-arginine. Serum endotoxin were observed and the clone forming units from mesenteric lymphnode and pancreas were obtained after 48 hours treatment. 96 hours after the experiment, the bacteria found in the mesenteric lymphnodes and pancreas in groups three, four and five were reduced as compared to that in group two; the levels of serum endotoxin were reduced, too. These data indicate that TCM-X and gentamycin in decontamination by way of gastrotube are effective in preventing bacterial translocation complicated by SAP, and the effect of TCM-X is stronger than that of gentamycin.

  14. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  15. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  16. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  19. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  20. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  1. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-11-14

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a "low bacterial richness" may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier ("leaky gut"), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy.

  2. Intestinal Capillariasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    bhIll inenais, the tiny nematode causing Intestinal capillariasis In humans, Is a Iunique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been...Capillariaphilippinensis, the tiny nematode causing intestinal capillariasis in humans, is a unique parasite. It is one of the newest parasites that has been shown to...stichocytes surrounding the oesophagus. The posterior half of the nematode is wider than the anterior half and contains the digestive tract and the

  3. Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2014-11-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics.

  4. Gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenetic role and therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bertino, Gaetano; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the commonest cause of cirrhosis in many Western countries and it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is characterized by complex interactions between metabolic intermediates of alcohol. Bacterial intestinal flora is itself responsible for production of endogenous ethanol through the fermentation of carbohydrates. The intestinal metabolism of alcohol produces a high concentration of toxic acetaldehyde that modifies gut permeability and microbiota equilibrium. Furthermore it causes direct hepatocyte damage. In patients who consume alcohol over a long period, there is a modification of gut microbiota and, in particular, an increment of Gram negative bacteria. This causes endotoxemia and hyperactivation of the immune system. Endotoxin is a constituent of Gram negative bacteria cell walls. Two types of receptors, cluster of differentiation 14 and Toll-like receptors-4, present on Kupffer cells, recognize endotoxins. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of gut-liver axis and new treatments have been studied in recent years to reduce progression of ALD modifying gut microbiota. It has focused attention on antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. PMID:25469033

  5. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  6. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Rbin M.; Burgess, Helen J.; Swanson, Garth R.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20–30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyper-permeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in ClockΔ19 mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  7. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(▵19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  8. Role of intestinal epithelial cells in the host secretory response to infection by invasive bacteria. Bacterial entry induces epithelial prostaglandin h synthase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha production.

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, L; Stenson, W F; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Barrett, K E; Fierer, J; Smith, J R; Kagnoff, M F

    1997-01-01

    Increased intestinal fluid secretion is a protective host response after enteric infection with invasive bacteria that is initiated within hours after infection, and is mediated by prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) products in animal models of infection. Intestinal epithelial cells are the first host cells to become infected with invasive bacteria, which enter and pass through these cells to initiate mucosal, and ultimately systemic, infection. The present studies characterized the role of intestinal epithelial cells in the host secretory response after infection with invasive bacteria. Infection of cultured human intestinal epithelial cell lines with invasive bacteria, but not noninvasive bacteria, is shown to induce the expression of one of the rate-limiting enzymes for prostaglandin formation, PGHS-2, and the production of PGE2 and PGF2alpha. Furthermore, increased PGHS-2 expression was observed in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo after infection with invasive bacteria, using a human intestinal xenograft model in SCID mice. In support of the physiologic importance of epithelial PGHS-2 expression, supernatants from bacteria-infected intestinal epithelial cells were shown to increase chloride secretion in an in vitro model using polarized epithelial cells, and this activity was accounted for by PGE2. These studies define a novel autocrine/paracrine function of mediators produced by intestinal epithelial cells in the rapid induction of increased fluid secretion in response to intestinal infection with invasive bacteria. PMID:9218506

  9. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  10. Alcoholic disease: liver and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-28

    The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world's third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the "necrosis-fibrosis" sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Intestinal permeability in a patient with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Valadez, Jonathan Manuel; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Méndez-Guerrero, Osvely; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; García Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment. Patients with liver cirrhosis develop a series of alterations in different components of the intestinal barrier directly associated with the severity of liver disease that finally increased intestinal permeability. A “leaky gut” is an effect produced by damaged intestinal barrier; alterations in the function of tight junction proteins are related to bacterial translocation and their products. Instead, increasing serum proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamics modification, which results in the appearance of complications of liver cirrhosis such as hepatic encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, bacterial spontaneous peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in maintaining the proper function of the intestinal barrier; bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis are two phenomena often present in people with liver cirrhosis favoring bacterial translocation. Increased intestinal permeability has an important role in the genesis of these complications, and treating it could be the base for prevention and partial treatment of these complications. PMID:27920543

  12. Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, J W; Furutani, A; Turner, M A

    1980-01-01

    A new radiochemical method has been applied to the examination of mercury methylation in fish intestinal contents. Intestinal contents of six freshwater fish species were found capable of converting 203Hg2+ to CH3203Hg+. This activity was observed in fish from five of six lakes tested whether or not there was mercury pollution. Bacterial activity in the intestinal contents is most likely responsible for this methylation. Methylating activity of piscivors increased with decreasing quantity of intestinal contents. Generally, pike and walleye intestinal contents methylated a larger fraction of 203Hg2+ than those of whitefish and suckers. These data contradict the previous general conclusion that there is no mercury methylation in fish. PMID:7425625

  13. Implication of the intestinal microbiome in complications of cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Mamatha; Arendt, Bianca M; Bhat, Venkat; Renner, Eberhard L; Humar, Atul; Allard, Johane P

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. The search results were evaluated for pertinence to the subject of IM and cirrhosis, as well as for quality of study design. The IM in cirrhosis is characterized by a decreased proportion of Bacteroides and Lactobacilli, and an increased proportion of Enterobacteriaceae compared to healthy controls. Except for alcoholic cirrhosis, the composition of the IM in cirrhosis is not affected by the etiology of the liver disease. The percentage of Enterobacteriaceae increases with worsening liver disease severity and decompensation and is associated with bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose, rifaximin and Lactobacillus-containing probiotics have been shown to partially reverse the cirrhosis associated enteric dysbiosis, in conjunction with improvement in encephalopathy. The IM is altered in cirrhosis, and this may contribute to the development of complications associated with end-stage liver disease. Therapies such as lactulose, rifaximin and probiotics may, at least partially, reverse the cirrhosis-associated changes in the IM. This, in turn, may prevent or alleviate the severity of complications. PMID:27721918

  14. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  15. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  16. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. Images PMID:1576584

  17. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H

    1992-04-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops.

  18. Small intestinal physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S K; Otterson, M F

    1989-06-01

    The small intestine, like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, is an intelligent organ. It generates a wide variety of motor patterns to meet motility requirements in different situations. Its basic motor function after a meal is to mix the chyme with exocrine and intestinal secretions, agitate its contents to uniformly and evenly expose them to the mucosal surface, and to propel them distally at a rate that allows optimal absorption of food components, and reabsorption of bile. Most of these functions are performed by individual phasic contractions. In humans, the phasic contractions are largely disorganized in time and space. These contractions may cause mixing and agitation of luminal contents with slow distal propulsion. Occasionally, an individual contraction of large amplitude and long duration migrates over several centimeters and may rapidly propel the contents over this distance. In general, the spatial and temporal relationships of individual phasic contractions become less organized distally, resulting in a slower propulsion rate in the distal small intestine than in the proximal small intestine. The migrating clustered contractions generated after a meal may also be propulsive, but because of their unpredictable and irregular occurrence, their precise role in postprandial propulsion is incompletely understood. Rapidly migrating contractions may occur when the electrical control activity is obliterated by pharmacologic agents or during parasitic infections. Their effects on motility are not known yet. Between meals, when digestion is complete, the small intestine generates migrating motor complexes that help keep the small intestine clean by dislodging debris from the villi and dumping them into the colon. This may prevent decay of these materials in the small intestine and limit their contribution to bacterial overgrowth. Giant migrating contractions may perform a similar function in the distal small intestine as well as return any refluxed fecal

  19. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition.

  20. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Amiot, Aurélien; Coffin, Benoît; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Messing, Bernard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disease characterized by episodes resembling mechanical obstruction in the absence of organic, systemic, or metabolic disorders. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary (40%) or secondary (60%) causes. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually present many years before CIPO diagnosis. They can lead to severe electrolyte disorders and malnutrition. Principles for management of patients with CIPO are: to establish a correct clinical diagnosis in excluding mechanical obstruction; to perform a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract involved; to look for extra-intestinal manifestations, especially for myopathy and neuropathy; to discuss in some cases a surgery for full-thickness intestinal biopsies, and/or a neuromuscular biopsy in case of mitochondrial cytopathy suspicion. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. Treatment of CIPO includes prokinetic agents which may help to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms Courses of antibiotics may be needed in patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth. When necessary, enteral nutrition is preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Intestinal transplantation can be discussed in selected patients.

  1. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water.

  2. Alcohol, microbiome, life style influence alcohol and non-alcoholic organ damage.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A; Thomes, Paul G; Schrum, Laura W; Donohue, Terrence M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    . Dysregulation of metabolism, as a result of ethanol exposure, in the intestine leads to colon carcinogenesis. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota have been suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of the metabolic syndrome in the aging population, have been presented. The symposium addressed mechanisms and biomarkers of alcohol induced damage to different organs, as well as the role of the microbiome in this dialog. The microbiota regulates and acts as a key element in harmonizing immune responses at intestinal mucosal surfaces. It is known that microbiota is an inducer of proinflammatory T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in the intestine. The signals at the sites of inflammation mediate recruitment and differentiation in order to remove inflammatory inducers and promote tissue homeostasis restoration. The change in the intestinal microbiota also influences the change in obesity and regresses the liver steatosis. Evidence on the positive role of moderate alcohol consumption on heart and metabolic diseases as well on reducing steatosis have been looked up. Moreover nutrition as a therapeutic intervention in alcoholic liver disease has been discussed. In addition to the original data, we searched the literature (2008-2016) for the latest publication on the described subjects. In order to obtain the updated data we used the usual engines (Pub Med and Google Scholar). The intention of the eighth symposia was to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism.

  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  4. Agent-based model of fecal microbial transplant effect on bile acid metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the C. difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, fecal microbial transplant. The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of

  5. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  6. Stochastic assembly produces heterogeneous communities in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Nicole M.; Gore, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated bacterial communities vary extensively between individuals, but it can be very difficult to determine the sources of this heterogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that stochastic bacterial community assembly in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine is sufficient to produce strong interworm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally competing, fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically driven bimodality in community composition, in which approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions, the bimodality disappears. These results demonstrate that demographic noise is a potentially important driver of diversity in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities. PMID:28257456

  7. [Intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Perez, Horacio Joaquín; Menezes, Maria Elisabeth; d'Acâmpora, Armando José

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulative evidence on the multiple functions of the intestinal microflora in relation to the homeostasis of the host. At first considered as a simple mutualism, today this relationship proves to be essential to the health and to pathologic processes, particularly metabolic (eg, obesity) and gastrointestinal (eg, inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders). The first studies were conducted on the microbiota from fecal material cultured anaerobically. With the advent of molecular biology, it has become possible to determine qualitative and quantitatively the dominant, subdominant and transients species. In recent years, there were advances in the understanding of the relationship betwen the microbiota and the host, as well as among the microorganisms in their respective niches. These advances result from translational integration of microbiology with specialities such as molecular biology, cell phisiology, immunology and ecology. There are few studies on the spatial distribution of the microflora in the gut. Unravelling the topography of the microflora in mammals is a way to validate new animal models for the study of microflora.

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  9. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inoh, Yumi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction(CIPO) is a rare severe digestive disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without any mechanical cause. Pathophysiologically, CIPO shows ineffective intestinal propulsion due to an impairment of intestinal smooth muscle, enteric nervous system, and interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC). Sustained increased intra-bowel pressure often causes small intestinal malabsorption and bacterial translocation, and leads to malnutrition and blood stream infection (sepsis). Key points of the medical approach for CIPO are to improve nutritional status and reduce abdominal symptoms. Dietary cure and defecation control are the main options in mild cases, whereas home-parenteral-nutrition(HPN) and decompression therapy are often needed in severe cases. Stimulant laxatives, prokinetics and herbal medicine are usually used but often in fail. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy(PEG-J) tube may be burdenless compared to conventional ileus tube. Most important points in the management of this disease are to make a correct diagnosis as early as possible and avoid unnecessary surgery. However, no clear diagnostic criteria have been established so far. Manometry, scintigraphy, and full-thickness biopsy are the major examination for the CIPO diagnosis in the Western countries; however these specialized examinations are not popular in Japan. Therefore the Research Group(chief investigator, Atsushi Nakajima) proposed Japanese diagnostic criteria in 2009 to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease by the general physician. In 2013, we have reported that cine-MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method for CIPO. Although further data are eagerly awaited, it can become a promising diagnostic tool in CIPO patients. Furthermore the Japanese criteria have been revised, and in 2014, the comprehensive criteria from a child to an adult have been devised. In 2015, CIPO is newly certified as Specified Rare and Intractable Disease which is

  10. The outer mucus layer hosts a distinct intestinal microbial niche

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Limenitakis, Julien P.; Fuhrer, Tobias; Geuking, Markus B.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Wyss, Madeleine; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Keller, Irene; Macpherson, Jamie A.; Rupp, Sandra; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V.; Stecher, Bärbel; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The overall composition of the mammalian intestinal microbiota varies between individuals: within each individual there are differences along the length of the intestinal tract related to host nutrition, intestinal motility and secretions. Mucus is a highly regenerative protective lubricant glycoprotein sheet secreted by host intestinal goblet cells; the inner mucus layer is nearly sterile. Here we show that the outer mucus of the large intestine forms a unique microbial niche with distinct communities, including bacteria without specialized mucolytic capability. Bacterial species present in the mucus show differential proliferation and resource utilization compared with the same species in the intestinal lumen, with high recovery of bioavailable iron and consumption of epithelial-derived carbon sources according to their genome-encoded metabolic repertoire. Functional competition for existence in this intimate layer is likely to be a major determinant of microbiota composition and microbial molecular exchange with the host. PMID:26392213

  11. Study Bacteria-Host Interactions Using Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Guo; Sun, Jun

    2016-08-19

    The intestinal epithelial cells function to gain nutrients, retain water and electrolytes, and form an efficient barrier against foreign microbes and antigens. Researchers employed cell culture lines derived from human or animal cancer cells as experimental models in vitro for understanding of intestinal infections. However, most in vitro models used to investigate interactions between bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells fail to recreate the differentiated tissue components and structure observed in the normal intestine. The in vitro analysis of host-bacteria interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we present a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study bacterial infection.

  12. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  13. Intestinal microbiota and overweight.

