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  1. A decrement in probabilistic category learning in cocaine users after controlling for marijuana and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Vadhan, Nehal P; Myers, Catherine E; Benedict, Elysia; Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W; Gluck, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Aspects of stimulus-response (S-R) learning, mediated by striatal dopamine signaling, have been found to be altered in cocaine users relative to healthy controls. However, the influence of cocaine users' marijuana and alcohol use has not been accounted for. This study evaluated S-R learning and other neurocognitive functions in cocaine users while controlling for the relative influences of marijuana and alcohol use. Twenty-five long-term cocaine users and 2 control groups (25 moderate marijuana and alcohol users and 23 healthy controls) completed a computerized assessment of probabilistic category learning (the Weather Prediction task), as well as measures of equivalence learning, declarative learning, and executive, attentional, and motor function. Cocaine users exhibited decreased performance on the Weather Prediction task, as well as measures of declarative learning, attention, and motor function (p < 0.05), relative to both control groups. Cocaine users exhibited decrements in probabilistic category learning, declarative recall, and attentional and motor function, compared with both marijuana and alcohol users and nondrug users. Therefore, these decrements appear to be specifically related to the cocaine use, but not the moderate marijuana and alcohol use, of long-term cocaine users. PMID:24188172

  2. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA . 1990;264(20): ...

  3. Perceived vs. Actual Friends' Use of Alcohol, Cigarettes, Marijuana, and Cocaine: Which Has the Most Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Bush, Patricia J.

    1992-01-01

    Determinants of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and/or crack use were assessed in 2,078 fourth graders and 1,082 fifth graders (predominantly African-American urban). Patterns suggest that peer behaviors and attitudes are more influential for socially censored behaviors than for more socially approved behaviors. Perception of friends' behaviors is…

  4. Women Inmate Substance Abusers’ Reactivity to Visual Alcohol, Cigarette, Marijuana, and Crack-Cocaine Cues: Approach and Avoidance as Separate Dimensions of Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Breiner, Mary J.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Christensen, Rita L.; Lang, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition for multidimensional assessments of cue-elicited craving, few studies have attempted to measure multiple response domains associated with craving. The present study evaluated the Ambivalence Model of Craving (Breiner et al., 1999; Stritzke et al., 2007) using a unique cue reactivity methodology designed to capture both the desire to use (approach inclination) and desire to not consume (avoidance inclination) in a clinical sample of incarcerated female substance abusers. Participants were 155 incarcerated women who were participating in or waiting to begin participation in a nine-month drug treatment program. Results indicated that all four substance cue-types (alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and crack cocaine) had good reliability and showed high specificity. Also, the validity of measuring approach and avoidance as separate dimensions was supported, as demonstrated by meaningful clinical distinctions between groups evincing different reactivity patterns and incremental prediction of avoidance inclinations on measures of stages of change readiness. Taken together, results continue to highlight the importance of measuring both approach and avoidance inclinations in the study of cue-elicited craving. PMID:23543075

  5. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general. PMID:24151426

  6. Cocaine and marijuana use by medical students before and during medical school.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Lewis, D C; Hoffmann, N G; Kyriazi, N

    1990-04-01

    A survey of alcohol and other drug-use patterns of 300 second- and third-year students at a mid-Atlantic private medical school was undertaken in 1987. Two hundred sixty-three (88%) of the medical students surveyed completed the anonymous questionnaire. Tobacco use decreased from 11% before to 4% during medical school. Before entry into medical school, 21% of the respondents had smoked marijuana 10 times or more, usually at least monthly, while 9% had smoked marijuana 10 times or more during medical school. Six percent had smoked marijuana daily in high school or college, while 1% smoked marijuana daily in medical school. Few students who used cocaine before medical school abstained from it during medical school. Cocaine was used by 17% of the respondents before and during medical school. Frequent use of cocaine (greater than 10 times) during medical school, reported by 5% of the students, was directly related to excessive alcohol intake, tobacco dependence, frequent use of marijuana before and during medical school, and medical and behavioral problems related to alcohol and other drug use. Less than 25% of medical schools have a formal policy aimed at identifying impaired students, and only 12% have formal treatment protocols for helping impaired students. We propose that all medical schools initiate programs to diagnose alcohol and other drug-abuse problems in medical student candidates and in the students themselves, and that intervention for any alcohol or other drug problem be encouraged and supported by formal medical school policies designed to help the impaired student. PMID:2327847

  7. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  8. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  9. Cocaine and alcohol interactions in the rat: effect of cocaine and alcohol pretreatments on cocaine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pan, W J; Hedaya, M A

