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Sample records for alcohol intoxication aai

  1. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171) of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005). The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively). The most frequent place of death (98%) among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture. PMID:22168833

  2. Psychological Evaluation of Animal-assisted Intervention (AAI) Programs Involving Visiting Dogs and Cats for Alcohol Dependents: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Narita, Shin; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation method for animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs involving Mood Check List-Short form.2 (MCL-S.2) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for psychiatric daycare of Japanese alcohol. dependents. A total of 36 alcohol dependents completed the study and questionnaires assessing their state. A single session of AAI reduced both subjective and physiological measures of state anxiety (A-State); and this program induced a significant reduction in the anxiety after an AAI program session with the dogs and cats involved in the intervention (p = 0.001). The Wilcoxon t-test showed that there were also significant differences in the "anxiety", "pleasantness", and "relaxation". scores for MCL-S.2 among the alcohol dependents, before and after AAI; a significantly decreased "anxiety" score (p = 0.006), and increased "pleasantness" (p = 0.002) and "relaxation" (p=0.012) scores for MCL-S.2 after AAI. The results of this study indicated that alcohol dependents who experienced a group AAI session-program exhibited significant improvements in their feeling; decreased anxiety, and increased pleasantness and relaxation.

  3. Perceived Intoxication: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Mary E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among perceived levels of intoxication, blood alcohol levels, and impairment of selected psychomotor skills used in driving. Results reinforced previous findings which correlated perceptions of intoxication and other measures. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption tables, which calculate one's…

  4. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  5. Alcohol intoxication: Ion channels and genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.R.; Allan, A.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Acute in vitro exposure to ethanol and other intoxicant-anesthetics activates {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-stimulated chloride channels and inhibits voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels of isolated brain membranes. The question of whether these neurochemical actions are responsible for intoxication in vivo has been addressed using animal populations displaying genetic differences in sensitivity to alcohol and benzodiazepine intoxication. These genetic approaches include inbred strains, selected lines, recombinant inbred strains, and heterogeneous stocks. Genetic differences in ion channel function provide strong evidence for a role of the GABA-stimulated chloride channel in ethanol and benzodiazepine intoxication; the role of calcium and sodium channels is less clear.

  6. Alcohol intoxication and post-burn complications.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2006-01-01

    Results from the studies discussed in this article suggest that alcohol (EtOH) intoxication is a major public health problem. While the effects of injury and EtOH intoxication independent of each other have been studied in detail, only few studies have evaluated the effect of a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury on host defense. An analysis of the studies conducted in the clinical setting suggests that intoxicated patients require frequent intubations, experience delayed wound healing and longer hospital stay. Furthermore, there is a greater risk of mortality in these patients compared to those who sustained injuries in the absence of EtOH intoxication. On the other hand, there are a few studies that do not support this notion. The results obtained in experimental models clearly suggest that acute EtOH intoxication before burn injury impairs host defense and increases susceptibility to infection. Additionally, experimental data from our laboratory also indicate that EtOH intoxication before burn injury suppresses intestinal immune defense, impairs gut barrier functions and increases bacterial growth. This results in increased bacterial translocation in EtOH and burn injury. In addition, a decrease in cardiac function is also reported following a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury. Altogether, these findings suggest that EtOH intoxication before burn injury diminishes host resistance resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. Moreover, the findings of a higher incidence of infectious complications in burn and trauma patients who sustained injury in the presence of EtOH compared to those in its absence suggest that EtOH intoxication at the time of injury is a risk factor. Therefore blood EtOH should be monitored in burn/trauma patients at the time of admission in the emergency room.

  7. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI. PMID:20846615

  8. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  9. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca2+] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kerut, Edmund K.; Breslin, Jerome W.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca2+ transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ via L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca2+ transients. Methods and Results: AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+. Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+ pool (Ca2+ free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca2+ transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca2+ parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca2+ transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca2+ pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. Conclusions: These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca2+ transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca2+ storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels. PMID:26056854

  10. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  11. After-effects of acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Regan, S G

    1988-01-01

    Female, Long-Evans hooded rats (N = 10, 4 months of age) were given ethanol via intragastric intubation in doses of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg (repeated measures design). After-effects (hypothermia, free operant activity, motor performance) were measured at six, twelve and sixteen hours, respectively, for the above doses and were compared to the effects observed after the intubation of equivolume amounts of tap water. The after-effects of ethanol on rectal temperature were varied. Both rotarod performance and free operant activity were impaired after each of the above doses of ethanol. Blood ethanol analyses revealed low blood levels of ethanol (range 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.4 mg/100 ml) at the time behavioral tests were performed. Thus, quantifiable behavioral impairment was observed after blood ethanol values had declined following acute intoxication episodes. These changes may be related to "hangover" symptomatology in man and may serve as a model for investigating the influence of a variety of factors related to drug dosage, rate of ethanol ingestion, type of alcoholic beverage, and prophylactic or acute intervention therapeutics.

  12. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  13. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  14. Cutoff in Potency Implicates Alcohol Inhibition of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors in Alcohol Intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peoples, Robert W.; Weight, Forrest F.

    1995-03-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication.

  15. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  16. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness. PMID:22852289

  17. Electroencephalographic study of naloxone effects in the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dawid-Milner, M S; Díaz-Calavia, E J; Lara, J P; Fernández del Moral, R; Jiménez-Vargas, J

    1989-06-01

    Experimental assays analysing EEG changes during the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication were carried out in three groups of cats: 1) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication produced by continuous intravenous perfusion of ethanol, 0.06 g/kg/min, during 20 minutes. 2) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), just after finishing alcohol perfusion. 3) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), 15 min after finishing perfusion. Naloxone administered after an acute alcoholic intoxication worsens the recovery of EEG parameters; 1-2 (p less than 0.05), 1-3 (p less than 0.05).

  18. Alcohol intoxication and hangover: modification of hangover by chlormethiazole.

    PubMed

    Myrsten, A L; Rydberg, U; Ideström, C M; Lamble, R

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication and hangover were studied in 12 healthy male subjects who participated in three 18-h experimental sessions; two sessions in which they consumed 1.43 g alcohol/kg body weight as mixed beverages together with food, and one control session when mineral water was substituted for the alcoholic beverages. In one of the alcohol sessions they received chlormethiazole, 1 g at bedtime and 0.5 g early the following morning, in the other, they were given placebo tablets. The following variables were studied: blood-alcohol concentration; blood pressure; heart rate; blood lactate; blood pyruvate; urinary catecholamines (only during hangover); psychomotor and cognitive capacities; as well as subjective reactions. During intoxication, heart rate and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly increased and performance efficiency was significantly deteriorated in comparison with the control condition. During hangover, heart rate, blood pressure, and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly elevated, and cognitive performance was still affected, in some tests to a significant degree. During this stage there was a great variation between subjects as regards subjective hangover. Chlormethiazole was found to lower blood pressure and adrenaline output and, furthermore, to relieve unpleasant physical symptoms, but did not affect fatigue and drowsiness. The cognitive test results were only slightly influenced by this agent, while psychomotor performance was significantly impaired. Subjects with severe subjective hangover seemed to benefit more from the chlormethiazole treatment than subjects with a mild hangover.

  19. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  20. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  1. Expert testimony in sexual assault cases: Alcohol intoxication and memory.

    PubMed

    Connell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    At court-martial tribunals in the United States military, cases involving alcohol facilitated sexual assault often pivot on the alleged victim's level of intoxication or impairment and ability to consent to the sexual act. These cases frequently arise following a night of partying and heavy drinking among a group of friends and acquaintances, military and civilian. The determination of whether a sexual act was consensual may rest on estimates of the alleged victim's blood alcohol concentration and related behavioral indicia of impairment. Expert testimony may be presented by the prosecution and/or the defense, from forensic toxicologists and psychiatrists or psychologists regarding the potential involvement of alcohol and its impact on the participants relevant to the charges at court-martial. A review of the state of the science is offered to bring such testimony into perspective. Appellate cases illustrate that the experts' testimony may sometimes elucidate, sometimes obfuscate, and sometimes exceed professional expertise and invade the province of the factfinder. PMID:26372634

  2. Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Kurtz, Kristine M.; Molina, Patricia E.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute alcohol intoxication increases intestinal lymph flow by unknown mechanisms, potentially impacting mucosal immunity. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced intrinsic pump function of mesenteric lymphatics contributes to increased intestinal lymph flow during alcohol intoxication. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to concious, unrestrained rats through surgically-implanted catheters. Time-matched controls received either no bolus, vehicle, or isocaloric dextrose. Thirty minutes after alcohol administration, rats were anesthetized and mesenteric collecting lymphatics were isolated and cannulated to study intrinsic pumping parameters. In separate experiments, mesenteric lymphatics were isolated to examine direct effects of alcohol on intrinsic pump activity. Results Lymphatics isolated from alcohol-intoxicated animals displayed slgnificantly decreased contraction frequency (CF) than the dextrose group, elevated stroke volume index (SVI) versus all other groups, and decreased myogenic responsiveness compared to sham. Elevating pressure from 2 to 4 cm H2O increased the volume flow index 2.4-fold in the alcohol group versus 1.4-fold for shams. Isolated lymphatics exposed to 20 mM alcohol had reduced myogenic tone, without changes in CF or SVI. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication enhances intrinsic pumping by mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Alcohol directly decreases lymphatic myogenic tone, but effects on phasic contractions occur by an unidentified mechanism. PMID:21040117

  3. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  4. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  5. Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also the metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in the thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in the cerebellum and the smallest in the thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge tended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p<0.06) and the increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (i.e. ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  6. The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men’s Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-01-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their post-incident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol’s influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work. PMID:20939645

  7. Event-Level Covariation of Alcohol Intoxication and Behavioral Risks during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Dan J.; Fromme, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the global- and event-level associations between alcohol intoxication and 10 behavioral risks during the 1st year of college. Participants (n = 1113; 62% female; 54% Caucasian) completed 30 days of Web-based self-monitoring that assessed alcohol consumption and involvement in 10 behavioral risks. Generalized estimating…

  8. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  9. [Diagnostic implication of blood and urine morphine content in alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S V; Zharov, V V

    2006-01-01

    A total of 198 cases of acute parenteral poisoning with opiates are characterized. The range of concentrations of opiates metabolites in the blood and urine, main causes of death due to opiate poisoning in alcohol intoxication are analysed. Opiates toxicity was assessed with the logit-regression method and dose-effect curves valid for analysis of relationships between probability of death and opiate metabolites concentration in blood and urine. Correlation between probability of death and detection of morphine and ethanol in biological media of the victims is considered. Concentrations of morphine in blood and urine definitely indicating opiates poisoning in alcohol intoxication as a cause of death are determined.

  10. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  11. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  12. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol. PMID:25111186

  13. [The characteristics of the abdominal symptoms in craniocerebral trauma sustained in a state of alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Pedachenko, Ie H; Udod, S V

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on 63 cases of syndrome of nonprimary acute abdomen (SNPAA) in craniocerebral injury (CCI) sustained in the state of alcoholic intoxication, and 59 observations connected with cranio-abdominal injuries (CAI). In the presence of cerebral injuries, one of the specific characteristics of alcohol was that it entailed changes in the abdominal symptomatology either concealing manifestations of severe damage to the abdominal organs or potentiating SNPAA. In all the observations the abdominal symptomatology was less pronounced that in those victims who do not take alcoholic drinks. There have been identified four variants of SNPAA course. In 12.7% of cases manifestations of the above syndrome were related to the CCI pattern only, being associated with origination of pseudodefense of "truncal" genesis. It is advisable that instrumental methods of study into abdominal organs should come to be more widely used in those settings where there is alcohol intoxication with suspected CAI.

  14. The Uniform Alcoholism and Intoxication Treatment Act: Law Enforcement Guidelines, Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed for use by law enforcement agencies during the conduct of training in connection with the Uniform Alcoholism and Intoxication Treatment Act. The suggested training program comprises six hours of instruction address, in addition to a short introduction to the overall course. The major topical areas are: (1) Course Outline;…

  15. Intervening to Decrease Alcohol Abuse at University Parties: Differential Reinforcement of Intoxication Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Angela K.; Ehrhart, Ian J.; Glindemann, Kent E.; Geller, E. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This quasi-experimental field study assessed whether an incentive/reward intervention can change the drinking behavior and the subsequent levels of intoxication among college students attending fraternity parties. A total of 356 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) assessments, using hand-held breathalyzers, were obtained at two baseline and at two…

  16. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'.

  17. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793

  18. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  19. Alcohol expectancies and adolescent drinking: differential prediction of frequency, quantity, and intoxication.

    PubMed

    Chen, M J; Grube, J W; Madden, P A

    1994-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancies have been shown to be consistently related to drinking and problematic drinking among underage youth, some studies suggest that they are more predictive of quantity than of frequency of drinking. However, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. This study examines the differential prediction hypothesis using a sample of 1,781 high school students from the San Francisco Bay Area. Measures included yearly and monthly frequency of drinking and intoxication and usual quantity consumed per drinking occasion. Alcohol expectancies were measured with 11 items asking about the likelihood that having 2 or 3 whole drinks of alcohol would lead to specific personal consequences. Structural equations analyses indicated that expectancies were better predictors of quantity than of frequency or intoxication. The results also show that positive and negative expectancy subscales were differentially associated with the drinking measures and the patterns were somewhat different for males and females.

  20. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden.

  1. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  2. Alcohol intoxication impairs mesopic rod and cone temporal processing in social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; King, Andrea; Cao, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related driving accidents and fatalities occur most frequently at nighttime and at dawn, i.e. a mesopic lighting condition in which visual processing depends on both rod and cone photoreceptors. The temporal functions of the rod and cone pathways are critical for driving in this lighting condition. However, how alcohol influences the temporal functions in the rod and cone pathways at mesopic light levels is inconclusive. To address this, the present study investigated whether an acute intoxicating dose of alcohol impairs rod- and/or cone-mediated critical fusion frequency (CFF, the lowest frequency of which an intermittent or flickering light stimulus is perceived as steady). Methods In Experiment I, we measured the CFFs for three types of visual stimuli (rod stimulus alone, cone stimulus alone, and the mixture of both stimuli types), under three illuminant light levels (dim illuminance: 2Td; low illuminance: 20Td; and medium illuminance 80Td) in moderate-heavy social drinkers before and after they consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol (0.8g/kg) compared with a placebo beverage. In Experiment II, we examined if the illuminance level (dark versus light) of the visual area surrounding the test stimuli alters alcohol’s effect on the temporal processing of rods and cones. Results The results showed that compared with placebo, alcohol significantly reduced CFFs of all stimulus types at all illuminance levels. Furthermore, alcohol intoxication produced a larger impairment on rod-pathway-mediated CFFs under light versus dark surround. Conclusions These results indicate that alcohol intake slows down rod and cone-pathway-mediated temporal processing. Further research may elucidate if this effect may play a role in alcohol-related injury and accidents, which often occur under low light conditions. PMID:26247196

  3. Fatalities due to methyl alcohol intoxication in Turkey: an 8-year study.

    PubMed

    Yayci, Nesime; Ağritmiş, Hasan; Turla, Ahmet; Koç, Sermet

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine methyl alcohol poisoning cases from the medico-legal point of view. The records of the Morgue Department of Council of the Forensic Medicine were reviewed retrospectively for all methyl alcohol poisonings for the period of 27.10.1992 and 30.05.2001. The victim's age, sex, death year, death place, methyl alcohol blood levels, the source of methyl alcohol, accompanying laboratory results and histopathologic tissue changes were recorded. The number of deaths due to the methyl alcohol poisoning was 271 during that period of time. Two hundred and forty-two of the (89.3%) total 271 methyl alcohol fatalities were men and 29 (10.7%) of were women. The largest age group was 36-40 years old, followed by 41-45. The methyl alcohol blood concentrations ranged widely from 50 to 755 mg for per 100 ml. There were 222 cases (81.9%) with the methyl alcohol blood concentrations over 100 mg/dl. Twenty-nine (10.7%) victims were poisoned through the consumption of cologne and three of them with alcoholic beverage named "Raki". Consumed products were not known in all other cases because of insufficient patient history and data. As a conclusion, regarding the distribution according to years, mortality due to methyl alcohol intoxication in our country have been proceeding on a certain level. In order to decrease the mortality due to methyl alcohol intoxication, some precautions should be developed that could prevent the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages illegally produced.

  4. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  5. Predictors and Outcomes of Variability in Subjective Alcohol Intoxication among College Students: An Event-Level Analysis across Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual differences in subjective alcohol intoxication, as measured by laboratory-based alcohol challenge, have been identified as a phenotypic risk factor for alcohol use disorders. Further, recent evidence indicates that subjective alcohol response is also associated with event-level physiological consequences among college students, including blackouts and hangovers. Methods The current investigation tested predictors of and outcomes associated with subjective intoxication in the natural drinking environment. In a preliminary laboratory alcohol-challenge study (N = 53), we developed a brief measure of subjective alcohol intoxication for use in event level research. Participating students in the principal study (N = 1,867; 63% female; 54% Caucasian) completed 30 days of Web-based self-monitoring in each of the four college years. Results In the principal study, Generalized Estimating Equation analyses revealed that both lighter drinking and a family history of alcohol problems predicted greater subjective intoxication after accounting for estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC). Moreover, greater subjective intoxication during a given drinking episode was associated with negative alcohol-related consequences, illicit drug use, and unsafe sex, and at higher eBACs, was associated with aggression, sex, and property crime. Students who on average experienced greater subjective intoxication were also more likely to experience negative consequences and engage in illicit drug use, sex, unsafe sex, and aggression. Conclusions These findings suggest that both within-person variability and between-person individual differences in subjective intoxication may be risk factors for adverse drinking outcomes at the event level. Intervention efforts aimed at reducing problems associated with collegiate drinking may benefit from consideration both of who experiences greater subjective intoxication and of the situations in which they are more likely to do so

  6. The Interactive Effects of Emotion Regulation and Alcohol Intoxication on Lab-Based Intimate Partner Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Laura E.; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C.

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt’s (2013) I3 framework to examine the interactive effects of two emotion regulation strategies, anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor), on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants’ trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while employing one of three randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I3 theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  7. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  8. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition.

  9. [PROTEIN CONTENT CHANGES IN RATS' LIVER AND BRAIN UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION].

    PubMed

    Raksha, N G; Savchuk, A N; Kharchenko, O I; Galenova, T I; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    An electrophoretic investigation of quantitative protein content in rat's' tissyes under chronic alcoholic intoxication has been done. It was shown the significant increase of protein content with molecular mass 55, 48-50, 43-45, 39-41 KDa and the decrease-of protein fractions with molecular mass 46-48, 34-35, 27-30, 16-18 KDa accordingly in liver and brain homogenates of experimental animals. PMID:26827457

  10. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  11. The Uniform Alcoholism and Intoxication Treatment Act: Law Enforcement Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This text has been prepared in an effort to explain what the Uniform Act contains, intends to do, and cannot do. It also examines mehtods by which the Act can be implemented as well as the manner in which implementation can be accomplished most effectively. Working within the parameters of the overall alcohol problem, it also addresses the major…

  12. [Comparative characteristics of glucose metabolism in the liver of rats under acute alcohol and morphine intoxication].

    PubMed

    Lelevich, S V

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis effect of acute alcohol and morphine intoxications on rats on hepatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway was done. The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of ethanol on activity of limiting enzymes of these metabolic ways, as well as anaerobic reorientation of glucose metabolism was recognised with the increase of the dose of the intake alcohol. Morfine (10 mg/kg) activated enymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, but in contrast to ethanol it did not influence these parameters at the dose 20 or 40 mg/kg.

  13. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  14. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  15. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  16. Alcohol intoxication effects on simulated driving: exploring alcohol-dose effects on brain activation using functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Vince D; Pekar, James J; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2004-11-01

    Driving while intoxicated is a major public health problem. We investigated impaired driving using a simulated driving skill game that presents an 'in-car' view of a road and a readout of speed. We explored brain activation and behavioral alterations from baseline at two blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Participants received single-blind individualized doses of beverage alcohol designed to produce blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.04 and 0.08 or placebo. Scanning occurred on a 1.5 Tesla Philips MRI scanner after training to asymptote performance. Analysis was performed using independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate systematically nonoverlapping 'networks' and their time courses. Imaging results revealed seven separate driving-related brain networks with different time courses. Several significant findings were observed for the imaging data. First, dose-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes were revealed in orbitofrontal (OF) and motor (but not cerebellar) regions; visual and medial frontal regions were unaffected. Second, cerebellar regions were significantly associated with driving behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, a global disruptive effect of alcohol on the ICA time courses was observed with highly significant differences in OF and motor regions. Alcohol thus demonstrated some behavioral effects and unique, disruptive, dose-dependent effects on fMRI signal within several brain circuits. The fMRI data also suggest that the deficits observed in alcohol intoxication may be modulated primarily through OF/anterior cingulate, motor and cerebellar regions as opposed to attentional areas in frontoparietal cortex.

  17. The Incidence and Severity of Hangover the Morning after Moderate Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Greece, Jacey; Almeida, Alissa; Minsky, Sara J; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Arnedt, J Todd; Hermos, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Differential propensity for hangover may play a role in determining individuals’ drinking practices so predictors of incidence and severity are needed. Methods Data were combined from three randomized crossover trials investigating the residual effects of heavy drinking on next-day performance. All 172 participants received either an alcoholic beverage (M=.115 g% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) or placebo matched on type and amount one night and a week later received the other beverage. Alcoholic beverages were vodka, bourbon or high alcohol beer. After each drinking session, following a 9-hour period for sleep and breakfast, participants completed questionnaire a hangover measure. Results No hangover was reported by 24% of participants, mild hangover by 44% and moderate hangover by 32%. Neither alcoholic beverage type nor participant characteristics (sex, age, drinking practices, tobacco use, or family history of alcohol problems) were associated with incidence of hangover. Conclusion The majority of people experienced mild to moderate hangover the morning after this level of intoxication. Further studies are required to investigate other hypothesized causes of variation in the propensity for hangover. PMID:18412754

  18. Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin

  19. ‘Wired’, yet intoxicated: Modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of highly caffeinated ‘energy drinks’ with alcohol (ethanol) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues, however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and ethanol co-consumption employing the limited-access ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ paradigm (DID). Methods Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Results Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant BECs, nor did it alter alcohol’s anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive interfering effects in a novel object recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Conclusions Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially-identified ‘wide awake drunk’ state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally-valid explorations

  20. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations.