    PubMed

    Lyra, A; Lahtinen, S; Tiihonen, K; Ouwehand, A C

    2010-11-01

    The microbes in our gut can influence our weight by providing us with energy through the degradation of nondigestable carbohydrates and by affecting the cellular energy status of liver and muscle cells and the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that in several studies the gastrointestinal microbiota of overweight and obese subjects has been found to differ from that of lean subjects. The initial findings linked obesity with proportionally decreased levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and increased levels of the phylum Firmicutes. Later, several studies have assessed the association between overweight or obesity and the gastrointestinal microbiota, applying an array of molecular methods targeting the microbiota as a whole or specific bacterial groups or species within. However, at present it is difficult to draw conclusions on which of the observed microbiota alterations are relevant; essentially all of the bacterial groups that have been studied in more than one trial have given contradictory results in regard to their association with weight. Some of these discrepancies can result from methodological issues and some from the nature of the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is an extremely complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem with high subject specificity. In addition, selecting subjects purely based on weight may result in a largely heterogeneous group with several potentially confounding factors. While it may be premature to conclude which specific groups of bacteria are prominent in the intestinal tract of overweight and obese subjects, it appears clear that microbes contribute to weight gain and related health issues, such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Therefore, it is important to continue to search for common microbial markers and predictors of obesity, and to study how these may be modulated with probiotics and prebiotics to promote health.

  14. Potential benefits of pro- and prebiotics on intestinal mucosal immunity and intestinal barrier in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoidis, Christos N; Misiakos, Evangelos P; Patapis, Paul; Fotiadis, Constantine I; Spyropoulos, Basileios G

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of impaired gut barrier function in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) is poorly understood and includes decreased intestinal motility leading to bacterial overgrowth, a reduction in gut-associated lymphoid tissue following the loss of intestinal length, inhibition of mucosal immunity of the small intestine by intravenous total parental nutrition, and changes in intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Novel therapeutic strategies (i.e. nutritive and surgical) have been introduced in order to prevent the establishment or improve the outcome of this prevalent disease. Pre- and probiotics as a nutritive supplement are already known to be very active in the intestinal tract (mainly in the colon) by maintaining a healthy gut microflora and influencing metabolic, trophic and protective mechanisms, such as the production of SCFA which influence epithelial cell metabolism, turnover and apoptosis. Probiotics have been recommended for patients suffering from SBS in order to decrease bacterial overgrowth and prevent bacterial translocation, two major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of SBS. The present review discusses the research available in the international literature, clinical and experimental, regarding probiotic supplementation for this complicated group of patients based on the clinical spectrum and pathophysiological aspects of the syndrome. The clinical data that were collected for the purposes of the present review suggest that it is difficult to correctly characterise probiotics as a preventive or therapeutic measure. It is very challenging after all to examine the relationship of the bacterial flora, the intestinal barrier and the probiotics as, according to the latest knowledge, demonstrate an interesting interaction.

  15. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach to ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the foods ...

  16. Small intestine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the ... the duodenum. This short first portion of the small intestine is followed by the jejunum and the ileum. ...

  17. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  18. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  19. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  20. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Small Intestinal Microflora. What Do We Know?

    PubMed

    Moraru, Ioana G; Moraru, A G; Dumitraşcu, D L

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome, one of the most common functional gastro intestinal disorders all over the world is considered to have a multi factorial pathogenesis. Recently more and more studies are focusing on the changes that take place in the microbiota of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, underlining the bacterial role in this pathogenesis. As a consequence, bacterial overgrowth, along with intestinal dysmotility, altered brain-gut axis and genetic factors are considered part of this pathophysiology. This report intends to summarize the actual knowledge on irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome, from details on the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment to details on the relationship between these two syndromes.

  1. Innate immune signaling and gut-liver interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Trautwein, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and covers a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The innate immune response in the liver plays an important role during NAFLD progression. In addition, changes in the intestinal microbial balance and bacterial translocation can further affect disease progression. Immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage or pathogen invasion with intracellular or surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), subsequently initiating signaling cascades that trigger the release of factors promoting the inflammatory response during NAFLD progression. Therefore, mechanisms by which cells of the immune system are activated and recruited into the liver and how these cells cause injury and stress are important for understanding the inflammatory response during NAFLD. PMID:25568861

  2. Microbial imbalance and intestinal pathologies: connections and contributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Jobin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microbiome analysis has identified a state of microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria is often overrepresented in these individuals, with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent species. It is clear that a complex interplay between the host, bacteria and bacterial genes is implicated in the development of these intestinal diseases. Understanding the basic elements of these interactions could have important implications for disease detection and management. Recent studies have revealed that E. coli utilizes a complex arsenal of virulence factors to colonize and persist in the intestine. Some of these virulence factors, such as the genotoxin colibactin, were found to promote colorectal cancer in experimental models. In this Review, we summarize key features of the dysbiotic states associated with chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, and discuss how the dysregulated interplay between host and bacteria could favor the emergence of E. coli with pathological traits implicated in these pathologies. PMID:25256712

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  5. Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease β-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the

  6. Coeliac disease presenting with intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, D J; Sciberras, C M; Whitwell, H

    1984-01-01

    A 22 year old woman presenting with recurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction is reported. Jejunal biopsy showed subtotal villous atrophy which improved markedly during a period of total parenteral nutrition and with steroid treatment. It did not relapse on a gluten free diet. The reasons why this patient represents a case of coeliac disease with secondary pseudo-obstruction, rather than primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction with secondary bacterial overgrowth, is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6547920

  7. The intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, G; Cinquetti, M; Luciano, A; Benini, A; Muner, A; Bertazzoni Minelli, E

    1998-08-01

    Chronic functional constipation is common in infants, and the bacterial composition of stools in this condition is not known. The study aims were to: (i) investigate the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in chronic functional constipation; (ii) establish whether the addition of the water-holding agent calcium polycarbophil to the diet induces an improvement in constipation; and (iii) determine the composition of the intestinal ecosystem after the use of this agent. In total, 42 children (20F, 22M; mean age: 8.6 +/- 2.9 y) were studied. Twenty-eight children with functional chronic constipation without anatomical disorders were treated double-blind in random sequence for 1 month with an oral preparation of calcium polycarbophil (0.62 g/twice daily) or placebo. Intestinal flora composition was evaluated by standard microbiological methods and biochemical assays on faecal samples collected before and after treatment. Fourteen healthy children were studied as controls. The results show that (i) the constipated children presented a significant increase in clostridia and bifidobacteria in faeces compared to healthy subjects--different species of clostridia and enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated; no generalized overgrowth was observed; Clostridia outnumbered bacteroides and E. coli mean counts by 2-3log, while bacteroides and E. coli counts were similar (5-6 log10/g fresh faeces); these intestinal disturbances could be defined as a dysbiosis, i.e. a quantitative alteration in the relative proportions of certain intestinal bacterial species. (ii) Clinical resolution of constipation was achieved only in 43% of treated children and an improvement in 21% (one bowel movement every 2 d). (iii) Calcium polycarbophil treatment induced no significant changes in the composition of the intestinal ecosystem, nor in blood chemistry parameters.

  8. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  9. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  10. Role of Kupffer cells in failure of fatty livers following liver transplantation and alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Thurman, R G; Gao, W; Connor, H D; Adachi, Y; Stachlewitz, R F; Zhong, Z; Knecht, K T; Bradford, B U; Mason, R P; Lemasters, J J

    1995-01-01

    Kupffer cells have been implicated in mechanisms of pathophysiology following liver transplantation. Recently, postoperative injury in ethanol-induced fatty liver has been evaluated because fatty livers often fail following transplantation. The low-flow, reflow liver perfusion model was used to study the role of Kupffer cells (KC) in reperfusion injury to fatty livers from rats fed a diet containing ethanol for 4-5 weeks. Treatment with GdCl3, which selectively destroys KC, decreased cell death significantly. Thus, destruction of KC minimized hepatic reperfusion injury, most likely by inhibiting free radical formation and improving microcirculation. Since it was demonstrated recently that destruction of KC prevented the hypermetabolic state observed with acute alcohol exposure, their involvement in events leading to alcohol-induced liver disease was investigated. In rats exposed to ethanol continuously via intragastric feeding for up to 4 weeks, GdCl3 treatment prevented elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and dramatically reduced the average hepatic pathological score. These results indicate that KC participate in the early phases of alcohol-induced liver injury. Endotoxaemia occurs in alcoholics and activates KC; therefore, we evaluated the effect of minimizing bacterial endotoxin by intestinal sterilization with the antibiotics polymyxin B and neomycin. Antibiotics diminished plasma endotoxin levels significantly and prevented ethanol-induced increases in AST values. These results indicate that endotoxin is involved in the mechanism of ethanol-induced liver injury. A six-line radical spectrum was detected with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in bile from alcohol-treated rats which was blocked by GdCl3. The free radical adducts had hyperfine coupling constants characteristic of lipid-derived free radical products. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that KC are involved in reperfusion injury to ethanol-induced fatty livers and hepatic

  11. From gut microflora imbalance to mycobacteria infection: is there a relationship with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases?

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Bellavia, Maurizio; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiani, Provvidenza; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2011-01-01

    The gut of a healthy adult harbours a myriad of different microbial species. It is estimated that approximately 10 14 are present in total bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Each colony colonizes a specific intestinal tract. In healthy adult, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but also other factors can influence the intestinal microenvironment such as pH, temperature, competition among different bacterial strains, peristalsis, drugs, radiotherapy and much more. Impaired microbial homeostasis leads to an alteration of the permeability of tissue, together with the activation of the intestinal immune system MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue). In this regard we discuss the increasing experimental evidences of the role of commensal microbiota in the activation of specific intestinal immunocompetent cells. The aforementioned micro-environmental changes provide the substrate for the etiopathogenetic outbreak of numerous pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, such as intestinal chronic inflammation (Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis), together with a miscellany of extra intestinal disorders. This article is an overview of the latest scientific findings about the close causal relationship between intestinal microbial flora and inflammatory bowel diseases or other extra-intestinal diseases; it is also mentioned the possible relationship between mycobacteria and Chron's disease. Finally we analyse the beneficial role of probiotics.

  12. A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Dirita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

    2011-11-21

    Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease (Kahn et al., 1988). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-population colonizes a portion of the small bowel leading to disease. There are many barriers to colonization in the intestines including peristalsis, fluid wash-out, viscosity of the mucus layer, and pH. We are interested in identifying the mechanisms that allow this sub-population of bacteria to survive and colonize the intestines when faced with these barriers. To elaborate the dynamics of V. cholerae infection, we have developed a mathematical model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction-swimming equation capturing bacterial dynamics coupled with Stokes equations governing fluid velocity where we developed a novel non-local boundary condition. Our results indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to bacterial density in the gut. Host factors include intestinal diffusion and convection rates while bacterial factors include adherence, motility and growth rates. This model can ultimately be used to test therapeutic strategies against V. cholerae.

  13. Bacterial flora of fishes: A review.

    PubMed

    Cahill, M M

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial floras isolated from eggs, skin, gills, and intestines have been described for a limited number of fish species. Generally, the range of bacterial genera isolated is related to the aquatic habitat of the fish and varies with factors such as the salinity of the habitat and the bacterial load in the water. In many investigations, identification of isolates to the genus level only makes it difficult to determine the precise relationships of aquatic and fish microfloras. Bacteria recovered from the skin and gills may be transient rather than resident on the fish surfaces. Microfloras of fish intestines appear to vary with the complexity of the fish digestive system. The genera present in the gut generally seem to be those from the environment or diet which can survive and multiply in the intestinal tract, although there is evidence for a distinct intestinal microflora in some species. While obligate anaerobes have been recovered from carp and tilapia intestines, low ambient temperatures may prevent colonization by anaerobes in species such as rainbow trout.

  14. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  15. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  16. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  17. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  18. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  19. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  20. Does the Intestinal Microbiota Explain Differences in the Epidemiology of Liver Disease between East and West?

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Changes in bacterial communities are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. Dysbiosis can induce intestinal inflammation resulting in increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The majority of chronic liver diseases are associated with bacterial translocation resulting in or enhancing an inflammatory response in the liver. Intestinal inflammation and a dysfunctional intestinal barrier are not sufficient to cause liver disease in the absence of an additional liver insult. In this article, the authors summarize differences in intestinal microbiota composition between Eastern and Western countries. The authors specifically discuss whether differences in microbiota composition could explain the epidemiological differences in liver disease found in Asia and Europe/the USA.

  1. Does the Intestinal Microbiota Explain Differences in the Epidemiology of Liver Disease between East and West?

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Changes in bacterial communities are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. Dysbiosis can induce intestinal inflammation resulting in increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The majority of chronic liver diseases are associated with bacterial translocation resulting in or enhancing an inflammatory response in the liver. Intestinal inflammation and a dysfunctional intestinal barrier are not sufficient to cause liver disease in the absence of an additional liver insult. In this article, the authors summarize differences in intestinal microbiota composition between Eastern and Western countries. The authors specifically discuss whether differences in microbiota composition could explain the epidemiological differences in liver disease found in Asia and Europe/the USA. PMID:27243019

  2. Intestinal-renal syndrome: mirage or reality?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    The recent interest in the role of the intestine in the cardiovascular stability of uremic patients, specifically on dialysis, but potentially also in chronic kidney disease, must be seen against the background of the recent great interest in the role of the gut in chronic heart failure [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008;11:632-639]. There has been a long-standing interest in the role of the intestine in renal failure, mainly concerning the role of metabolites of bacterial metabolism in the gut as potential uremic toxins. This area has recently been given a new twist by the finding that increased endotoxin concentrations in the blood of dialyzed patients are associated with hypotensive episodes and myocardial 'stunning'. Recent studies suggest that intradialytic underperfusion of myocardial areas, the so-called stunning, may be related to the entry of bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines across the mucosal barrier into the circulation, where they have a negative impact on myocardial function (and presumably beyond the negative cardiac side effect also contribute to catabolism and malnutrition). Entry of bacterial endotoxin during dialysis sessions is presumably the result of intermittent underperfusion of the intestine if the effective blood volume is rapidly reduced causing breakdown of the mucosal barrier. Apart from the impact on myocardial perfusion, the entry of bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines across the mucosal barrier may also contribute to malnutrition, wasting and reduced life expectancy in hemodialyzed patients. Such a causal relationship is absolutely plausible in view of an extensive literature on congestive heart failure where clinical and experimental evidence indicates that bacterial endotoxin and/or cytokines may escape from a hypoperfused edematous gut, entering the circulation, triggering an inflammatory response, upregulating circulating cytokines and interfering with the function of the heart through several pathogenic mechanisms.

  3. Bacterial Tracheitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a complication of croup (see Croup ) or endotracheal intubation (insertion of a plastic breathing tube through the ... irregularities that distinguish bacterial tracheitis from croup. Treatment Endotracheal intubation Antibiotics With treatment, most children recover completely. Very ...