    1999-12-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with cocaine and alcohol on cocaine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Four groups of rats (n = 8 per group) received one of the following pretreatments for two weeks: none, alcohol (10% v/v in drinking water), cocaine (15 mg/kg/day ip), and alcohol+cocaine (10% v/v in drinking water + 15 mg/kg/day ip). On the day of the experiment, cocaine was administered (30 mg/kg, ip) to each rat, either alone or in combination with alcohol (5 g/kg, po), in a balanced crossover experimental design. Plasma and brain ECF concentrations of cocaine and its three metabolites: benzoylecgonine, norcocaine, and cocaethylene were assayed by HPLC-UV. The percent change in brain dopamine concentration, mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were determined simultaneously. A sigmoid-E(max) model was used to describe the brain cocaine concentration-neurochemical effect (dopamine) relationship, and an indirect pharmacodynamic response model was used to describe the plasma cocaine concentration-cardiovascular effect relationships. Alcohol pretreatment led to significant increase in cocaine AUC(p), alpha(t1/2), and beta(t1/2). Cocaine pretreatment significantly increased cocaine bioavailability, absorption rate constant, TBC, and the formation clearance of cocaethylene. Acute alcohol coadministration with cocaine increased cocaine AUC(p) and bioavailability, reduced the fraction of cocaine dose converted to benzoylecgonine, and increased the formation of norcocaine. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of cocaine, either administered alone or in combination with alcohol, is significantly altered due to prior cocaine and/or alcohol use. Both cocaine and alcohol pretreatments increased the E(max) for dopamine, with no effect on the EC(50). Acute alcohol coadministration with cocaine significantly increased the E(max) for dopamine and reduced the EC(50). Cocaine pretreatment significantly decreased the I

  10. Media Exposure and Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    PRIMACK, BRIAN A.; KRAEMER, KEVIN L.; FINE, MICHAEL J.; DALTON, MADELINE A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  11. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  12. Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a known antecedent to cocaine relapse. Through associative conditioning, it is hypothesized that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine and thus the salience of cocaine-related cues, which are important in maintaining drug-taking behavior. Cocaine-using individuals display a robust cocaine cue attentional bias as measured by fixation time during the visual probe task. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol administration on cocaine cue attentional bias using eye-tracking technology to directly measure attentional allocation. Methods Twenty current cocaine users completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study that tested the effect of three doses of alcohol (0.00, 0.325, 0.65 g/kg alcohol) on cocaine cue attentional bias using the visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. The participant-rated and physiological effects of alcohol were also assessed. Results Participants displayed a robust cocaine cue attentional bias following both placebo and alcohol administration as measured by fixation time, but not response time. Alcohol administration did not influence cocaine cue attentional bias, but increased craving for cocaine in a dose dependent manner. Alcohol produced prototypic psychomotor and participant-rated effects. Conclusions Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias. Alcohol-induced cocaine craving suggests that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine but not the salience of cocaine-related cues. PMID:26331880

  13. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  14. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  15. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  16. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  17. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  18. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  19. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  20. Age and Alcohol, Marijuana and Hard Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnermeyer, Joseph F.; Huang, Tung Chung

    1991-01-01

    Examined interactive nature of age in predicting alcohol, marijuana, and drug use among 435 seventh and eleventh graders. Found statistically significant interaction terms for age with peer and social control factors for each type of usage. Findings suggest that many factors commonly associated with adolescent usage may be conditioned by age.…

  1. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  2. Patterns of Alcohol and Marijuana Use at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adolescent substance use has been examined extensively. Beyond simple prevalence estimates, however, little research has been conducted on substance use in the school context. The present investigation was an in-depth study of students' attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol and marijuana use during the school day. Based on a…

  3. Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-10-01

    The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952

  4. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  5. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teen Users’ IQ Decline ( August 2016 ) Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose ( May ... Marijuana in Teen Users’ IQ Decline Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose Nora's ...

  6. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2004-08-16

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

  7. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  8. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown. PMID:25022187

  9. The Influence of Baseline Marijuana Use on Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: Application of an Informative-Priors Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Green, Charles; Schmitz, Joy; Lindsay, Jan; Pedroza, Claudia; Lane, Scott; Agnelli, Rob; Kjome, Kimberley; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N = 64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N = 113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect. PMID:23115553

  10. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... straight years, whereas driving under the influence of alcohol or riding with a driver who had been ...

  11. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  12. Normalising desistance: contextualising marijuana and cocaine use careers in young adults.

    PubMed

    Roussell, Aaron; Omori, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    Although there is a vast literature on drug use and addiction, there is little work that addresses the long-term use of drugs within the general population. We take a more contextual look in examining longitudinal drug use patterns over the course of 14 years for a representative sample of young adults in their late teens and early twenties in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We use a growth trajectory modelling approach for cocaine and marijuana users to determine general use careers. Using contextual and life-course variables, we then estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to predict group membership. In addition to establishing general use career groups, we ask how well mainstream theories comport with our findings and how the different chemical makeup of cocaine and marijuana influence our findings. We find four general use career groups: (i) high use/late desistance; (ii) peaked use/strong desistance; (iii) low use; and (iv) stable use/gradual desistance. Our results suggest similar careers for users of both drugs, with desistance over time as the rule for all groups. We also find some support for life-course and contextual factors in drug using patterns, but our findings challenge other psychological and criminological theories. PMID:27037510

  13. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  14. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…