  1. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  2. Precipitating Circumstances of Suicide and Alcohol Intoxication among U.S. Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; McFarland, Bentson H.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of nine different types of precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents, and examine the association between circumstances and post-mortem blood alcohol content (BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl.) across U.S. ethnic groups. Methods Data come from the restricted 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with post-mortem information on 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 17 states of the U.S. Results Among men, precipitating circumstances statistically associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl were physical health and job problems for Blacks, and experiencing a crisis, physical health problems and intimate partner problem for Hispanics. Among women, the only precipitating circumstance associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl was substance abuse problems other than alcohol for Blacks. The number of precipitating circumstances present before the suicide was negatively associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions Selected precipitating circumstances were associated with a BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl, and the strongest determinant of this level of alcohol intoxication prior to suicide among all ethnic groups was the presence of an alcohol problem. PMID:26173709

  3. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation exhibit sexual dimorphism after chronic alcohol consumption but not acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Frost, Robert A; Vary, Thomas C

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests alcoholic myopathy is more severe in females than males, but comparable animal studies are lacking that make elucidating the biochemical locus for this defect problematic. The present study determined whether skeletal muscle protein synthesis and markers of degradation exhibit a sexual dimorphic response to either chronic alcohol consumption or acute intoxication. Male and female rats were fed an alcohol-containing diet, pair-fed for 26 wk (chronic), or received an intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (acute). In males, chronic alcohol decreased gastrocnemius protein synthesis by 20%. This reduction was associated with a twofold increase in the inactive eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E.4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) complex and a 60% reduction in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. This redistribution of eIF4E was associated with decreased phosphorylation of both 4E-BP1 and eIF4G (50-55%). The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was also reduced 60% in alcohol-consuming male rats. In contrast, neither rates of protein synthesis nor indexes of translation initiation in muscle were altered in alcohol-fed female rats despite blood alcohol levels comparable to males. Chronic alcohol ingestion did not alter atrogin-1 or muscle RING finger-1 mRNA content (biomarkers of muscle proteolysis) in males but increased their expression in females 50-100%. Acute alcohol intoxication produced a comparable decrease in muscle protein synthesis and translation initiation in both male and female rats. Our data demonstrate a sexual dimorphism for muscle protein synthesis, translation initiation, and proteolysis in response to chronic, but not acute, alcohol intoxication; however, they do not support evidence indicating females are more sensitive toward the development of alcoholic skeletal muscle myopathy.

  4. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  5. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  6. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  7. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed.

  8. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (9 men and 9 women) attended 4 test sessions where they received one of 4 doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increases various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, co-administration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves better able to function than is actually the case. PMID:22023670

  9. A cost analysis of web-enhanced training to reduce alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a “real world”, non-research setting. Methods Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from a randomized controlled trial of the eARM intervention, which was conducted across 15 communities in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Inputs and their costs were obtained from records maintained during the randomized controlled trial. Total development and testing costs were computed, and implementation costs were estimated with input from the research team. The average implementation cost per establishment was calculated by dividing the total estimated implementation cost by the number of establishments that participated in the study. This provides an estimate of the resources needed to support a broader dissemination of interventions such as eARM. Results Direct development and testing costs were $484,904. Including the University's overhead cost rate of 51 percent, total development and testing costs were $732,205. Total estimated implementation costs were $179,999 over a 12 month period. The average cost per establishment was $1,588. Conclusions Given the large damage liability awards faced by establishments that serve alcohol to drunk drivers, establishments or their insurance companies may be willing to pay the $1,588 estimated implementation cost in order to limit their exposure to these large damage awards. Therefore, making interventions such as eARM available could be an effective and sustainable policy for reducing alcohol-related incidents. PMID:27087708

  10. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  11. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  12. Acute multiple focal neuropathies and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Che; Yang, Hsiu-Chun; Chen, Yao-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Acute-onset alcohol-associated neuropathy is only occasionally reported, and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy is rare. Here, we report a male who developed acute multiple focal neuropathies and later delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication. He had hypoxia and rhabdomyolysis, presenting with acute renal failure initially, and cardiopulmonary support, including mechanical ventilation, led to improvement of the patient at the acute stage. He suffered from bilateral hand numbness and mild weakness of the right lower limb thereafter. Nerve-conduction study revealed no pickup of compound muscle action potential or sensory nerve action potential in the bilateral ulnar nerve, but showed attenuated amplitude of compound muscle action potential in the right femoral nerve. Multiple focal neuropathies were suspected, and he received outpatient rehabilitation after being discharged. However, the patient developed gradual onset of weakness in four limbs and cognitive impairment 23 days after the hypoxia event. Brain computed tomography showed low attenuation over bilateral globus pallidus, and brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed diffuse increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in bilateral white matter. He was admitted again under the impression of delayed postanoxic brain injury. Supportive treatment and active rehabilitation were given. He had gradual improvement in motor and functional status after rehabilitation. He could walk with festinating gait under supervision, and needed only minimal assistance in performing activities of daily living approximately 1 year later. PMID:26229472

  13. Molecular Profiles of Drinking Alcohol to Intoxication in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Megan K.; Rhodes, Justin S.; Crabbe, John C.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron; Ponomarev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol addiction develops through a series of stages, and mechanistic studies are needed to understand the transition from initial drug use to sustained controlled alcohol consumption followed by abuse and physical dependence. The focus of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary alcohol consumption on brain gene expression profiles using a mouse model of binge drinking. The main goal was to identify alcohol-responsive genes and functional categories after a single episode of drinking to intoxication. Methods We used a modification of a “Drinking In the Dark” (DID) procedure (Rhodes et al., 2005) that allows mice to experience physiologically relevant amounts of alcohol in a non-stressful environment and also allows for detection of alcohol-sensitive molecular changes in a dose-dependent manner. C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to either 20% ethanol solution or water (single bottle) starting 3 hours after lights off for 4 hours and brains were harvested immediately after the drinking session. cDNA microarrays were used to assess the effects of voluntary drinking on global gene expression in 6 brain regions. We employed three statistical approaches to analyze microarray data. Results A commonly used approach that applies a strict statistical threshold identified the eight top statistically significant genes whose expression was significantly correlated with blood ethanol concentration (BEC) in one of the brain regions. We then used a systems network approach to examine brain region-specific transcriptomes and identify modules of co-expressed (correlated) genes. In each brain region, we identified alcohol-responsive modules, i.e., modules significantly enriched for genes whose expression was correlated with BEC. A functional overrepresentation analysis was then applied to examine the organizing principles of alcohol-responsive modules. Genes were clustered into modules according to their roles in different physiological processes, functional

  14. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  15. Interleukin-18 delays neutrophil apoptosis following alcohol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Li, Xiaoling; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that burn patients who are intoxicated at the time of injury are more susceptible to infection and have a higher incidence of mortality. A major cause of death in burn and trauma patients regardless of their alcohol (EtOH) exposure is multiple organ dysfunction, which is driven in part by the systemic inflammatory response and activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are short lived and undergo apoptosis to maintain homeostasis and resolution of inflammation. A delay in apoptosis of neutrophils is one important mechanism which allows for their prolonged presence and the release of potentially harmful enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EtOH intoxication combined with burn injury influences neutrophil apoptosis and whether IL-18 plays any role in this setting. To accomplish this investigation, rats were gavaged with EtOH (3.2 g/kg) 4 h before being subjected to sham or burn injury of ~12.5% of the total body surface area, and then killed on d 1 after injury. Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated and lysed. The lysates were analyzed for pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. We found that EtOH combined with burn injury prolonged neutrophil survival. This prolonged neutrophil survival was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of the neutrophil proapoptotic protein Bax, and an increase in antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl. Administration of IL-18 antibody following burn injury normalized the levels of Bax, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl. The decrease in caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation observed following EtOH and burn injury was also normalized in rats treated with anti-IL-18 antibody. These findings suggest that IL-18 delays neutrophil apoptosis following EtOH and burn injury by modulating the pro- and antiapoptotic proteins.

  16. Neuropeptide Y response to alcohol is altered in nucleus accumbens of mice selectively bred for drinking to intoxication.

    PubMed

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Crabbe, John C

    2016-04-01

    The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice have been selectively bred for drinking to intoxicating blood alcohol levels and represent a genetic model of risk for binge-like drinking. Presently, little is known about the specific genetic factors that promote excessive intake in these mice. Previous studies have identified neuropeptide Y (NPY) as a potential target for modulating alcohol intake. NPY expression differs in some rodent lines that have been selected for high and low alcohol drinking phenotypes, as well as inbred mouse strains that differ in alcohol preference. Alcohol drinking and alcohol withdrawal also produce differential effects on NPY expression in the brain. Here, we assessed brain NPY protein levels in HDID mice of two replicates of selection and control heterogeneous stock (HS) mice at baseline (water drinking) and after binge-like alcohol drinking to determine whether selection is associated with differences in NPY expression and its sensitivity to alcohol. NPY levels did not differ between HDID and HS mice in any brain region in the water-drinking animals. HS mice showed a reduction in NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) - especially in the shell - in ethanol-drinking animals vs. water-drinking controls. However, HDID mice showed a blunted NPY response to alcohol in the NAc core and shell compared to HS mice. These findings suggest that the NPY response to alcohol has been altered by selection for drinking to intoxication in a region-specific manner. Thus, the NPY system may represent a potential target for altering binge-like alcohol drinking in these mice. PMID:26779672

  17. Researching the intoxicated: informed consent implications for alcohol and drug research.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Judith; Charles, Vikki

    2008-03-01

    This article considers the informed consent process in relation to carrying out research with intoxicated participants in 'field' research settings. There is little discussion in the literature of the potential problems that the intoxication of research participants may pose to research. Intoxication is a potential problem for all researchers but is heightened in field research that takes place in settings where participants are likely to be intoxicated, such as licensed venues, in drug consumption rooms, or police custody suites. The risks to research participants that intoxication poses should not be resolved by electing not to do research with intoxicated participants; it is argued that these risks can be managed to some extent, and are offset by the benefits of such research. Moreover, intoxication (and the impairment of cognitive functions relevant to valid informed consent) may not always be identifiable through behavioural or biochemical methods of detection. The search for accurate and field-practical methods for identifying intoxication amongst participants is useful, but not the only strategy for researchers who want to ensure the validity of the consent process. Suggestions are provided for devising research protocols that acknowledge and accept intoxication of research participants and attempt to protect them. One solution is to side-step identification of intoxication per se as a strategic objective in the consent process, and turn instead to established methods for ensuring that information has been understood by potential research participants.

  18. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  19. Brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication – a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse among youth is a major public health concern and numbers of adolescents admitted to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication in Germany are recently growing. The emergency setting offers an opportunity to reach at-risk alcohol consuming adolescents and provide brief interventions in a potential “teachable moment”. However, studies on brief interventions targeting adolescents in emergency care are scarce and little is known about their effectiveness when delivered immediately following hospitalization for acute alcohol intoxication. In this protocol we present the HaLT-Hamburg trial evaluating a brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in the emergency department after an episode of acute alcoholic intoxication. Methods The trial design is a parallel two-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial with follow-up assessment after 3 and 6 months. N = 312 participants aged 17 years and younger will be recruited Fridays to Sundays in 6 pediatric clinics over a period of 30 months. Intervention condition is a manual-based brief motivational intervention with a telephone booster after 6 weeks and a manual-guided intervention for caregivers which will be compared to treatment as usual. Primary outcomes are reduction in binge drinking episodes, quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking day and alcohol-related problems. Secondary outcome is further treatment seeking. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline differences will be conducted according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and completers (per-protocol) principles to examine intervention effects. We also examine quantitative and qualitative process data on feasibility, intervention delivery, implementation and receipt from intervention providers, receivers and regular emergency department staff. Discussion The study has a number of strengths. First, a rigorous evaluation of HaLT-Hamburg is timely because variations of the HaLT project are widely used in

  20. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. PMID:27418952

  1. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  2. Acute care for alcohol intoxication. Be prepared to consider clinical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yost, David A

    2002-12-01

    The clinical assessment of an acutely intoxicated patient should be performed with meticulous care and include repetitive examinations to properly determine the patient's condition. Multiple factors, such as trauma and concomitant use of other drugs, can confuse the diagnostic picture and affect the choice of therapy. In this article, Dr Yost reviews the diagnostic considerations, appropriate treatment, and clinic discharge for the intoxicated patient.

  3. ALCOHOL-RELATED INJURY AND DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED: A RISK FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF TWO ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS IN THE 2000 AND 2005 NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2010-01-01

    Background National population data on risk of alcohol-related injury or driving while intoxicated (DWI) are scarce. Objective The association of alcohol-related injury and perceived DWI (PDWI) with both volume and pattern of consumption are examined in a merged sample of respondents from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys using risk function analysis. Methods Self reported consumption patterns on 8,736 respondents who consumed at least one drink in the last 12 months were assessed as average daily volume and frequency of consuming 5 or more (5+) , 8 or more (8+) and 12 or more (12+) drinks in a day. Risks were defined using CHAID segmentation analysis implemented with SPSS Answer Tree. Results For alcohol-related injury (n=110), those most at risk drank at lower volumes with some high maximum occasions, or at higher volumes, where high maximum occasions had little added effect. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day (9.7%). For DWI (n=696), those most at risk drank at higher volumes and with a greater number of high maximum occasions. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day and more than one 8+ occasion during the last year (39%). Conclusions Overall risk appears to increase with increasing volume, but at a given volume level, risk also increases with frequency of high maximum occasions. These data lend relatively weak support for previous findings suggesting that less frequent drinkers who only occasionally consume larger quantities may be at greater risk, and any alcohol consumption appears to carry some risk of these harms. PMID:20465375

  4. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.

  5. Effects of Intoxicating Free-Choice Alcohol Consumption During Adolescence on Drinking and Impulsivity During Adulthood in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David Scott; Matson, Liana Marie; Grahame, Nicholas Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of alcohol during adolescence continues to be a problem, and it has been shown that earlier onset of drinking predicts increased alcohol abuse problems later in life. High levels of impulsivity have been demonstrated to be characteristic of alcoholics, and impulsivity has also been shown to predict later alcohol use in teenage subjects, showing that impulsivity may precede the development of alcohol use disorders. These experiments examined adolescent drinking in a high-drinking, relatively impulsive mouse population, and assessed its effects on adult drinking and adult impulsivity. Methods Experiment 1: Selectively bred High-Alcohol Preferring (HAPII) mice were given either alcohol (free choice access) or water only for two weeks during middle adolescence or adulthood. All mice were given free choice access to alcohol 30 days later, in adulthood. Experiment 2: Adolescent HAPII mice drank alcohol and water, or water alone, for two weeks, and were then trained to perform a delay discounting task as adults to measure impulsivity. In each experiment, effects of volitional ethanol consumption on later behavior were assessed. We expected adolescent alcohol exposure to increase subsequent drinking and impulsivity. Results Mice consumed significant quantities of ethanol, reaching average blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 142 mg/dl (adolescent) or 154 mg/dl (adult) in Experiment 1. Adolescent mice in experiment 2 reached an average of 108 mg/dl. Mice exposed to alcohol in either adolescence or adulthood showed a transient increase in ethanol consumption, but we observed no differences in impulsivity in adult mice as a function of whether mice drank alcohol during adolescence. Conclusions These findings indicate that HAPII mice drink intoxicating levels of alcohol during both adolescence and adulthood, and that this volitional intake has long-term effects on subsequent drinking behavior. Nonetheless, this profound exposure to alcohol during adolescence

  6. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  7. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  8. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  9. The "intoxication state of consciousness": a model for alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Galanter, M

    1976-06-01

    The author describes a model of intoxicant use based on altered states of consciousness and reviews his own and others' research on marijuana to illustrate the utility of this model, which is derived from both introspective reports and observed data. The relationship of social behavior and cognitive functioning to the "intoxication state of consciousness" is discussed. This state of consciousness may have an adaptive value in engendering and stabilizing social cohesion. Possible treatment implications include cognitive labeling of cues that precipitate episodes of abuse, training for moderated drug use while patients are intoxicated, and providing abusers with altered consciousness through other means, such as meditation.

  10. Effect of postnatal treadmill exercise on c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rat pups born from the alcohol-intoxicated mothers.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Kim, Hong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Shin, Min-Chul; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Tea-Soo; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Rhim, Yong-Taek; Kim, Sangho; Park, Ho-Yoon; Yi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sam-Jun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2008-02-01

    Maternal alcohol-intoxication during pregnancy exerts detrimental effects on fetal development and is known to influence learning ability and memory capability by altering neuronal activity in the hippocampus. c-Fos expression represents neuronal activity and plays a crucial role in the brain development. Physical exercise is known to enhance neuronal plasticity and activity. In the present study, we investigated the influence of postnatal treadmill running on the c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rat pups born from the alcohol-intoxicated mothers. The results obtained show that maternal alcohol-intoxication suppressed c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rat pups and that postnatal treadmill exercise enhanced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of these rat pups. The present study suggests that exercise should be considered as a therapeutic means of countering the effects of maternal alcohol-intoxication, and that it may provide a useful strategy for enhancing the neuronal activity of children born from the mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy.

  11. Think They're Drunk? Alcohol Servers and the Identification of Intoxication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward D.; Nusbaumer, Michael R.; Reiling, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines practices used by servers to assess intoxication. The analysis was based upon questionnaires mailed to a random probability sample of licensed servers from one state (N = 822). Indicators found to be most important were examined in relation to a variety of occupational characteristics. Implications for training curricula, policy…

  12. [The Development of Clinical and Morphological Manifestations of Chronic Alcoholic Myopathy in Men with Prolonged Alcohol Intoxication].

    PubMed

    Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S; Zinovyeva, o E; Kazantseva, Iu V; Samkhaeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy occurs in 40-60% of patients who abuse alcohol, and is accompanied by decreased performance, proximal paresis and atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, it is unknown what is important in the development of the disease: duration of alcohol abuse, or the dose of ethanol consumed. Unknown dynamics of the pathological process in skeletal muscle. We examined male patients identified with alcoholic myopathy and without it, evaluated the duration of alcohol abuse, intake of ethanol, morphological characteristics m.quadriceps vastus lateralis and the content of IGF-1 in plasma. It has been shown that chronic alcoholic myopathy develops after 10 years of alcohol abuse; proximal paresis is observed only in patients with atrophy of muscle fibers, thus there is a transformation of myosin phenotype from slow to fast. The decrease IGF-1 in plasma detected at the early stages of the Church, including in patients without clinical manifestations of proximal paresis and morphological signs of atrophy of muscle fibers.

  13. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  14. Increased impulsivity in rats as a result of repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication and abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Cristina; Wiskerke, Joost; Natividad, Luis A.; Polis, Ilham Y.; de Vries, Taco J.; Pattij, Tommy; Parsons, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a risk factor for alcoholism and long-term alcohol exposure may further impair impulse control in a manner that propels problematic alcohol use. The present study employed the rat 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) to measure behavioral inhibition and attentional capacity during abstinence from repeated 5d cycles of alcohol liquid diet consumption. Task performance was not disrupted following the first cycle of alcohol exposure, however, evidence of impaired behavioral inhibition emerged following the third cycle of alcohol exposure. In comparison with controls, alcohol rats exhibited deficits in inhibitory control during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT tests employing variable inter-trial intervals (varITI). This behavioral disruption was not present during early abstinence (3d) but was evident by 7d abstinence and persisted for at least 34d. Interestingly, renewed alcohol consumption ameliorated these disruptions in impulse control, though deficient behavioral inhibition re-emerged during subsequent abstinence. Indices of increased impulsivity were no longer present in tests conducted after 49 days of abstinence. Alcohol-related impairments in impulse control were not evident in sessions employing highly familiar task parameters regardless of abstinence period and control experiments confirmed that performance deficits during the challenge sessions were unlikely to result from alcohol-related disruption in the adaptation to repeated varITI testing. Together, the current findings demonstrate that chronic intermittent alcohol consumption results in decreased behavioral inhibition in rats that is temporally similar to clinical observations of disrupted impulsive control in abstinent alcoholics performing tasks of behavioral inhibition. PMID:24341858

  15. Effects of Idazoxan on Alcohol Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication: A Preliminary Human Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary basic and human studies suggest that the α2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan may represent a novel medication for alcohol dependence (AD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the co-administration of idazoxan with alcohol and explore whether pharmacokinetics (PK) and biobehavioral (Pharmacodynamics, PD) mechanisms of idazoxan may alter alcohol's effects. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized human laboratory study. Ten social drinkers were dosed, in two different alcohol challenge sessions (ACS), with a single oral dose of idazoxan (40-mg) or placebo, followed by a fixed alcohol dose 60 minutes later. Participants returned after a one-week wash-out and they were crossed over to the opposite medication condition. Results There were no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) between idazoxan and placebo. Moreover, during the ACS paradigm, 40-mg idazoxan was well tolerated with no significant autonomic effects compared to placebo; idazoxan reduced the peak blood alcohol level (Cmax) (p<.01) and time to peak (tmax) (p<.05) compared to placebo. A PK/PD model aligned the biobehavioral effects, demonstrating that the co-administration of 40-mg idazoxan with alcohol, decreased alcohol-related stimulation (p<.05) and increased alcohol-related sedation (p<.05). Conclusions This study supports the safety and tolerability of 40-mg idazoxan when co-administered with alcohol. Additionally, this study suggests that idazoxan may alter the biphasic effects of alcohol by decreasing stimulation and increasing sedation. These findings have implications for further investigation of using idazoxan as a probe to develop potential novel medications to treat alcoholic patients. PMID:25833022

  16. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  17. Immediate S-100B and neuron-specific enolase plasma measurements for rapid evaluation of primary brain damage in alcohol-intoxicated, minor head-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Mussack, Thomas; Biberthaler, Peter; Kanz, Karl Georg; Heckl, Ute; Gruber, Rudolf; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Mutschler, Wolf; Jochum, Marianne

    2002-11-01

    The neuroproteins S-100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) released into the circulation are suggested to be reliable markers for primary brain damage. However, safe identification of relevant post-traumatic complications after minor head injury (MHI) is often hampered by acute intoxication of the patients. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic validity of immediate plasma measurements of S-100B and NSE in comparison with neurological examinations and cerebral computed tomography (CCT) findings in alcohol-intoxicated MHI patients. One hundered thrity-nine MHI individuals were enrolled in this prospective study during Munich's Oktoberfest 2000. Plasma levels of S-100B and NSE as well as serum alcohol and glucose values were determined by fully automated assays immediately after admission. The results were compared with Glasgow Coma Scale score, a brief neurological examination, and the CCT findings. Without being influenced by alcohol, median S-100B levels of the CCT+ group were significantly increased compared with those of the CCT- group (P < 0.001). NSE, alcohol, and glucose levels showed no significant group differences. As calculated by the ROC analysis, a cutoff value of 0.21 ng/mL with an area under the curve of 0.864 clearly differentiates between CCT+ and CCT- patients at a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 50.0%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.0. Although acute alcohol intoxication did not confound plasma measurements of S-100B and NSE, only S-100B levels below the cutoff level of 0.21 ng/mL seem to indicate absence of primary brain damage. Thus, in addition to routine neurological examinations, S-100B measurements immediately after admission might help to reduce CCT scans in alcohol-intoxicated patients early after MHI.

  18. Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Cash, J R

    1991-09-01

    As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment. PMID:1930083

  19. Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Cash, J R

    1991-09-01

    As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment.

  20. “A Cool Little Buzz”: Alcohol intoxication in an Asian American nightlife scene

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Intoxication a state of altered consciousness brought about by the ingestion of intoxicants. Nighttime economy The term refers to those nighttime activities primarily associated with bars and clubs that take place within commercialized spaces in inner urban areas. Raves Although the precise origin of the word rave is unclear, with some writers associating it with boheminian parties in London in 1950s and others suggesting that raves began in the 1960s in San Francisco, by the late 1980s raves referred primarily to a dance parties, often unlicensed, where electronic music including acid house and techno music, was the music of choice. Asian American The pan-ethnic category “Asian American” comprises a large, diverse group of ethnic groups in the United States, representing dozens of cultures, national backgrounds, and languages, including those of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Indian, and Vietnamese descent. Emerging adulthood This term was coined to capture a life-course phase experienced by young adults in many contemporary western societies who are post-adolescence, but who have not yet achieved many of the traditional (twentieth century) life course markers that were associated with adulthood, such as completion of education, beginning of career, marriage, and parenthood (Arnett 2000) PMID:24779496

  1. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Jai; Shin, Jonghwan; Hong, Kijeong; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-12-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs.