  4. Intestinal M cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer’s patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions. PMID:26634447

  5. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  6. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  7. Intestinal transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag Sureshchandra; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Girlanda, Raffaele; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for patients with intestinal failure. Intestinal transplantation is now recognized as a treatment for patients who develop complications of parenteral nutrition and in whom attempts at intestinal rehabilitation have failed. Patients with parenteral nutrition related liver disease will require a liver graft typically part of a multivisceral transplant. Isolated intestinal transplants are more commonly performed in adults while multivisceral transplants are most commonly performed in infants. Isolated intestinal transplants have the best short-term outcome, with over 80 % survival at 1 year. Patients requiring multivisceral transplants have a high rate of attrition with a 1 year survival less than 70 %. Prognostic factors for a poor outcome include patient hospitalization at the time of transplant and donor age greater than 40 years while systemic sepsis and acute rejection are the major determinant of early postoperative outcome. For patients surviving the first year the outcome of transplantation of the liver in addition to intestine affords some survival advantage though long-term outcome does not yet match other abdominal organs. Outcomes for intestinal retransplantation are poor as a result of immunology and patient debility. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop and is a clear indication with cost and quality of life advantages in patients with intestinal failure that do not remain stable on parenteral nutrition.

  8. Kinetic changes of intestinal microbiota in the course of intestinal sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Luo, Yan; Ji, Qiongmei; Wen, Zhong; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is an adverse immune response to certain innocent food. It is estimated about 2% to 6% of the general population suffer from FA. Symptoms of a food allergic reaction may involve the gastrointestinal tract or/and other organs. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in diet-induced health problems. Whether the changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota regulate allergic responses to food remains poorly understood. Thus, we created an FA animal model, sequenced the V4-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the genera abundance of gut microbiota. The results showed that mice under FA condition showed different gut bacterial structures. Diverse distribution of the bacterial species was identified between FA and control groups. FA altered the components of intestinal Microbiota in mice. The dysbiosis of the gut metagenome correlated with the development of the FA. PMID:27783988

  9. Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000150.htm Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... your bowel (intestine). This condition is called an intestinal obstruction . The blockage may be partial or total (complete). ...

  10. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  11. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M.; Mott, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. PMID:26610589

  12. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  13. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  14. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  15. Bacterial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

    2012-03-27

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions.

  16. Intestinal obstruction repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100116.htm Intestinal obstruction repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Adhesions Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  17. Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100165.htm Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  18. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  19. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses.

  20. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  1. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin+imipenem and cephalothin+neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin+imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin+neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism.

  4. Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  5. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver.

  6. Immune Responses to Intestinal Microbes in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jonathan J

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by chronic, T-cell-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that can cause significant, lifelong morbidity. Data from both human and animal studies indicate that IBDs are likely caused by dysregulated immune responses to resident intestinal microbes. Certain products from mycobacteria, fungi, and Clostridia stimulate increased effector T cell responses during intestinal inflammation, whereas other bacterial products from Clostridia and Bacteroides promote anti-inflammatory regulatory T cell responses. Antibody responses to bacterial and fungal components may help predict the severity of IBDs. While most currently approved treatments for IBDs generally suppress the patient's immune system, our growing understanding of microbial influences in IBDs will likely lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and therapies that target the intestinal microbiota.

  7. Intestinal gases and flatulence: possible causes of occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven; Kurbel, Beatrica; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    All gases entrapped in closed body cavities are destined to be partially or completely absorbed. Intestinal gases often accumulate and cause flatulence. This paper proposes a simple concept of intestinal gas occurrence based on our knowledge on gas resorption in other body cavities. Compliance of intestinal and abdominal walls makes pressure in the liquid chyme bubbles near 760 mmHg. Intestinal gases are from three sources. Air can be swallowed, CO2 come from the gastric acid neutralisation and from intestinal bacterial colonies that also produce hydrogen and methane. In continuously mixed liquid chyme, the total pressure of blood gases is similar or lower than in the venous blood (or=760 mmHg). Some local production of bacterial gases with partial pressure of more than 90 mmHg is required, so the resulting small bowel bubbles would contain less than 20% of bacterial gases. If peristaltic mixing of chyme is prevented by an obstacle, local pressures of bacterial gases build up, form bubbles that fuse and finally make X-ray visible aeroliquid levels. Bacterial gases make almost 3/4 of the flatulence. Formation of bubbles destined to become flatulence might depend on altered rheological condition of the large bowel content, with local abundant production of bacterial gases near bacterial colonies. Gases are unable to diffuse rapidly through the dense liquid content and local accumulation allows formation of bubbles mainly of bacterial gases. Their pressure can be higher 760 mmHg, since they are stretching the thick content. Poor diffusion of gases keeps them almost free of blood gases and their entrance makes them bigger. As the content moves along the colon, the content is becoming more solid and gases are becoming entrapped in large bubbles. Some blood and bacterial gases are absorbed and exhaled, but the remaining quantity has no other escape except flatulence. Flatulence rich in bacterial gases might be the price

  8. Characteristics of alcohol dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora.

    PubMed

    Nosova, T; Jousimies-Somer, H; Kaihovaara, P; Jokelainen, K; Heine, R; Salaspuro, M

    1997-05-01

    We have recently proposed the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation [i.e., ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) of intestinal bacteria resulting in high intracolonic levels of reactive and toxic acetaldehyde]. The aim of this in vitro study was to characterize further ADH activity of some aerobic bacteria, representing the normal human colonic flora. These bacteria were earlier shown to possess high cytosolic ADH activities (Escherichia coli IH 133369, Klebsiella pneumoniae IH 35385, Klebsiella oxytoca IH 35339, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IH 35342, and Hafnia alvei IH 53227). ADHs of the tested bacteria strongly preferred NAD as a cofactor. Marked ADH activities were found in all bacteria, even at low ethanol concentrations (1.5 mM) that may occur in the colon due to bacterial fermentation. The Km for ethanol varied from 29.9 mM for K. pneumoniae to 0.06 mM for Hafnia alvei. The inhibition of ADH by 4-methylpyrazole was found to be of the competitive type in 4 of 5 bacteria, and Ki varied from 18.26 +/- 3.3 mM for Escherichia coli to 0.47 +/- 0.13 mM for K. pneumoniae. At pH 7.4, ADH activity was significantly lower than at pH 9.6 in four bacterial strains. ADH of K. oxytoca, however, showed almost equal activities at neutral pH and at 9.6. In conclusion, NAD-linked alcohol dehydrogenases of aerobic colonic bacteria possess low apparent Km's for ethanol. Accordingly, they may oxidize moderate amounts of ethanol ingested during social drinking with nearly maximal velocity. This may result in the marked production of intracolonic acetaldehyde. Kinetic characteristics of the bacterial enzymes may enable some of them to produce acetaldehyde even from endogenous ethanol formed by other bacteria via alcoholic fermentation. The microbial ADHs were inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole by the same competitive inhibition as hepatic ADH, however, with nearly 1000 times lower susceptibility. Individual variations in human colonic flora may thus

  9. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollander, D

    1999-10-01

    A major task of the intestine is to form a defensive barrier to prevent absorption of damaging substances from the external environment. This protective function of the intestinal mucosa is called permeability. Clinicians can use inert, nonmetabolized sugars such as mannitol, rhamnose, or lactulose to measure the permeability barrier or the degree of leakiness of the intestinal mucosa. Ample evidence indicates that permeability is increased in most patients with Crohn's disease and in 10% to 20% of their clinically healthy relatives. The abnormal leakiness of the mucosa in Crohn's patients and their relatives can be greatly amplified by aspirin preadministration. Permeability measurements in Crohn's patients reflect the activity, extent, and distribution of the disease and may allow us to predict the likelihood of recurrence after surgery or medically induced remission. Permeability is also increased in celiac disease and by trauma, burns, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The major determinant of the rate of intestinal permeability is the opening or closure of the tight junctions between enterocytes in the paracellular space. As we broaden our understanding of the mechanisms and agents that control the degree of leakiness of the tight junctions, we will be increasingly able to use permeability measurements to study the etiology and pathogenesis of various disorders and to design or monitor therapies for their management.

  10. Adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, J M; Karasov, W H

    1987-01-01

    Because most eukaryotic somatic cells are bathed in a constant internal milieu, most of their proteins are constitutive, unlike the adaptive enzymes of bacteria. However, intestinal mucosal cells, like bacteria, face a varying milieu. Hence, we tested for adaptive regulation of intestinal nutrient transporters, sought its functional significance, and compared it with regulation of bacterial proteins. All 12 transporters studied proved to be regulated by dietary substrate levels. Regulation in the intestine is slower than in bacteria and shows lower peak-to-basal activity levels. Regulatory patterns vary greatly among transporters: two sugars and two nonessential amino acids monotonically up-regulate their transporters, two vitamins and three minerals monotonically down-regulate their transporters, and two transporters of essential amino acids respond nonmonotonically to levels of their substrates. These varied patterns arise from trade-offs among four factors: transporter costs, calories yielded by metabolizable substrates, fixed daily requirements of essential nutrients, and toxicity of certain nutrients in large amounts. Based on these trade-offs, we predict the form of regulatory pattern for intestinal transporters not yet studied. PMID:3470788

  11. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

  12. Disorders of intestinal secretion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Tröger, Hanno; Amasheh, Maren

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract possesses a huge epithelial surface area and performs many different tasks. Amongst them are the digestive and absorptive functions. Disorders of intestinal absorption and secretion comprise a variety of different diseases, e.g. coeliac disease, lactase deficiency or Whipple's disease. In principle, impaired small intestinal function can occur with or without morphological alterations of the intestinal mucosa. Therefore, in the work up of a malabsorptive syndrome an early small intestinal biopsy is encouraged in conjunction with breath tests and stool analysis to guide further management. In addition, there is an array of functional tests, the clinical availability of which becomes more and more limited. In any case, early diagnosis of the underlying pathophysiology is most important, in order to initiate proper therapy. In this chapter, diagnostic procedure of malabsorption is discussed with special attention to specific disease like coeliac disease, Whipple's disease, giardiasis and short bowel syndrome. Furthermore, bacterial overgrowth, carbohydrate malabsorption and specific nutrient malabsorption (e.g. for iron or vitamins) and protein-losing enteropathy are presented with obligatory and optional tests as used in the clinical setting.

  13. Linking intestinal homeostasis and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review we will summarize recent findings from the last two years. Recent findings Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as pathogenic factor. Bacterial metabolites resulting from an imbalanced homeostasis and dysbiosis play also a crucial role in liver disease. Summary A combination between an initiating liver insult and a disturbance of the gut – host symbiosis synergize in progression of liver disease. PMID:23493073

  14. Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

  15. Salmonella regulation of intestinal stem cells through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Sun, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bacteria target stem cells for long-term survival in a Drosophila model. However, in mammalian models, little is known about bacterial infection and intestinal stem cells. Our study aims at understanding bacterial regulation of the intestinal stem cell in a Salmonella colitis mouse model. We found that Salmonella activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that is known to regulate stem cells. We identified Salmonella protein AvrA that modulates Wnt signaling including upregulating Wnt expression, modifying β-catenin, increasing total β-catenin expression, and activating Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional activity in the intestinal epithelial cells. The numbers of stem cells and proliferative cells increased in the intestine infected with Salmonella expressing AvrA. Our study provides insights into bacterial infection and stem cell maintenance. PMID:20083111

  16. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  17. Biochemistry of intestinal development.

    PubMed Central

    Henning, S J

    1979-01-01

    In biochemical terms, the rat small intestine is relatively immature at birth and for the first two postnatal weeks. Then during the third week a dramatic array of enzymic changes begins, and by the end of the fourth week the intestine has the digestive and absorptive properties of the adult. Selective examples of these changes are discussed with emphasis on their implications for toxicological studies. The review also includes a detailed consideration of the roles of the dietary change of weaning and of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones in the regulation of intestinal development. PMID:575507

  18. Is intestinal inflammation linking dysbiosis to gut barrier dysfunction during liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the intestinal microbiota composition contribute to the pathogenesis of many disorders including gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of the “gut-liver” axis. Dietary changes, other environmental and genetic factors can lead to alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis can further disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier leading to pathological bacterial translocation and the initiation of an inflammatory response in the liver. In this article, the authors dissect the different steps involved in disease pathogenesis to further refine approaches for the medical management of liver diseases. The authors will specifically discuss the role of dysbiosis in inducing intestinal inflammation and increasing intestinal permeability. PMID:26088524

  19. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  20. Roles of the intestinal microbiota in pathogen protection

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda, Carles; Djukovic, Ana; Isaac, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Hundreds of commensal bacterial species inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. This diverse microbial ecosystem plays a crucial role in the prevention and resolution of infectious diseases. In this review we will describe the major mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota confers protection against infections, focusing on those caused by intestinal bacterial pathogens. These mechanisms include both non-immune- and immune-cell-mediated pathways, notably through bacterial production of inhibitory molecules and nutrient deprivation by the former and innate lymphoid cell-, myeloid cell- or lymphocyte-dependent stimulation by the latter. Finally, we will discuss novel therapeutic approaches based on commensal microbes and their products, which could potentially be used to combat infections. PMID:28243438

  1. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis.

  2. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... that only affects the colon). LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF CROHN’S DISEASE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION The most common complication of Crohn’s disease, obstruction may arise from swelling and the formation ...

  3. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include narcotic (pain) medicines and drugs used when you are ... that may have caused the problem (such as narcotic drugs) may help. In severe cases, surgery may ...

  4. Intestinal parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    In general, gastrointestinal tract is the primary involvement site of parasites during their life cycle. In this article, we will describe amebiasis, ascariasis, and anisakiasis among the many common intestinal parasitic diseases. We will review the epidemiology, life cycles, clinical manifestations and complications, and illustrate detailed imaging findings of intestinal parasites. Recognizing features of parasitic infection is important to establish an early diagnosis that leads to prompt treatment and helps avoid unnecessary surgery.

  5. Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Adebayo; Ifudu, Onyekachi

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion) or obesity (US$133 billion). Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol. PMID:24791039

  6. Intestinal barrier function in response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats

    PubMed Central

    van Ampting, Marleen TJ; Schonewille, Arjan J; Vink, Carolien; Brummer, Robert Jan M; Meer, Roelof van der; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome. Our aim was to determine whether depletion or maintenance of intestinal glutathione changes susceptibility of rats to Salmonella infection and associated inflammation. Rats were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; glutathione depletion) or cystine (glutathione maintenance). Inert chromium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (CrEDTA) was added to the diets to quantify intestinal permeability. At day 4 after oral gavage with Salmonella enteritidis (or saline for non-infected controls), Salmonella translocation was determined by culturing extra-intestinal organs. Liver and ileal mucosa were collected for analyses of glutathione, inflammation markers and oxidative damage. Faeces was collected to quantify diarrhoea. Results Glutathione depletion aggravated ileal inflammation after infection as indicated by increased levels of mucosal myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1β. Remarkably, intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation were not increased. Cystine supplementation maintained glutathione in the intestinal mucosa but inflammation and oxidative damage were not diminished. Nevertheless, cystine reduced intestinal permeability and Salmonella translocation. Conclusion Despite increased infection-induced mucosal inflammation upon glutathione depletion, this tripeptide does not play a role in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and diarrhoea. On the other hand, cystine enhances gut barrier function by a mechanism unlikely to be related to glutathione. PMID:19374741

  7. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.