  15. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  16. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they were teenagers. Some states have approved "medical marijuana" to ease symptoms of various health problems. The ... HIV/AIDS. Scientists are doing more research with marijuana and its ingredients to treat many diseases and conditions. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  17. Identifying classes of conjoint alcohol and marijuana use in entering freshmen.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert; Macia, Kathryn; Shields, Micah; Macher, Rayna; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    The current study identified classes of conjoint marijuana and alcohol use in entering college freshmen using latent profile analysis (N = 772; 53% male, 60% White; Mage = 18). Results yielded 4 distinct groups: Class 1 (moderate drinking with recent marijuana use: 22% of sample), Class 2 (moderate drinking with no recent marijuana use: 25%), Class 3 (light drinking with no recent marijuana use: 40%) and Class 4 (heavy drinking with recent marijuana use: 14%). Separate pairwise contrasts examined cross-class differences in demographics and drinking behaviors, comparing differences in drinking when current marijuana use was controlled (Class 1 vs. 4) and differences in marijuana use when drinking was held relatively constant (Class 1 vs. 2). Among moderate drinkers, recent marijuana users were more likely to drink more than intended, drink to get drunk, and had more problems (including higher rates of blackouts, physical injury, and DUI) relative to peers who refrained from marijuana. No cross-class differences were found for alcohol expectancies or behavioral motives. Findings from these analyses show the presence of distinct groups of conjoint users with different drinking behaviors and consequence profiles, and suggest that conjoint alcohol-marijuana use may be more problematic overall than single substance involvement and highlight the need for developing campus prevention and intervention programs that address the increased risk from polysubstance involvement. PMID:26168228

  18. Effects of concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Ed J M; Leccese, Arthur P; Wolff, Frederik A de

    2002-07-01

    The combination of alcohol and cocaine is popular among drug users, perhaps because of more intense feelings of 'high' beyond that perceived with either drug alone, less intense feelings of alcohol-induced inebriation and tempering of discomfort when coming down from a cocaine 'high'. A review is presented of the medical literature on psychological and somatic effects and consequences of combined use of alcohol and cocaine in man. The search was carried out with Medline, the Science Citation Index/Web of Science and Toxline. Exclusion and inclusion criteria for this search are identified. There is generally no evidence that the combination of the two drugs does more than enhance additively the already strong tendency of each drug to induce a variety of physical and psychological disorders. A few exceptions must be noted. Cocaine consistently antagonizes the learning deficits, psychomotor performance deficits and driving deficits induced by alcohol. The combination of alcohol and cocaine tends to have greater-than-additive effects on heart rate, concomitant with up to 30% increased blood cocaine levels. Both prospective and retrospective data further reveal that co-use leads to the formation of cocaethylene, which may potentiate the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine or alcohol alone. More importantly, retrospective data suggest that the combination can potentiate the tendency towards violent thoughts and threats, which may lead to an increase of violent behaviours. PMID:12133112

  19. Differences between Alcoholics and Cocaine Addicts Seeking Treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics of a representative sample of patients who were addicted to either alcohol or cocaine, comparing the profiles of both types of drug users. A sample of 234 addicted patients (109 alcoholics and 125 cocaine addicts) who sought outpatient treatment in a Spanish clinical centre was assessed. Data on socio-demographic, consumption, psychopathological and maladjustment characteristics were collected using the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Demographically, differences were observed with regard to age (alcoholics were older than cocaine addicts; t = 12.2, p = .001), employment (the alcoholic group had more labor problems; χ 2 = 6.2, p = .045) and family consequences (worse in alcoholics; t = 2.3, p = .025). The EuropASI results showed statistically significant differences in addiction severity, with alcoholics showing a greater severity than cocaine addicts. In terms of psychopathology, alcoholics presented more associated symptomatology than cocaine addicts. According to these results, patients with alcohol dependence have a different profile from patients with cocaine dependence, resulting in different repercussions for important areas of their lives. These differences should be taken into account when standard treatments for addiction are implemented. PMID:26054494

  20. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  1. Participation in Team Sports and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Initiation Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra Erin; Crano, William D.; Delucchi, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    A parallel-process latent growth curve model was used to model alcohol and marijuana use (vs. nonuse). Participation in team sports and gender were considered to be time-invariant covariates. The sample consisted of 8,179 youth from the National Survey of Parents and Youth. Data were collected over four yearly rounds. Analysis revealed that being part of a competitive sports team was related to a lower probability of marijuana initiation, but to increased rates of alcohol use over time. Males had significantly higher levels of marijuana initiation and decreases in rates of alcohol use over time; females had significantly greater rate of increase in alcohol use over time. Analysis suggests that youth involved in sports are less likely to use marijuana over time. This information may help to uncover other predictors of use over time and to inform policy making as well design as effective prevention. PMID:26594059

  2. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. PMID:22040352

  3. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42*

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid adulthood (age 42). The Social Adaptation Life Course Framework guided the focus on social adaptation, social bonds, and economic resources as predictors of adult drug use. Results indicate that more frequent substance use in adolescence and lower income and less frequent church attendance in early adulthood increase the risk of midlife drug use. Shyness in first grade related inversely to later cocaine use and marijuana use (marginally significant). Indirect pathways to drug use also were identified. Gender differences were not significant. The findings show continuities in social maladaptation over time and the importance of social integration and economic resources in the early adult years. PMID:19413135