  2. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  3. Effect of Alocasia indica Tuber Extract on Reducing Hepatotoxicity and Liver Apoptosis in Alcohol Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    The possible protective role of ethanolic extract of A. indica tuber (EEAIT) in hepatotoxicity and apoptosis of liver caused by alcohol in rats was investigated. Treatment of rats with alcohol (3 g ethanol per kg body weight per day for 15 days intraperitoneally) produced marked elevation of liver biomarkers such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and total bilirubin levels which were reduced by EEAIT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEAIT improved antioxidant status (MDA, NO, and GSH) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. Simultaneous supplementation with EEAIT significantly restored hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels towards normal. The studies with biochemical markers were strongly supported by the histopathological evaluation of the liver tissue. EEAIT also attenuated apoptosis and necrosis features of liver cell found in immunohistochemical evaluation. HPLC analysis of the extract showed the presence of three major peaks of which peak 2 (RT: 33.33 min) contains the highest area (%) and UV spectrum analysis identified it as flavonoids. It is therefore suggested that EEAIT can provide a definite protective effect against chronic hepatic injury caused by alcohol in rats, which may mainly be associated with its antioxidative effect. PMID:24977149

  4. THE ROLE OF CONNEXIN-36 GAP JUNCTIONS IN ALCOHOL INTOXICATION AND CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, Scott C.; Bradley, Katie D.; Hansen, David M.; Wilcox, Jeffrey D.; Wilcox, Rebecca S.; Allison, David W.; Merrill, Collin B.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical substrates underlying the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to examine the role of midbrain connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) in ethanol’s rewarding effects. Using behavioral, molecular and electrophysiological methods we compared the effects of ethanol in mature Cx36 knockout (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Cx36 KO mice exhibited significantly more ethanol-induced ataxia in the open field test, but less disruption in motor coordination than their WT controls in the rotarod paradigm. Cx36 KO mice and WT mice treated with the Cx36 antagonist mefloquine (MFQ) consumed significantly less ethanol than their vehicle-treated WT controls in the drink-in-the-dark procedure. The firing rate of VTA GABA neurons in WT mice was inhibited by ethanol with an IC50 of 0.25 g/kg, while VTA GABA neurons in KO mice were significantly less sensitive to ethanol. Dopamine neuron sIPSC frequency was reduced by ethanol (30 mM) in WT mice, but not affected in KO mice. Cx36 KO mice evinced a significant up-regulation in DAT and D2 receptors in the VTA, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. These findings demonstrate the behavioral relevance of Cx36 GJ-mediated electrical coupling between GABA neurons in mature animals, and suggest that loss of coupling between VTA GABA neurons results in disinhibition of DA neurons, a hyper-DAergic state and lowered hedonic valence for ethanol consumption. PMID:21638336

  5. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).

  6. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  7. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery. PMID:26454485

  8. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  9. Opioid intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop. This is from the talc, cornstarch, or cellulose that is used to dilute or bind the ... McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 167. Lank PM, Kusin S. Ethanol and opioid intoxication and withdrawal. In: Adams JG, ...

  10. The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Burn Injury on the Expression of Claudins and Mucins in the Small and Large Intestines.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Adam M; Khan, Omair M; Morris, Niya L; Li, Xiaoling; Movtchan, Nellie V; Cannon, Abigail R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury exacerbates postburn pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest gut barrier integrity is compromised after combined alcohol and burn insult, which could contribute to these complications. Tight junction proteins and mucins play critical roles in keeping the gut barrier intact. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol and burn injury on claudin and mucin expression in the intestines. We also evaluated if the combined insult differentially influences their expression in the small and large intestines. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 2.9 g/kg ethanol before an approximately 12.5% body area burn. One and three days after injury, we profiled expression of several tight junction proteins, mucin, and bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the small and large intestines, using qPCR. We observed >50% decrease in claudin-4 and claudin-8 genes in both ileal and colonic epithelial cells 1 day after injury. Claudin-2 was significantly upregulated, and occludin was downregulated in the small intestine 1 day after injury. Mucin-3 expression was substantially elevated (>50%) in the small intestine, whereas mucin-2 and mucin-4 were considerably diminished in the colon (>50%) 1 day after injury. Most of the parameters were normalized to sham levels on day 3, except for mucin-3 and claudin-8, which remained decreased in the large intestine. Neither alcohol nor burn alone resulted in changes in junction or mucin gene expression compared to shams. This was accompanied with increases in the family of Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, in both the small and the large intestines 1 day after injury. These findings suggest that alcohol and burn injury disrupts the normal gut microbiota and alters tight junction and mucin expression in the small and large intestines.

  11. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  12. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia.

  13. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  14. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  16. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  4. Effect of acute lindane and alcohol intoxication on serum concentration of enzymes and fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, T; Mladenović, D; Vucević, D; Petrović, J; Hrncić, D; Djuric, D; Loncar-Stevanović, H; Stanojlović, O

    2008-05-01

    This study examines possible synergistic effects of lindane and ethanol on inducing liver injury and serum fatty acid derangement in adult male Wistar rats. When administered together, ethanol and lindane-induced even more pronounced increase of alanine aminotransferase (165 +/- 10 U/L) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (10.3 +/- 0.6 U/L) than after isolated administration of either substance. In addition, separate administration of lindane and ethanol was followed by a significant decrease of linoleic acid level in the serum (301 +/- 38 mg/L, 276 +/- 35 mg/L vs. 416 +/- 48 mg/L). However, when ethanol administration was followed by lindane injection, serum linoleic acid was at the similar level found in the control group (516 +/- 62 mg/L). Ethanol-treated rats that received lindane 30 min after ethanol administration have shown a marked increase of palmitic (421 +/- 27 mg/L) and linolic acid level (43 +/- 5 mg/L) in comparison with rats that have been treated only with ethanol (316+/-26 mg/L for palmitic and 32 +/- 2 mg/L for linolic acid) or lindane (295 +/- 26 mg/L for palmitic and 301 +/- 38 mg/L for linolic acid). Linolic acid level was significantly greater in comparison with control group (29 +/- 1 mg/L). In conclusion, this study found enough evidence to support the hypothesis that acute ethanol intoxication potentiates lindane-induced liver injury and enhances lipid derangement.

  5. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Victimization History on Women's Sexual Assault Resistance Intentions: The Role of Secondary Cognitive Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Susan A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Hessler, Danielle M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the role of secondary cognitive appraisals in women's sexual assault resistance and whether these appraisals mediated influences of alcohol and prior victimization. After consuming a beverage (control, placebo, moderate, or high dose), 351 women projected themselves into a simulated…

  6. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Intoxication - barbiturates ... Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty in thinking Drowsiness or coma Faulty judgment Lack of coordination Shallow ...

  7. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  8. Barbiturate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jay M.; Bischel, Margaret D.; Wagers, Park W.; Barbour, Benjamin H.

    1976-01-01

    The complications encountered in caring for 185 patients intoxicated with barbiturates were reviewed. The population consisted of 142 patients with long-acting barbiturate concentrations of 8 mg per 100 ml or greater, 20 patients with short-acting barbiturate concentrations of 3 mg per 100 ml or greater and 23 consecutive patients with short-acting barbiturate intoxication referred for monitoring. Pneumonia was the major cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the use of an endotracheal tube in treatment. Cardiovascular instability manifested by pulmonary edema was the next leading cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the quantity of intravenous fluid administered. In retrospect, use of eliminative measures such as dialysis would probably not have altered the outcome in most of the patients who died and attempts at forced diuresis may have contributed to several deaths. Particular emphasis should be placed on the problems of sepsis and fluid therapy in the management of these patients. PMID:1258466

  9. Platelet aggregation associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, S.; Walenga, J.; Fareed, J.; Schumacher, H. )

    1989-02-09

    Alcohol is known to produce profound effects on blood; during chronic intoxication, prolongation of bleeding time has been reported. Utilizing human platelet rich plasma, we have studied the effect of alcohol on epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ADP induced aggregation. Control responses were obtained with saline from which the relative inhibition by alcohol was calculated. These studies were carried out at a concentration of 1.25-5.0 mg/ml which represents 0.125-0.5% alcohol blood levels. From 25 normal male and female volunteers, without prior hemostatic defects or drug ingestion, a dose-dependent inhibition by alcohol of all three agonist induced aggregations was noted. Alcohol itself did not produce any aggregation response. These studies demonstrate that alcohol at levels which are reached during intoxication is capable of impairing platelet function. The implication of this finding on the bleeding complications in healthy intoxicated patients may be significant during traumatic events, and individuals taking antiplatelet drugs may present a more serious hemostatic deficit during alcohol intoxication.

  10. Manganese Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Charles H.; Pasi, Aurelio

    1975-01-01

    We have reported two cases of chronic manganese poisoning. Case 1 followed exposure to manganese fumes in cutting and burning manganese steel. Case 2 resulted from exposure to dusts of manganese dioxide, an ingredient used in glazing of ceramics. There were initial difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis. Prominent clinical features were severe and persistent chronic depressive psychosis (Case 1), transient acute brain syndrome (Case 2) and the presence of various extrapyramidal symptoms in both cases. Manganese intoxication has not previously been reported as occurring in California. With increasing use of the metal, the disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurologic and psychiatric disease. Our observations were made in the period 1964 through 1968. Recently the prognosis of victims of manganese poisoning has been improved dramatically by the introduction of levodopa as a therapeutic agent. PMID:1179714

  11. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  12. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  13. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  14. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  15. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  16. Naloxone and ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Askenasi, R; Fontaine, J

    1982-01-01

    Naloxone has been said to be an antidote of acute ethanol intoxication in man. Experimental and clinical studies are however not convincing and contradictory. We have used naloxone to antagonize the effect of ethanol in mice. Results are compared to those obtained with morphine intoxication. Even at high doses (5 mg/kg) naloxone is not a good antagonist of ethanol intoxication in mice.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  18. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  19. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  20. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. ["Pathological intoxication."Diagnostic artefact or a reliable psychiatric diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Winckler, P

    1999-09-01

    "Pathological intoxication" has been a matter of controversial discussions during the last years. On one hand diagnosis of "pathological intoxication" in forensic expertise often is associated with the assumption of legal insanity. On the other hand it has been suggested that the term "pathological intoxication" should be abandoned in favor of more accurate clinical diagnosis, and recently "alcoholic idiosyncratic intoxication" was canceled as a separate diagnosis in DSM-IV. In order to register the diagnostic habits connected with "pathological intoxication" we had sent a questionnaire to all psychiatric institutes (n = 541) in Germany. We were then able to evaluate 338 questionnaires (62.5%) relating to number of diagnoses and diagnostic criteria. In synopsis diagnostic habits turned out to be very inhomogeneous. Nearly two third of psychiatric institutes reported not to have used the diagnostic category between 1991 and 1993, whereas nearly 50% of diagnoses (210 out of 456) were reported by only 13 (3.9%) institutes. Diagnosis of "pathological intoxication" is based predominantly on vague and non-distinct criteria, such as "violent excitation" or "strange unusual behavior". In accordance to DSM-IV we therefore suggest that the diagnostic term "pathological intoxication" should be abandoned, especially in the context of forensic psychiatric expertise. Instead, assessment of intoxication must be based on individual somatic and psychopathological symptoms.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  5. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  6. Associative study of Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) and precipitation in India during monsoon season (2005 to 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shivali; Mehta, Manu; Singh, Ankit

    2016-05-01

    Based on their interaction with solar radiations, aerosols may be categorized as absorbing or scattering in nature. The absorbing aerosols are coarser and influence precipitation mainly due to microphysical effect (participating in the formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei) and radiative forcing (by absorbing electromagnetic radiations). The prominent absorbing aerosols found in India are Black Carbon, soil dust, sand and mineral dust. Their size, distribution, and characteristics vary spatially and temporally. This paper aims at showing the spatio-temporal variation of Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) and precipitation over the four most polluted zones of Indian sub-continent (Indo-Gangetic plains 1, Indo-Gangetic plains 2, Central and Southern India) for monsoon season (June, July, August, September) during the last decade (2005 to 2014). Zonal averages AAI have been found to be exhibiting an increasing trend, hence region-wise correlations have been computed between AAI and precipitation during monsoon. Daily Absorption Aerosol Index (AAI) obtained from Aura OMI Aerosol Global Gridded Data Product-OMAEROe (V003) and monthly precipitation from TRMM 3B42-V7 gridded data have been used.

  7. Chronic manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

  8. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  9. Phenol burns and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B

    1994-02-01

    Phenol burns and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol burns who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface area deep partial skin thickness phenol burns and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported.

  10. [Fatal intoxication with paramethoxyamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiergowski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    From August to December of the year 2000 we ascertained 7 rapid deaths because of acute intoxication with tablets colloquially called Ufo. There were five men and two women aged from 20 to 29 (average 24) years. Analytic tests showed that one tablet of Ufo contains 40 mg of paramethoxyamphetamine, 1.0 mg of amphetamine, 0.05 mg of methamphetamine, 0.03 mg of 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The levels of paramethoxyamphe-tamine in the blood of the deceased, determined by gas chromatography, were from 0.68 to 10.0 (approx. 3.2) mg/L and in the urine from 16 to 64 (approx. 35) mg/L. The press and television campaign caused elimination of fatal intoxications with parametoxy-amphetamine during the last 13 months. PMID:12184013

  11. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.

  12. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. PMID:26449577

  13. Odor and marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1978-07-01

    Assigned 48 volunteer adult males to four groups: a marijuana high dose, a marijuana low dose, a placebo, and a coltsfoot group. Each S participated in two 80-minute sessions; one involved listening to music, socializing, and smoking the drug, and the second was identical to the first with the addition of two extra placebo cigarettes which contained finely cut amounts of human hair. The odor of burning hair was rated previously as quite aversive by non-intoxicated Ss. Contrary to expectation, Ss in the odor condition indicated on self-ratings that they became significantly more intoxicated after the smoking of the hair cigarette. The opposite effect was found with a pulse rate measure. An additional 24 Ss were divided into high and low dose marijuana groups and run in an odor session, in which they were informed prior to smoking of the hair content. Heart rate for these Ss decreased significantly more than for the comparable uninformed Ss, although self-ratings continued to reflect increased intoxication.

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-01

    Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

  16. [Method and empirical results from expert opinions on 90 offenders concerning the question of complete intoxication].

    PubMed

    Mitterauer, Bernhard; Griebnitz, Ernst; Rothuber, Helfried

    2010-01-01

    Based on a 3-year sample of expert opinions concerning the question of complete intoxication (n = 90), methodology and results are presented. Since more than half of the offenders (n = 53) claim amnesia regarding the circumstances of the offence, this subjective amnesia is considered methodologically. If the file contains observations on the offender's behaviour, it is generally possible to assess if the offender was still able to self-reflect and act in a purposeful way. If so, complete intoxication must be negated independent of the objective degree of alcohol or drug intoxication, and the subjective amnesia claimed by the offender is implausible. In the assessment procedure of complete intoxication a decision tree is used. 37/90 offenders showed no significant memory impairment as well as no psychiatric diagnosis, thus excluding both criminal irresponsibility and complete intoxication. The assessment of subjective amnesia and total intoxication was based on the following information from the decision tree: in 51 (47 males, 4 females) of the 53 offenders claiming subjective amnesia the file contained behavioural observations at the time of the offence. Only in two cases, a considerable lack of information prevented a clear decision regarding the question of complete intoxication. Despite the fact that only in about 50% of the offenders claiming subjective amnesia evidence of alcohol or drug influence was demonstrated according to the files, the question of complete intoxication could be successfully evaluated in all but two cases according to the decision tree.

  17. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  18. Isolation and characterization of a proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitor AAI-CC5 from Streptomyces sp. CC5, and its gene cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhibin; Lu, Weihao; Liu, Pingping; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Yuguo; Kong, Yi; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-02-01

    An α-amylase inhibitor producing Streptomyces sp. strain CC5 was isolated from soil. A proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitor AAI-CC5 was purified from strain CC5. AAI-CC5 specifically inhibited mammalian α-amylases. The molecular weight of the inhibitor was determined to be 8,212 Da by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrum. The N-terminal 15 amino acid residues of the purified AAI-CC5 were DTGSPAPECVEYFQS, which is dissimilar to other reported proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitors. AAI-CC5 is a pH insensitive and heat-stable protein, and cannot be hydrolysed by trypsin. AAI-CC5 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with a hexa-histidine tag on the C terminal. AAI-CC5 shared 82 % identity with Parvulustat. The recombinant α-amylase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-NTA resin with molecular mass of 9,404 Da. Steady state kinetics studies of α-amylase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive inhibition mechanism with IC50 and Ki value of 6.43 ×1 10(-11) and 4.45 × 10(-11) M respectively. These results suggest this novel α-amylase inhibitor possessed powerful inhibitory activity for α-amylase, and it may be a candidate in research of diabetes therapy and obesity treatment.

  19. The EGI-Engage EPOS Competence Center - Interoperating heterogeneous AAI mechanisms and Orchestrating distributed computational resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Scardaci, Diego; Spinuso, Alessandro; Sterzel, Mariusz; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. EPOS started its Implementation Phase in October 2015 and is now actively working in order to integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) - European wide organizations and e-Infrastructure providing community specific data and data products - and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. TCS data, data products and services will be integrated into the Integrated Core Services (ICS) system, that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. The EPOS competence center (EPOS CC) goal is to tackle two of the main challenges that the ICS are going to face in the near future, by taking advantage of the technical solutions provided by EGI. In order to do this, we will present the two pilot use cases the EGI-EPOS CC is developing: 1) The AAI pilot, dealing with the provision of transparent and homogeneous access to the ICS infrastructure to users owning different kind of credentials (e.g. eduGain, OpenID Connect, X509 certificates etc.). Here the focus is on the mechanisms which allow the credential delegation. 2) The computational pilot, Improve the back-end services of an existing application in the field of Computational Seismology, developed in the context of the EC funded project VERCE. The application allows the processing and the comparison of data resulting from the simulation of seismic wave propagation following a real earthquake and real measurements recorded by seismographs. While the simulation data is produced directly by the users and stored in a Data Management System, the observations need to be pre-staged from institutional data-services, which are maintained by the community itself. This use case aims at exploiting the EGI FedCloud e-infrastructure for Data

  20. The disruption of marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Spiers, P; Shea, D

    1977-05-01

    Ninety-six males Ss were divided into four drug conditions; coltsfoot, placebo, marijuana low dose, and marijuana high dose. Half of the Ss smoked marijuana while listening to music in a relaxing environment, and half smoked marijuana in the same environment but had two 10-min periods of aversive-noise superimposed over the music. A subjective measure of intoxication demonstrated significant drug and environmental group effects with suppression of self-report of intoxication being especially strong for the marijuana low dose noise group. The usual positive correlation between subjective measures and pulse rate measures of marijuana intoxication was interfered with by the noise effect. Although subjective ratings were suppressed, the noise group demonstrated significantly higher pulse rates than the music group. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of extraneous factors on marijuana intoxication, the significance of dosage in this type of research, and the nature of marijuana intoxication.

  1. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis.

  2. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  3. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  4. The EGI-Engage EPOS Competence Center - Interoperating heterogeneous AAI mechanisms and Orchestrating distributed computational resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Scardaci, Diego; Spinuso, Alessandro; Sterzel, Mariusz; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. EPOS started its Implementation Phase in October 2015 and is now actively working in order to integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) - European wide organizations and e-Infrastructure providing community specific data and data products - and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. TCS data, data products and services will be integrated into the Integrated Core Services (ICS) system, that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. The EPOS competence center (EPOS CC) goal is to tackle two of the main challenges that the ICS are going to face in the near future, by taking advantage of the technical solutions provided by EGI. In order to do this, we will present the two pilot use cases the EGI-EPOS CC is developing: 1) The AAI pilot, dealing with the provision of transparent and homogeneous access to the ICS infrastructure to users owning different kind of credentials (e.g. eduGain, OpenID Connect, X509 certificates etc.). Here the focus is on the mechanisms which allow the credential delegation. 2) The computational pilot, Improve the back-end services of an existing application in the field of Computational Seismology, developed in the context of the EC funded project VERCE. The application allows the processing and the comparison of data resulting from the simulation of seismic wave propagation following a real earthquake and real measurements recorded by seismographs. While the simulation data is produced directly by the users and stored in a Data Management System, the observations need to be pre-staged from institutional data-services, which are maintained by the community itself. This use case aims at exploiting the EGI FedCloud e-infrastructure for Data

  5. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu

    2010-01-01

    Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications. PMID:20717537

  6. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  7. Biomarkers of manganese intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X; Dydak, Ulrike; Cowan, Dallas M

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor biomarker of Mn exposure or toxicity under many conditions and that other biomarkers must be established. For group comparisons of active workers, blood Mn has some utility for distinguishing exposed from unexposed subjects, although the large variability in mean values renders it insensitive for discriminating one individual from the rest of the study population. Mn exposure is known to alter iron (Fe) homeostasis. The Mn/Fe ratio (MIR) in plasma or erythrocytes reflects not only steady-state concentrations of Mn or Fe in tested individuals, but also a biological response (altered Fe homeostasis) to Mn exposure. Recent human studies support the potential value for using MIR to distinguish individuals with Mn exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in combination with noninvasive assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), provides convincing evidence of Mn exposure, even without clinical symptoms of Mn intoxication. For subjects with long-term, low-dose Mn exposure or for those exposed in the past but not the present, neither blood Mn nor MRI provides a confident distinction for Mn exposure or intoxication. While plasma or erythrocyte MIR is more likely a sensitive measure, the cut-off values for MIR among the general population need to be further tested and established. Considering the large accumulation of Mn in bone, developing an X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy or neutron-based spectroscopy method may create yet another novel non-invasive tool for assessing Mn exposure and toxicity. PMID:20946915

  8. [Crystalluria in ethylene glycol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Thouvenin, Maxime; Luxey, Grégoire; Schendel, Adeline; Parent, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    When seen, some habits of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (whewellite) are so typical of ethylene glycol intoxication that they may be helpful for its diagnosis when circumstances are not clearly established.

  9. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  10. [Postmortem differential diagnostics of diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis].

    PubMed

    Avramenko, E P; Zoroastrov, O M; Lotter, M G; Zoroastrov, M O

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that ketoacidosis may be an immediate cause of death in subjects suffering chronic alcoholic intoxication. The authors present a list of biochemical studies and parameters that can be used for differential diagnosis between diabetic and alcoholic ketoacidosis.

  11. Intravenous naphazoline intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Montfrans, G A; van Steenwijk, R P; Vyth, A; Borst, C

    1981-01-01

    Nine pale perspiring drug addicts with drowsiness, nausea, headache, normal blood pressure and marked sinus bradycardia with premature ventricular beats were seen at the Casualty Department soon after alleged i.v. cocaine administration. Eight were treated with atropine, as the bradycardia suggested intoxication with a parasympathomimetic compound. Seven were discharged in good condition after a few hours' observation. One patient developed a blood pressure of 150/120 mmHg after atropine. Subsequently, a hemiparesis was found and an intracerebral haematoma was evaluated at surgery. Another patient was admitted forthwith to the CCU. He did not receive any medication and recovered within two days. Urinalysis of these two patients disclosed contents of naphazoline, a powerful alpha-adrenergic agent. Samples of the alleged cocaine contained 97% naphazoline HCl. A conscious rabbit was injected with naphazoline and thereafter with atropine. I.v. naphazoline doubled mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduced heart rate (HR) from 167 to 30 beats/min. Atropine doubled HR, but caused a marked rise in MAP, too, stressing the adverse effects of atropine in these cases. When confronted with patients after alleged cocaine abuse, the role of substitute drugs, especially alpha-adrenergic compounds, should be considered as this should influence the therapeutic approach.