  8. Claudins in intestines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

  9. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  10. Converging actions of alcohol on liver and brain immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Lippai, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration and impaired regeneration. Alcohol-induced cell injury in the brain results in release of damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box 1, that trigger inflammatory changes through activation of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability and results in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular pattern such as endotoxin in the systemic circulation that triggers PRRs and inflammation. The Toll-like receptor-4 pathway that activates nuclear factor-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1-beta, and chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been suggested to contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Alcohol-induced IL-1β secretion also requires Nod-like receptor-mediated inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and, consistent with this, disruption of IL-1/IL-1-receptor signaling prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Delicate regulators of inflammatory gene expressions are micro-RNAs (miRs) that have recently been identified in alcohol-related neuroinflammation. Alcohol induces miR155, a regulator of inflammation in the brain, and deficiency in mi

  11. Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity.

  12. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  13. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  14. Commensal-pathogen interactions in the intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Smith, Katherine A; Filbey, Kara J; Harcus, Yvonne; Hewitson, James P; Redpath, Stephen A; Valdez, Yanet; Yebra, María J; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each other’s persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations. PMID:25144609

  15. Medical update and potential advances in the treatment of pediatric intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nader N; Mezoff, Adam G; Carter, Beth A; Cole, Conrad R

    2012-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intestinal failure are chronic malabsorption disorders with considerable nutritional and growth consequences in children. Intestinal failure occurs when the functional gastrointestinal mass is reduced even if there is normal anatomical gastrointestinal length. A number of management strategies are often utilized to achieve successful intestinal rehabilitation and maintain adequate nutrition to avoid intestinal transplant. These strategies include minimizing the effect of parenteral associated liver disease, limiting catheter complications, and treating bacterial overgrowth in the remaining small intestine. In addition, there continues to be significant research interest in enhancing intestinal adaptation with targeted therapies. The purpose of this review is to discuss current perspectives and to highlight recent medical advances in novel investigational therapies.

  16. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; ...

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  17. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Coursolle, Dan; Lian, Jiazhang; Shanklin, John; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-09-01

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg L(-1) long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg L(-1) titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  18. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  19. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  20. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  1. Measurement of the intestinal permeability in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, Matty L; Singh, Ramandeep; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Bemelman, Frederike J

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate methods measuring the intestinal per-meability in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and clarify whether there is an increased intestinal permeability in CKD. METHODS: We reviewed the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol and performed a systematic literature search through MEDline and EMBASE. All controlled trials and cohort studies using non-invasive methods to assess intestinal permeability in CKD patients were included. Excluded were: Conference abstracts and studies including patients younger than 18 years or animals. From the included studies we summarized the used methods and their advantages and disadvantages. For the comparison of their results we divided the included studies in two categories based on their included patient population, either assessing the intestinal permeability in mild to moderate CKD patients or in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Results were graphically displayed in two plots, one comparing the intestinal permeability in mild to moderate CKD patients to healthy controls and one comparing the intestinal permeability in ESRD patients to healthy controls. RESULTS: From the 480 identified reports, 15 met our inclusion criteria. Methods that were used to assess the intestinal permeability varied from markers measured in plasma to methods based on calculating the urinary excretion of an orally administered test substance. None of the applied methods has been validated in CKD patients and the influence of decreased renal function on the different methods remains unclear to a certain extent. Methods that seem the least likely to be influenced by decreased renal function are the quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial DNA in blood and D-lactate. Considering the results published by the included studies; the studies including patients with mild to moderate CKD conducted conflicting results. Some studies did report an increase in intestinal

  2. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  5. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  6. Claudin-3 expression in radiation-exposed rat models: A potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Jong-geol; Bae, Chang-hwan; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Irradiation increased intestinal bacterial translocation, accompanied by claudin protein expression in rats. • Neurotensin decreased the bacterial translocation and restored claudin-3 expression. • Claudin-3 can be used as a marker in evaluating radiation induced intestinal injury. - Abstract: The molecular events leading to radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure are not well known. The influence of the expression of claudin proteins in the presence and absence of neurotensin was investigated in radiation-exposed rat intestinal epithelium. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and irradiation + neurotensin groups, and bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node and expression of claudins were determined. Irradiation led to intestinal barrier failure as demonstrated by significant bacterial translocation. In irradiated terminal ilea, expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was significantly decreased, and claudin-2 expression was increased. Administration of neurotensin significantly reduced bacterial translocation and restored the structure of the villi as seen by histologic examination. Among the three subtype of claudins, only claudin-3 expression was restored. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of neurotensin on the disruption of the intestinal barrier is associated with claudin-3 alteration and that claudin-3 could be used as a marker in evaluating radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  7. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  8. Diet, Microbiome, and the Intestinal Epithelium: An Essential Triumvirate?

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Javier Rivera; Conlin, Victoria Susan; Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a critical barrier protecting the host against diverse luminal noxious agents, as well as preventing the uncontrolled uptake of bacteria that could activate an immune response in a susceptible host. The epithelial monolayer that constitutes this barrier is regulated by a meshwork of proteins that orchestrate complex biological function such as permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance, and movement of various macromolecules. Because of its key role in maintaining host homeostasis, factors regulating barrier function have attracted sustained attention from the research community. This paper will address the role of bacteria, bacterial-derived metabolism, and the interplay of dietary factors in controlling intestinal barrier function. PMID:23586037

  9. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  10. Loss of intestinal O-glycans promotes spontaneous duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Bergstrom, Kirk; Fu, Jianxin; Xie, Biao; Chen, Weichang; Xia, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Mucin-type O-glycans, primarily core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans, are the major mucus barrier components throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous reports identified the biological role of O-glycans in the stomach and colon. However, the biological function of O-glycans in the small intestine remains unknown. Using mice lacking intestinal core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans [intestinal epithelial cell C1galt1(-/-);C3GnT(-/-) or double knockout (DKO)], we found that loss of O-glycans predisposes DKO mice to spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis by ∼1 yr of age. Tumor incidence did not increase with age; however, tumors advanced in aggressiveness by 20 mo. O-glycan deficiency was associated with reduced luminal mucus in DKO mice before tumor development. Altered intestinal epithelial homeostasis with enhanced baseline crypt proliferation characterizes these phenotypes as assayed by Ki67 staining. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis reveals a significantly lower bacterial burden in the duodenum compared with the large intestine. This phenotype is not reduced with antibiotic treatment, implying O-glycosylation defects, rather than bacterial-induced inflammation, which causes spontaneous duodenal tumorigenesis. Moreover, inflammatory responses in DKO duodenal mucosa are mild as assayed with histology, quantitative PCR for inflammation-associated cytokines, and immunostaining for immune cells. Importantly, inducible deletion of intestinal O-glycans in adult mice leads to analogous spontaneous duodenal tumors, although with higher incidence and heightened severity compared with mice with O-glycans constitutive deletion. In conclusion, these studies reveal O-glycans within the small intestine are critical determinants of duodenal cancer risk. Future studies will provide insights into the pathogenesis in the general population and those at risk for this rare but deadly cancer.

  11. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  12. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of mouse intestinal microbiota after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Jinu; Park, Soo-Je

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a highly complex microbial community that comprises hundreds of different types of bacterial cells. The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in the function of the host intestine. Most cancer patients undergoing pelvic irradiation experience side effects such as diarrhea; however, little is currently known about the effects of irradiation on the microorganisms colonizing the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on the compositions of the large and small intestinal microbiotas. The gut microbiotas in control mice and mice receiving irradiation treatment were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Irradiation treatment induced significant alterations in the bacterial compositions of the large and small intestines at the genus level. Unexpectedly, irradiation treatment increased the number of operational taxonomic units in the small intestine but not the large intestine. In particular, irradiation treatment increased the level of the genera Alistipes in the large intestine and increased the level of the genus Corynebacterium in the small intestine. By contrast, compared with that in the corresponding control group, the level of the genera Prevotella was lower in the irradiated large intestine, and the level of the genera Alistipes was lower in the irradiated small intestine. Overall, the data presented here reveal the potential microbiological effects of pelvic irradiation on the gastrointestinal tracts of cancer patients.

  13. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  14. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  15. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    PubMed

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  17. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS.

  18. The Intestinal Microbiota in Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woting, Anni; Blaut, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria exert beneficial and harmful effects in metabolic diseases as deduced from the comparison of germfree and conventional mice and from fecal transplantation studies. Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. The degradation of dietary fiber and the subsequent fermentation of monosaccharides to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) is one of the most controversially discussed mechanisms of how gut bacteria impact host physiology. Fibers reduce the energy density of the diet, and the resulting SCFA promote intestinal gluconeogenesis, incretin formation and subsequently satiety. However, SCFA also deliver energy to the host and support liponeogenesis. Thus far, there is little knowledge on bacterial species that promote or prevent metabolic disease. Clostridium ramosum and Enterococcus cloacae were demonstrated to promote obesity in gnotobiotic mouse models, whereas bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila were associated with favorable phenotypes in conventional mice, especially when oligofructose was fed. How diet modulates the gut microbiota towards a beneficial or harmful composition needs further research. Gnotobiotic animals are a valuable tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet–host–microbe interactions. PMID:27058556

  19. Dysbiosis in intestinal inflammation: Cause or consequence.

    PubMed

    Buttó, Ludovica F; Haller, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota encompasses hundreds of bacterial species that constitute a relatively stable ecosystem. Alteration in the microbiota composition may arise from infections, immune defects, metabolic alterations, diet or antibiotic treatment. Dysbiosis is considered as an alteration in microbiota community structure and/or function, capable of causing/driving a detrimental distortion of microbe-host homeostasis. A variety of pathologies are associated with changes in the community structure and function of the gut microbiota, suggesting a link between dysbiosis and disease etiology. With an emphasis in this review on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the non-trivial question is whether dysbiosis is the cause or consequence of inflammation. It is important to understand whether changes in microbial ecosystems are causally linked to the pathology and to what extend disease risk is predicable based on characteristic changes in community structure and/or function. Local changes in tissue integrity associated with focal areas of inflammation may result in the selection of a dysbiotic bacterial community associated with the propagation of a disease phenotype. This review outlines the role of dysbiosis in intestinal inflammation with particular focus on IBD-relevant gnotobiotic mouse models, the factors implicated in the development of dysbiosis and the means available to investigate dysbiosis in the context of human diseases.

  20. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  1. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  2. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  3. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine N Electrolyte and mineral deficiencies ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

  4. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  5. [Intestinal microbiocenosis in children with intestinal enzymopathy].

    PubMed

    Kamilova, A T; Akhmedov, N N; Pulatova, D B; Nurmatov, B A

    2001-01-01

    141 children with different kinds of intestinal enzymopathy were examined; of these, 33 had celiac disease, 39--the syndrome of celiac disease, 12--congenital lactase deficiency and 57--the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency. In these patients a significant decrease in the average characteristics of the main protective flora and the growth of hemolytic and lactose-negative enterobacteria were established. In all groups of patients increased amounts of Proteus were detected, which was indicative of profound dysbiosis. The content of bifidobacteria was found to be decreased in 89.5-97% of the patients and the content of lactic acid bacteria, in 15.8-33.3%. The decreased content of Escherichia coli with normal enzymatic activity (less than 10(7) colony-forming units) was noted in one-third of the patients with the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency, in about a half of the patients with the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency and least of all in patients with celiac disease (9.1%). The association of opportunistic microbes was detected in 15.6% of the patients, more often in those with celiac disease, the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency. The severity of disturbances in intestinal eubiosis was found to depend on the gravity of the patients' state.

  6. Streptomycin treatment alters the intestinal microbiome, pulmonary T cell profile and airway hyperresponsiveness in a cystic fibrosis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Haston, Christina K.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient mouse models develop phenotypes of relevance to clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway hyperresponsiveness, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and an altered intestinal microbiome. As dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been recognized as an important contributor to many systemic diseases, herein we investigated whether altering the intestinal microbiome of BALB/c Cftrtm1UNC mice and wild-type littermates, through treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin, affects the CF lung, intestinal and bone disease. We demonstrate that streptomycin treatment reduced the intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Cftrtm1UNC mice and altered the intestinal microbiome similarly in Cftrtm1UNC and wild-type mice, principally by affecting Lactobacillus levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness of Cftrtm1UNC mice was ameliorated with streptomycin, and correlated with Lactobacillus abundance in the intestine. Additionally, streptomycin treated Cftrtm1UNC and wild-type mice displayed an increased percentage of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph node Th17, CD8 + IL-17+ and CD8 + IFNγ+ lymphocytes, while the CF-specific increase in respiratory IL-17 producing γδ T cells was decreased in streptomycin treated Cftrtm1UNC mice. Bone disease and intestinal phenotypes were not affected by streptomycin treatment. The airway hyperresponsiveness and lymphocyte profile of BALB/c Cftrtm1UNC mice were affected by streptomycin treatment, revealing a potential intestinal microbiome influence on lung response in BALB/c Cftrtm1UNC mice. PMID:26754178

  7. The Hormone Ghrelin Prevents Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Intestinal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vishal; Ryu, Seok Yong; Blow, Chelsea; Costantini, Todd; Loomis, William; Eliceiri, Brian; Baird, Andrew; Wolf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by increased intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation, and inflammation. The hormone ghrelin may prevent intestinal injury and have anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that exogenous ghrelin prevents intestinal injury following TBI. A weight-drop model created severe TBI in three groups of anesthetized Balb/c mice. Group TBI: animals underwent TBI only; Group TBI/ghrelin: animals were given 10 μg of ghrelin intraperitoneally prior and 1 h following TBI; Group sham: no TBI or ghrelin injection. Intestinal permeability was measured 6 h following TBI by detecting serum levels of FITC-Dextran after injection into the intact ileum. The terminal ileum was harvested for histology, expression of the tight junction protein MLCK and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Permeability increased in the TBI group compared to the sham group (109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL vs. 32.2 ± 10.1 μg/mL; p < 0.002). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced permeability (28.3 ± 4.2 μg/mL vs. 109.7 ± 21.8 μg/mL; p < 0.001). The intestines of the TBI group showed blunting and necrosis of villi compared to the sham group, while ghrelin injection preserved intestinal architecture. Intestinal MLCK increased 73% compared to the sham group (p < 0.03). Ghrelin prevented TBI-induced MLCK expression to sham levels. Intestinal TNF-α increased following TBI compared to the sham group (46.2 ± 7.1 pg/mL vs. 24.4 ± 2.2 pg/mL p < 0.001). Ghrelin reduced TNF-α to sham levels (29.2 ± 5.0 pg/mL; p = NS). We therefore conclude that ghrelin prevents TBI-induced injury, as determined by intestinal permeability, histology, and intestinal levels of TNF-α. The mechanism for ghrelin mediating intestinal protection is likely multifactorial, and further studies are needed to delineate these possibilities. PMID:20858122

  8. Metabolism of liriodendrin and syringin by human intestinal bacteria and their relation to in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Lee, K T; Bae, E A; Han, M J; Park, H J

    1999-02-01

    When liriodendrin or syringin was incubated for 24 h with human intestinal bacteria, two metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (+)-syringaresinol, from liriodendrin and one metabolite, synapyl alcohol, from syringin were produced. The metabolic time course of liriodendrin was as follows: at early time, liriodendrin was converted to (+)-syringaresinol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and then (+)-syringaresinol. The in vitro cytotoxicities of these metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol and synapyl alcohol, were superior to those of liriodendrin and syringin.