  4. Prior use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana and subsequent abuse of prescription opioids in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiellin, Lynn E.; Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Becker, William C.; Fiellin, David A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There has been an increase in the abuse of prescription opioids, especially in younger individuals. The current study explores the association between alcohol, cigarette, and/or marijuana use during adolescence and subsequent abuse of prescription opioids during young adulthood. Methods We used demographic/clinical data from community-dwelling individuals in the 2006–2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression analyses, adjusted for these characteristics, to test whether having antecedent alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use was associated with an increased likelihood of subsequently abusing prescription opioids. Results 12% of the survey population of 18–25 year olds (n=6496) reported current abuse of prescription opioids. For this population, prevalence of prior substance use was 57% for alcohol, 56% for cigarettes, and 34% for marijuana. We found prior alcohol use was associated with the subsequent abuse of prescription opioids in young men but not young women. Among both men and women, prior marijuana use was 2.5 times more likely than no prior marijuana to be associated with subsequent abuse of prescription opioids. We found that among young boys, all prior substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) but only prior marijuana use in young girls was associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent abuse of prescription opioids during young adulthood. Conclusions Prior alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use were each associated with current abuse of prescription opioids in 18–25 year old men but only marijuana use was associated with subsequent prescription opioids in young women. Prevention efforts targeting early substance abuse may help to curb the abuse of prescription opioids. PMID:23332479

  5. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  6. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  7. A-SIDE: Video Simulation of Teen Alcohol and Marijuana Use Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G; Brackenbury, Lauren; Quackenbush, Mathias; Buras, Morgan; Brown, Sandra A; Price, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined the concurrent validity of a new video simulation assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana decision making in peer contexts (A-SIDE). Method: One hundred eleven youth (60% female; age 14–19 years; 80% White, 12.6% Latino; 24% recruited from treatment centers) completed the A-SIDE simulation, self-report measures of alcohol and marijuana use and disorder symptoms, and measures of alcohol (i.e., drinking motives and expectancies) and marijuana (i.e., expectancies) cognitions in the laboratory. Results: Study findings support concurrent associations between behavioral willingness to use alcohol and marijuana on the simulation and current use variables as well as on drinking motives and marijuana expectancies. Relations with use variables were found even when sample characteristics were controlled. Interestingly, willingness to accept nonalcoholic beverages (e.g., soda) and food offers in the simulation were inversely related to recent alcohol and marijuana use behavior. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with prior work using laboratory simulations with college students and provide preliminary validity evidence for this procedure. Future work is needed to examine the predictive utility of the A-SIDE with larger and more diverse samples of youth. PMID:25343652

  8. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  9. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and marijuana use and IPV perpetration. Participants were college women who had consumed alcohol in the previous month and were in a dating relationship (N = 173). For up to 90 consecutive days, women completed daily surveys that assessed their alcohol use, marijuana use, angry affect (anger, hostility, and irritation), and violence perpetration (psychological and physical). On alcohol use days, marijuana use days, and with increases in angry affect, the odds of psychological aggression increased. Only alcohol use days and increases in angry affect increased the odds of physical aggression. Moreover, the main effects of alcohol and marijuana use on aggression were moderated by angry affect. Alcohol was positively associated with psychological and physical aggression when angry affect was high, but was unrelated to aggression when angry affect was low. Marijuana use was associated with psychological aggression when angry affect was high. Findings advance our understanding of the proximal effect of alcohol and marijuana use on dating violence, including the potential moderating effect of angry affect on this relation. PMID:24274434

  10. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  11. Storytelling for Empowerment: Decreasing At-Risk Youth's Alcohol and Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Annabelle; Arthur, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Research compared Storytelling for Empowerment Program participants' pre and posttest responses on drug use. High contact participants had the most marked changes with a decrease in their alcohol and marijuana use. All participants in the last year of the program, regardless of contact hours, decreased their alcohol use and increased in their…

  12. Polytobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use patterns in college students: A latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Lewis, Michael; Payne, Jackelyn; Pillai, Drishti; McDonald, Bennett; Windle, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Limited research has examined polysubstance use profiles among young adults focusing on the various tobacco products currently available. We examined use patterns of various tobacco products, marijuana, and alcohol using data from the baseline survey of a multiwave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 recruited from seven U.S. college campuses. We assessed sociodemographics, individual-level factors (depression; perceptions of harm and addictiveness,), and sociocontextual factors (parental/friend use). We conducted a latent class analysis and multivariable logistic regression to examine correlates of class membership (Abstainers were referent group). Results indicated five classes: Abstainers (26.1% per past 4-month use), Alcohol only users (38.9%), Heavy polytobacco users (7.3%), Light polytobacco users (17.3%), and little cigar and cigarillo (LCC)/hookah/marijuana co-users (10.4%). The most stable was LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users (77.3% classified as such in past 30-day and 4-month timeframes), followed by Heavy polytobacco users (53.2% classified consistently). Relative to Abstainers, Heavy polytobacco users were less likely to be Black and have no friends using alcohol and perceived harm of tobacco and marijuana use lower. Light polytobacco users were older, more likely to have parents using tobacco, and less likely to have friends using tobacco. LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users were older and more likely to have parents using tobacco. Alcohol only users perceived tobacco and marijuana use to be less socially acceptable, were more likely to have parents using alcohol and friends using marijuana, but less likely to have friends using tobacco. These findings may inform substance use prevention and recovery programs by better characterizing polysubstance use patterns. PMID:27074202