  12. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

  13. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  14. Osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa

    2013-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman consulted her dermatologist complaining whole body dermatitis, urticaria and irritating bullous eruptions on the plantar and side surfaces of her feet. She had had multiple hypopigmented spots on her skin since her early adulthood. The patient was treated with topical medication without significant improvement of symptoms. One year later she suffered a myocardial infarction, accompanied by refractory anaemia. At the age of 49, a breast cancer was diagnosed and shortly thereafter her last menstruation occurred. At age 50years, upon complaint of weight loss despite normal food intake, Hashimoto thyroiditis with latent hyperthyroidism, vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and poikilocytic anaemia with anisochromia, hypochromia, anisocytosis, elliptocytes, drepanocytes, dacryocytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, schizocytes, stomatocytes and target cells were diagnosed. The osteodensitometric and laboratory examinations revealed osteoporosis with sustained elevation of urinary Dipyridinolin-crosslinks (u-Dpd), and urinary arsenic (u-As) of 500μg/l (equivalent to 0.5 parts per million-ppm, 2.5μg/mg creatinine/dl, u-As: Phosphate of 26μg/mmol; the estimated bone As:P and As/kg body weight were 500μg/g and 11.3mg/kg, respectively). Thalassemia, immunoglobinopathy and iron deficiency were excluded. Supplementation with oral vitamin D and calcium, and antiresorptive therapy with intravenous zolendronate normalised the u-Dpd, significantly decreased the urinary arsenic concentration, and cured the anemia and the urticaria. A diagnosis of osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication (ORAI) was established. PMID:23337042

  15. Fatal doxepin intoxication--suicide or slow gradual intoxication?

    PubMed

    Neukamm, M A; Vogt, S; Hermanns-Clausen, M; Naue, J; Thierauf, A; Auwärter, V

    2013-04-10

    The differentiation of intoxication courses is one of the most difficult challenges for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The case of a 52-year-old female inpatient of a psychiatric clinic with multiple medications who died from doxepin intoxication is reported. Concentrations of doxepin metabolites and isomers, pharmacokinetic modelling and genotyping of the doxepin-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes led to the following conclusion: the lethal doxepin concentration of 2100 ng/mL was more likely to have been reached due to drug interactions and genetic peculiarities leading to a reduction of the metabolic capacity and not by an acute (suicidal) overdose.

  16. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  17. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  18. [Acute intoxications by tricyclic antidepressants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Ginies, G; Renard, J P; Lamisse, F; Choutet, P; Breteau, M

    The authors report 87 cases of acute voluntary intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants. They essentially studied the cardiac complications; and conclude that the prognosis is more severe than for other intoxications.

  19. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. PMID:23724955

  20. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. Voluntary intoxication and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, D B; Lambert, J B; Thompson, R G

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the law related to voluntary intoxication and criminal responsibility in the 50 United States, the District of Columbia, the US Virgin islands, and Puerto Rico. Statutory and case law citations are provided which govern the use of intoxication evidence in each jurisdiction to negate mens rea (i.e., to establish diminished capacity), to support an insanity defense, and to mitigate criminal sentencing. Factors that courts typically focus on when deciding whether to admit this evidence in a particular case are discussed, and these factors are related to clinically relevant criteria.

  3. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  4. [Barium intoxication: a case report].

    PubMed

    Jan, I S; Jong, Y S; Lo, H M

    1991-09-01

    Barium intoxication, a rare cause of hypokalemia, can sometimes result in respiratory paralysis and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Herein, we report one such case. A 29-year-old man swallowed barium-contaminated fried flour-coated sweet potatoes. Then, abdominal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhea, progressive muscular weakness, apnea and ventricular tachycardia developed and laboratory data revealed profound hypokalemia. He regained his health after mechanical ventilation, anti-arrhythmic agent and aggressive potassium chloride supplement. Analysis of blood, urine and contaminated flour showed the presence of barium carbonate. Barium intoxication is a medical emergency which requires rapid therapy to prevent mortality.

  5. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    PubMed

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  6. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  7. Effect of chronic acetaldehyde intoxication on ethanol tolerance and membrane fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Latge, C; Lamboeuf, Y; Roumec, C; de Saint Blanquat, G

    1987-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that acetaldehyde participates directly in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. Its action has been attributed mainly to its physico-chemical properties. Results of direct intoxication of laboratory animals with acetaldehyde have been reported, but only for short periods of exposure and at high doses. These are probably not representative of the conditions found during alcohol intoxication. The pulmonary route of administration described here enables long term intoxication with acetaldehyde, at levels corresponding to values measured during chronic ethanol intoxication. Chronic administration of acetaldehyde during 3 weeks induced a metabolic tolerance to ethanol as tested by the sleeping time after a challenge dose of ethanol; behavioural tolerance (measured by blood alcohol levels on waking) was not observed. At the end of the intoxication, phospholipid fatty acids of erythrocyte and synaptosome membranes were also analysed. Small changes in levels of the shorter fatty acids were observed in the phosphatidyl-choline fraction. By comparison with the effects of ethanol on the same membrane preparations, only a small part of this effect can be attributed to acetaldehyde. The first metabolite of ethanol has, however, a sure effect on the pattern of fatty acid phospholipids.

  8. Radiology of Fractures in Intoxicated Emergency Department Patients: Locations, Mechanisms, Presentation, and Initial Interpretation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuka; Nozaki, Taiki; Starkey, Jay; Okajima, Yuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Matsusako, Masaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of alcohol intoxication to time-to-presentation following injury, fracture type, mechanism of injury leading to fracture, and initial diagnostic radiology interpretation performance of emergency physicians versus diagnostic radiologists in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and are subsequently diagnosed with fracture. Medical records of 1286 patients who presented to the ED and were diagnosed with fracture who also underwent plain film or computed tomography (CT) imaging were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were divided into intoxicated and sober groups. Patient characteristics, injury-to-presentation time, fracture location, and discrepancies between initial clinical and radiological evaluations were compared. Of 1286 subjects, 181 patients were included in the intoxicated group. Only intoxicated patients presented with head/neck fractures more than 24 hours after injury. The intoxicated group showed a higher rate of head/neck fractures (skull 23.2% vs 5.8%, face and orbit 30.4% vs 9.5%; P < 0.001) and a lower rate of extremity injuries. The rate of nondiagnosis of fractures by emergency physicians later identified by radiologists was the same in both groups (7.7% vs 7.7%, P = 0.984). While the same proportion of intoxicated patients presented more than 24 hours following injury, only intoxicated patients presented with craniofacial and cervical spinal fractures during this period. Alcohol-related injuries are more often associated with head/neck fractures but less extremity injuries. The rate of fractures missed by emergency physicians but later diagnosed by radiologists was the same in intoxicated and sober patients.

  9. [Clozapine intoxication: theoretical aspects and forensic-medical examination ].

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S V; Ivanova, N A; Ivanov, S V

    2013-01-01

    This literature review is focused on diagnostics of acute clozapine intoxication with the fatal outcome. According to the Russian authors, clozapine intoxication ranks first in the structure of criminal poisoning and accounted for 99.7% of all the cases that occurred in Moscow during the period from 2003 to 2006. Toximetric investigations of clinical manifestations of clozapine intoxication revealed that the threshold clozapine concentration in blood is 0.12 ± 0.06 mg/I, the critical and lethal concentrations are 1.01 ± 0.2 mg/I and 3.5 ± 1.5 mg/I respectively. Autopsy on corpses of the victims of clozapine intoxication showed that most clozapine-induced pathological changes have a non-specific character (including largely circulatory disorders and dystrophic changes in parenchymatous organs). Clozapine poisoning is associated with the lengthening of QT-interval on ECG; at the values in excess of 500 ms, the risk of severe arrhythmia and sudden death significantly increases. Clozapine intake may lead to the development of potentially fatal myocarditis (the so-called clozapine-associated eosinophilic myocardium) in somatically healthy subjects. Foreign researchers report the possibility of a post-mortem increase of blood clozapine content compared with its antemortem level. They also showed that simultaneous use of substances stimulating activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (ethyl alcohol, finlepsin, fenitrin, nicotine) and clozapine accelerates metabolism and thereby reduces clozapine concentration in blood. It is concluded that comprehensive investigations of clozapine intoxication are needed taking into consideration pathomorphological changes induced by this agent, its potential interaction with other factors influencing human body, and the results of forensic chemical expertise of the fatal cases. PMID:25474921

  10. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits.

  11. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits. PMID:26917798

  12. Unusual manifestations of arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, G P; Deal, J; Spurling, T; Richter, J; Chernow, B

    1985-05-01

    A patient with arsenic intoxication is reported, who presented with a variety of gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances including unilateral facial nerve palsy and acute symptomatic pancreatitis, neither of which have been previously described as sequelae of arsenic poisoning. The patient also suffered hematologic, dermatologic, and cardiopulmonary complications. A review of the literature about this interesting problem is also presented.

  13. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  14. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  15. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  16. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  17. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  18. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  19. Perceived Danger while Intoxicated Uniquely Contributes to Driving after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David H.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Niculete, Maria E.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. The present study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Methods Eighty-two young adults attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: .72 g/kg, women: .65 g/kg) and reported the perceived danger of driving and their willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Results Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared to the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication

  20. [The activity of 2',5'-oligoadenylate-synthetase in rat spleen lymphocytes in the chronic ethanol intoxication and administration of zinc acetate].

    PubMed

    Chaĭka, V O; Kompanets', I V; Hadiliia, O P; Kharchenko, O I; Ostapchenko, L I

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that the activity of interferon-induced enzyme 2',5'-oligoadenylate-synthetase is suppressed in rat spleen lymphocytes under the chronic alcohol intoxication. The values of enzyme activity were minimal under the long-term action of etanol (21 day). The combined administration of zinc acetate and etanol to rats causes the increase of enzyme activity, the effect is most expressed on the late stages of alcohol intoxication development.

  1. Personality Factors Associated with Driving while Intoxicated: A Comparison Study of Adolescent Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed personality factors of 152 adolescent drivers. Found that subjects convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI) and juvenile offenders without DWI citations more often endorsed feelings of powerlessness and stressful life events than did drivers without DWI citations. DWI offenders were more likely to indicate that alcohol made them loud,…

  2. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  3. Childhood experiences of trauma and loss have different relations to maternal unresolved and Hostile-Helpless states of mind on the AAI

    PubMed Central

    LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; YELLIN, CLAUDIA; MELNICK, SHARON; ATWOOD, GWENDOLYN

    2006-01-01

    This study of 45 high-risk mothers and infants examined the current indirect effects model of intergenerational transmission of disorganised attachment, which posits that maternal childhood experiences of loss or trauma contribute to maternal states of mind on the AAI which in turn contribute to infant disorganization. The severity of experiences of both abuse and loss were examined in relation to both Unresolved states of mind and Hostile-Helpless states of mind on the AAI and to infant disorganization at both 12 and 18 months. Neither the experiences of parental death in childhood nor the severity of abuse in childhood was related to Unresolved states of mind on the AAI. Instead, an Unresolved state of mind and the experience of parental death contributed independently and additively to the prediction of infant disorganization at 12 months. At 18 months, an indirect effects model was supported in relation to Hostile-Helpless but not Unresolved states of mind, in that severity of trauma had no direct relation to infant disorganization but severity of trauma was related to Hostile-Helpless states of mind which in turn predicted infant disorganization. Unresolved states of mind and experiences of parental loss did not add to prediction of disorganization at 18 months. The findings suggest that the influence of maternal trauma on infant attachment may become more prominent at 18 months as the infant makes the transition to toddlerhood. The results also suggest that a more complex etiologic model may be needed of the aspects of early experience that contribute to adult Unresolved states of mind on the AAI. PMID:15061308

  4. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  5. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  6. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  7. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.

    PubMed

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12 h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery.

  8. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  9. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  10. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Volume 32 Number 4, Part B, Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mark, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    Abstracts of current research related to alcohol problems and allied subjects are contained in this quarterly journal. Subject areas cover physiology-biochemistry, metabolism of alcohol, determination of alcohol, psychology, psychiatry, treatment of alcoholism, intoxication and its treatment, medical complications in alcoholism, social aspects,…

  11. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Volume 33 Number 1, Part B, Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mark, Ed.

    Abstracts of current research related to alcohol problems and allied subjects are contained in this quarterly journal. Subject areas cover physiology-biochemistry, metabolism of alcohol, determination of alcohol, psychology, psychiatry, treatment of alcoholism, intoxication and its treatment, medical complications in alcoholism, social aspects,…

  12. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Volume 33 Number 3, Part B, Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Mark, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Abstracts of current research related to alcohol problems and allied subjects are contained in this quarterly journal. Subject areas cover physiology-biochemistry, metabolism of alcohol, determination of alcohol, psychology, psychiatry, treatment of alcoholism, intoxication and its treatment, medical complications in alcoholism, social aspects,…

  13. Drunk and Disorganised: Relationships between Bar Characteristics and Customer Intoxication in European Drinking Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A.; Calafat, Amador; van Hasselt, Ninette; Kosir, Matej; Voorham, Lotte; Goossens, Ferry X.; Duch, Mariangels; Juan, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility. PMID:23202832

  14. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  15. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  16. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  17. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  18. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  19. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  20. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  1. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful conduct or purpose whatsoever. No trader shall use...

  2. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  3. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  4. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  5. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  6. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  7. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  8. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    PubMed

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  9. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    PubMed

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  10. Van Gogh's vision. Digitalis intoxication?

    PubMed

    Lee, T C

    1981-02-20

    Vincent van Gogh, the Dutch postimpressionist painter, died in 1890. He was an uncommon man. Automutilation, depression, insanity, and suicide are part of his medical history. During the last few years of his life, his paintings were characterized by halos and the color yellow. Critics have ascribed these aberrations to innumerable causes, including chronic solar injury, glaucoma, and cataracts. Van Gogh may have been under the influence of digitalis intoxication and its side effects: xanthopsia and coronas. This hypothesis is based on his twice having painted his physician holding a foxglove plant; that this medicine was used in the latter part of the 19th century in the treatment of epilepsy; and that the toxic effects of digitalis may have, in part, dictated the artist's technique.

  11. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  12. [Resuscitation after intoxication with amitriptylin].

    PubMed

    Fippel, A; Berkel, H; Finkemeyer, S; Knape, R; Hoitz, J

    2005-09-01

    Intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants are often life threatening situations. In consequence of interference with many organ systems specific treatment consists in transportation to hospital under cardiopulmonary monitoring by physicians. The multiple possibilities of complications require the following treatments: continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gastrolavage, application of carbon through a nasogastric tube, intubation and controlled ventilation in case of coma and continuous stand by for defibrillation. Additionally patients with stable parameters should be monitored in intensive care units because often there are no precursors of cardiac or pulmonary complications. We report the case of a 49-year old women with ingestion of 2500 mg of amitriptyline who suffered from multiple cardiac arrhythmias with following cardiac arrests and who required multiple defibrillations and resuscitation.

  13. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course. PMID:26394503

  14. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, A.; Stout, S.; Casarella, J.; Vayalapalli, S.; Cox, J.; Drexler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose. PMID:22879747

  15. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  16. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  17. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  18. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  19. Why Common Sense Goes Out the Window: Effects of Alcohol on Intentions to Use Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four studies tested the hypothesis that alcohol decreases the likelihood of condom use during casual sex. Results are consistent with "alcohol myopia," the notion that alcohol decreases cognitive capacity, such that intoxicated people are more likely to attend to the most salient cues in a situation. Provides strong evidence that alcohol use…

  20. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    PubMed

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  1. Vitamin D Intoxication Treated with Porcine Calcitonin

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, R. M.; Gamlen, T. R.; Pullen, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Porcine calcitonin was used to treat three patients with hypercalcaemia due to vitamin D intoxication. In two patients a rapid and sustained fall to normal in serum calcium occurred within three days, in the third patient normocalcaemia was achieved in seven days. In view of its rapid and sustained effect calcitonin may be of value in the urgent treatment of hypercalcaemia due to vitamin D intoxication. PMID:4261142

  2. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  3. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  4. AMPA receptor potentiation can prevent ethanol-induced intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas; Messenger, Marcus J; O'Neill, Michael J; Oldershaw, Anna; Gilmour, Gary; Simmons, Rosa M A; Iyengar, Smriti; Libri, Vincenzo; Tricklebank, Mark; Williams, Steve C R

    2008-06-01

    We present a substantial series of behavioral and imaging experiments, which demonstrate, for the first time, that increasing AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission via administration of potent and selective biarylsulfonamide AMPA potentiators LY404187 and LY451395 reverses the central effects of an acutely intoxicating dose of ethanol in the rat. Using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we observed that LY404187 attenuated ethanol-induced reductions in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) in the anesthetized rat brain. A similar attenuation was apparent when measuring local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) via C14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography in freely moving conscious rats. Both LY404187 and LY451395 significantly and dose-dependently reversed ethanol-induced deficits in both motor coordination and disruptions in an operant task where animals were trained to press a lever for food reward. Both prophylactic and acute intervention treatment with LY404187 reversed ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination. Given that LY451395 and related AMPA receptor potentiators/ampakines are tolerated in both healthy volunteers and elderly patients, these data suggest that such compounds may form a potential management strategy for acute alcohol intoxication.

  5. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6 ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6 ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death.

  6. Intoxication and settled insanity: a finding of not guilty by reason of insanity.

    PubMed

    Feix, Jeff; Wolber, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case of first-degree murder for which the defendant was acquitted as not guilty by reason of insanity, based on a defense involving the concept of "settled insanity." The literature on settled insanity is reviewed and discussed in the context of voluntary and involuntary intoxication. Statute and case law from those jurisdictions in which settled insanity is specifically allowed as an acceptable threshold condition for the insanity defense define the concept as a permanent condition resulting from substance abuse, rather than the effects of intoxication, no matter how severe. Also discussed are potential criteria for this defense, including evidence that psychotic symptoms thought to be responsible for the crime were, in some manner, separate and apart from symptoms caused solely by voluntary acute intoxication. Other factors that may assist evaluators in differentiating settled insanity from the effects of acute intoxication are presented. It is recommended that evaluators attempt to determine the timing of the onset of psychotic symptoms in relation to substance abuse, the persistence of such symptoms beyond detoxification, and whether ongoing psychiatric treatment is necessary to ameliorate the symptoms beyond intoxication. In the case described, psychotic symptoms persisted long after acute intoxication and beyond the time when drugs or alcohol were detected in the accused's body, requiring clinical intervention for psychosis. Also, before the crime, the defendant had exhibited significant psychological difficulty. The evaluating clinician must still determine, even when a threshold condition is considered to be present, whether statutory criteria for the insanity defense (for the jurisdiction in which the crime allegedly took place) are met.

  7. Increased Behavioral Economic Demand and Craving for Alcohol following a Laboratory Alcohol Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; McCarty, Kayleigh N.; Morris, David H.; Tsai, Chia-Lin; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Although increases in subjective alcohol craving have been observed following moderate doses of alcohol (e.g., priming effects), the effects of alcohol consumption on behavioral economic demand for alcohol are largely unstudied. This study examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on alcohol demand and craving. Design A between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to either an alcohol (n = 31), placebo (n = 29) or control (n = 25) condition. Setting A laboratory setting at the University of Missouri, USA. Participants Eighty-five young adult moderate drinkers were recruited from the University of Missouri and surrounding community. Measurements Change in demand for alcohol across time was measured using three single items: alcohol consumption at no cost (i.e., intensity), maximum price paid for a single drink (i.e., breakpoint), and total amount spent on alcohol (i.e., Omax). Alcohol demand at baseline was also assessed using an alcohol purchase task (APT). Craving was assessed using a single visual analog scale item. Findings In the alcohol group compared with the combined non-alcohol groups, intensity, breakpoint, and craving increased from baseline to the ascending limb and decreased thereafter (ps < 0.05; Omax p = 0.06). Change in craving following alcohol consumption was significantly associated with change in each of the demand indices (ps < 0.0001). Finally, the demand single items were associated with corresponding indices from the APT (ps < 0.01). Conclusions Alcohol demand increases following intoxication, in terms of both the maximum amount people are willing to pay for one drink and the number of drinks people would consume if drinks were free. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol value can complement subjective craving as measures of moment-to-moment fluctuations in drinking motivation following intoxication. PMID:25732875

  8. Arsenic intoxication, a hemorheologic view.

    PubMed

    Bollini, A; Huarte, M; Hernández, G; Bazzoni, G; Piehl, L; Mengarelli, G; de Celis, E Rubín; Rasia, M

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic semi-metal of wide distribution in nature. People living in regions where drinking water contains large quantities of arsenic, have an unusually high likelihood of developing blood-vessel diseases, but little is known about the mechanisms involved, i.e. the blood rheologic alterations that would contribute to the circulatory obstruction. Erythrocytes are the main target cells for arsenic compounds systemically absorbed and their cell membrane is the first place against the toxic. In this paper we have examined the in vitro effect of arsenic (As(V)) on the rheologic properties of human erythrocytes in relation with membrane fluidity and internal microviscosity. According to our present results, As(V) treatment produces oxidative degradation of membrane lipids and alteration of internal microviscosity. These red blood cells (RBCs) membrane and cytoplasmic structural damage consequently alters RBCs rheologic properties: an alteration of the RBCs discoid shape to stomatocytes, a diminution of erythrocyte deformability and an enhancement of osmotic fragility and cell aggregability. These effects impaired blood fluid behaviour that contribute to obstruct peripheral circulation and provides anemia, both clinic evidences typical of arsenic cronic intoxication.

  9. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  10. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  11. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  13. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  14. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  15. Are restrained eaters accurate monitors of their intoxication? Results from a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Laura J; Crowther, Janis H; Olds, R Scott; Smith, Kathryn E; Ridolfi, Danielle R

    2013-04-01

    Brief interventions encourage college students to eat more before drinking to prevent harm (Dimeff et al., 1999), although many women decrease their caloric intake (Giles et al., 2009) and the number of eating episodes (Luce et al., 2012) prior to drinking alcohol. Participants were 37 undergraduate women (24.3% Caucasian) who were recruited from a local bar district in the Midwest. This study examined whether changes in eating after intending to drink interacted with dietary restraint to predict accuracy of one's intoxication. Results indicated that changes in eating significantly moderated the relationship between dietary restraint and accuracy of one's intoxication level. After eating more food before intending to drink, women higher in restraint were more likely to overestimate their intoxication than women lower in restraint. There were no differences between women with high levels and low levels of dietary restraint in the accuracy of their intoxication after eating less food before intending to drink. Future research would benefit from examining interoceptive awareness as a possible mechanism involved in this relationship.

  16. [Metabolic encephalopathy secondary to vitamin D intoxication].