  9. Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Davies, S J; Waines, P; Emery, M; Castex, M; Gioacchini, G; Carnevali, O; Bickerdike, R; Romero, J; Merrifield, D L

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating

  10. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  12. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  13. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  14. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  15. Transformation of trollioside and isoquercetin by human intestinal flora in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Shi, Duo-Zhi; Wang, Teng-Yu; Zheng, Shi-Qi; Liu, Li-Jia; Sun, Zhen-Xiao; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the intestinal bacterial metabolites of trollioside and isoquercetin and their antibacterial activities. A systematic in vitro biotransformation investigation on trollioside and isoquercetin, including metabolite identification, metabolic pathway deduction, and time course, was accomplished using a human intestinal bacterial model. The metabolites were analyzed and identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS. The antibacterial activities of trollioside, isoquercetin, and their metabolites were evaluated using the broth microdilution method with berberine as a positive control, and their potency was measured as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Our results indicated that trollioside and isoquercetin were metabolized by human intestinal flora through O-deglycosylation, yielding aglycones proglobeflowery acid and quercetin, respectively The antibacterial activities of both metabolites were more potent than that of their parent compounds. In conclusion, trollioside and isoquercetin are totally and rapidly transformed by human intestinal bacteria in vitro and the transformation favors the improvement of the antibacterial activities of the parent compounds.

  16. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  17. Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Malyukova, Irina; Murray, Karen F; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar; Kane, Anne; Patterson, Kathleen; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Donowitz, Mark; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

    2009-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor-negative intestinal epithelial cells remain largely uncharacterized. We used samples of human intestinal tissue from patients with E. coli O157:H7 infection to detect the intestinal sites of bacterial colonization and characterize the distribution of Shiga toxins. We further used a model of largely Gb3-negative T84 intestinal epithelial monolayers treated with B-subunit of Shiga toxin 1 to determine the mechanisms of non-receptor-mediated toxin uptake. We now report that E. coli O157:H7 were found at the apical surface of epithelial cells only in the ileocecal valve area and that both toxins were present in large amounts inside surface and crypt epithelial cells in all tested intestinal samples. Our in vitro data suggest that macropinocytosis mediated through Src activation significantly increases toxin endocytosis by intestinal epithelial cells and also stimulates toxin transcellular transcytosis. We conclude that Shiga toxin is taken up by human intestinal epithelial cells during E. coli O157:H7 infection regardless of the presence of bacterial colonies. Macropinocytosis might be responsible for toxin uptake by Gb3-free intestinal epithelial cells and transcytosis. These observations provide new insights into the understanding of Shiga toxin contribution to enterohemorrhagic E. coli-related intestinal and systemic diseases.

  18. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  19. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care–associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27126035

  20. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  1. Cardiolipins Act as a Selective Barrier to Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Stephen R.; Hashim, Ahmed; Paramonov, Nikolay A.; Curtis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intestinal homeostasis mechanisms must protect the host intestinal tissue from endogenous lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) produced by the intestinal microbiota. In this report, we demonstrate that murine intestinal fecal lipids effectively block Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responses to naturally occurring Bacteroidetes sp. LPS. Cardiolipin (CL) represents a significant proportion of the total intestinal and fecal lipids and, furthermore, potently antagonizes TLR4 activation by reducing LPS binding at the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, and MD-2 steps of the TLR4 signaling pathway. It is further demonstrated that intestinal lipids and CL are less effective at neutralizing more potent Enterobacteriaceae-type LPS, which is enriched in feces obtained from mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated inflammatory bowel disease. The selective inhibition of naturally occurring LPS structures by intestinal lipids may represent a novel homeostasis mechanism that blocks LPS activation in response to symbiotic but not dysbiotic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE The guts of animals harbor a variety of Gram-negative bacteria associated with both states of intestinal health and states of disease. Environmental factors, such as dietary habits, can drive the microbial composition of the host animal's intestinal bacterial community toward a more pathogenic state. Both beneficial and harmful Gram-negative bacteria are capable of eliciting potentially damaging inflammatory responses from the host intestinal tissues via a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent pathway. Physical mucosal barriers and antibodies produced by the intestinal immune system protect against the undesired inflammatory effects of LPS, although it is unknown why some bacteria are more effective at overcoming the protective barriers than others. This report describes the discovery of a lipid-type protective barrier in the intestine that reduces the deleterious effects of LPSs from beneficial

  2. Acute ethanol administration inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in rat intestinal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Haiying; Tang, Chengwei

    2013-05-01

    Excess alcohol intake, as in binge drinking, increases susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Alcohol impairs macrophage function by suppression of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway. This study investigated the effects of acute ethanol intake on the TLR4 pathway in rat intestinal epithelia, which usually encounters luminal antigens at first and participates in the development of intestinal immunity. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to an ethanol group given ethanol as a 25% (v/v) solution in water at 7.5 g/kg, or a control group given saline, by oral gavage daily for 3 days. The epithelial histology and ultrastructure, the intestinal microflora, peripheral and portal venous plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and somatostatin (SST) levels in the peripheral plasma and small intestine were evaluated. Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), TLR4, TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1), activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the intestinal mucosa were assayed. LPS responsiveness with or without SST pretreatment was assayed in vitro by quantification of TLR4, TBK1, activated NF-κB, IFN-γ and TNF-α in isolated intestinal epithelia. Mucosal damage was observed in the ethanol group by light and electron microscopy. Escherichia coli cultures were unchanged in rat intestine of the ethanol group compared with controls, but lactobacilli cultures were reduced (p < 0.05). LPS levels increased in peripheral and portal venous plasma (p < 0.05), but mucosal TLR4, TBK1, nuclear NF-κB, IFN-γ and TNF-α were unchanged in the ethanol group. LPS treatment in vitro up-regulated the level of TLR4, TBK1 and nuclear NF-κB as well as the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in isolated intestinal epithelia in the control (p < 0.05), but not the ethanol group. The stimulatory effects of LPS on intestinal epithelia isolated from the control group were significantly inhibited by SST pretreatment (p < 0.05). The

  3. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, C A

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

  5. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively.

  6. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  7. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  8. Infections in severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakike, Eleni; Moreno, Christophe; Gustot, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), defined by a modified discriminant function ≥32, is the most severe form of alcohol-induced liver disease and is associated with a 1-month mortality rate of around 30%. Corticosteroid treatment remains the only therapeutic option that improves short-term survival. Infectious complications, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, are the main causes of death, even in patients who benefit from corticosteroids. Liver failure, recent alcohol consumption and immunosuppressive drugs contribute to this infectious risk. Although infection is a well-described feature of cirrhosis, little is known about the characteristics of infections in sAH. Infection is mainly of bacterial origin and frequently affects the respiratory tract. Pathogens classically observed in cirrhosis, such as gram-negative bacilli, are frequently involved, but opportunistic pathogens, such as fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Pneumocystis jirovecii) or viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex) may appear, mainly related to corticosteroid treatment. A high level of suspicion with systematic screening and prompt, adequate treatment are warranted to improve outcomes in these patients. Prophylactic strategies in this high-risk population should be assessed in well-designed trials. PMID:28243035

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  10. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  11. Unusual intestinal talcosis.

    PubMed

    Anani, P A; Ribaux, C; Gardiol, D

    1987-11-01

    A case of intestinal talcosis in a 46-year-old man is reported. At the age of 27, the patient was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis with tablets containing talc (183 g talc per 2,670 g total drug intake) over a period of 28 months. Eighteen years later, the patient was hospitalized for abdominal pain that remained refractory to antacids; he subsequently underwent a right hemicolectomy. Light-microscopic examination revealed a prominent fibrosis of the intestinal wall in which birefringent particles were demonstrated by polarized light. Using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, an analysis of these particles showed that they were predominantly composed of silicon and magnesium as well as small amounts of phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, and iron--the spectrum typically associated with talc. We believe that the source of this talc is the tablets ingested by the patient during prior antituberculosis therapy.

  12. Establishment and evaluation of an experimental rat model for high-altitude intestinal barrier injury

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Han; Zhou, Dai-Jun; Chen, Zhang; Zhou, Qi-Quan; Wu, Kui; Tian, Kun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Xiao, Zhen-Liang

    2017-01-01

    In the present study an experimental high-altitude intestinal barrier injury rat model was established by simulating an acute hypoxia environment, to provide an experimental basis to assess the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of altitude sickness. A total of 70 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: Control group (group C) and a high-altitude hypoxia group (group H). Following 2 days adaptation, the rats in group H were exposed to a simulated 4,000-m, high-altitude hypoxia environment for 3 days to establish the experimental model. To evaluate the model, bacterial translocation, serum lipopolysaccharide level, pathomorphology, ultrastructure and protein expression in rats were assessed. The results indicate that, compared with group C, the rate of bacterial translocation and the apoptotic index of intestinal epithelial cells were significantly higher in group H (P<0.01). Using a light microscope it was determined that the intestinal mucosa was thinner in group H, there were fewer epithelial cells present and the morphology was irregular. Observations with an electron microscope indicated that the intestinal epithelial cells in group H were injured, the spaces among intestinal villi were wider, the tight junctions among cells were open and lanthanum nitrate granules (from the fixing solution) had diffused into the intestinal mesenchyme. The expression of the tight junction protein occludin was also decreased in group H. Therefore, the methods applied in the present study enabled the establishment of a stable, high-altitude intestinal barrier injury model in rats. PMID:28352318

  13. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  14. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  15. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  16. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  17. The allometry of rodent intestines.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents. The herbivorous rodents have longer caecums, colons and large intestines, but their small intestines, with the exception of the desert otomyine rodents, are no different to those of omnivorous rodents. Desert otomyine rodents have significantly shorter small intestines than all other rodents, reflecting a possible habitat effect and providing a partial explanation for the low basal metabolic rates of small desert mammals. However, the desert otomyines do not have shorter colons or large intestines, challenging claims for adaptation to water retention in arid environments. Data for the Arvicolidae revealed significantly larger caecums and colons, and hence longer large intestines, with no compensatory reduction in the length of the small intestine, which may explain how the smallest mammalian herbivores manage to meet the demands of a very high mass-specific metabolic rate. This study provides phylogenetically corrected allometries suitable for future prediction testing.

  18. The migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Gordon L.; Sarna, Sushil K.

    1991-10-01

    Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric and motor activity is divided into two main patterns, fed and fasted. During fasting, the predominant pattern of activity is the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), a cyclically occurring pattern of electric and mechanical activity that is initiated in the stomach and duodenum almost simultaneously and, from there, propagates the length of the small intestine. Cyclic motor activity also occurs in the lower esophageal sphincter, the gallbladder, and the sphincter of Oddi with a duration that is related to the MMC in the small intestine. Of the possible mechanisms for initiation of the MMC in the small intestine (extrinsic neural control, intrinsic neural control, and hormonal control), intrinsic neural control via a series of coupled is the most likely. The keep this sentence in! hormone motilin also plays a role in the initiation of MMCs. After a meal, in man the MMC is disrupted and replaced by irregular contractions. The physiologic role of the MMC is to clear the stomach and small intestine of residual food, secretions, and desquamated cells and propel them to the colon. Disruption of the MMC cycle is associated with bacterial overgrowth in some patients, an observation that supports the proposed cleansing function of the MMC cycle.

  19. [Modulation of the intestinal microbiota by nutritional interventions].

    PubMed

    Derer, S; Lehnert, H; Sina, C; Wagner, A E

    2017-03-10

    Humans live in symbiosis with billions of commensal bacteria. The so-called microbiota live on different biological interfaces such as the skin, the urogenital tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria replace potentially pathogenic microbes, synthesize vitamins and ferment dietary fibre. An imbalance in the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with various diseases including gut-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, a shift in the microbiota composition appears to be of pathophysiological relevance which renders the specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota a promising approach in the treatment of the above mentioned diseases. Our intestinal microbiota composition is mainly modulated by dietary macro- and micronutrients but also by secondary plant compounds and synthetic food additives such as emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners. Nutritional interventions with the purpose to modulate the intestinal microbiota show only limited therapeutic potential in the treatment of gut-associated disorders, which may be due to individual differences in the intestinal microbiota composition and a lack of specificity. A combination of newly established technical analytic approaches involving a machine-learning algorithm may bridge the currently existing limitations by providing a personalized, highly-specific and consequently therapeutically effective microbiota modulation.

  20. Fuel from biomass - with emphasis on alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    McIloy, D.L.

    1981-11-01

    It takes nature millions of years to transform organic matter into valuable fossil fuel. By moving to biomass sources of energy, one can reduce that processing or lag time to a matter of hours. Biomass can be converted into useful fuels through various processes. Methane gas can be produced by bacterial digestion or by burning biomass under anaerobic conditions. Vegetable oils can be extracted from many seeds and burned as fuel in diesel engines. By fermentation of sugar with yeast, one can produce fuel alcohol. This review paper is presented under headings - alcohol fuels; use of fuel alcohol; performance of gasoline; upgrading fuels; energy balance or liquid fuel gain; ethane versus fossil fuels; feed stocks; food, feed and fuel; production goals.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  3. Regulation of antibacterial defense in the small intestine by the nuclear bile acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Moschetta, Antonio; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Peng, Li; Zhao, Guixiang; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth T.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Repa, Joyce J.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Obstruction of bile flow results in bacterial proliferation and mucosal injury in the small intestine that can lead to the translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier and systemic infection. These adverse effects of biliary obstruction can be inhibited by administration of bile acids. Here we show that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, induces genes involved in enteroprotection and inhibits bacterial overgrowth and mucosal injury in ileum caused by bile duct ligation. Mice lacking FXR have increased ileal levels of bacteria and a compromised epithelial barrier. These findings reveal a central role for FXR in protecting the distal small intestine from bacterial invasion and suggest that FXR agonists may prevent epithelial deterioration and bacterial translocation in patients with impaired bile flow. PMID:16473946

  4. Metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids by intestinal bacteria: producer phenotyping and relation with intestinal community.

    PubMed

    Possemiers, Sam; Bolca, Selin; Eeckhaut, Ellen; Depypere, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-08-01

    Many studies have investigated the importance of the intestinal bacterial activation of individual phytoestrogens. However, human nutrition contains different phytoestrogens and the final exposure depends on the microbial potential to activate all different groups within each individual. In this work, interindividual variations in the bacterial activation of the different phytoestrogens were assessed. Incubation of feces from 100 individuals using SoyLife EXTRA, LinumLife EXTRA and isoxanthohumol suggested that individuals could be separated into high, moderate and low O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), equol, enterodiol (END), enterolactone (ENL) or 8-prenylnaringenin producers, but that the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids follows separate, independent pathways. However, O-DMA and equol production correlated negatively, whereas a positive correlation was found between END and ENL production. In addition, END production correlated negatively with Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale counts. Furthermore, O-DMA production was correlated with the abundance of methanogens, whereas equol production correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the metabolic fate of daidzein may be related to intestinal H(2) metabolism.