  13. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  14. Adolescent Substance Abuse: The Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Neuropsychological Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330

  15. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  16. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  17. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  19. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  20. Do alcohol and marijuana use decrease the probability of condom use for college women?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  1. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana dependence in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Aharonovich, Efrat; Strous, Rael; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however, most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. Objectives This study examined associations between TE and substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), and whether PTSD accounted for this association. Method 1,317 Jewish Israeli household residents completed in-person structured interviews assessing TE, PTSD, and substance (alcohol, nicotine, marijuana) dependence between 2007–2009. Regression analyses examined associations among TE, PTSD, and substance dependence. Results In the full sample, mean number of traumatic events was 2.7 (sd=2.2), with 83.7% experiencing at least one event. In the full sample, mean number of PTSD symptoms was 2.5 (sd=3.4), with 13.5% meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Prevalence of alcohol dependence was 13.4%; nicotine dependence 52.8%; and marijuana dependence 12.1%. Number of traumatic events was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2–1.4) and nicotine (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3) dependence. Similarly, any traumatic event exposure was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR= 3.1; 95% CI= 1.6–6.0) and nicotine (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2–2.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms were associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3), nicotine (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.1–1.2), and marijuana (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.04–1.2) dependence; similarly, a PTSD diagnosis was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.1–5.5), nicotine (OR=2.2; 95% CI = 1.4–3.4), and marijuana (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2–5.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms accounted for a sizeable proportion of the TE effect on alcohol (46%) and nicotine dependence (31%). Conclusion Individuals with more traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana

  2. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... and private schools throughout the United States. 1991 1993 1995 1997 Ever used marijuana (one or more ... 800 − CDC − INFO (800 − 232 − 4636). Percentages 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 ...

  3. Group motivational interviewing for adolescents: Change talk and alcohol and marijuana outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI) software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, motivation to change, and positive expectancies. Results Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk (CT) increased group CT. Group CT was then followed by more CT. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group CT was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use and heavy drinking three months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which was then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of CT in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. PMID:25365779

  4. Marijuana-Using Drivers, Alcohol-Using drivers and Their Passengers: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Underage College Students

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Driving after marijuana use increases the risk of a motor vehicle crash. Understanding this behavior among young drivers and how it may differ from alcohol-related driving behaviors could inform prevention efforts. Objective To describe prevalence, sex differences, and risk factors associated with underage college students’ driving after using marijuana, driving after drinking alcohol, or riding with a driver using these substances. Design, Setting, Participants Cross-sectional telephone survey of a random sample of 315 first-year college students (aged 18-20 years) from 2 large public universities, who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. At recruitment, 52.8% of eligible individuals consented to participate; retention was 93.2% one year later when data for this report was collected. Main Outcome Measure(s) Self-reported past-28-day driving after marijuana use, riding with a marijuana-using driver, driving after alcohol use, and riding with an alcohol-using driver. Results In the prior month, 20.3% of students had used marijuana. Among marijuana-using students, 43.9% of males and 8.7% of females drove after using marijuana (p<0.001) and 51.2% of male and 34.8% of female students rode as a passenger with a marijuana-using driver (p=0.21). Most students (65.1%) drank alcohol, and among this group 12.0% of male students and 2.7% of female students drove after drinking (p=0.01), with 20.7% and 11.5% (p=0.07), respectively, reporting riding with a drinking driver. Controlling for demographics and substance use behaviors, driving after substance use was associated with at least a 2-fold increase in risk of being a passenger with another user; the reverse was also true. A 1% increase in the reported percentage of friends using marijuana was associated with a 2% increased risk of riding with a marijuana using driver (95% CI=1.01-1.03). Among students using any substances, past 28-day use of only marijuana was associated with a 6.24-fold

  5. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cocaine KidsHealth > For Teens > Cocaine Print A A A ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Cocaine What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive drug ...

  6. Personal Network Correlates of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth who are homeless and on their own are among the most marginalized individuals in the United States and face multiple risks, including use of substances. This study investigates how the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among homeless youth may be influenced by characteristics of their social networks. Methods Homeless youth aged 13–24 were randomly sampled from 41 service and street sites in Los Angeles County (N = 419). Predictors of substance use were examined using linear regression analysis (for average number of drinks and average number of cigarettes per day) and negative binomal regression analysis (for frequency of past month marijuana use). Results Youth with more substance users in their networks reported greater alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana consumption regardless of whether these network members provided tangible or emotional support. Marijuana use was more frequent for youth who met more network members through homeless settings, but less frequent among those who met more network members through treatment or AA/NA. Greater alcohol use occurred among youth who met more network members through substance use-related activities. Youth having more adults in positions of responsibility in their networks consumed less alcohol, and those with more school attendees in their networks consumed less alcohol and cigarettes. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding substance use among homeless youth. Results also support the relevance of network-based interventions to change social context for substance using youth, in terms of both enhancing pro-social influences and reducing exposure to substance use. PMID:20656423