    PubMed

    Herrera Martínez, Aura; Viñals Torràs, Montserrat; Muñoz Jiménez, Ma Concepción; Arenas de Larriva, Antonio Pablo; Molina Puerta, Ma José; Manzano García, Gregorio; Gálvez Moreno, Ma Ángeles; Calañas-Continente, Alfonso

    2014-10-25

    The association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of, among others, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases has lead in the last years to an enhanced interest in the usage of supplements to achieve the normalization of plasmatic values at 25(OH) D. Apparently this search for normalization is resulting in an higher incidence on vitamin D intoxication. We present the case of an 81 years old woman with metabolic encephalopathy and renal failure secondary to iatrogenic vitamin D intoxication. Calcium and vitamin D oral supplements were prescribed after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The patient improved clinically as well as analytically after receiving treatment with diuretics and hydration. We emphasize the importance of discarding hypercalcemia as a cause of metabolic encephalopathy; moreover we highly recommend keeping vitamin D intoxication in mind as an uncommon although always possible etiology of reversible hypercalcemia and renal failure.

  17. The Effects of Alcohol on the Speed of Memory Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempel, Jennifer J.; And Others

    Recent research has clearly indicated that intoxication with alcohol impairs memory. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol on retrieval from long-term memory by using a set of cognitive decision tasks. Subjects (N=24) were female college students in good health not taking oral contraceptives. Subjects were administered 0 or 1.0…

  18. Effects of Trait Anger on Alcohol Consumption and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibsohn, Matthew T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared alcohol consumption and its consequences for high- and low-anger college students. High-anger students exhibited more frequent drinking and intoxication, and experienced severer physical, emotional, and behavioral alcohol-related consequences than low-anger students. Some gender differences were noted. Results are discussed in terms of…

  19. Alcohol-Involved Rapes: Are They More Violent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…

  20. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  1. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs.

  2. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  3. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  4. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  5. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  6. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  7. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  8. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  9. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  12. Family history of alcoholism mediates the frontal response to alcoholic drink odors and alcohol in at-risk drinkers.

    PubMed

    Kareken, David A; Bragulat, Veronique; Dzemidzic, Mario; Cox, Cari; Talavage, Thomas; Davidson, Dena; O'Connor, Sean J

    2010-03-01

    Although a family history of alcoholism is the strongest risk factor for developing alcohol dependence, there are few studies of the association between familial alcoholism and the human brain's reward system activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine how family history affects the brain's response to subjects' preferred alcoholic drink odors (AO) as compared to appetitive control odors (ApCO). Fourteen non-dependent heavy drinkers (HD) who were family history positive (FHP) participated, as did 12 HD who were family history negative (FHN). Subjects were imaged under both alcohol intoxication and placebo, using intravenous infusion and pharmacokinetic modeling to target a blood alcohol level of 50 mg%. Under placebo, HD-FHP had a larger medial frontal [AO>ApCO] effect than did HD-FHN. Alcohol intoxication dampened this response in the HD-FHP but potentiated it in the HD-FHN. This suggests that a family history of alcoholism and brain exposure to alcohol interact in heavy drinkers to differentially affect how the brain responds to alcohol cues.

  13. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  14. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  15. Putative calcium-binding domains of the Caenorhabditis elegans BK channel are dispensable for intoxication and ethanol activation.

    PubMed

    Davis, S J; Scott, L L; Ordemann, G; Philpo, A; Cohn, J; Pierce-Shimomura, J T

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol modulates the highly conserved, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which contributes to alcohol-mediated behaviors in species from worms to humans. Previous studies have shown that the calcium-sensitive domains, RCK1 and the Ca(2+) bowl, are required for ethanol activation of the mammalian BK channel in vitro. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, ethanol activates the BK channel in vivo, and deletion of the worm BK channel, SLO-1, confers strong resistance to intoxication. To determine if the conserved RCK1 and calcium bowl domains were also critical for intoxication and basal BK channel-dependent behaviors in C. elegans, we generated transgenic worms that express mutated SLO-1 channels predicted to have the RCK1, Ca(2+) bowl or both domains rendered insensitive to calcium. As expected, mutating these domains inhibited basal function of SLO-1 in vivo as neck and body curvature of these mutants mimicked that of the BK null mutant. Unexpectedly, however, mutating these domains singly or together in SLO-1 had no effect on intoxication in C. elegans. Consistent with these behavioral results, we found that ethanol activated the SLO-1 channel in vitro with or without these domains. By contrast, in agreement with previous in vitro findings, C. elegans harboring a human BK channel with mutated calcium-sensing domains displayed resistance to intoxication. Thus, for the worm SLO-1 channel, the putative calcium-sensitive domains are critical for basal in vivo function but unnecessary for in vivo ethanol action.

  16. Information Security Analysis: A Study to Analyze the Extent to Which Information Security Systems Can Be Utilized to Prevent Intoxicated Individuals from Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…

  17. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  18. Clinically and electrophysiologically diagnosed botulinum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep; Ceylan, Mustafa; Yilikoglu, Yalcin

    2013-01-03

    In this case report, clinical and electrophysiological findings of 43-year-old female patient who developed Clostridium botulinum intoxication after consumption of home-made canned food are presented. Following the sudden onset of severe nausea and vomiting, diplopia, blurred vision, bilateral ptosis, weakness, speech and swallowing difficulties have developed and the patient declared that she has just tasted the canned beans after she had rinsed them several times. The case, where serological tests cannot be performed, was diagnosed clinically and treated with antitoxin immediately. During follow-up, consecutive nerve stimulation was performed and significant incremental response was observed. There was an improvement in symptoms within 2 weeks, and in 5 or 6 weeks the symptoms had disappeared completely. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed that the findings turned to normal. The case showed that immediate antitoxin treatment is life-saving even the diagnosis of botulinum intoxication is based on clinical findings.

  19. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  20. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis. PMID:25715861

  1. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis.

  2. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    PubMed

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  3. Glutamatergic targets for new alcohol medications

    PubMed Central

    Spanagel, Rainer; Krystal, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale An increasingly compelling literature points to a major role for the glutamate system in mediating the effects of alcohol on behavior and the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Preclinical studies indicate that glutamate signaling mediates certain aspects of ethanol’s intoxicating and rewarding effects, and undergoes adaptations following chronic alcohol exposure that may contribute to the withdrawal, craving and compulsive drug-seeking that drive alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Objectives We discuss the potential for targeting the glutamate system as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to treating alcohol use disorders, focusing on five major components of the glutamate system: the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and specific NMDA subunits, the glycineB site on the NMDA receptors (NMDAR), L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid ionotropic (AMPA) and kainate (KAR) receptors, metabotropic receptors (mGluR), and glutamate transporters. Results Chronic alcohol abuse produces a hyperglutamatergic state, characterized by elevated extracellular glutamate and altered glutamate receptors and transporters. Pharmacologically manipulating glutamatergic neurotransmission alters alcohol-related behaviors including intoxication, withdrawal, and alcohol-seeking, in rodents and human subjects. Blocking NMDA and AMPA receptors reduces alcohol consumption in rodents, but side-effects may limit this as a therapeutic approach. Selectively targeting NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits (e.g., GluN2B, GluA3), or the NMDAR glycineB site offers an alternative approach. Blocking mGluR5 potently affects various alcohol-related behaviors in rodents, and mGluR2/3 agonism also suppresses alcohol consumption. Finally, glutamate transporter upregulation may mitigate behavioral and neurotoxic sequelae of excess glutamate caused by alcohol. Conclusions Despite the many challenges that remain, targeting the glutamate system offers genuine promise for developing new

  4. Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely believed that caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol, the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are incompletely understood. It is known that both caffeine and alcohol alter adenosine neurotransmission, but the relationship is complex, and may be dose dependent. In this article, we review the available literature on combining caffeine and alcohol. Ethical constraints prohibit laboratory studies that would mimic the high levels of alcohol intoxication achieved by many young people in real-world settings, with or without the addition of caffeine. We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine. Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. During acute alcohol intake, caffeine antagonizes the “unwanted” effects of alcohol by blocking the adenosine A1 receptors that mediate alcohol's somnogenic and ataxic effects. The A1 receptor–mediated “unwanted” anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine. Moreover, by means of interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate the effects of alcohol-induced dopamine release. Chronic alcohol intake decreases adenosine tone. Caffeine may provide a “treatment” for the withdrawal effects of alcohol by blocking the effects of upregulated A1 receptors. Finally, blockade of A2A receptors by caffeine may contribute to the reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:24761263

  5. Alcohol hangover: mechanisms and mediators.

    PubMed

    Swift, R; Davidson, D

    1998-01-01

    Hangovers are a frequent, though unpleasant, experience among people who drink to intoxication. Despite the prevalence of hangovers, however, this condition is not well understood scientifically. Multiple possible contributors to the hangover state have been investigated, and researchers have produced evidence that alcohol can directly promote hangover symptoms through its effects on urine production, the gastrointestinal tract, blood sugar concentrations, sleep patterns, and biological rhythms. In addition, researchers postulate that effects related to alcohol's absence after a drinking bout (i.e., withdrawal), alcohol metabolism, and other factors (e.g., biologically active, nonalcohol compounds in beverages; the use of other drugs; certain personality traits; and a family history of alcoholism) also may contribute to the hangover condition. Few of the treatments commonly described for hangover have undergone scientific evaluation.

  6. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  7. Cardiogenic shock due to acute tramadol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Perdreau, Elodie; Iriart, Xavier; Mouton, Jean-Baptiste; Jalal, Zakaria; Thambo, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol is a common analgesic, widely prescribed because of its efficiency and safety. We report the case of a 7-year-old child admitted in cardiac intensive care unit for cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication. Without any past history, the child was admitted at emergency room for generalised convulsion, followed by respiratory distress. Cardiogenic shock was suspected after clinical examination and chest X-ray and confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography showing low left ventricular ejection fraction (<30 %) with pulmonary hypertension. No evidence of cardiac infarction or myocarditis was found. Tramadol intoxication was suspected because of empty tramadol tablets found near the child and later confirmed by toxicologic analysis showing high blood concentration of tramadol (>1 mg/L) and O-desmethyltramadol (>1.5 mg/L). Hemodynamic support by inotropic drug infusion and diuretics was necessary. Left ventricular function normalised after 2 days of treatment allowing drug infusion weaning. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 days after admission confirmed normal left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes without evidence of late gadolinium enhancement. Cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication is rare but exists. Negative inotropic effect of high doses of tramadol has been suspected. Quick recovery is possible.

  8. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.

  9. The Mickey Finn defense: involuntary intoxication and insanity.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R L

    1992-01-01

    The legal context of voluntary and involuntary intoxication is delineated. The author reports a case of involuntary intoxication involving scopolamine toxic psychosis or delirium, in which he testified as a psychiatric expert witness. The specific psychological and physiological symptomatology produced by scopolamine intoxication is outlined. The forensic psychiatrist should be alert to the involuntary intoxication defense in these cases and should familiarize himself with the specific toxicity of scopolamine, in view of the significant increase in the number of incidents in which it is utilized as "knockout" drops in certain jurisdictions.

  10. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  11. [Two different clinical cases of acute arsenic trioxide intoxication].

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Smolarek, Małgorzata; Porebska, Barbara; Zawadzki, Marcin; Dyś, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes two different cases of acute suicidal arsenic trioxide intoxication. Case no 1. A 38-year-old man, alcohol abuser, who ingested 4-5 g dental paste, which corresponds to 2.2-2.7 g of pure arsenic trioxide, developed gastritis with vomiting and abdominal pain, but without diarrhea. No cardiovascular collapse or renal failure were observed. The patient developed also symptoms of central nervous system injury (minor left paresis) and transient hepatic impairment. A head CT revealed no pathological changes in the brain. Hepatic disturbance recovered in a few days and the patient could be discharged on the 12 day. Case no 2. A 57-year-old man, who ingested few grams of pure arsenic developed vomiting, abdominal pain and severe diarrhea. Cardiovascular collapse as a result of intravascular volume depletion, vasodilatation and myocardial dysfunction was observed. The patient died on the first day of hospitalization. In both cases treatment included gastric lavage, BAL therapy, haemodialysis and supportive measures.

  12. Clinical features and management of intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Krantz, A J; Zell-Kanter, M; Barkin, R L; Hryhorczuk, D O

    1989-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs are unique in that they produce the desired hallucinogenic effects at what are considered non-toxic doses. The hallucinogenic drugs can be categorised into 4 basic groups: indole alkaloid derivatives, piperidine derivatives, phenylethylamines and the cannabinols. The drugs reviewed include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, marijuana, psilocybin, mescaline, and 'designer drugs.' Particularly noteworthy is that each hallucinogen produces characteristic behavioural effects which are related to its serotonergic, dopaminergic or adrenergic activity. Cocaine produces simple hallucinations, PCP can produce complex hallucinations analogous to a paranoid psychosis, while LSD produces a combination of hallucinations, pseudohallucinations and illusions. Dose relationships with changes in the quality of the hallucinatory experience have been described with amphetamines and, to some extent, LSD. Flashbacks have been described with LSD and alcohol. Management of the intoxicated patient is dependent on the specific behavioural manifestation elicited by the drug. The principles involve differentiating the patient's symptoms from organic (medical or toxicological) and psychiatric aetiologies and identifying the symptom complex associated with the particular drug. Panic reactions may require treatment with a benzodiazepine or haloperidol. Patients with LSD psychosis may require an antipsychotic. Patients exhibiting prolonged drug-induced psychosis may require a variety of treatments including ECT, lithium and l-5-hydroxytryptophan.

  13. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  14. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  15. Interactions between alcohol and the antiretroviral medications ritonavir or efavirenz

    PubMed Central

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Gruber, Valerie A.; Beatty, George; Lum, Paula J.; Rainey, Petrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alcohol abuse occurs frequently in those with HIV infection. Alcohol has been linked to poor response to HIV treatment and more rapid progression of HIV. One possible contributor to such observations is drug interactions between alcohol and antiretroviral medications (ARV). This study examined drug interactions between antiretroviral therapies (ART) containing either efavirenz or ritonavir with alcohol. Methods HIV-infected individuals not currently receiving ART participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, study in which alcohol (or placebo) was administered and followed by blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, subjective, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological responses obtained at pre-determined times. ART was then initiated and alcohol (or placebo) sessions were repeated after at least two weeks of observed ART. Results Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) were lower following ART in a pattern consistent with decreased bioavailability. No effect of alcohol on ritonavir or efavirenz pharmacokinetics was observed. A pharmacodynamic interaction between alcohol and efavirenz was observed as evidenced by no change in intoxication or drowsiness before and after efavirenz ART despite lower BAC. Conclusions These results show the effectiveness of implementing ART and its role in diminution of BAC which could be associated with decreased risk of physiological toxicities related to alcohol consumption relative to those with untreated HIV infection. A potential pharmacodynamic interaction between alcohol and efavirenz was observed as demonstrated by a lack of decline in ratings of intoxication and drowsiness despite decreased BAC. Alcohol consumption did not alter the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir or efavirenz. PMID:23666322

  16. Decision making, risky behavior, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Camchong, Jazmin; Endres, Michael; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism can be described as a disorder characterized by impulsive decision-making processes, wherein potential short-term appetitive outcomes of drinking (e.g., intoxication) are deemed more important than potential long-term aversive consequences of drinking (e.g., drunk-driving arrests). Separate but interrelated neurocognitive pathways to impulsive decision making exist - one reflected by weak "top-down" executive control over impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol, the other reflected by a strong "bottom-up" appetitive drive in impulsive and compulsive urges to consume alcohol. We present behavioral evidence of poor executive control and strong appetitive drive and neural evidence describing differences in functional and organizational patterns in brain executive control and appetitive drive networks. We discuss how these behavioral and neural aspects of alcoholism are associated with impulsive decision making and risky behavior in alcoholics, and how these patterns differ at different stages of alcoholism dependence and recovery.

  17. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Sara K.; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs. PMID:27254089

  18. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  19. [Lethal intoxication with arsenic using prepared butter].

    PubMed

    Weller, Jens-Peter; Larsch, Klaus-Peter; Teske, Jörg; Tröger, Hans Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The present case report deals with a lethal intoxication with arsenic mixed into butter. It describes the course of events over about two days on the basis of the statements by the persons involved, the clinical findings after the belated hospitalisation of the victim, the results of the first pathological autopsy, the forensic autopsy performed after exhumation and the results of the chemical-toxicological investigations. The results are discussed in relation to the later confession of the female perpetrator and her statements regarding a previous unsuccessful murder attempt by poisoning. It also presents the judgement pronounced by the court and the reasons given for it.

  20. Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Ghaffari, Saba; Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen; Amini, Mohsen; Edalatifard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia. PMID:25535623

  1. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  2. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  3. Datura stramonium intoxication in two children.

    PubMed

    Rakotomavo, Falihery; Andriamasy, Caroline; Rasamoelina, Ndrantoniaina; Raveloson, Nasolotsiry

    2014-06-01

    Datura stramonium is a toxic plant member of the Solanaceae family. Its consumption may result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. We report the intoxication of 5- and 4-year-old brothers with Datura stramonium, which presented in two different manners. The first child presented agitation, hallucination and mydriasis that improved rapidly with benzodiazepine medication. The second presented comatose, mydriasis and Babinski signs. Gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration were performed. The child was intubated and mechanically ventilated until consciousness improvement. Datura stramonium poisoning may be considered by physicians in case of acute onset of decreased consciousness or behaviour trouble associated with anticholinergic signs and symptoms. PMID:24894939

  4. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  5. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  6. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  7. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  8. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  9. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  11. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  12. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  13. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  14. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  15. Early posttraumatic pulmonary platelet trapping and its potentiation by oral pretreatment with alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Thoerne, J.B.; Blomquist, S.; Elmer, O.; Joensson, B.A.L.; Lindahl, S.; Strand, S.E.

    1986-02-01

    Soft tissue trauma is associated with platelet aggregation and sequestration in the lungs. This is believed to be an early step in the later development of adult respiratory distress syndrome. In the present experiment using a new method for in vivo dynamic studies of platelet sequestration, we wanted to evaluate the effect of soft tissue trauma on pulmonary platelet trapping in pigs and the influence of acute alcohol intoxication. The results show that significant pulmonary platelet trapping is registered within minutes of trauma and that alcohol significantly increases platelet sequestration in the lungs. This indicates an increased risk for posttraumatic pulmonary problems in alcohol-intoxicated trauma victims.

  16. Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    Vitezić, D; Rozmanić, V; Franulović, J; Ahel, V; Matesić, D

    1994-03-01

    Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable.

  17. [Arsenic intoxication: information and case report].

    PubMed

    Bucio Jurado, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    Arsine intoxication is a true medical emergency with a high fatality rate, characteristic of acute and massive hemolysis. Inhalation of 250 ppm of arsine gas is instantly lethal. Exposure to 25 to 50 ppm for 30 minutes is lethal. Arsine is a colorless gas with a garlic scent, entering the organism by breathing and passing directly into the circulation. Its hemolytic activity is due to its ability to cause a fall in erythrocyte-reduced glutathione content. Manifestations are suggestive of a general toxic state with alterations of consciousness, from confusion until delirium, crash, hematuria, jaundice and renal insufficiency. This can generate confusion and difficulty in the diagnosis and in the opportune treatment to avoid death or sequelae. This type of intoxication must be suspected in electrolysis process workers or those working with lead, copper, zinc, iron, gold, silver and tin. In the present case, sources for arsenic ingestion in the organism were discarded and the presence of arsine in the workplace was confirmed. In spite of the administered treatment, the patient experienced renal insufficiency.

  18. [Arsenic intoxication: information and case report].

    PubMed

    Bucio Jurado, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    Arsine intoxication is a true medical emergency with a high fatality rate, characteristic of acute and massive hemolysis. Inhalation of 250 ppm of arsine gas is instantly lethal. Exposure to 25 to 50 ppm for 30 minutes is lethal. Arsine is a colorless gas with a garlic scent, entering the organism by breathing and passing directly into the circulation. Its hemolytic activity is due to its ability to cause a fall in erythrocyte-reduced glutathione content. Manifestations are suggestive of a general toxic state with alterations of consciousness, from confusion until delirium, crash, hematuria, jaundice and renal insufficiency. This can generate confusion and difficulty in the diagnosis and in the opportune treatment to avoid death or sequelae. This type of intoxication must be suspected in electrolysis process workers or those working with lead, copper, zinc, iron, gold, silver and tin. In the present case, sources for arsenic ingestion in the organism were discarded and the presence of arsine in the workplace was confirmed. In spite of the administered treatment, the patient experienced renal insufficiency. PMID:15998481

  19. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices..., and similar compounds. ] (e) ``Malt'' means beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation of an... all beverages made from the fermentation of fruits, berries, or grapes, with or without added...

  20. Women's Responses to Unwanted Sexual Advances: The Role of Alcohol and Inhibition Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated how alcohol consumption affects women's responses to unwanted sexual advances in a hypothetical dating situation. Sixty female social drinkers participated in a 2 times 2 between-subjects experiment, which examined the effects of moderate alcohol intoxication and relationship characteristics on behavioral responses to…

  1. The Effect of Alcohol and Private Self-Consciousness on Self-Report of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ken

    Many studies have supported the finding that alcohol consumption may lead to socially inappropriate behaviors. One theory which appears promising in accounting for the effects of intoxication is Hull's (1981) self-consciousness theory which is based on the idea that alcohol consumption affects behavior indirectly as a result of its effect on…

  2. Effect of sucrose consumption on alcohol-induced impairment in male social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, C; Pihl, R O; Young, S N; Ervin, F R

    1991-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the interaction between sucrose and ethanol in normal young fasting adult males. The first experiment employed a 3 (100 g sugar, 35 g sugar, 0 g sugar) x 3 (alcohol, placebo and sober) factorial design, which was carried out double-blind using aspartame to ensure that all the drinks were equally sweet. Subjects were tested for mood, memory, subjective intoxication and psychomotor performance at baseline and at times up to 3.5 h after ingestion of the drinks. An alcohol by sugar interaction was seen at 0.5 after drinking. Sugar attenuated alcohol intoxication at this time without influencing blood alcohol levels. Contrary to previous reports, the combination of alcohol and sugar failed to produce significant hypoglycemia, or any of the adverse behavioral effects associated with hypoglycemia, at later times after drink ingestion. The second experiment involved a simpler design, carried out single-blind in which the subjects receiving no sugar did not get aspartame. This was to rule out the possibility that aspartame was exacerbating alcohol intoxication instead of sugar attenuating it. The second experiment also showed that sugar can attenuate alcohol intoxication in fasting humans without altering blood alcohol levels significantly.

  3. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  4. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  6. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  7. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.

  8. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881

  9. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  10. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions To Use Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    This study addressed the hypothesis that intentions to use condoms are affected by alcohol intoxication. Recruited for this research were 54 male students, who indicated on a pretest that they were sexually active, usually used condoms, and were social drinkers. Subjects were divided into groups of two or three and then randomly assigned to the…

  11. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  12. [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology].