  5. Effect of dietary alginic acid on juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intestinal microbial balance, intestinal histology and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Daniel L; Harper, Glenn M; Mustafa, Sanaa; Carnevali, Oliana; Picchietti, Simona; Davies, Simon J

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a commercial alginic acid source (Ergosan) on tilapia Oreochromis niloticus intestinal microbial balance, intestinal morphology, and growth parameters. Fish were fed a basal control diet or the basal diet plus a source of alginic acid (5 g kg(-1) Ergosan; Schering-Plough Aquaculture, UK) for 9 weeks. At the end of the trial, light and electron microscopy demonstrated that the morphology of the intestinal tract at the gross and ultra-structural level was not affected by dietary alginic acid inclusion. Both groups of fish displayed healthy, normal morphology with no signs of disease, cell or tissue damage. Intestinal epithelial leucocyte infiltration was not affected by dietary alginic acid. Molecular bacterial profiles derived from PCR-DGGE illustrated highly similar microbial communities (both within the lumen and associated with the intestinal mucosa) in the respective treatment groups. Microbial ecological parameters (e.g. species diversity and richness) also remained unaffected. Although not significant, trends towards elevated survival and body protein content were observed in the alginic acid-fed fish. These results are suggestive that alginic acid does not adversely impact the indigenous gastrointestinal microbial balance and subsequently does not impact upon the epithelial brush border integrity. Validation of non-detrimental impacts of immunostimulatory products on gastric microbiota and epithelial integrity should be pursued in future studies as maintaining microbial balance and epithelial integrity is essential for proper gut functionality.

  6. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces - that could play a role in the increased permeability - and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  7. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits.

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  10. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  12. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  13. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  14. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  15. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  16. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  17. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  18. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  19. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  20. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  1. Effects of feed additives on the development on the ileal bacterial community of the broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Hofacre, C; Smith, F; Lee, M D

    2008-05-01

    Intensifying concerns about the use of antimicrobials in meat and poultry production has enhanced interest in the application of prebiotics, probiotics and enzymes to enhance growth and prevent disease in food animals. Growth-promoting antibiotics enhance growth of animals by reducing the load of bacteria in the intestine, by reducing colonization by intestinal pathogens or by enhancing the growth and/or metabolism of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. Recently, molecular ecology, utilizing DNA-sequence heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene, has revealed a surprising diversity of uncharacterized bacteria inhabiting this ecosystem. We used this approach to determine the effect of growth-promoting antibiotics on the development and composition of the ileal bacterial community. Pairwise comparisons, correspondence analysis and community diversity indices revealed significant differences among the treatments (bacitracin/virginiamycin or monensin) and controls. Antibiotics reduced the diversity of the ileal bacterial community and induced communities rich in Clostridia throughout the life of the broiler chicken. These results indicate that some bacterial species, such as lactobacilli, were suppressed and also suggest that many intestinal Clostridia may be non-pathogenic. Future studies should focus on characterizing the important bacterial species needed to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and identifying those commensals that stimulate and enhance development of intestinal function.

  2. How to make an intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    With the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, there is great interest in establishing in vitro models of human intestinal disease and in developing drug-screening platforms that more accurately represent the complex physiology of the intestine. We will review how recent advances in developmental and stem cell biology have made it possible to generate complex, three-dimensional, human intestinal tissues in vitro through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. These are currently being used to study human development, genetic forms of disease, intestinal pathogens, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:24496613

  3. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Caroline I.; Mappley, Luke J.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Claus, Sandrine P.

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  4. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states.

  5. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  6. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  7. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  8. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  9. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  10. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  11. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  12. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  13. Intestinal Microbiota and Relapse After Hematopoietic-Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peled, Jonathan U; Devlin, Sean M; Staffas, Anna; Lumish, Melissa; Khanin, Raya; Littmann, Eric R; Ling, Lilan; Kosuri, Satyajit; Maloy, Molly; Slingerland, John B; Ahr, Katya F; Porosnicu Rodriguez, Kori A; Shono, Yusuke; Slingerland, Ann E; Docampo, Melissa D; Sung, Anthony D; Weber, Daniela; Alousi, Amin M; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Ponce, Doris M; Barker, Juliet N; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Giralt, Sergio A; Taur, Ying; Pamer, Eric G; Jenq, Robert R; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-03-15

    Purpose The major causes of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection. We have reported previously that alterations in the intestinal flora are associated with GVHD, bacteremia, and reduced overall survival after allo-HCT. Because intestinal bacteria are potent modulators of systemic immune responses, including antitumor effects, we hypothesized that components of the intestinal flora could be associated with relapse after allo-HCT. Methods The intestinal microbiota of 541 patients admitted for allo-HCT was profiled by means of 16S ribosomal sequencing of prospectively collected stool samples. We examined the relationship between abundance of microbiota species or groups of related species and relapse/progression of disease during 2 years of follow-up time after allo-HCT by using cause-specific proportional hazards in a retrospective discovery-validation cohort study. Results Higher abundance of a bacterial group composed mostly of Eubacterium limosum in the validation set was associated with a decreased risk of relapse/progression of disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 per 10-fold increase in abundance; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.95; P = .009). When the patients were categorized according to presence or absence of this bacterial group, presence also was associated with less relapse/progression of disease (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.87; P = .01). The 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse/progression among patients with and without this group of bacteria were 19.8% and 33.8%, respectively. These associations remained significant in multivariable models and were strongest among recipients of T-cell-replete allografts. Conclusion We found associations between the abundance of a group of bacteria in the intestinal flora and relapse/progression of disease after allo-HCT. These might serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets to prevent relapse and improve survival after allo-HCT.

  14. Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticle Gel on Bacterial Hand Flora: A RCT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-20

    Nursing: This study addressed the efficacy of two novel gels on bacterial counts with the results potentially informing future clinical effectiveness ...alcohol-based gel and the silver nanoparticle gel for the immediate effect . Furthermore, there was a trend towards significance between the alcohol...determine the effect on the condition of the skin. Skin condition after using consecutive applications of alcohol-based gels have been well

  15. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  16. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources.

  17. [The association of intestinal microbiota with obesity].

    PubMed

    Morales, Pamela; Brignardello, Jerusa; Gotteland, Martín

    2010-08-01

    Intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the development of obesity and its associated low grade inflammation. Bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of germ free mice (without microbiota) increases by 60% their fat mass, alters their fasting glucose and insulin levels, triples their hepatic triglycerides and induces adipocyte hypertrophy. IM favors fat storage in adipocytes through the inhibition of Fiaf (Fasting Induced Adipocyte Factor), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Compared with normal weight subjects, the IM from obese exhibits a higher proportion of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and is more efficient in extracting energy from foodstuffs. The loss of bodyweight by a hypocaloric diet reverts the proportion of bacteria to that of lean subjects. The intake of a high fat diet also alters the IM, affecting intestinal barrier function and favoring endotoxinemia. These events increase oxidative and pro-inflammatory processes in plasma and peripheral tissues and increment the risk of insulin resistance. Such events are reverted by the administration of prebiotics which stimulate the growth of Bifdobacterium and Lactobacillus species in the colon, reestablishing the gut homeostasis. Interestingly, products resulting from the fermentation of prebiotics stimulate the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells and the release of glucagon like peptide 1 and peptide YY, that have insulin like and anorexigenic activities, thus contributing to body weight equilibrium.

  18. Oats supplementation prevents alcohol-induced gut leakiness in rats by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-06-01

    We reported previously that oats supplementation prevents gut leakiness and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in our rat model of alcoholic liver disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of both alcohol-induced gut leakiness and ASH, and because oats have antioxidant properties, we tested the hypothesis that oats protect by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative damage to the intestine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged for 12 weeks with alcohol (starting dose of 1 g/kg increasing to 6 g/kg/day over the first 2 weeks) or dextrose, with or without oats supplementation (10 g/kg/day). Oxidative stress and injury were assessed by measuring colonic mucosal inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) (by immunohistochemistry), nitric oxide (colorimetric assay), and protein carbonylation and nitrotyrosination (immunoblotting). Colonic barrier integrity was determined by assessing the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton (immunohistochemistry) and the integrity of tight junctions (electron microscopy). Oats supplementation prevented alcohol-induced up-regulation of iNOS, nitric oxide overproduction in the colonic mucosa, and increases in protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels. This protection was associated with prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and disruption of tight junctions. We conclude that oats supplementation attenuates EtOH-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, at least in part, by inhibiting EtOH-induced increases in oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage. This inhibition prevents alcohol-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton and tight junctions. This study suggests that oats may be a useful therapeutic agent--a nutraceutical--for the prevention of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunction.

  19. Synthetic Small Intestinal Scaffolds for Improved Studies of Intestinal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Hongpeng, Jia; Shaffiey, Shahab; Yu, Jiajie; Jain, Nina K.; Hackam, David

    2014-01-01

    In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities, and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3D models. PMID:24390638

  20. Immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cutropia de Guirao, C

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the present investigation is the study and interpretation of the role played by the immunoglobulins, especially IgA, during acute diarrhea in children. IgA, IGG and IgM values in serum and IgA in intestinal secretions were studied in a group of children (between 3 months and 5 years of age) during diarrhea, convalescence and in normals. The method of simple radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was employed. IgA is the immunoglobulin which suffers the greastest alteration in acute diarrhea. The precipitation halos (the average values), were lower during the diarrhea than in convalescence and in normals.

  1. The role of diet on intestinal microbiota metabolism: Downstream impacts on host immune function and health, and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jason R; Sartor, Balfour

    2014-01-01

    Dietary impacts on health may be one of the oldest concepts in medicine; however, only in recent years have technical advances in mass spectroscopy, gnotobiology, and bacterial sequencing enabled our understanding of human physiology to progress to the point where we can begin to understand how individual dietary components can affect specific illnesses. This review explores the current understanding of the complex interplay between dietary factors and the host microbiome, concentrating on the downstream implications on host immune function and the pathogenesis of disease. We discuss the influence of the gut microbiome on body habitus and explore the primary and secondary effects of diet on enteric microbial community structure. We address the impact of consumption of non-digestible polysaccharides (prebiotics and fiber), choline, carnitine, iron, and fats on host health as mediated by the enteric microbiome. Disease processes emphasized include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), IBD, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/atherosclerosis. The concepts presented in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to fully develop and validate potential therapeutic approaches. Specific dietary interventions offer exciting potential for nontoxic, physiologic ways to alter enteric microbial structure and metabolism to benefit the natural history of many intestinal and systemic disorders. PMID:24652102

  2. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Long, Clara Davis; Armitage, Gary C; Loomer, Peter; Emerson, Joanne; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; Gill, Steven R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Relman, David A

    2010-08-01

    The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual, 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An 11th pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed. From a total of 11,368 high-quality, nonchimeric, near full-length sequences, 247 species-level phylotypes (using a 99% sequence identity threshold) and 9 bacterial phyla were identified. At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals, with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences with near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria. Co-occurrence analysis showed significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species. This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health.

  3. Host Responses to Intestinal Microbial Antigens in Gluten-Sensitive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Natividad, Jane M.; Huang, Xianxi; Slack, Emma; Jury, Jennifer; Sanz, Yolanda; David, Chella; Denou, Emmanuel; Yang, Pinchang; Murray, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive uptake of commensal bacterial antigens through a permeable intestinal barrier may influence host responses to specific antigen in a genetically predisposed host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal barrier dysfunction induced by indomethacin treatment affects the host response to intestinal microbiota in gluten-sensitized HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. Methodology/Principal Findings HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice were sensitized with gluten, and gavaged with indomethacin plus gluten. Intestinal permeability was assessed by Ussing chamber; epithelial cell (EC) ultra-structure by electron microscopy; RNA expression of genes coding for junctional proteins by Q-real-time PCR; immune response by in-vitro antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine analysis by cytometric bead array; intestinal microbiota by fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of systemic antibodies against intestinal microbiota by surface staining of live bacteria with serum followed by FACS analysis. Indomethacin led to a more pronounced increase in intestinal permeability in gluten-sensitized mice. These changes were accompanied by severe EC damage, decreased E-cadherin RNA level, elevated IFN-γ in splenocyte culture supernatant, and production of significant IgM antibody against intestinal microbiota. Conclusion Indomethacin potentiates barrier dysfunction and EC injury induced by gluten, affects systemic IFN-γ production and the host response to intestinal microbiota antigens in HLA-DQ8/HCD4 mice. The results suggest that environmental factors that alter the intestinal barrier may predispose individuals to an increased susceptibility to gluten through a bystander immune activation to intestinal microbiota. PMID:19649259

  4. Gut biogeography of the bacterial microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Gregory P.; Lee, S. Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2016-01-01

    PREFACE Animals assemble and maintain a diverse, yet host-specific gut microbial community. In addition to characteristic microbial compositions along the longitudinal axis of the intestines, discrete bacterial communities form in microhabitats, such as the gut lumen, colon mucus layers and colon crypts. In this Review, we examine how spatial distribution of symbiotic bacteria among physical niches in the gut impacts the development and maintenance of a resilient microbial ecosystem. We consider novel hypotheses for how nutrient selection, immune activation and other mechanisms control the biogeography of bacteria in the gut and discuss the relevance of this spatial heterogeneity to health and disease. PMID:26499895

  5. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  6. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  7. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  8. Multiple pathogenic factor-induced complications of cirrhosis in rats: A new model of hepatopulmonary syndrome with intestinal endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ying; Han, De-Wu; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Liu, Ming-She; Wu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Xian-Ming; Ji, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To develop and characterize a practical model of Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in rats. METHODS: The experimental animals were randomized into five feeding groups: (1) control (fed standard diet), (2) control plus intraperitoneal injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (3) cirrhosis (fed a diet of maize flour, lard, cholesterol, and alcohol plus subcutaneously injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) oil solution), (4) cirrhosis plus LPS, and (5) cirrhosis plus glycine and LPS. The blood, liver and lung tissues of rats were sampled for analysis and characterization. Technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc99m-MAA) was used to test the dilatation of pulmonary microvasculature. RESULTS: Typical cirrhosis and subsequent hepato-pulmonary syndrome was observed in the cirrhosis groups after an 8 wk feeding period. In rats with cirrhosis, there were a decreased PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood, markedly decreased arterial O2 content, a significantly increased alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient, an increased number of bacterial translocated within mesenteric lymph node, a significant higher level of LPS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma, and a significant greater ratio of Tc99m-MAA brain-over-lung radioactivity. After LPS administration in rats with cirrhosis, various pathological parameters got worse and pulmonary edema formed. The predisposition of glycine antagonized the effects of LPS and significantly alleviated various pathological alterations. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that: (1) a characte-ristic rat model of HPS can be non-invasively induced by multiple pathogenic factors including high fat diet, alcohol, cholesterol and CCl4; (2) this model can be used for study of hepatopulmonary syndrome and is clinically relevant; and (3) intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) and its accompanying cytokines, such as TNF-α, exert a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HPS in this model. PMID:17659698

  9. Intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Blaut, Michael; Klaus, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The human gut harbors a highly diverse microbial ecosystem of approximately 400 different species, which is characterized by a high interindividual variability. The intestinal microbiota has recently been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Transplantation of gut microbiota from obese mice to nonobese, germ-free mice resulted in transfer of metabolic syndrome-associated features from the donor to the recipient. Proposed mechanisms for the role of gut microbiota include the provision of additional energy by the conversion of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids, effects on gut-hormone production, and increased intestinal permeability causing elevated systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This metabolic endotoxemia is suggested to contribute to low-grade inflammation, a characteristic trait of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, activation of the endocannabinoid system by LPS and/or high-fat diets is discussed as another causal factor. In conclusion, there is ample evidence for a role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity in rodents. However, the magnitude of its contribution to human obesity is still unknown.