  7. THE USE OF FRY (EMBALMING FLUID AND PCP-LACED CIGARETTES OR MARIJUANA STICKS) AMONG CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, RONALD J.; WILLIAMS, MARK; ROSS, MICHAEL W.; ATKINSON, JOHN; McCURDY, SHERLY A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as “fry” or “wet” is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 426 African-American crack users in Houston, Texas, to investigate the difference between those who concurrently reported lifetime (defined as at least one usage of fry in life) fry use and those who stated they never used fry. The data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Fry users were significantly more likely than non-users to not have a casual sex partner (92% users vs. 84% non-users, p ≤ 0.05) and were more likely to have been diagnosed with gonorrhea in the past 12 months (9% users vs. 2% non-users, p ≤ 0.05). In addition fry users had significantly higher odds of currently trading sex for drugs (OR = 2.30, p ≤ 0.05), marijuana use (OR = 12.11, p ≤ 0.05), and codeine (syrup) use (OR = 8.10, p ≤ 0.05). These findings are important in determining the “cultural novelties” relative to crack and fry use among younger African Americans. PMID:19157045

  8. The dynamics of alcohol and marijuana initiation: patterns and predictors of first use in adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Kosterman, R; Hawkins, J D; Guo, J; Catalano, R F; Abbott, R D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study, guided by the social development model, examined the dynamic patterns and predictors of alcohol and marijuana use onset. METHODS: Survival analysis and complementary log-log regression were used to model hazard rates and etiology of initiation with time-varying covariates. The sample was derived from a longitudinal study of 808 youth interviewed annually from 10 to 16 years of age and at 18 years of age. RESULTS: Alcohol initiation rose steeply up to the age of 13 years and then increased more gradually; most participants had initiated by 13 years of age. Marijuana initiation showed a different pattern, with more participants initiating after the age of 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that: (1) the risk of initiation spans the entire course of adolescent development; (2) young people exposed to others who use substances are at higher risk for early initiation; (3) proactive parents can help delay initiation; and (4) clear family standards and proactive family management are important in delaying alcohol and marijuana use, regardless of how closely bonded a child is to his or her mother. PMID:10705852

  9. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Cocaine COCAINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... your Save in directory and then click Save. Cocaine Crack Cocaine RESOURCE CENTER Controlled Substances Act DEA ...

  10. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Cocaine Cocaine Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Cocaine is a ... NIDA for Teens: Stimulants NIDA Therapy Manuals for Cocaine Addiction (Archives): Manual 1: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: ...

  11. Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Treatment Nonadherence Among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Huang, Quian; Levy, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face peak risks for onset and intensification of alcohol and marijuana use. However, we know little about these behaviors and their associations with knowledge or treatment adherence among chronically ill youth, a medically vulnerable group. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of consented youth ages 9 to 18 years receiving care for asthma/cystic fibrosis, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a self-administered online tool. Prevalence and correlates of risk behaviors and associations with knowledge and treatment adherence were estimated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, controlling for demographics, mental health, and the multiclinic sampling frame. RESULTS: Of 403 consented youth (75.8% response), 51.6% were girls, 75.1% were white, and average age was 15.6 years. Of high school youth, 36.5% and 12.7% reported past-year alcohol use and binge drinking, respectively; 20% reported past-year marijuana use. Among high school youth, 53.1% and 37.2% answered correctly that alcohol can interfere with their medications and laboratory tests; youth answering incorrectly were 8.53 and 4.46 times more likely to drink and binge drink, respectively (P values < .001). Thirty-two percent and 8.3% of high school youth reported regularly forgetting or skipping their medications in the past 30 days; compared with past-year nondrinking youth, drinkers were 1.79 and 1.61 times as likely to report regularly missing or skipping medications (P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and marijuana use are common among youth with chronic medical conditions. Alcohol use is associated with treatment nonadherence. Education and preventive interventions are warranted to ameliorate risk. PMID:26668849

  12. Young adults' perceptions of an adolescent's use of marijuana and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nabors, Laura A; Brubaker, Michael D; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received treatment. Participants responded to questions assessing acceptance, willingness to help, and beliefs about the adolescent's academic functioning. Students provided higher acceptance of the adolescent who drank an occasional beer compared to the one who had received treatment for alcohol use and the one who was using marijuana, but did not receive treatment. Results differed based on question type, suggesting that interpretation of stigma is complex and that context plays a role in understanding perceptions. Future research, focusing on reasons for differences in judgments across contexts, will provide new information. PMID:25905121

  13. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral economic intervention for alcohol and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Yurasek, Ali M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that a single 50-min supplemental session that targeted the behavioral economic mechanisms of substance-free reinforcement and delayed reward discounting (Substance-Free Activity Session: SFAS) enhanced the efficacy of a standard alcohol brief motivational intervention (BMI) for college drinkers. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial intended to replicate and extend the aforementioned study by focusing on both drug and alcohol misuse and reducing session length in order to enhance dissemination potential. Participants were 97 college students (58.8% women; 59.8% White/Caucasian, and 30.9% African American; M age = 20.01, SD = 2.23) who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode in the past month (M = 4.01 episodes). Most participants (62%) reported recent marijuana use (M = 12.22 days of past-month use). After completing a baseline assessment and an individual 30-min alcohol-focused BMI, participants were randomized to either the 30-min SFAS session or an education control session. A series of mixed model intent-to-treat analyses revealed that both groups reported drinking reductions and that participants in the BMI + SFAS group reported fewer days using marijuana at the 6-month follow-up. These results do not support the incremental efficacy of the briefer SFAS for reducing drinking but suggest that it may improve marijuana outcomes. Future research is needed to identify the ideal length and timing of the SFAS supplement to BMIs. PMID:26191947