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Corradini, P; Zocchi, M; Camarri, F

    1989-07-31

    Metadoxine is an active drug for treatment of acute and chronic alcohol intoxication, affecting both liver and brain function. The authors reviewed the international pharmacological and clinical literature on the drug which shows the potential usefulness of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol-induced diseases. The case report concerns the results in 20 chronic alcoholics, admitted to the hospital for acute alcohol intake treated with metadoxine (one 500 mg tablet twice daily). Biohumoral hepatopathy parameters and clinical parameters of neuropsychic behaviour were examined simultaneously. Compared with a control group of patients undergoing traditional therapy (sedative and multi-vitamin drugs), metadoxine showed a significant improvement of the values of gamma-GT, GPT, blood ammonia, blood alcohol and of neuropsychic and behavioural parameters such as agitation, tremor, asterixis, sopor and depression. No side-effects or unfavourable reactions occurred during metadoxine treatment, which confirms the safety of this molecule. PMID:2529084

  13. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  14. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Ahmet; Satar, Salim; Uzun, Belkan; Topal, Metin; Yesilagac, Hasan; Avci, Andakkan

    2006-12-01

    Methanol is a common component of gasoline, antifreeze, washer fluid, perfume, household cleaners and various other industrial products. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis, serious neurologic sequelae and rarely imaging findings. In this paper, we describe a 35-year-old man with methanol intoxication who was in a comatose stage. Computed tomography (CT) showed widespread brain edema and hemorrhages localized in the supratentorial region of the temporal lobe, nearly 3 x 1 cm in a crescent shape, in the white matter surrounding the capsula externa and extending to the periventricular white matter and occipital lobes. Temporal lobe hemorrhage in our patient might also have been due to the effect of heparinization during hemodialysis, metabolic and lactic acidosis, or formate.

  15. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mainly symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. In severe cases, physostigmine can be used as an antidote. We report the case of 11 year old girl with Atropa Belladonna poisoning which was administrated in a therapeutic purpose as a remedy to jaundice. The child presented essentially a central anti-cholinergic syndrome. She was admitted in the intensive care unit, the progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment. PMID:22655106

  16. Lithium intoxication: a coordinated treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Minden, S L; Bassuk, E L; Nadler, S P

    1993-01-01

    This case illustrates the clinical features of lithium intoxication and the problems in treating it that may arise as a result of lithium's effects on the kidney. It also demonstrates the difficulties that can develop when a delicate physiologic balance is inadvertently disrupted by nonpharmacologic interventions such as seclusion and consequent restriction of access to food and water. Patients with lithium-induced urine-concentrating defects are especially at risk for dehydration, and care must be taken to ensure adequate fluid and salt intake. This case also shows how intense negative feelings evoked by chronically mentally ill patients can adversely affect their psychiatric and medical care. While such feelings are inevitable, their impact may be lessened by improved communication and coordination between the medical and psychiatric systems of care and by the presence of psychiatrists in the general medical hospital. PMID:8419561

  17. [Impact of acute alcoholism on the women's mortality in the northern region of Slovak Republic].

    PubMed

    Straka, L; Stuller, F; Novomeský, F; Zelený, M

    2009-10-01

    Problem of women's alcoholism doesn't belong among main topics of Slovak or Czech public discussions. Though everyone meeting the phenomenon of women's alcoholism can feel the fatal consequences of this mistake, our society used to perceive alcoholism as a men's problem. The authors performed the complex analysis of the mortuary files with particular focusing on the cases of women's deaths caused by alcohol intoxication, and the cases of deaths where an alcohol played the dominating role, in the northern regions of Slovak republic. Submitted article is author's next referring to urgent need of public discussion concerning the alcohol consumption in Slovakia, the phenomenon being widely tolerated by the society. PMID:20302040

  18. Complete atrioventricular block caused by mad honey intoxication.

    PubMed

    Oguzturk, H; Ciftci, O; Turtay, M G; Yumrutepe, S

    2012-11-01

    The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhododendron family plants containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey in our country. This intoxication is seen rarely. However, it may lead life-threatening hemoinstability mentioned above and may be confused with various diseases. For these reasons the exact diagnosis and treatment of this intoxication seems very important. We aim to describe a case admitted to the Emergency Department in consequence of mad honey intoxication and treated and discharged after hypotension and complete atrioventricular block development.

  19. Munich Oktoberfest experience: remarkable impact of sex and age in ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Binner, C; Selinski, S; Barysch, M J; Pölcher, C; Schormann, Wiebke; Hermes, Matthias; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Rudolph, Claudia; Bedawy, Essam; Schug, Markus; Golka, Klaus; Hasenclever, D; Trauer, H; Lessig, R; Bolt, H M; Ickstadt, K; Hengstler, Jan Georg

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 5,000 of 6 million annual visitors of the Oktoberfest in Munich have to undergo medical treatment. Patients with alcohol intoxication without trauma or further complications are all treated in a specialized medical camp. We studied these patients in order to identify risk factors and to assess the relevance of the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and of ethanol blood concentrations for patient management. In 2004 totally 405 patients suffering from ethanol intoxication without trauma were treated in the medical camp. A complete set of the following data was obtained from all 405 patients: GCS, ethanol blood concentration, age, sex, blood pressure (mean, systolic and diastolic), body temperature, heart rate, blood sugar, GOT, gamma-GT, and CK. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify risk factors predicting patients at increased risk of hospitalization. Low GCS (< or =8 vs. >8, OR: 4.18, CI: 1.96-8.65) low age (20-29 vs. > or =30 years, OR: 2.35, CI: 1.05-5.65) and male gender (male vs. female, OR: 3.58, CI: 1.36-9.34) independently predicted patients that had to be hospitalized. All other parameters including ethanol blood concentrations were not explanatory. Patients with GCS < or = 8 (n = 66) had a lower median blood pressure (P = 0.0312) and showed a smaller increase in blood pressure during the observation period compared to patients with GCS > 8 (P < 0.001), suggesting that this subgroup may require longer recovery periods. Men aged 20-29 years were at highest risk for hospital admission. Increased risk could not be explained by higher ethanol blood concentrations in this subgroup. Importantly, GCS < 6 does not justify endotracheal intubation in ethanol intoxicated patients, when further complications, such as trauma, can be excluded.

  20. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  1. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  2. The Limits of Tolerance: Convicted Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Share Experiences Driving Under the Influence

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C

    2010-01-01

    Most people are aware that regular alcohol drinkers can become tolerant to the effects of alcohol. Tolerance can lessen the outward manifestations of intoxication, and this poses challenges for the drinker and other observers, including law enforcement officers. On the basis of a National Institutes of Health-funded longitudinal study examining a cohort of convicted alcohol-impaired drivers, this article presents commentary regarding this phenomenon in offenders convicted of driving under the influence and the implications for traffic safety. PMID:20740113

  3. Development of psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Da-Li; Lin, Xiao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. PMID:27703363

  4. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  5. Hemodialysis of acute arsenic intoxication with transient renal failure.

    PubMed

    Giberson, A; Vaziri, N D; Mirahamadi, K; Rosen, S M

    1976-11-01

    A striking reduction in serum arsenic level was achieved after four hours of hemodialysis in a patient with acute arsenic intoxication and transient renal failure. Quantitative dialysance of arsenic and a comparison of daily urinary excretion of arsenic with amount removed by dialysis suggested that hemodialysis is indicated in the treatment of acute arsenic intoxication if there is concomitant renal failure. In the presence of normal renal function, supportive measures, including dimercaprol (BAL in Oil) therapy, constitute the best available treatment.

  6. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  7. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale.

  8. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  9. Hallucinogenic drugs attenuate the subjective response to alcohol in humans.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sean P; Archambault, Jennifer; Engelberg, Marla J; Pihl, Robert O

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated possible interactions between alcohol and hallucinogens in 22 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and/or psilocybin users through retrospective structured interviews. Of those who had used LSD with alcohol, 86;7 per cent reported a complete blockade of subjective alcohol effects, while the remaining cases reported a diminished response. In addition, 60 per cent of respondents who had used alcohol and psilocybin together reported a partial antagonism of subjective alcohol effects.T-test analyses revealed that LSD's antagonism of alcohol effects were significantly greater than those associated with psilocybin. It is proposed that LSD's effect on alcohol intoxication may involve interactions with various serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptor systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Failure to Consider Future Consequences Increases the Effects of Alcohol on Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Roth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The failure to consider the future consequences of one’s behavior is a major risk factor for aggression. Aggressive people tend to act first, and think later. Some people focus on the —here and now rather than on the future, a tendency measured by the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). Alcohol intoxication is a neuro-biological variable that produces similar effects. Participants in the present experiment completed the CFC scale and then consumed either an alcohol or a placebo beverage. Next, they competed against a same-sex ostensible partner on an interpersonally adversarial competitive task in which the winner could administer electric shocks to the loser (the aggression measure). As expected, aggression was highest in intoxicated persons with low CFC scores. Being unconcerned about the future consequences of one’s actions, in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication, combine in a pernicious manner to increase aggression. PMID:22639468

  11. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  12. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  13. The Role of Sensation-Seeking in Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Elena C.; Newman, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies the relationship of sensation-seeking to alcohol use and risk-taking behavior in a sample of college women. Risk-taking behavior measured in a driving simulation task was affected by state of intoxication. Results indicate that the personality trait of sensation-seeking appears to play an important mediating role in alcohol use and…

  14. [Management recommendations in patients with methotrexate intoxication].

    PubMed

    Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2007-02-10

    Intoxication due to insufficient renal clearance developed in 2 patients, a 54-year-old man and a 61-year-old woman, who were under treatment with methotrexate (MTX) for a primary cerebral lymphoma and a recurrence of large-cell B-cell-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively. Both were treated with folinic acid rescue, thymidine, and alkalisation of the urine. MTX is a cytotoxic drug that is often used in oncology and rheumatology. Significant and even lethal toxicity can develop when the elimination ofMTX is delayed or when supportive care, such as folinic acid rescue, is inadequate. Delayed elimination can be caused by reduced renal function, by the 'third space' phenomenon such as in case of ascites, pleural fluid accumulation and oedema, and by drug-drug interactions leading to reduced renal function or a disturbance in the plasma protein binding ofMTX. Once toxicity has developed, the therapy must be directed at protection of the normal tissues, restoration of renal function and hence the renal elimination ofMTX, restoration of the alkalisation of the urine, and general supportive therapy.

  15. Fatal mephedrone intoxication--a case report.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan; Stanaszek, Roman; Slopianka, Markus

    2013-01-01

    A death caused by a new designer drug, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), is reported. Eight small plastic bags containing white powder were found in the jacket of a young dead male. Spot tests conducted by the police officer indicated the presence of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in the powders. Laboratory routine screening analyses of blood and vitreous humor did not reveal any positive results; therefore, 2C-B was excluded. Analysis of powders was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The purity of mephedrone found in all powder samples was in the range of 80.4-87.3%. In connection with these findings, blood and vitreous humor samples were analyzed for mephedrone. Analyses were conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mephedrone was found in blood and vitreous humor at the concentrations of 5.5 and 7.1 µg/mL, respectively, revealing that this was a fatal mephedrone intoxication.

  16. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  17. An interesting thinner intoxication case: intrathoracic injection.

    PubMed

    Solak, Ilhami; Cankayali, Ilkin; Aksu, Hasim; Moral, Ali Resat

    2006-01-01

    Thinners, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, and N-hexane, are widely used in industry for the production of plastics, varnish, paint, and glue. Use of these toxic agents frequently leads to chronic intoxication caused by abuse or misuse of solvents, which are usually taken in through inhalation. Thinners may have neurotoxic, myotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic systemic effects. The patient described in this report attempted to commit suicide by injecting 10 cc thinner into the left hemithorax. Acute chemical empyema developed at the left hemithorax. No bacterial growth was noted in empyema liquid and blood samples. Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. No systemic toxic signs were noted, other than a low level of hepatotoxicity. Although pleural effusion, atelectasis, and pleural thickening were observed at the acute phase on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, only pleural thickening persisted on CT of the thorax after 1 y. Investigators could not find a documented case of parenteral use of thinners in the medical literature. PMID:16912033

  18. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  19. An accidental fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Maria; Thelander, Gunilla; Dahlgren, Maria; Kronstrand, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an unintentional death involving the administration of methoxetamine [2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)-cyclohexanone] and offers some reference values from living drug abusers. Methoxetamine is a new recreational drug with a similar structure to ketamine. The deceased was a 26-year-old male with a history of drug abuse; he was found lying on the floor in his apartment. Several "red-line" plastic bags were found, one of which was labeled "2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)-cyclohexanone" and another labeled "Haze." In four cases from living subjects with unknown doses, concentrations of methoxetamine were found from 0.13 to 0.49 µg/g. In three of the cases, the blood samples also contained natural or synthetic cannabinoids. In the autopsy case, a considerably higher concentration of methoxetamine, 8.6 µg/g, was found in femoral blood. In addition, tetrahydrocannabinol and the three different synthetic cannabinoids AM-694, AM-2201, and JWH-018, were present in femoral blood. The circumstances and the high femoral blood concentration of methoxetamine point toward an unintentional, acute fatal intoxication with methoxetamine, although the presence of the three synthetic cannabinoids may have contributed to the death.

  20. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n=48), placebo (n=48), or no alcohol (n=48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed alcohol or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions to prevent dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. PMID:23586449

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  2. Do voice recordings reveal whether a person is intoxicated? A case study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K; Pisoni, D B; Bernacki, R H

    1990-01-01

    In this report we consider the possibility that speech analysis techniques may be used to determine whether an individual was intoxicated at the time that a voice recording was made, and discuss an analysis of the speech produced by the captain of the Exxon Valdez recorded at several points around the time of the accident at Prince William Sound, Alaska. A review of previous research on the effects of alcohol and other effects on speech production suggests that it may be possible to attribute a certain, unique pattern of changes in speech to the influence of alcohol. However, the rate of occurrence of this pattern or the reliability of a decision based on observations such as these is not known. Acoustic-phonetic analysis of a small number of tokens of Captain Hazelwood's speech recorded before, during and after the accident revealed a number of changes in speech behavior which are similar to the pattern of changes observed in previous laboratory-based research on the effects of alcohol on speech production. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations in making inferences concerning the state of the speaker upon the basis of phonetic data and then discuss several possible explanations of the pattern of change found in the recordings of Captain Hazelwood. PMID:2130381

  3. A neurotoxic alcohol exposure paradigm does not induce hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Wilhelm, Clare J

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with neurological dysfunction, brain morphological deficits and frank neurotoxicity. Although these disruptions may be a secondary effect due to hepatic encephalopathy, no clear evidence of causality is available. This study examined whether a 72h period of alcohol intoxication known to induce physical dependence, followed by a single withdrawal, was sufficient to induce signs of hepatic encephalopathy in male and female mice. Animals were continuously intoxicated via alcohol vapor inhalation, a procedure previously shown to induce significant neurotoxicity in female mice. At peak synchronized withdrawal (8h following the end of alcohol exposure), blood samples were taken and levels of several liver-regulated markers and brain swelling were characterized. Glutathione levels were also determined in the medial frontal cortex (mFC) and hippocampus. Results revealed elevated levels of cholesterol, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen and total bilirubin in alcohol-exposed male and female groups compared to controls. Brain water weight was not affected by alcohol exposure, though males tended to have slightly more water weight overall. Alcohol exposure led to reductions in tissue levels of glutathione in both the hippocampus and mFC which may indicate increased oxidative stress. Combined, these results suggest that hepatic encephalopathy does not appear to play a significant role in the neurotoxicity observed following alcohol exposure in this model. PMID:27268733

  4. Alcohol, duty-of-care and common law--where do the consequences of drunken behaviour lie?

    PubMed

    Brett, Francesca; Tormey, William

    2014-09-01

    Legal issues around the duty of care in common law with regard to addictive legal drugs are evolving. Two recent cases came before the Irish courts dealing with the issue of duty of care of alcohol suppliers to intoxicated individuals. In both cases the intoxication was self-induced and the consequences were lethal. The juxtaposition of personal autonomy and duty of care cannot ignore personal responsibility. Do we need protection from ourselves?

  5. [Forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with certain poisonous mushrooms in the case of the lethal outcome in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Zaraf'aynts, G N

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93.4%). The mortality rate in the case of group intoxication (such cases accounted for 40% of the total) amounted to 28.6%. 40% of the deceased subjects consumed mushrooms together with alcohol. The poisoning caused the development of either phalloidin- or gyromitrin-intoxication syndromes (after consumption of Amanita phalloides and Gyromitra esculenta respectively). It is emphasized that the forensic medical experts must substantiate the diagnosis of poisoning with mushroom toxins based on the results of the chemical-toxicological and/or forensic chemical investigations. The relevant materials taken from the victim or the corpse should be dispatched for analysis not only within the first day but also on days 2-4 after intoxication. The mycological and genetic analysis must include the detection and identification of mushroom microparticles and spores in the smears from the oral cavity, vomiting matter, wash water, gastric and intestinal contents. In addition, the macro- and microscopic morphological signs, clinical data (major syndromes, results of laboratory studies, methods of treatment) should be taken into consideration as well as the time (season) of mushroom gathering, simultaneous poisoning in a group of people, and other pertinent information. PMID:27030094

  6. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  7. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G. David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L. Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J.L.; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  8. Protective effects of nimodipine on cerebrovascular function in chronic alcoholic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Yang, Xue; Shi, Wei; Ma, Zhao; Feng, Guangshen; Wang, Qinzhou; Shen, Li; Xie, Chunli

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we used chronic gavage administration of alcohol with gradual increases in alcohol concentration and volume to generate a rat model of chronic alcohol intoxication. We measured the changes in biological, behavioral, pathological and vascular injury-related molecular biological markers, and explored the effects of nimodipine intervention on alcohol intoxication. We found that chronic alcohol consumption induced a variety of behavioral abnormalities, accompanied by severe pathological changes in cerebral arterioles, prefrontal cortex and cerebellar tissue, as well as an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), leptin receptor (ob-R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Treatment with mimodipine for 15 days significantly improved behavioral abnormalities, alleviated the pathological changes in blood vessels and brain tissues, increased VEGF expression, decreased ob-R expression, reduced plasma ET-1 leakage and protected vascular and neuronal functions.

  9. Dietary fat level and alcohol-induced pancreatic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, S.J.; Inomata, T.; Largman, C.; French, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of dietary fat levels on alcohol-induced pancreatic injury were studied in a rat model which achieves sustained blood alcohol levels and maximal nutritional control. A diet containing 5, 25, or 35% of fat (corn oil; % total calories) and either ethanol or isocaloric dextrose were intragastrically infused in male Wistar rats for 30-120 days. Following intoxication, the pancreatic pathology was examined light-microscopically. None of pair-fed controls showed abnormal pancreas histology. These results indicate potentiation of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury. Particularly higher incidence of chronic interstitial pancreatitis with increased dietary fat.

  10. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  11. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  12. "Not a good look": Impossible Dilemmas for Young Women Negotiating the Culture of Intoxication in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lin; Griffin, Christine; Shankar, Avi

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates young women's alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom within a widespread culture of intoxication in relation to recent debates about postfeminism and contemporary femininity. Young women are faced with an "impossible dilemma," arising from the contradiction between a hedonistic discourse of alcohol consumption and postfeminist discourse around attaining and maintaining the "right" form of hypersexual heterosexual femininity. Drawing on a recent interview study with 24 young white working-class and middle-class women in the South-West of England, we explore how young women inhabit the dilemmas of contemporary femininity in youth drinking cultures, striving to achieve the "right" form of hypersexual femininity and an "optimum" level of drunkenness.

  13. Petechial Hemorrhages and Ethanol in Deaths from Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Flaagøy, Siren Helen; Morild, Inge; Maehle, Bjørn Ove; Lilleng, Peer Kaare

    2016-09-01

    Petechiae in conjunctivae and in the palpebrae/skin of the eyelids are of particular interest for the forensic pathologist, because of their association with pressure on the neck. They have been described in the eyelids of intoxicated persons both in case reports and in text books of forensic pathology. We studied 590 deaths caused by intoxication, and 75 had petechiae either in the conjunctivae, the eyelids, or in both locations. We examined the influence of drugs and ethanol on the location of the petechial hemorrhages in these deaths. Deaths with ethanol in blood and in urine/vitreous humor more often had petechiae in both locations than those without. This association was statistically significant, independent of body position and livor mortis. No association between the location of petechiae, medicinal drugs, or narcotics was found. These results suggest that ethanol may contribute to the development of petechial hemorrhages in deaths from intoxication. PMID:27341349

  14. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication. PMID:27752575

  15. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  16. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  17. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  18. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  19. Individual differences in subjective alcohol responses and alcohol-related disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2016-04-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol's disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects-but not sedative-like effects-experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by cued go/no-go task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol's acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  20. Peripheral neuropathy in lead-intoxicated sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    Imbus, C E; Warner, J; Smith, E; Pegelow, C H; Allen, J P; Powars, D R

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and hypertension caused by lead intoxication are reported in two children with sickle cell anemia. One child had generalized weakness in the initial occurrence and distal paralysis during a relapse two years later. The second child had foot and wrist drop. Both had slow peripheral nerve conduction velocities during the episodes. Chelation therapy was successful and resulted in a return of strength (over a period of several months) and a normalization of the blood pressures. Children with sickle cell anemia who are subjected to lead intoxication appear to be predisposed to peripheral nerve damage.

  1. Arsenic intoxication presenting with macrocytosis and peripheral neuropathy, without anemia.

    PubMed

    Heaven, R; Duncan, M; Vukelja, S J

    1994-01-01

    A case of arsenic intoxication associated with macrocytosis and neuropathy, without anemia, is presented. Evaluation of a 68-year-old man with a long history of peripheral neuropathy and persistent macrocytosis revealed exposure to an insecticide. Analysis of urine and hair revealed elevated levels of arsenic. A short course of d-penicillamine failed to promote urinary excretion of arsenic. Removal of the insecticide resulted in resolution of macrocytosis and slight improvement of neuropathy. This case emphasizes that arsenic intoxication should be considered in patients with macrocytosis with peripheral neuropathy, even in the absence of anemia.

  2. Arsenic intoxication as a cause of megaloblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, D D; Samaha, R J; Barnes, A

    1975-02-01

    We have described a case of chronic arsenic intoxication associated with pancytopenia and megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The patient had the typical laboratory manifestations of effective erythorpoiesis due to a megaloblastic process, including macroovalocytes, mild pancytopenia, low reticulocyte index, increased marrow cellularity with erythroid hyperplasia, and morphologic evidence of megaloblastic maturation in the marrow. The patient's serum folate and vitamin B12 were normal, and the anemia regressed without therapy. Our case suggests that the combination of megaloblastosis with normoblastic or megaloblastic karyorrhexis,should raise the suspicion of arsenic intoxication in the mind of the observer. In addition, arsenic should be added to the list of agents causing a reversible megaloblastic anemia.

  3. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  4. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  5. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  6. We use Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Overdoses and Intoxications.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Valerie Jorge; Shirali, Anushree C

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal modalities for the removal of drugs and toxins are indicated for the treatment of overdoses and intoxications. Well-established modalities include hemodialysis (HD), high-flux HD (HfD), and charcoal hemoperfusion (HP). Recently, there have been increasing reports on the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), such as continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or CVVH combined with dialysis (CVVHDF). In the present article, we will discuss the various factors that determine the clearance of drugs and toxins and accordingly, we will propose that with few exceptions, CRRT does not have a role in the routine management of intoxications.