  10. L-Glutamine and L-arginine protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection via intestinal innate immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Ren, Wenkai; Fang, Jun; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Guan, Guiping; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Jie; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Chen, Shuai; Peng, Yuanyi; Yin, Yulong

    2017-03-15

    Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells. ETEC colonized in mouse small intestine, including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and inhibited the mRNA expression of intestinal immune factors, such as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), cryptdin-related sequence 1C (CRS1C), and Reg3γ. We found that dietary Gln or Arg supplementation decreased bacterial colonization and promoted the activation of innate immunity (e.g., the mRNA expression of pIgR, CRS1C, and Reg3γ) in the intestine of ETEC-infected mice. Our results suggest that dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation may inhibit intestinal ETEC infection through intestinal innate immunity.

  11. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  12. Optimized quinoline amino alcohols as disruptors and dispersal agents of Vibrio cholerae biofilms

    PubMed Central

    León, Brian; Jake Haeckl, F. P.; Linington, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    The biofilm state is an integral part of the lifecycle of many bacterial pathogens. Identifying inhibitors as molecular probes against bacterial biofilms has numerous potential biomedical applications. Here we report quinoline amino alcohol 20 as a highly potent disruptor of V. cholerae biofilms. Additionally, 20 was able to disperse preformed biofilms, an activity exhibited by few compounds with biofilm inhibiting activity. PMID:26156292

  13. Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

    2013-03-19

    The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus GG on intestinal integrity in Malawian children at risk of tropical enteropathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical enteropathy is an asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. The histology of tropical enteropathy resembles that seen in small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. This study tested the...

  15. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  16. Functional metagenomic profiling of intestinal microbiome in extreme ageing.

    PubMed

    Rampelli, Simone; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Collino, Sebastiano; Franceschi, Claudio; O'Toole, Paul W; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    Age-related alterations in human gut microbiota composition have been thoroughly described, but a detailed functional description of the intestinal bacterial coding capacity is still missing. In order to elucidate the contribution of the gut metagenome to the complex mosaic of human longevity, we applied shotgun sequencing to total fecal bacterial DNA in a selection of samples belonging to a well-characterized human ageing cohort. The age-related trajectory of the human gut microbiome was characterized by loss of genes for shortchain fatty acid production and an overall decrease in the saccharolytic potential, while proteolytic functions were more abundant than in the intestinal metagenome of younger adults. This altered functional profile was associated with a relevant enrichment in "pathobionts", i.e. opportunistic pro-inflammatory bacteria generally present in the adult gut ecosystem in low numbers. Finally, as a signature for long life we identified 116 microbial genes that significantly correlated with ageing. Collectively, our data emphasize the relationship between intestinal bacteria and human metabolism, by detailing the modifications in the gut microbiota as a consequence of and/or promoter of the physiological changes occurring in the human host upon ageing.

  17. Loss of NHE8 expression impairs intestinal mucosal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aiping; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The newest member of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family, NHE8, is abundantly expressed at the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelia. We previously reported that mucin 2 expression was significantly decreased in the colon in NHE8−/− mice, suggesting that NHE8 is involved in intestinal mucosal protection. In this study, we further evaluated the role of NHE8 in intestinal epithelial protection after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) challenge. Compared with wild-type mice, NHE8−/− mice have increased bacterial adhesion and inflammation, especially in the distal colon. NHE8−/− mice are also susceptible to DSS treatment. Real-time PCR detected a remarkable increase in the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-4 in DSS-treated NHE8−/− mice compared with DSS-treated wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemistry showed a disorganized epithelial layer in the colon of NHE8−/− mice. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed a reduction in the number of mature goblet cells and the area of the goblet cell theca in NHE8−/− mice. Phyloxine/tartrazine staining revealed a decrease in functional Paneth cell population in the NHE8−/− small intestinal crypt. The expression of enteric defensins was also decreased in NHE8−/− mice. The reduced mucin production in goblet cells and antimicrobial peptides production in Paneth cells lead to disruption of the intestinal mucosa protection. Therefore, NHE8 may be involved in the establishment of intestinal mucosal integrity by regulating the functions of goblet and Paneth cells. PMID:26505975

  18. The enteric nervous system promotes intestinal health by constraining microbiota composition

    PubMed Central

    Mittge, Erika K.; Ganz, Julia; Troll, Josh V.; Melancon, Ellie; Wiles, Travis J.; Alligood, Kristin; Stephens, W. Zac; Eisen, Judith S.; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS), a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts. Profiling microbial communities across a spectrum of inflammatory phenotypes revealed that increased levels of inflammation were linked to an overabundance of pro-inflammatory bacterial lineages and a lack of anti-inflammatory bacterial lineages. Moreover, either administering a representative anti-inflammatory strain or restoring ENS function corrected the pathology. Thus, we demonstrate that the ENS modulates gut microbiota community membership to maintain intestinal health. PMID:28207737

  19. The enteric nervous system promotes intestinal health by constraining microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Rolig, Annah S; Mittge, Erika K; Ganz, Julia; Troll, Josh V; Melancon, Ellie; Wiles, Travis J; Alligood, Kristin; Stephens, W Zac; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS), a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts. Profiling microbial communities across a spectrum of inflammatory phenotypes revealed that increased levels of inflammation were linked to an overabundance of pro-inflammatory bacterial lineages and a lack of anti-inflammatory bacterial lineages. Moreover, either administering a representative anti-inflammatory strain or restoring ENS function corrected the pathology. Thus, we demonstrate that the ENS modulates gut microbiota community membership to maintain intestinal health.

  20. What Happens After Treatment for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma? For some people with small intestine cancer, ... Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Stops Working More In Small Intestine Cancer About Small Intestine Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  1. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P < 0.05) between 0.0001 and 0.1 µM folic acid. Above 0.1 µM, the slope of the regression line was not significantly different from zero (P < 0.137). Folic acid uptake in the jejunum showed a maximum rate of transport at pH 6.0, but was lowest at pH 7.5. The presence of 5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate as well as heme impeded folic acid uptake, reducing intestinal folic acid absorption when added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 µM. Overall, these data indicated the presence of a folic acid transport system in the entire intestine of the laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  2. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  3. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  4. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  5. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lovely, C J; Leslie, A J

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  6. The ELT-2 GATA-factor and the global regulation of transcription in the C. elegans intestine.

    PubMed

    McGhee, James D; Sleumer, Monica C; Bilenky, Mikhail; Wong, Kim; McKay, Sheldon J; Goszczynski, Barbara; Tian, Helen; Krich, Natisha D; Khattra, Jaswinder; Holt, Robert A; Baillie, David L; Kohara, Yuji; Marra, Marco A; Jones, Steven J M; Moerman, Donald G; Robertson, A Gordon

    2007-02-15

    A SAGE library was prepared from hand-dissected intestines from adult Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing the identification of >4000 intestinally-expressed genes; this gene inventory provides fundamental information for understanding intestine function, structure and development. Intestinally-expressed genes fall into two broad classes: widely-expressed "housekeeping" genes and genes that are either intestine-specific or significantly intestine-enriched. Within this latter class of genes, we identified a subset of highly-expressed highly-validated genes that are expressed either exclusively or primarily in the intestine. Over half of the encoded proteins are candidates for secretion into the intestinal lumen to hydrolyze the bacterial food (e.g. lysozymes, amoebapores, lipases and especially proteases). The promoters of this subset of intestine-specific/intestine-enriched genes were analyzed computationally, using both a word-counting method (RSAT oligo-analysis) and a method based on Gibbs sampling (MotifSampler). Both methods returned the same over-represented site, namely an extended GATA-related sequence of the general form AHTGATAARR, which agrees with experimentally determined cis-acting control sequences found in intestine genes over the past 20 years. All promoters in the subset contain such a site, compared to <5% for control promoters; moreover, our analysis suggests that the majority (perhaps all) of genes expressed exclusively or primarily in the worm intestine are likely to contain such a site in their promoters. There are three zinc-finger GATA-type factors that are candidates to bind this extended GATA site in the differentiating C. elegans intestine: ELT-2, ELT-4 and ELT-7. All evidence points to ELT-2 being the most important of the three. We show that worms in which both the elt-4 and the elt-7 genes have been deleted from the genome are essentially wildtype, demonstrating that ELT-2 provides all essential GATA-factor functions in the intestine. The

  7. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  8. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  9. [Microbial ecology of the intestines in health and in pathology].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, G I; Dorofeĭchuk, V G; Smolianskaia, A Z; Sokolova, K Ia

    1989-06-01

    Bifidoflora constitute 85--95 per cent of the large intestine microbiocenosis in children under 1 year of age. Bacteroides are not specific of children under 6 months of age. Lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci, colon bacilli, enterococci and staphylococci (saprophytic, epidermal) constitute not more than 15 per cent. The predominating group peculiar of eubiosis in adults includes bifidobacteria and bacteroides. Changes in human autoflora are often induced by such factors as impaired ecology, stress, uncontrolled use of antibacterial drugs, radio- and chemotherapy, etc. Dysbacteriosis (first of all lower quantitative contents of bifidoflora) has an unfavourable effect on the intestine secretory function, absorption and certain indices of protein, lipid and mineral metabolism, vitamin synthesizing and fermentative functions and leads to disfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a cause of persisting and relapsing infections in children and adults. High and optimal levels of bifidoflora in the intestine usually prevent the pathogenic action of pathogens. Lysozyme of digestive secretion and secretory immunity with immunoglobulin A prevalence also play an important role in the complicated mechanism of the protective barrier. The use of bacterial preparations such as bifidumbacterin, lactobacterin or bifilact for stabilization and recovery of high bifidoflora levels is indicated in all the cases with impaired microbiocenosis of the intestine.

  10. Granulocyte migration in uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis in man

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gibson, R.; Guest, J.; Spencer, J.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the presence, duration, and clinical significance of granulocyte accumulation, using indium-111 granulocyte scanning, in patients following uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis. Eight patients underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis (right hemicolectomy, 5; sigmoid colectomy, 2; ileal resection, 1) for carcinoma, angiodysplasia, or perforation. All patients had an uneventful postoperative course, with no evidence of any leakage or infection. Indium-111 granulocyte scan and abdominal ultrasound were performed 7-20 days (12 +/- 4.7 means +/- SD) following surgery. Indium-111 granulocyte scan showed the presence of labeled granulocytes at the site of anastomosis in all patients. In three of eight, cells subsequently passed into the lumen of the bowel. In contrast, granulocytes were not visualized along the abdominal incision. Thus, in contrast to skin wounds, granulocytes continue migrating into the intestinal wall in areas of anastomosis for at least up to 20 days following surgical trauma. They may play a significant role both in healing the anastomosis and in preventing systemic bacterial infection. Moreover, indium-111 granulocyte scans following intestinal surgery should be interpreted with care, and the presence of labeled granulocytes around anastomoses does not necessarily indicate abscess formation.

  11. Intestinal anastomotic injury alters spatially defined microbiome composition and function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When diseased intestine (i.e., from colon cancer, diverticulitis) requires resection, its reconnection (termed anastomosis) can be complicated by non-healing of the newly joined intestine resulting in spillage of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity (termed anastomotic leakage). While it is suspected that the intestinal microbiota have the capacity to both accelerate and complicate anastomotic healing, the associated genotypes and functions have not been characterized. Results Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of samples collected on the day of surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD0)) and the 6th day following surgery (postoperative day 0 (POD6)), we analyzed the changes in luminal versus tissue-associated microbiota at anastomotic sites created in the colon of rats. Results indicated that anastomotic injury induced significant changes in the anastomotic tissue-associated microbiota with minimal differences in the luminal microbiota. The most striking difference was a 500-fold and 200-fold increase in the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella, respectively. Functional profiling predicted the predominance of bacterial virulence-associated pathways in post-anastomotic tissues, including production of hemolysin, cytolethal toxins, fimbriae, invasins, cytotoxic necrotizing factors, and coccolysin. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that compositional and functional changes accompany anastomotic tissues and may potentially accelerate or complicate anastomotic healing. PMID:25250176

  12. [Effect of antibiotics on intestinal microflora and production of metabolites].

    PubMed

    Tamm, A O; Siĭgur, U Kh; Mikel'saar, M E

    1989-06-01

    Methodical approaches to detection of relation between intestinal microflora and its metabolites are described. The microbial origin of certain compounds can be asserted by a decrease in their production after exposure to antibacterial drugs or the absence of their production in microbe-free animals. The authors consider that parallel investigation of intestinal microflora and its metabolites after exposure to various agents e.g. narrow spectrum antibiotics or specific substrates is the most accurate methodical approach to detection of their interrelations. Data on the effect of four drugs i.e. kanamycin, metronidazole, cefotaxime and bactrim on production of 10 bacterial metabolites: p-cresol, phenol, indican, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids in rats are presented. Correlation between the metabolites and the intestinal microflora composition was revealed. It is concluded that detection of microorganisms responsible for production of definite metabolites requires at the maximum: (1) exposure to drugs of different spectra, (2) detection of changes in intestinal microflora by biotope++ and (3) investigation of mucosa microflora which more exactly characterizes metabolism of definite biotops.