  15. Proximal and Time-Varying Effects of Cigarette, Alcohol, Marijuana and other Hard Drug Use on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions. PMID:24636688

  16. Cocaine self-administration in Warsaw alcohol high-preferring (WHP) and Warsaw alcohol low-preferring (WLP) rats.

    PubMed

    Acewicz, Albert; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Dyr, Wanda; Jastrzebska, Agata; Korkosz, Izabela; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Nauman, Pawel; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-15

    Individuals prone to drug self-administration may be vulnerable not only to a single drug reinforcer but to a variety of drug reinforcers. It has been shown that two thirds of alcoholics regularly use drugs other than ethanol (alcohol). Up to 30% of alcohol-dependent patients report concurrent misuse of cocaine. The aim of the present study was to investigate intravenous cocaine self-administration in selectively bred, alcohol-preferring WHP (Warsaw high-preferring) and non-preferring WLP (Warsaw low-preferring) rats. It was hypothesized that WHPs could be more prone to cocaine self-administration in comparison to WLPs. Rats from both lines were allowed to nose-poke for cocaine infusions (0.33 mg/kg/infusion) under the FR-1, FR-2, and FR-3 schedule of reinforcement. Dose-response curves were assessed with increasing doses of cocaine (0.03, 0.1, 0.33, 1.0mg/kg/infusion). The WHP and WLP rats did not differ in cocaine self-administration. Both groups quickly acquired nose-poke responding for cocaine, presented a similar response profile when the schedule of reinforcement was increased from FR-1 to FR-3, and similar sensitivity to cocaine in the dose-response test. The present results may indicate that the selective breeding of alcohol-preferring WHP and alcohol non-preferring WLP rats did not lead to differences in cocaine's rewarding effects as assessed in the self-administration procedure. PMID:22101231

  17. Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: a comparison of alcohol and marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Results Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Conclusions Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes. PMID:25169838

  18. [Needs satisfaction deficit among cocaine and/or marijuana users asking for treatment].

    PubMed

    García-Aurrecoechea, Raúl; Díaz-Guerrero, Rogelio; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2007-01-01

    As part of a pioneer investigation line on the field of addiction and mental health centred on the operationalization of clinical implications of the motivational theory of Maslow (1954/1970) and feedback treatment and prevention strategies of drug use and its associated disturbances, it is tested the psycho-pathogenesis construct of this theory by means of a cross sectional design of four independent samples, on which it is explored the satisfaction degree of 16 deficitary needs on intentional samples of adolescents and young adults: Three samples of actual users of marihuana (n = 47), cocaine (n = 47) and both substances (n = 50), that were gotten between treatment solicitors and a sample of students and workers non illicit drug users (n = 150). The comparative and predictive statistical analysis provide validity to the psycho-pathogenesis construct of the theory of motivation of Maslow, and its stand out: 1)The potential utility for the treatment of the development of techniques and instruments oriented to cover the deficit of satisfaction of the needs of health, tranquillity, order, emotional security, family justice, love, friendship, respect, tenderness, power, domination, success and money and; 2) The importance for the prevention of the actual consumption of drugs as cocaine or marihuana of the development of strategies focused to keep satisfied the needs of health, tranquillity, affection, respect and success. PMID:17724930

  19. Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Nick J.; Yeager, Rebecca D.

    Cocaine was first used by Europeans in the nineteenth century when extract from the coca leaf was combined with various beverages. Cocaine comes as a white crystalline powder. However, a product called crack cocaine may come as an opaque crystal similar in size and shape to rock salt. A third form of cocaine is known as coca paste, which is an…

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use. PMID:25953106

  1. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  2. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  3. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  4. Associations among Sexual Attraction Status, School Belonging, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Owens, Gina P.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from 1725 9th graders from 25 rural high schools revealed that students reporting same-sex attraction or uncertainty about their attraction status also reported significantly lower GPAs, lower school belonging, and higher marijuana and alcohol use. Regression analyses confirmed that beyond the effects of GPA and…

  5. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users with Co-Occurring Alcohol Use: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Method Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n=59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then re-assessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. Results MJ+ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps<.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps≤.02). Conclusions Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. PMID:25938918