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  8. Evaluation of Cholinesterase Activities During in Vivo Intoxication Using an Electrochemical Sensor Strip – Correlation With Intoxication Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Novotný, Ladislav; Misík, Jan; Kuca, Kamil; Zdarova-Karasova, Jana; Hrabinova, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed. PMID:22412329

  9. Prolonged neuropsychiatric effects following management of chloroquine intoxication with psychotropic polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Nicole M; Nevin, Remington L; Stahl, Stephen; Block, Jerald; Shugarts, Sarah; Wu, Alan H B; Dominy, Stephen; Solano-Blanco, Miguel Alonso; Kappelman-Culver, Sharon; Lee-Messer, Christopher; Maldonado, Jose; Maxwell, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Susceptibility to quinoline antimalarial intoxication may reflect individual genetic and drug-induced variation in neuropharmacokinetics. In this report, we describe a case of chloroquine intoxication that appeared to be prolonged by subsequent use of multiple psychotropic medications. This case highlights important new considerations for the management of quinoline antimalarial intoxication. PMID:26185633

  10. Atropine intoxication from the ingestion and smoking of jimson weed (Datura stramonium).

    PubMed

    Guharoy, S R; Barajas, M

    1991-12-01

    Anticholinergic effects occur due to jimson weed intoxication. The most common intoxication involves teenagers desiring mind-altering properties from the plant. We report 4 cases of jimson weed intoxication due to ingestion and inhalation (smoking) of jimson weed. Clinicians should be aware of the potential abuse of botanicals such as jimson weed. PMID:1808839

  11. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is clearly deleterious to the brain, provoking acute and chronic mental disorders, ranging from intoxication with impairment of cognition, to delirium tremens, halluosis, and dementia. In contrast, the main health consequences of nicotine, notably cancer and cardiovascular disases, lie outside the realm of psychiatry However, the mes of nicotine dependence and motivation to smoke or quit are of concern to psychiatrists. PMID:22033899

  12. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  13. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community. PMID:21665157

  14. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  15. Neurotensin receptor type 1 regulates ethanol intoxication and consumption in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moonnoh R.; Hinton, David J.; Song, Jane Y.; Lee, Kyung Won; Choo, Christopher; Johng, Heidi; Unal, Sencan S.; Richelson, Elliott; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTS1) is known to mediate a variety of biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. In this study, we found that NTS1 null mice displayed decreased sensitivity to the ataxic effect of ethanol on the rotarod and increased ethanol consumption when given free choice between ethanol and tap water containing bottles. Interestingly, the administration of NT69L, a brain-permeable NT analog, increased ethanol sensitivity in wild-type littermates but had no such effect in NTS1 null mice, suggesting that NTS1 contributes to NT-mediated ethanol intoxication. Furthermore, the daily treatment of NT69L, for 4 consecutive days, significantly reduced alcohol preference and consumption in wild-type littermates but had no such effects in NTS1 null mice in a two-bottle drinking experiment. Our study provides evidence for one possible pharmacological role of NT69L in which it increases sensitivity to the ataxic effect, and decreases voluntary consumption, of ethanol. Our study also demonstrates NTS1-mediated behavioral effects of NT69L. Therefore, our findings will be useful for understanding some aspects of alcoholism as well as to develop novel pharmacological therapeutic options for humans. PMID:20122953

  16. Presence of alcohol in suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Bilban, M; Skibin, L

    2005-01-17

    A number of studies have established a strong connection between acute inebriation, alcohol addiction and suicides, as the last act of alcoholism or an act of desperation in an alcoholic's family, an act of escape from restraints in state of depression or as a way of self-destruction. In recent years in average 600 people per year committed suicide. Slovenia is a country with extremely high and variable suicide tendencies and harmful alcohol use levels, as well as a high level of alcohol-related troubles. The aim of our research was to ascertain some typical features, especially those connected to the inebriation of suicide victims from a wider Ljubljana region. Autopsies were carried out on the victims in the period between 1995 and 1999. There were 508 (31.2%) suicides among all the analyzed violent deaths; 73.2% of them were men. The average age of the victims was 46.5 years. Most suicides were committed at home (50.0%). 25.4% were completely sober in the moment of the act, while in all other cases inebriation was established, the average value being 9.57 g/kg. Men were drunk in 87.1% of cases, women only in 12.9% and the given alcohol levels were substantially higher with men (0.65:0.26 g/kg). The share of inebriated persons decreases with age-reaching its peak in the 35-54 age group. Regarding the method, the predominant ones are intoxication and the use of firearms, which is a typical way of committing suicide among men, while women rather choose jumping from great heights and drowning. Alcohol was present in as many as 55.7% of suicides with intoxication and in 68.8% of all suicides committed by using firearms, while the highest alcohol levels were found in those who died from cutting their veins (2.01 g/kg). Based on this and on other research, more effort should be focused on alcohol abuse prevention, making all people aware of the consequences of alcohol abuse, the possibilities of treatment and their availability as well as possible co-morbid depressions

  17. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  18. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  19. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  20. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  1. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  2. Superwarfarin intoxication: hematuria is a major clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Feng; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2009-09-01

    Since superwarfarin is popular and readily available in stores, it may cause intoxication or overexposure, which can result in coagulopathy or abnormal bleeding in humans and, thus, is an important public health problem. We report our clinical experience with superwarfarin intoxication. Nine patients, including eight patients who had histories of ingesting superwarfarin, were studied. Of the patients, hematuria occurred in eight. Laboratory tests among the nine patients showed extremely prolonged prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times, which could be corrected to normal by mixing 1:1 with normal pooled plasma; they also had very low functional levels of factor II, VII, IX, X, and proteins C and S, but normal functional levels of factors V, VIII, fibrinogen, and anti-thrombin III. Large doses of vitamin K1 were needed for 3 months or more to treat and correct the coagulopathy among the patients. The majority of the patients presented with gross hematuria, suggesting that hematuria is probably a major clinical manifestation of superwarfarin intoxication. Prolonged use of large doses of vitamin K1 is needed for the treatment of superwarfarin intoxication.

  3. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  4. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  5. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  6. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  7. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  8. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  9. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  10. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  11. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  12. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  13. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  14. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  15. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  16. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  17. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  18. Korean Patients with Superwarfarin Intoxication and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested. PMID:21165290

  19. Transcriptional response to alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Tatiana V; Anholt, Robert RH; Mackay, Trudy FC

    2006-01-01

    Background Alcoholism presents widespread social and human health problems. Alcohol sensitivity, the development of tolerance to alcohol and susceptibility to addiction vary in the population. Genetic factors that predispose to alcoholism remain largely unknown due to extensive genetic and environmental variation in human populations. Drosophila, however, allows studies on genetically identical individuals in controlled environments. Although addiction to alcohol has not been demonstrated in Drosophila, flies show responses to alcohol exposure that resemble human intoxication, including hyperactivity, loss of postural control, sedation, and exposure-dependent development of tolerance. Results We assessed whole-genome transcriptional responses following alcohol exposure and demonstrate immediate down-regulation of genes affecting olfaction, rapid upregulation of biotransformation enzymes and, concomitant with development of tolerance, altered transcription of transcriptional regulators, proteases and metabolic enzymes, including biotransformation enzymes and enzymes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. Functional tests of P-element disrupted alleles corresponding to genes with altered transcription implicated 75% of these in the response to alcohol, two-thirds of which have human orthologues. Conclusion Expression microarray analysis is an efficient method for identifying candidate genes affecting complex behavioral and physiological traits, including alcohol abuse. Drosophila provides a valuable genetic model for comparative genomic analysis, which can inform subsequent studies in human populations. Transcriptional analyses following alcohol exposure in Drosophila implicate biotransformation pathways, transcriptional regulators, proteolysis and enzymes that act as metabolic switches in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism as important targets for future studies of the physiological consequences of human alcohol abuse. PMID:17054780

  20. Cross-national comparisons of the association between alcohol consumption and deliberate self-harm in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Ystgaard, Mette; Hawton, Keith; Madge, Nicola; van Heeringen, Kees; de Wilde, Erik Jan; DeLeo, Diego; Fekete, Sandor; Morey, Carolyn

    2007-12-01

    How differences in drinking patterns may affect the impact of alcohol consumption on deliberate self-harm among adolescents is explored in this international comparative study. Schools in Australia, Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Norway (N = 30,532) were surveyed. In all countries the risk of deliberate self-harm was significantly elevated among adolescents who reported some or numerous episodes of intoxication, controlling for confounding factors. The results support the assumption that intoxication is significantly related to the association between alcohol consumption and deliberate self-harm in adolescents.

  1. Self-Esteem and Alcohol Consumption: A Study of College Drinking Behavior in a Naturalistic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Geller, E. Scott; Fortney, Jason N.

    1999-01-01

    Research assessed 44 students' levels of self-esteem and then measured their actual levels of intoxication with a breathalyzer as they were leaving a fraternity party. Participants with lower levels of self-esteem exited the party with a mean Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of .126, while those with higher levels of self-esteem exited with a…

  2. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  3. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  4. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  5. The Influence of Being under the Influence: Alcohol Effects on Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Teasdale, Brent; Burchfield, Keri B.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between intoxication, chronic alcohol use, and violent behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The authors introduce a method for disentangling spuriousness from the causal effects of situational variables. Their results suggest that drinkers are much more likely to commit…

  6. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  7. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  8. Antibody protection against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Stanker, Larry H; Henderson, Thomas D; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D

    2009-10-01

    Adulteration of food or feed with any of the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potential bioterrorism concern. Currently, there is strong interest in the development of detection reagents, vaccines, therapeutics, and other countermeasures. A sensitive immunoassay for detecting BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) F1-2 and F1-40, has been developed and used in complex matrices. The epitope for F1-2 has been mapped to the heavy chain of BoNT/A, and the epitope of F1-40 has been mapped to the light chain. The ability of these MAbs to provide therapeutic protection against BoNT/A intoxication in mouse intravenous and oral intoxication models was tested. High dosages of individual MAbs protected mice well both pre- and postexposure to BoNT/A holotoxin. A combination therapy consisting of antibodies against both the light and heavy chains of the toxin, however, significantly increased protection, even at a lower MAb dosage. An in vitro peptide assay for measuring toxin activity showed that pretreatment of toxin with these MAbs did not block catalytic activity but instead blocked toxin entry into primary and cultured neuronal cells. The timing of antibody rescue in the mouse intoxication models revealed windows of opportunity for antibody therapeutic treatment that correlated well with the biologic half-life of the toxin in the serum. Knowledge of BoNT intoxication and antibody clearance in these mouse models and understanding of the pharmacokinetics of BoNT are invaluable for future development of antibodies and therapeutics against intoxication by BoNT.

  9. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  10. Differential contribution of clinical amounts of acetaldehyde to skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction in alcoholic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Oba, Toshiharu; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2005-01-01

    Acute intoxication due to alcohol consumption has been known to elicit reversible skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction, or "alcoholic myopathy and cardiomyopathy". Sometimes, irreversible muscle damage can be induced after heavy alcohol drinking. Many researchers have proposed that acetaldehyde, the major oxidised product of alcohol, may be a primary factor underlying alcohol-induced muscle dysfunction. Because acetaldehyde is rapidly metabolised to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mainly in the liver, blood concentration of acetaldehyde is maintained at a low level even after heavy alcohol intoxication. In alcoholics, blood acetaldehyde level is relatively high, probably due to hepatic inhibition of ALDH activity. Several mM of acetaldehyde have been used for studies of cardiac muscle contraction, the intracellular calcium transient, and the L-type calcium channel. In skeletal muscle, the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor activity has been reported to be inhibited by exposure to 1 mM acetaldehyde. However, these observations were made using potentially lethal concentrations of acetaldehyde, so the hypothesis that acetaldehyde plays a crucial role on alcoholic myopathy is questionable. In this review, we will summarise the effect of alcohol and its major oxidised product, acetaldehyde, on skeletal and heart muscles and propose a toxic contribution of clinical concentrations of acetaldehyde to alcoholic myopathy. In addition, this review will include briefly the effect of acetaldehyde on diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  11. Clinical pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: case reports and review of the treatment of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Blaho, K; Merigian, K; Winbery, S; Geraci, S A; Smartt, C

    1997-01-01

    Intoxication and overdose are common presenting complaints to the emergency department. Acute intoxication with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has become a relatively rare event, especially when compared with the incidence of ethanol and cocaine intoxication. We recently had an outbreak of presumed LSD intoxications occurring over one weekend. All patients had attended a performance by the musical group The Grateful Dead. At present, LSD intoxication or overdose can only be suspected based on clinical findings because there are no readily available rapid laboratory tests for detecting either the parent compound or the metabolites of the drug. The clinical findings and outcomes of five patients with suspected LSD intoxication are presented. The pharmacological effects of LSD and treatment modalities of intoxication are reviewed. All patients were treated conservatively based on clinical signs and symptoms. Only one patient required hospital admission for combative behavior that was initially refractory to pharmacological restraint.

  12. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  13. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  15. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278

  16. Some effects of alcohol and eye movements on cross-race face learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on visual scanning in cross-race face learning. The eye movements of a group of white British participants were recorded as they encoded a series of own-and different-race faces, under alcohol and placebo conditions. Intoxication reduced the rate and extent of visual scanning during face encoding, reorienting the focus of foveal attention away from the eyes and towards the nose. Differences in encoding eye movements also varied between own-and different-race face conditions as a function of alcohol. Fixations to both face types were less frequent and more lingering following intoxication, but in the placebo condition this was only the case for different-race faces. While reducing visual scanning, however, alcohol had no adverse effect on memory, only encoding restrictions associated with sober different-race face processing led to poorer recognition. These results support perceptual expertise accounts of own-race face processing, but suggest the adverse effects of alcohol on face learning published previously are not caused by foveal encoding restrictions. The implications of these findings for alcohol myopia theory are discussed.

  17. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  18. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  19. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress. Images PMID:1871131

  20. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  1. Plotting of Ethylene Glycol Blood Concentrations Using Linear Regression before and during Hemodialysis in a Case of Intoxication and Pharmacokinetic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. As blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol is readily available, the equation was proposed in previous publication to predict the change of their concentration. The change of ethylene glycol (EG) concentrations was studied in a case of intoxication to estimate required time for hemodialysis (HD) using linear regression. Case Report. A 55-year-old female with past medical history of seizure disorder, bipolar disorder, and chronic pain was admitted due to severe agitation. The patient was noted to have metabolic acidosis with elevated anion gap and acute kidney injury, which prompted blood concentration measurement of commonly abused alcohol. Her initial EG concentration was 26.45 mmol/L. Fomepizole therapy was initiated, soon followed by HD to enhance clearance. Discussion. Plotting of natural logarithm of EG concentrations over time showed that EG elimination follows first-order kinetics and predicts the change of its concentration well. Pharmacokinetic review revealed minimal elimination of EG by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) which could be related to genetic predisposition for ADH activity and home medications as well as presence of propylene glycol. Pharmacokinetics of EG is relatively well studied with published parameters. Consideration and application of pharmacokinetics could assist in management of EG intoxication including HD planning. PMID:26346463

  2. [Evaluation of the endogenous intoxication syndrome in food toxic infections].

    PubMed

    Marzhokhova, M Iu; Zhelikhazheva, Zh M

    2009-01-01

    To study the endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients with food toxic infections is essential in revealing the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disease. For this, the authors measured the level of low and average molecular weight, as well as their protein component--oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine in the course of the disease. There were increased levels of the study parameters, which depended on the stage and degree of a pathological process. The determination of the level of low and average molecular weight and oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine may serve as a marker of the intoxication syndrome; the level of the study parameters may be used as additional criteria for the severity of the process, the prediction of disease development and comorbidity, and as a criterion for recovery completeness.

  3. Combined intoxication with methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Eiji; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Takashi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujisaki, Mihisa; Miyatake, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2007-01-30

    Although preclinical studies suggest that methylone (2-methylamino-1-[3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl]propan-1-one) and 5-MeO-MIPT (5-methoxy-N-methyl,N-isopropyl tryptamine) may have psychostimulant properties, the scientific reports about the clinical effects of these agents are scant. We describe a 27-year-old male patient with substance intoxication after a single ingestion of the mixture of methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT. Though he bought the drug as pure methylone powder via an internet order, our chemical analyses indicated that the drug was composed of about 60% methylone (120 mg) and 38% 5-MeO-MIPT (76 mg). This case report suggests that clinicians should be alert to the possibility of the emergence of methylone or 5-MeO-MIPT intoxication, and substance-related mental disorder may be complicated by combined use of other psychoactive drugs.

  4. [Drugs of abuse acute intoxication in paediatric emergencies].

    PubMed

    García-Algar, O; Papaseit, E; Velasco, M; López, N; Martínez, L; Luaces, C; Vall, O

    2011-06-01

    Documented cases show that acute drugs of abuse intoxication in children usually is the Fritz clinical evidence of a chronic exposure. Published clinical reports of drugs of abuse acute poisonings in children are reviewed, above all those with an underlying chronic exposure to the same or another substance. Biological matrices and exposure biomarkers useful in toxicology analysis in Paediatrics are reviewed. In toxicology, biomarkers refer to original parental substances and its metabolites and matrices refer to body substances where biomarkers are detected. In these matrices acute and chronic (previous days, weeks or months) exposures can be detected. Hair analysis has become the gold standard of drugs of abuse chronic exposure. Recommendation includes to confirm previous chronic exposure to drugs of abuse by hair analysis of children and their parents. This protocol must be applied in all cases with suspicion of acute drugs of abuse intoxication, parental consumption and/or children living in a risk environment.

  5. Accidental organophosphate insecticide intoxication in children: a reminder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Misuse of organophosphate insecticides, even in case of domestic application, can be life threatening. We report the case of siblings admitted with respiratory distress, pinpoint pupils and slurred speech. The symptoms appear after spraying the skin by insecticides. Plasma pseudocholinesterase level appeared to be very low, consistent with acute intoxication with organophosphate insecticide. Management of organophosphate poisoning consists of airway management, administration of oxygen and fluid, as well as atropine in increasing doses and pralidoxime. Decontamination of the patient's skin and the removal of the patient's clothes are mandatory in order to avoid recontamination of the patient as well as the surrounding healthcare personnel. Plasma pseudocholinesterase analysis is a cheap and an easy indicator for organophosphate insecticides intoxications and could be used for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:21676238

  6. Reversal of Ethanol-induced Intoxication by a Novel Modulator of Gβγ Protein Potentiation of the Glycine Receptor.

    PubMed

    San Martin, Loreto; Cerda, Fabian; Jin, Chunyang; Jimenez, Veronica; Yevenes, Gonzalo E; Hernandez, Tania; Nova, Daniela; Fuentealba, Jorge; Aguayo, Luis G; Guzman, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    The acute intoxicating effects of ethanol in the central nervous system result from the modulation of several molecular targets. It is widely accepted that ethanol enhances the activity of the glycine receptor (GlyR), thus enhancing inhibitory neurotransmission, leading to motor effects, sedation, and respiratory depression. We previously reported that small peptides interfered with the binding of Gβγ to the GlyR and consequently inhibited the ethanol-induced potentiation of the receptor. Now, using virtual screening, we identified a subset of small molecules capable of interacting with the binding site of Gβγ. One of these compounds, M554, inhibited the ethanol potentiation of the GlyR in both evoked currents and synaptic transmission in vitro When this compound was tested in vivo in mice treated with ethanol (1-3.5 g/kg), it was found to induce a faster recovery of motor incoordination in rotarod experiments and a shorter sedative effect in loss of righting reflex assays. This study describes a novel molecule that might be relevant for the design of useful therapeutic compounds in the treatment of acute alcohol intoxication. PMID:27402845

  7. Skin cancer and arsenical intoxication from well water.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S L; Maliner, J S; Morton, W E; Braman, R S

    1979-10-01

    A case of acute arsenical intoxication arising from ingested well water containing only 1.2 ppm of arsenic is reported. After a latent period of 14 years, multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas developed. The water was analyzed for a variety of other trace elements and compounds and no evidence for the existence of other carcinogens was found. This study strengthens the concept that arsenic is a carcinogen. The role of a possible selenium deficiency is also discussed.

  8. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  9. An undercovered health threat in Turkey: transdermal methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Uca, Ali Ulvi; Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Altaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colorless solvent used in antifreeze solutions, varnishes, cologne, copying machine fluids, perfume, spirit, paint, and fuel. Even small amounts of ingested methanol can cause acute permanent neurological dysfunction and irreversible blindness. Although there are many reports of methanol poisoning due to suicidal or accidental ingestion, reports of transdermal absorption are rare. We present a 68-year-old man with transdermal methanol intoxication applied to our hospital's emergency department with weakness, loss of vision, and altered state of consciousness.

  10. Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration: when, where and why?

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Collins, Michael A; Dlugos, Cynthia; Littleton, John; Wilkins, Lincoln; Neafsey, Edward J; Pentney, Roberta; Snell, Lawrence D; Tabakoff, Boris; Zou, Jian; Noronha, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the proceedings of a symposium organized by Drs. Antonio Noronha and Fulton Crews presented at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting. The purpose of the symposium was to examine recent findings on when alcohol induced brain damage occurs, e.g., during intoxication and/or during alcohol withdrawal. Further studies investigate specific brain regions (where) and the mechanisms (why) of alcoholic neurodegeneration. The presentations were (1) Characterization of Synaptic Loss in Cerebella of Mature and Senescent Rats after Lengthy Chronic Ethanol Consumption, (2) Ethanol Withdrawal Both Causes Neurotoxicity and Inhibits Neuronal Recovery Processes in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Cultures, (3) Binge Drinking-Induced Brain Damage: Genetic and Age Related Effects, (4) Binge Ethanol-Induced Brain Damage: Involvement of Edema, Arachidonic Acid and Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), and (5) Cyclic AMP Cascade, Stem Cells and Ethanol. Taken together these studies suggest that alcoholic neurodegeneration occurs through multiple mechanisms and in multiple brain regions both during intoxication and withdrawal.

  11. [Acute oral suicidal intoxication with captan--a case report].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge the second case of acute intoxication with captan was described. In this paper a 22-year old female was admitted to the Department of Toxicology with a nausea, weakness, numbness of upper limbs and substernal pain. She said that these symptoms began two hours after suicidal ingestion of 5.0 g of captan. At admission the patient was alert. Temperature was 37 degrees C, heart rate 100-120 b/min., BP 100-120/60-70 mm Hg and breathing rate 17/min. WBC were slightly elevated 12.4 x 10(3)/microl as well as the creatine kinase activity 329 U/L. ECG showed inversion of a T segment in V1-V4 leads. ECHO-sound made in 4th and 120th day after the onset of intoxication showed no changes, with EF--70%. Temporary increase of creatine kinase activity as well as the presence of inverted T segment in V1-V4 leads may suggest cardiotoxic effects of captan during acute intoxication.

  12. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  13. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  14. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400 mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400 mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150 mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n = 10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P = 0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P = 0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  15. Long-term alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal differentially modulate microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene expression in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Putzke, J; De Beun, R; Schreiber, R; De Vry, J; Tölle, T R; Zieglgänsberger, W; Spanagel, R

    1998-11-20

    Chronic alcohol intoxication is known to produce neuronal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system of experimental animals and of humans. It is suggested that various components of the cytoskeleton undergo profound changes following chronic alcohol use and misuse. Here we studied the expression of the neuronal cytoskeletal microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) following long-term alcohol consumption and subsequent alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alkohol) rats with a high voluntary alcohol consumption for a period of 16 months were compared with age-matched control rats without prior experience with alcohol. For comparison, in a second experiment, heterogeneous Wistar rats that also had voluntary access to alcohol for 8 months were examined following alcohol consumption and withdrawal. In situ hybridization and subsequent dot blot and Northern blot analysis for further quantification revealed that chronically alcoholized animals exhibit markedly decreased MAP2 mRNA levels in several parts of the extrapyramidal system (mainly in the caudate putamen, the substantia nigra pars compacta and the globus pallidus), the mesolimbic system, in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the nucleus inferior colliculus. Other areas such as the hippocampus, frontoparietal cortex and cerebellum were less affected by chronic alcohol intake, however, in these regions the MAP2 mRNA levels were increased during alcohol withdrawal. These results suggest that long-term alcohol self-administration affects central neurons involved in motor control via the influence on the integrity of the cytoskeleton and may thus induce motor dysfunction.