  13. Role of the intestinal microbiome in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Elinav, Eran; Thaiss, Christoph A; Licona-Limon, Paula; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    The liver integrates metabolic outcomes with nutrient intake while preventing harmful signals derived from the gut to spread throughout the body. Direct blood influx from the gastrointestinal tract through the portal vein makes the liver a critical firewall equipped with a broad array of immune cells and innate immune receptors that recognize microbial-derived products, microorganisms, toxins and food antigens that have breached the intestinal barrier. An overwhelming amount of evidence obtained in the last decade indicates that the intestinal microbiota is a key component of a wide variety of physiological processes, and alterations in the delicate balance that represents the intestinal bacterial communities are now considered important determinants of metabolic syndrome and immunopathologies. Moreover, it is now evident that the interaction between the innate immune system and the intestinal microbiota during obesity or autoimmunity promotes chronic liver disease progression and therefore it might lead to novel and individualized therapeutic approaches. In this review, we discuss a growing body of evidence that highlights the central relationship between the immune system, the microbiome, and chronic liver disease initiation and progression.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide activates innate immune responses in murine intestinal myofibroblasts through multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Holt, Lisa; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2009-01-01

    Myofibroblasts (MF) play an important role in intestinal wound healing. A compromised epithelial barrier exposes intestinal subepithelial MF to luminal bacterial products. However, responses of murine intestinal MF to bacterial adjuvants and potential roles of intestinal MF in innate immune responses are not well defined. Our aims in this study were to determine innate immune responses and intracellular signaling pathways of intestinal MF exposed to LPS, a prototypic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand. Expression of TLR4 in primary murine intestinal MF cultures was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. LPS-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokines (KC) was measured by ELISA. Intracellular responses to LPS were assessed by Western blotting for NF-κB p65, Iκ-Bα, Akt, p38 MAP kinase, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). LPS induced rapid phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, Akt, and p38 MAPK and degradation of Iκ-Bα. LPS induced expression of COX-2 and secretion of PGE2 (2.0 ± 0.8-fold induction vs. unstimulated cells), IL-6 (6.6 ± 0.4-fold induction), and KC (12.5 ± 0.4-fold induction). Inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB pathways reduced LPS-induced PGE2, IL-6, and KC secretion. These studies show that primary murine intestinal MF respond to LPS, evidenced by activation of NF-κB, PI3-kinase, and MAPK signaling pathways and secretion of proinflammatory molecules. Inhibition of these pathways attenuated LPS-dependent PGE2, IL-6, and KC production, indicating that LPS activates MF by multiple signaling pathways. These data support the hypothesis that MF are a component of the innate immune system and may exert paracrine effects on adjacent epithelial and immune cells by responding to luminal bacterial adjuvants. PMID:19136385

  15. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately.

  16. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  17. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  18. The Intestinal Microbiome and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuddenham, Susan; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review A diverse array of microbes colonizes the human intestine. In this review we seek to outline the current state of knowledge on what characterizes a “healthy” or “normal” intestinal microbiome, what factors modify the intestinal microbiome in the healthy state and how the intestinal microbiome affects normal host physiology Recent Findings What constitutes a “normal” or “healthy” intestinal microbiome is an area of active research, but key characteristics may include diversity, richness and a microbial community’s resilience and ability to resist change. A number of factors, including age, the host immune system, host genetics, diet and antibiotic use appear to modify the intestinal microbiome in the normal state. New research shows that the microbiome likely plays a critical role in the healthy human immune system and metabolism. Summary It is clear that there is a complicated bi-directional relationship between the intestinal microbiota and host which is vital to health. An enhanced understanding of this relationship will be critical not only to maximize and maintain human health but also to shape our understanding of disease and to foster new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26237547

  19. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  20. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  1. A General O-Glycosylation System Important to the Physiology of a Major Human Intestinal Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, C. Mark; Coyne, Michael J.; Villa, Otto F.; Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The Bacteroides are a numerically dominant genus of the human intestinal microbiota. These organisms harbor a rare bacterial pathway for incorporation of exogenous fucose into capsular polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The infrequency of glycoprotein synthesis by bacteria prompted a more detailed analysis of this process. Here, we demonstrate that Bacteroides fragilis has a general O-glycosylation system. The proteins targeted for glycosylation include those predicted to be involved in protein folding, protein-protein interactions, peptide degradation, as well as surface lipoproteins. Protein glycosylation is central to the physiology of B. fragilis and is necessary for the organism to competitively colonize the mammalian intestine. We provide evidence that general O-glycosylation systems are conserved among intestinal Bacteroides species and likely contribute to the predominance of Bacteroides in the human intestine. PMID:19379697

  2. Intestinal IgA as a modulator of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Okai, Shinsaku; Usui, Fumihito; Ohta, Misa; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kato, Tamotsu; Miyauchi, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shinkura, Reiko

    2017-04-06

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dysbiosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as extra-intestinal disorders. As a modulator of the intestinal microbiota, we isolated a mouse monoclonal IgA antibody (clone W27) with high affinities for multiple commensal bacteria, but not for beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei). Via specific recognition of an epitope in serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a bacterial metabolic enzyme, W27 IgA selectively inhibited the in vitro growth of bound bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), while having no effect on unbound beneficial bacteria such as L. casei. By modulating the gut microbiota in vivo, oral administration of W27 IgA effectively prevented development of colitis in several mouse models. Here we discuss how intestinal IgA modulates the gut microbiota through recognition of SHMT.

  3. Viral immunity. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Julie K; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-15

    Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.

  4. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  5. Role of the Host Defense System and Intestinal Microbial Flora in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Claudia N.; Petrosyan, Mikael; Giuliani, Stefano; Williams, Monica; Hunter, Catherine; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that affects primarily the intestine of premature infants. Despite recent advances in neonatology, NEC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Neonatal mucosal defenses and adherence of bacterial pathogens may play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. Methods Review and synthesis of pertinent literature. Results Putative factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC include abnormal patterns of gut colonization by bacteria, immaturity of the host immune system and mucosal defense mechanisms, intestinal ischemia, formula feeding, and loss of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Conclusion Host defenses and intestinal microbial ecology are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of NEC. Commensal bacteria and probiotic therapy may be of therapeutic utility in the maintenance of the gut epithelial barrier. PMID:19943775

  6. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Julie K.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) constituting a major public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed the enteric virome. Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, like the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes and fungi which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed transkingdom interactions. This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area. PMID:26816384

  7. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  8. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  9. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  11. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  12. Variations in prebiotic oligosaccharide fermentation by intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Nakamura, Saki; Konishi, Kenta; Nakagawa, Junichi; Tochio, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides confer health benefits on the host by modulating the gut microbiota. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are potential targets of prebiotics; however, the metabolism of oligosaccharides by LAB has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the metabolism of eight oligosaccharides by 19 strains of intestinal LAB. Among the eight oligosaccharides used, 1-kestose, lactosucrose and galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) led to the greatest increases in the numbers of the strains tested. However, mono- and disaccharides accounted for more than half of the GOSs used, and several strains only metabolized the mono- and di-saccharides in GOSs. End product profiles indicated that the amounts of lactate produced were generally consistent with the bacterial growth recorded. Oligosaccharide profiling revealed the interesting metabolic manner in Lactobacillus paracasei strains, which metabolized all oligosaccharides, but left sucrose when cultured with fructooligosaccharides. The present study clearly indicated that the prebiotic potential of each oligosaccharide differs.

  13. LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

    2011-03-01

    In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

  14. Factors Determining Colorectal Cancer: The Role of the Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, Nereida; Vivas, Santiago; Olcoz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, holds a complex community of microorganisms, which are essential for maintaining homeostasis. However, in recent years, many studies have implicated microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), with this disease considered a major cause of death in the western world. The mechanisms underlying bacterial contribution in its development are complex and are not yet fully understood. However, there is increasing evidence showing a connection between intestinal microbiota and CRC. Intestinal microorganisms cause the onset and progression of CRC using different mechanisms, such as the induction of a chronic inflammation state, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation, the production of toxic metabolites, or heterocyclic amine activation of pro-diet carcinogenic compounds. Despite these advances, additional studies in humans and animal models will further decipher the relationship between microbiota and CRC, and aid in developing alternate therapies based on microbiota manipulation.

  15. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID

  16. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Farré, Ricard; De Hertogh, Gert; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Nevens, Frederik; Tack, Jan; Laleman, Wim; Pirenne, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury. Material and Methods In a validated rat model of intestinal IRI (laparotomy + temporary mesenteric artery clamping), 3 conditions were tested (n = 16/group): laparotomy only (sham group); ischemia 60min+ reperfusion 60min + vehicle pretreatment (IR group); ischemia 60min + reperfusion 60min + OCA pretreatment (IR+OCA group). Vehicle or OCA (INT-747, 2*30mg/kg) was administered by gavage 24h and 4h prior to IRI. The following end-points were analyzed: 7-day survival; biomarkers of enterocyte viability (L-lactate, I-FABP); histology (morphologic injury to villi/crypts and villus length); intestinal permeability (Ussing chamber); endotoxin translocation (Lipopolysaccharide assay); cytokines (IL-6, IL-1-β, TNFα, IFN-γ IL-10, IL-13); apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3); and autophagy (LC3, p62). Results It was found that intestinal IRI was associated with high mortality (90%); loss of intestinal integrity (structurally and functionally); increased endotoxin translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production; and inhibition of autophagy. Conversely, OCA-pretreatment improved 7-day survival up to 50% which was associated with prevention of epithelial injury, preserved intestinal architecture and permeability. Additionally, FXR-agonism led to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and alleviated autophagy inhibition. Conclusion Pretreatment with OCA, an FXR-agonist, improves survival in a rodent model of intestinal IRI, preserves the gut barrier

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  18. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoru; Goto, Sae; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Okuno, Tatsuya; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Shibata, Akihide; Fujisawa, Yoshiro; Minato, Tomomi; Okamoto, Akira; Ohno, Kinji; Hirayama, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and α-synuclein in the colon. Methods We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD. Conclusions The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD. PMID:26539989

  19. Leaky gut and the liver: a role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ilan, Yaron

    2012-06-07

    Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections, major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders. Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease. Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation. Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications. A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases. These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH. Here, we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments.

  20. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Karrich, Julien J; Cornelissen, Ferry; Papazian, Natalie; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Butler, James A; Boon, Louis; Coles, Mark C; Samsom, Janneke N; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-10-19

    Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently targeted by anticancer therapies, leading to dose-limiting side effects. The cellular mechanisms that control tissue protection and mucosal healing in response to intestinal damage remain poorly understood. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are regulators of homeostasis and tissue responses to infection at mucosal surfaces. We now demonstrate that ILC3s are required for epithelial activation and proliferation in response to small intestinal tissue damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate. Multiple subsets of ILC3s are activated after intestinal tissue damage, and in the absence of ILC3s, epithelial activation is lost, correlating with increased pathology and severe damage to the intestinal crypts. Using ILC3-deficient Lgr5 reporter mice, we show that maintenance of intestinal stem cells after damage is severely impaired in the absence of ILC3s or the ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22. These data unveil a novel function of ILC3s in limiting tissue damage by preserving tissue-specific stem cells.

  1. [Alcohol and oropharyngolaryngeal and digestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Omori, T

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians.

  2. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  3. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  4. Effect of antibiotics on the 5-hydroxytryptamine content of the small intestine and other organs in rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1961-01-01

    Rats and mice were given antibiotics orally and by subcutaneous injection and the effects on tissue levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and intestinal bacteria were studied. In mice it was found that antibiotics which caused a large reduction in the bacterial flora of the intestine when given orally also caused a significant increase in intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine. In rats, neomycin caused a reduction in the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. In both rats and mice, many antibiotics caused a significant reduction in the weight of the spleen. PMID:19108146

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna-F; Caputo, Carla; De Giorgio, Roberto; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-05-21

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases.

  6. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  7. Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota that populate the mammalian intestine are critical for proper host physiology, yet simultaneously pose a potential danger. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells, namely macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are integral components of the mucosal innate immune system that maintain co-existence with the microbiota in face of this constant threat. Intestinal macrophages and DCs integrate signals from the microenvironment to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses that ultimately lead to durable tolerance of the microbiota. Tolerance is not a default response, however, because macrophages and DCs remain poised to vigorously respond to pathogens that breach the epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the salient features of macrophages and DCs in the healthy and inflamed intestine and discuss how signals from the microbiota can influence their function. PMID:25976247

  8. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  9. Opposing Effects of Alcohol on the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Tasha; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have described a dose-dependent effect of alcohol on human health with light to moderate drinkers having a lower risk of all-cause mortality than abstainers, while heavy drinkers are at the highest risk. In the case of the immune system, moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced inflammation and improved responses to vaccination, while chronic heavy drinking is associated with a decreased frequency of lymphocytes and increased risk of both bacterial and viral infections. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts a dose-dependent effect on the immune system remain poorly understood due to a lack of systematic studies that examine the effect of multiple doses and different time courses. This review will summarize our current understanding of the impact of moderate versus excessive alcohol consumption on the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system derived from both in vitro as well as in vivo studies carried out in humans and animal model studies. PMID:26375241

  10. Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

    1999-10-18

    Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema.

  11. Phosphatidylethanol accumulation promotes intestinal hyperplasia by inducing ZONAB-mediated cell density increase in response to chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pannequin, Julie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Darido, Charbel; Maurice, Tangui; Crespy, Philippe; Frohman, Michael A; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl; Joubert, Dominique; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Bali, Jean-Pierre; Hollande, Frédéric

    2007-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. High concentrations of ethanol trigger mucosal hyperregeneration, disrupt cell adhesion, and increase the sensitivity to carcinogens. Most of these effects are thought to be mediated by acetaldehyde, a genotoxic metabolite produced from ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenases. Here, we studied the role of low ethanol concentrations, more likely to mimic those found in the intestine in vivo, and used intestinal cells lacking alcohol dehydrogenase to identify the acetaldehyde-independent biological effects of ethanol. Under these conditions, ethanol did not stimulate the proliferation of nonconfluent cells, but significantly increased maximal cell density. Incorporation of phosphatidylethanol, produced from ethanol by phospholipase D, was instrumental to this effect. Phosphatidylethanol accumulation induced claudin-1 endocytosis and disrupted the claudin-1/ZO-1 association. The resulting nuclear translocation of ZONAB was shown to mediate the cell density increase in ethanol-treated cells. In vivo, incorporation of phosphatidylethanol and nuclear translocation of ZONAB correlated with increased proliferation in the colonic epithelium of ethanol-fed mice and in adenomas of chronic alcoholics. Our results show that phosphatidylethanol accumulation after chronic ethanol exposure disrupts signals that normally restrict proliferation in highly confluent intestinal cells, thus facilitating abnormal intestinal cell proliferation.

  12. Streptomycin treatment alters the intestinal microbiome, pulmonary T cell profile and airway hyperresponsiveness in a cystic fibrosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bazett, Mark; Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Haston, Christina K

    2016-01-12

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient mouse models develop phenotypes of relevance to clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway hyperresponsiveness, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and an altered intestinal microbiome. As dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been recognized as an important contributor to many systemic diseases, herein we investigated whether altering the intestinal microbiome of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and wild-type littermates, through treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin, affects the CF lung, intestinal and bone disease. We demonstrate that streptomycin treatment reduced the intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and altered the intestinal microbiome similarly in Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice, principally by affecting Lactobacillus levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness of Cftr(tm1UNC) mice was ameliorated with streptomycin, and correlated with Lactobacillus abundance in the intestine. Additionally, streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice displayed an increased percentage of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph node Th17, CD8 + IL-17+ and CD8 + IFNγ+ lymphocytes, while the CF-specific increase in respiratory IL-17 producing γδ T cells was decreased in streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. Bone disease and intestinal phenotypes were not affected by streptomycin treatment. The airway hyperresponsiveness and lymphocyte profile of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice were affected by streptomycin treatmen