  16. The Big, the Bad, and the Boozed-Up: Weight Moderates the Effect of Alcohol on Aggression

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, C. Nathan; Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Most people avoid the “big, drunk guy” in bars because they don’t want to get assaulted. Is this stereotype supported by empirical evidence? Unfortunately, no scientific work has investigated this topic. Based on the recalibrational theory of anger and embodied cognition theory, we predicted that heavier men would behave the most aggressively when intoxicated. In two independent experiments (Ns= 553 and 327, respectively), participants consumed either alcohol or placebo beverages and then completed an aggression task in which they could administer painful electric shocks to a fictitious opponent. Both experiments showed that weight interacted with alcohol and gender to predict the highest amount of aggression among intoxicated heavy men. The results suggest that an embodied cognition approach is useful in understanding intoxicated aggression. Apparently there is a kernel of truth in the stereotype of the “big, drunk, aggressive guy.” PMID:20526451

  17. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often.

  18. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:26716745

  19. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  20. The Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Act: evidence, ethics and the law.

    PubMed

    Lander, Fiona; Gray, Dennis; Wilkes, Edward

    2015-07-01

    The Northern Territory Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Act 2013 (AMT Act) permits mandatory residential alcohol rehabilitation for up to 3 months. International guidelines and human rights law confirm that mandatory rehabilitation should only be used for short periods. Evidence concerning the efficacy of long-term mandatory alcohol rehabilitation is lacking, and minimal data concerning the efficacy of the scheme have been released. Specific legal issues also arise concerning the AMT Act, including its potentially discriminatory application to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The program only permits referral by police, despite the fact that it is ostensibly a medical intervention. Use of a treatment as a method of effectively solving a public intoxication problem is highly dubious, and should be of concern to the medical community. Given that more cost-effective and proven measures exist to combat alcohol dependence, the utility of the AMT Act is questionable.

  1. The Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Act: evidence, ethics and the law.

    PubMed

    Lander, Fiona; Gray, Dennis; Wilkes, Edward

    2015-07-01

    The Northern Territory Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Act 2013 (AMT Act) permits mandatory residential alcohol rehabilitation for up to 3 months. International guidelines and human rights law confirm that mandatory rehabilitation should only be used for short periods. Evidence concerning the efficacy of long-term mandatory alcohol rehabilitation is lacking, and minimal data concerning the efficacy of the scheme have been released. Specific legal issues also arise concerning the AMT Act, including its potentially discriminatory application to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The program only permits referral by police, despite the fact that it is ostensibly a medical intervention. Use of a treatment as a method of effectively solving a public intoxication problem is highly dubious, and should be of concern to the medical community. Given that more cost-effective and proven measures exist to combat alcohol dependence, the utility of the AMT Act is questionable. PMID:26126570

  2. Development and validation of the Alcohol Myopia Scale.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Berger, Dale E

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol myopia theory conceptualizes the ability of alcohol to narrow attention and how this demand on mental resources produces the impairments of self-inflation, relief, and excess. The current research was designed to develop and validate a scale based on this framework. People who were alcohol users rated items representing myopic experiences arising from drinking episodes in the past month. In Study 1 (N = 260), the preliminary 3-factor structure was supported by exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2 (N = 289), the 3-factor structure was substantiated with confirmatory factor analysis, and it was superior in fit to an empirically indefensible 1-factor structure. The final 14-item scale was evaluated with internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, and incremental validity. The alcohol myopia scale (AMS) illuminates conceptual underpinnings of this theory and yields insights for understanding the tunnel vision that arises from intoxication.

  3. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication.

  4. Control Characteristics of Alcohol-Impaired Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.; McRuer, Duane T.; Allen, R. Wade; Klein, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Although the operation of vehicles like airplanes, cars, and bicycles involves a complex array of perceptual, decision and control activities, most accident statistics clearly show that intoxicated operators are a dominant cause of accidents, and not the difficulty of the task itself. This paper summarizes some recent research on the nature of the impairment of operator control under blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to above 0.16 percent. Alcohol toxicity is shown to be quite specific with respect to visual-motor functions involved in control of a vehicle, and experiments with a generalized workload task and special driving simulator show how these are reflected in terms of changes in operator control parameters such as response latency, gains, stability margins, and coherency.

  5. [Alcoholism and regional strategy and collaboration].

    PubMed

    Kakibuchi, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    The most part of an estimated alcohol dependence syndrome person has only a medical treatment of a complication in primary care medicine in Japan, and only about 5% is related to treatment. Therefore many intoxicated persons go to an emergency hospital, and a staff takes an excessive burden. Cooperation of various organizations is important to the police, fire fighting, polity and a self-help meeting as well as between the medical agencies to link non-healer to treatment. The law which does the health problem measure by alcohol behind schedule compared with foreign countries in 2013 is established, and it' s expected that cooperation will be developed from now on. PMID:26394518

  6. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. PMID:25293549

  7. Alcohol myopathy: impairment of protein synthesis and translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Lang, C H; Kimball, S R; Frost, R A; Vary, T C

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in skeletal and cardiac muscle. One such change observed in both tissues after either acute alcohol intoxication or chronic alcohol consumption is a characteristic decrease in the rate of protein synthesis. A decrease in translation efficiency appears to be responsible for at least part of the reduction. This review highlights advances in determining the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol impairs protein synthesis and places these observations in context of earlier studies on alcoholic myopathy. Both acute and chronic alcohol administration impairs translational control by modulating various aspects of peptide-chain initiation. Moreover, this alcohol-induced impairment in initiation is associated with a decreased availability of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E in striated muscle, as evidenced by an increase in the amount of the inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex and decrease in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. In contrast, alcohol does not produce consistent alterations in the control of translation initiation by the eIF2 system. The etiology of these changes remain unresolved. However, defects in the availability or effectiveness of various anabolic hormones, particularly insulin-like growth factor-I, are consistent with the alcohol-induced decrease in protein synthesis and translation initiation.

  8. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review.

  9. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  10. The effects of alcohol on driver performance in a decision making situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Schwartz, S. H.; Stein, A. C.; Hogge, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The results are reviewed of driving simulator and in-vehicle field test experiments of alcohol effects on driver risk taking. The objective was to investigate changes in risk taking under alcoholic intoxication and relate these changes to effects on traffic safety. The experiments involved complex 15 minute driving scenarios requiring decision making and steering and speed control throughout a series of typical driving situations. Monetary rewards and penalties were employed to simulate the real-world motivations inherent in driving. A full placebo experimental design was employed, and measures related to traffic safety, driver/vehicle performance and driver behavior were obtained. Alcohol impairment was found to increase the rate of accidents and speeding tickets. Behavioral measures showed these traffic safety effects to be due to impaired psychomotor performance and perceptual distortions. Subjective estimates of risk failed to show any change in the driver's willingness to take risks when intoxicated.

  11. Effects of adverts from a drug and alcohol prevention campaign on willingness to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether adverts from a field-tested drug and alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign adverts or consumer adverts (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign advertisements lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  12. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the comprehensive drinker profile.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A

    1997-04-01

    Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar. PMID:9075055

  13. Alcohol disinhibition of behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Topper, Stephen M; Aguilar, Sara C; Topper, Viktoria Y; Elbel, Erin; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a wide variety of effects on physiology and behavior. One of the most well-recognized behavioral effects is disinhibition, where behaviors that are normally suppressed are displayed following intoxication. A large body of evidence has shown that alcohol-induced disinhibition in humans affects attention, verbal, sexual, and locomotor behaviors. Similar behavioral disinhibition is also seen in many animal models of ethanol response, from invertebrates to mammals and primates. Here we describe several examples of disinhibition in the nematode C. elegans. The nematode displays distinct behavioral states associated with locomotion (crawling on land and swimming in water) that are mediated by dopamine. On land, animals crawl and feed freely, but these behaviors are inhibited in water. We found that additional behaviors, including a variety of escape responses are also inhibited in water. Whereas alcohol non-specifically impaired locomotion, feeding, and escape responses in worms on land, alcohol specifically disinhibited these behaviors in worms immersed in water. Loss of dopamine signaling relieved disinhibition of feeding behavior, while loss of the D1-like dopamine receptor DOP-4 impaired the ethanol-induced disinhibition of crawling. The powerful genetics and simple nervous system of C. elegans may help uncover conserved molecular mechanisms that underlie alcohol-induced disinhibition of behaviors in higher animals. PMID:24681782

  14. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students’ Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J.; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications. PMID:25976418

  15. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identifies K-ras as a regulator of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; van der Stap, Lena D; Chen, Jihuan; Sabino, Valentina; Wagner, Ulrich; Zorrilla, Eric P; Schumann, Gunter; Roberts, Amanda J; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-06-21

    Adaptations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. To identify genes that may contribute to excessive drinking, here we performed microarray analyses in laser microdissected rat ACC after a single or repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol (3 g/kg). Expression of the small G protein K-ras was differentially regulated following both single and repeated alcohol administration. We also observed that voluntary alcohol intake in K-ras heterozygous null mice (K-ras(+/-)) did not increase after withdrawal from repeated cycles of intermittent ethanol vapor exposure, unlike in their wild-type littermates. To identify K-ras regulated pathways, we then profiled gene expression in the ACC of K-ras(+/-), heterozygous null mice for the K-ras negative regulator Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) and wild-type mice following repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol. Pathway analysis showed that alcohol differentially affected various pathways in a K-ras dependent manner - some of which previously shown to be regulated by alcohol - including the insulin/PI3K pathway, the NF-kappaB, the phosphodiesterases (PDEs) pathway, the Jak/Stat and the adipokine signaling pathways. Altogether, the data implicate K-ras-regulated pathways in the regulation of excessive alcohol drinking after a history of dependence.

  18. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  19. Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Service: Impact on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Transports at a Small Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…

  20. Trends in alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among college students

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-impaired driving is a major public health problem. National studies indicate that about 25% of college students have driven while intoxicated in the past month and an even greater percentage drive after drinking any alcohol and/or ride with an intoxicated driver. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in these various alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors as students progressed through their college experience. Methods: A cohort of 1,253 first-time first-year students attending a large, mid-Atlantic university were interviewed annually for four years. Repeated measures analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate age-related changes in prevalence and frequency of each behavior (i.e., ages 19 to 22). Results: At age 19, 17% wt of students drove while intoxicated, 42%wt drove after drinking any alcohol, and 38%wt rode with an intoxicated driver. For all three driving behaviors, prevalence and frequency increased significantly at age 21. Males were more likely to engage in these behaviors than females. To understand the possible relationship of these behaviors to changes in drinking patterns, a post-hoc analysis was conducted and revealed that while drinking frequency increased every year, frequency of drunkenness was stable for females, but increased for males. Conclusions: Alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors are quite common among college students, and take a significant upturn when students reach the age of 21. Prevention strategies targeted to the college population are needed to prevent serious consequences of these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. PMID:20528819

  1. Immunohistochemical changes and atrophy after chronic ethanol intoxication in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism in humans is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by loss of ethanol consumption control. Previous studies have reported that prolonged exposure to ethanol was responsible for alterations in glandular tissues of human and rodents. However, the interrelationship between ethanol and the glandular system is still the subject of numerous investigations, including the possible resistance of the submandibular gland (SG). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may affect the parotid gland (PG) and SG in female rats. Female rats (n=16) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (dose of 6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) through gavage for 55 days. Glands were collected, weighed and submitted to histological processing. Morphometric analysis was assessed by parenchymal and stromal area measurements. Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and apoptotic caspase-3 (CAS) were measured using ImageJ® software. Chronic ethanol administration did not alter the body weight of rats after treatment, although it increased glandular weight (p<0.001), reduced the parenchyma area (p<0.001) and decreased CK19 and α-SMA immunostainning in the PG. Besides, ethanol induced CK19 and CAS overexpression, and the occurrence of duct-like structures in SG. These results suggest that ethanol induces histological and morphometric changes in salivary glands of female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these alterations needs to be investigated but may be not related to the inflammatory process.

  2. Gender Differences in Acute Alcohol Effects on Self-Regulation of Arousal in Response to Emotional and Alcohol-Related Picture Cues

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E.; Mun, Eun Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Lehrer, Paul; Ray, Suchismita

    2010-01-01

    Basic mechanisms through which men and women self-regulate arousal have received little attention in human experimental addiction research although stress-response-dampening and craving theories suggest an important role of emotional arousal in motivating alcohol use. This study examined gender differences in the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on psychophysiological and self-reported arousal in response to emotionally negative, positive, and neutral, and alcohol-related, picture cues. Thirty-six social drinkers (16 women) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage group, and exposed to picture cues every 10 s (0.1 Hz presentation frequency). Psychophysiological arousal was assessed via a 0.1-Hz heart rate variability (HRV) index. A statistically significant beverage group-by-gender interaction effect on psychophysiological, but not self-reported, arousal was found. 0.1-Hz HRV responses to picture cues were suppressed by alcohol only in men. This gender-specific suppression pattern did not differ significantly across picture cue types. There were no significant gender differences in the placebo or control group. Greater dampening of arousal by alcohol intoxication in men, compared to women, may contribute to men's greater tendency to use alcohol to cope with stress. PMID:19586136

  3. Exploring the motives and mental health correlates of intentional food restriction prior to alcohol use in university students.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kaley M; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of and motivations behind 'drunkorexia' – restricting food intake prior to drinking alcohol. For both male and female university students (N = 3409), intentionally changing eating behaviour prior to drinking alcohol was common practice (46%). Analyses performed on a targeted sample of women (n = 226) revealed that food restriction prior to alcohol use was associated with greater symptomology than eating more food. Those who restrict eating prior to drinking to avoid weight gain scored higher on measures of disordered eating, whereas those who restrict to get intoxicated faster scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse. PMID:26032803

  4. Ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of progeny of alcohol-addicted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, E.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of the progeny of alcohol-addicted rats. Experiments were carried out on 12 female and four male albino rats; they were given alcohol solutions for 4 months and then mated. The female rats continued to ingest alcohol until the young rats acquired vision. The sensomotor cortex of experimental young rats aged 21 and 30 days and of intact animals of the same age was investigated; the sections were stained with uranyl acetate and studied. It is shown that alcoholic intoxication of females and males causes significant disturbances of the structural organization of the sensomotor cortex in the progeny.

  5. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  6. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  7. When alcohol narrows the field of focal attention.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alistair J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which alcohol intoxication restricts the scope of attention in the visual field. A group of intoxicated (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .08%) and placebo control (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .00%) participants were required to correctly identify visual probes while performing two verbal categorization tasks: one designed to widen the scope of visual attention on to each stimulus word, the other to narrow attention on to the central letter of each word. Response times to surprise probes interpolated between categorization trials were measured and these catch trials could appear in any of the stimulus word letter positions. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory (AMT), which assumes that the drug narrows focal attention, intoxicated participants made slower responses than the sober controls to probes displayed in non-central letter positions, although right-field probe reaction times (RTs) were slower than those for left-field targets. This response asymmetry and the wider theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Molecular and cellular events in alcohol-induced muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Solà, Joaquim; Preedy, Victor R; Lang, Charles H; Gonzalez-Reimers, Emilio; Arno, M; Lin, J C I; Wiseman, H; Zhou, S; Emery, P W; Nakahara, T; Hashimoto, K; Hirano, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F; González-Hernández, T; Fatjó, Francesc; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Nicolás, José M; Urbano-Márquez, Alvaro

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol consumption induces a dose-dependent noxious effect on skeletal muscle, leading to progressive functional and structural damage of myocytes, with concomitant reductions in lean body mass. Nearly half of high-dose chronic alcohol consumers develop alcoholic skeletal myopathy. The pathogenic mechanisms that lie between alcohol intake and loss of muscle tissue involve multiple pathways, making the elucidation of the disease somewhat difficult. This review discusses the recent advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the development of alcohol-induced muscle disease. The main areas of recent research interest on this field are as follows: (i) molecular mechanisms in alcohol exposed muscle in the rat model; (ii) gene expression changes in alcohol exposed muscle; (iii) the role of trace elements and oxidative stress in alcoholic myopathy; and (iv) the role of apoptosis and preapoptotic pathways in alcoholic myopathy. These aforementioned areas are crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. For example, there is overwhelming evidence that both chronic alcohol ingestion and acute alcohol intoxication impair the rate of protein synthesis of myofibrillar proteins, in particular, under both postabsorptive and postprandial conditions. Perturbations in gene expression are contributory factors to the development of alcoholic myopathy, as ethanol-induced alterations are detected in over 400 genes and the protein profile (i.e., the proteome) of muscle is also affected. There is supportive evidence that oxidative damage is involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic myopathy. Increased lipid peroxidation is related to muscle fibre atrophy, and reduced serum levels of some antioxidants may be related to loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Finally, ethanol induces skeletal muscle apoptosis and increases both pro- and antiapoptotic regulatory mechanisms.

  9. Negative Urgency, Mood Induction, and Alcohol Seeking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin H.; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative urgency, defined as impulsive risk-taking during extreme negative emotional states, is the most important impulsivity-related trait for alcohol-related problems and alcohol dependence. However, how negative urgency imparts risk for alcohol-related problems is not yet well understood. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine how negative urgency relates to separable aspects of the emotional experience and alcohol-seeking behaviors. METHODS A total of 34 (19 women) community-dwelling, alcohol-using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian) completed two counterbalanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one during a neutral mood condition and one during a negative mood condition. RESULTS Negative urgency was associated with 1) greater mood change following negative mood induction (F=4.38, df=15, p=.002, η2=0.87), but was unrelated to changes in craving or cortisol release in response to mood induction; 2) greater alcohol craving prior to and after an alcohol prime (F=3.27, p=.02, η2=0.86), but only in the negative and not the neutral mood condition; and 3) higher peak BrAC (F=2.13, df=42, p=.02, η2=0.48), continuing to increase intoxication level over a longer period (F=3.77, df=42, p<.001, η2=0.62), and more alcohol seeking (F=21.73, df=22, p<.001, η2=0.94) throughout the negative session. Negative urgency was associated with overall lower cortisol release. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the importance of assessing behavioral indicators of negative urgency under mood condition, and suggest that negative urgency may amplify alcohol self-administration through increased negative emotional reactivity to mood events and increased alcohol craving after initial alcohol exposure, leading to maintenance of alcohol related behavior. PMID:27291583

  10. Time-dependent effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-testicular function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, A I; Mateos, A; Agrasal, C; Martin, I; Canovas, J M; Fermoso, J

    1989-04-01

    Adult male rats were followed throughout ethanol administration, in order to examine the time-dependent effects of ethanol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The results indicate that there is an increase in plasma prolactin levels together with a reduction in basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, which are evident from the beginning of the intoxication period. An exaggerated response of LH to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was also evident from 2nd week on, in ethanol-treated rats. Basal and human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated plasma testosterone levels were decreased in alcohol-treated as compared to control rats, at all time points studied. In addition, plasma estradiol levels were increased in ethanol-fed rats. These data suggest a direct suppressive effect of ethanol on LH release in the beginning of the intoxication period. Subsequent elevations of plasma estradiol and prolactin levels may have contributed to the maintenance of hypogonadism at the end of the intoxication period.

  11. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  12. [CHRONIC FLUORIDE INTOXICATION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS].

    PubMed

    Korotenko, O Yu; Panev, N I; Zakharenkov, V V; Filimonov, S N; Semenova, E A; Panev, R N

    2015-01-01

    In workers employed in the aluminum industry, the main harmful production factor is exposure to fluoride salts, which can cause chronic fluoride intoxication. For the assessment of the impact of chronic fluoride intoxication on the development of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 87 aluminum-metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication and 43 aluminum-metal makers without occupational diseases, mean age--52.1 ± 0.4 years. There were considered the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries, and the arteries of the lower extremities in the studied group, there was evaluated the effect of other risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia). With the use of Doppler ultrasound of the arteries it was revealed that in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication atherosclerosis was detected in 73.6% versus 55.8% in persons of the comparison group. The performed analysis of the prevalence of main risk factors for atherosclerosis showed that in metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis hypertension is more common (in 54.7%) than in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication without atherosclerosis--only 26.1%. According to the frequency of occurrence of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, there were no significant differences between the metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication, with and without atherosclerosis, and the control group, the increase in LDL cholesterol occurs significantly more often in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis if compared to workers without occupational diseases. Thus, chronic fluoride intoxication acts as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis: atherosclerosis in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication occurs more frequently than in workers who do not have professional pathology

  13. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  14. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  15. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  16. Toward an analogue of alcoholism in mice: criteria for recognition of pharmacologically motivated drinking.

    PubMed

    Dole, V P; Ho, A; Gentry, R T

    1985-05-01

    Two criteria of alcoholic drinking behavior--inelasticity of demand and dissociation of intake from normal eating and drinking--are illustrated by study of alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J mice. Although these mice drink enough to become intoxicated for brief periods each night, they do not meet the more rigorous criteria for pharmacologically motivated drinking. Their intake of alcohol was dramatically decreased when they were offered diets augmented with sugar or Crisco, and the temporal pattern of drinking was correlated with the intake of food. Thus, their motivation for drinking alcohol is related to nutrition and is not drug-seeking comparable to that of human alcoholics. Since the tests are simple and decisive, it might be useful to apply them to all putative models of alcoholism.

  17. Alcohol and drug prevention in nightlife settings: a review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Bolier, Linda; Voorham, Lotte; Monshouwer, Karin; van Hasselt, Ninette; Bellis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions aimed at the prevention of harmful alcohol and drug use in nightlife settings. A literature search was conducted in 2009. Of 161 studies, 17 experimental studies were included in the review, 15 alcohol-related and two drug-related studies. The results show that preventive substance abuse interventions in nightlife settings can effectively reduce high-risk alcohol consumption, alcohol-related injury, violent crimes, access to alcohol by underage youth, and alcohol service to intoxicated people. A combination of approaches such as enforcement activities seem to be facilitating factors. However, results should be considered cautiously as more gold standard (cost-) effectiveness research is required, in particular directed at drug prevention and educational interventions in nightlife settings. PMID:21936624

  18. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  19. Hypothermia and undressing associated with non-fatal bromazepam intoxication.

    PubMed

    Michaud, K; Romain, N; Giroud, C; Brandt, C; Mangin, P

    2001-12-27

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of depression was found unconscious, lying near her car in an early autumn morning. The lower part of her body was undressed and there were multiple purple spots and excoriations on the body suggesting at first a sexual assault. On admission to the intensive care unit, she presented a hypothermia with a central temperature of 28.4 degrees C. The biological samples obtained at the hospital were analysed. Blood concentration of bromazepam was 7.7 mg/l, which is above the highest level reported till now in a case of fatal intoxication. PMID:11792498

  20. Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.

    PubMed

    Murone, Anne-Joëlle Bosset; Stucki, Pascal; Roback, Mark G; Gehri, Mario

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate food intoxication in infants as a consequence of fennel ingestion. Four cases of methemoglobinemia (MetHb) are presented here. Each patient ate homemade fennel purée a few hours prior to arriving to the emergency department with cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen, in the absence of suspected cyanotic heart disease. All 4 patients received treatment with methylene blue and fully recovered. Our cases emphasize that improper handling and storing of vegetables can lead to life-threatening MetHb.