  6. Reward-related Brain Response and Craving Correlates of Marijuana Cue Exposure: A Preliminary Study in Treatment-Seeking Marijuana-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Marina; Szucs-Reed, Regina P.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ehrman, Ronald N.; Wang, Ze; Li, Yin; Suh, Jesse J.; Kampman, Kyle; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determining the brain substrates underlying the motivation to abuse addictive drugs is critical for understanding and treating addictive disorders. Laboratory neuroimaging studies have demonstrated differential activation of limbic and motivational circuitry [e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] triggered by cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cues. The literature on neural responses to marijuana cues is sparse. Thus, the goals of this study were to characterize the brain’s response to marijuana cues, a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse, and determine whether these responses are linked to self-reported craving in a clinically relevant population of treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects. Methods Marijuana craving was assessed in 12 marijuana-dependent subjects using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form. Subsequently, BOLD functional MRI data were acquired during exposure to alternating 20 second blocks of marijuana-related versus matched nondrug visual cues. Results Brain activation during marijuana cue exposure was significantly greater in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Significant positive correlations between craving scores and brain activation were found in ventral striatum, and medial and lateral OFC (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study presents direct evidence for a link between reward-relevant brain responses to marijuana cues and craving, and extends the current literature on marijuana cue reactivity. Further, the correlative relationship between craving and brain activity in reward-related regions was observed in a clinically relevant sample (treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects). Results are consistent with prior findings in cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cue studies, indicating that the brain substrates of cue-triggered drug motivation are shared across abused substances. PMID:23188041

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  8. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, called crack. Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe. ...

  9. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, ... Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe. Cocaine speeds up your whole body. You may feel ...

  10. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  11. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  12. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  13. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  14. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, A; Johnson, B D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Much research has documented that youthful substance use typically follows a sequence starting with use of alcohol or tobacco or both and potentially proceeding to marijuana and then hard drug use. This study explicitly examined the probabilities of progression through each stage and their covariates. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1979-1997) was conducted with particular sensitivity to the nature of substance use progression, sampling procedures, and reliability of self-report data. RESULTS: Progression to marijuana and hard drug use was uncommon among persons born before World War II. The stages phenomenon essentially emerged with the baby boom and rose to a peak among persons born around 1960. Subsequently, progression risks at each stage declined. Progression risks were also higher among younger initiators of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in youthful marijuana use has been offset by lower rates of progression to hard drug use among youths born in the 1970s. Dire predictions of future hard drug abuse by youths who came of age in the 1990s may be greatly overstated. PMID:11211630

  15. Inhibition during Early Adolescence Predicts Alcohol and Marijuana Use by Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use has been associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning, but it is unclear if deficits predate or follow the onset of use. The goal of this prospective study was to understand how neuropsychological functioning during early adolescence could predict substance use by late adolescence. Method At baseline, participants were 175 substance use-naïve healthy 12–14 year-olds (41% female) recruited from local schools. Participants completed extensive interviews and neuropsychological tests. Each year, participants’ substance use was assessed. By late adolescence (ages 17–18), 105 participants transitioned into substance use, while 75 remained substance-naïve. Hierarchical linear regressions examined how baseline cognitive performance predicted subsequent substance use, controlling for common substance use risk factors (i.e., family history, externalizing behaviors, gender, pubertal development, and age). Results Poorer baseline performance on tests of cognitive inhibition-interference predicted higher follow-up peak drinks on an occasion (β=−.15; p<.001), more days of drinking (β=−.15; p<.001), and more marijuana use days (β=−.17; p<.001) by ages 17–18, above and beyond covariates. Performances on short term memory, sustained attention, verbal learning and memory, visuospatial functioning, and spatial planning did not predict subsequent substance involvement (ps > .05). Conclusions Compromised inhibitory functioning during early adolescence prior to the onset of substance use was related to more frequent and intense alcohol and marijuana use by late adolescence. Inhibition performance could help identify teens at risk for initiating heavy substance use during adolescence, and potentially could be modified to improve outcome. PMID:24749728

  16. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  17. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possession of marijuana is illegal under federal law. Medical marijuana refers to using marijuana to treat certain medical ... Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten Taken as a liquid extract Marijuana leaves and buds contain substances ...

  18. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at initiation of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco. The sample consisted of 214 adolescents and their caregivers. Fifty percent of the sample was Caucasian, 50% African American. Results First trimester cocaine exposure significantly predicted earlier adolescent marijuana and alcohol initiation. The hazard of marijuana and alcohol initiation among exposed adolescents was almost two times higher than among non-exposed adolescents, adjusting for other significant factors. There were no differences in tobacco initiation. Other significant predictors of adolescent drug use were family history of alcohol problems, exposure to violence, and childhood maltreatment. Conclusions Cocaine exposure during early pregnancy was associated with initiation of marijuana and alcohol use. Exposure to violence, childhood maltreatment, and familial factors also predicted adolescent initiation, but did not mitigate the effects of PCE. The combination of these risk factors has significant implications for the development of later substance use, social, and psychiatric problems. PMID:23265632

  19. The relationship between youth's moral and legal perceptions of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana and use of these substances.

    PubMed

    Amonini, Claudia; Donovan, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    Youth's perceptions of the morality of alcohol and other drug use and the perceived legitimacy of laws regulating such use have received scant attention in the international public health literature. To date, the focus has mainly been on emphasizing the health and social disbenefits of substance use in an attempt to counter the perceived psychological benefits (positive expectancies) of use and peer reinforcement. Following exploratory qualitative research, a structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 611 youths aged 14-17 years. Analysis of the data found that use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana was directly related to moral perceptions: those considering use as 'wrong under any circumstance' were less likely to be users than those who considered it 'ok under some or any circumstance'. Substance use was also related to legitimacy perceptions: those who thought laws relating to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use were justified were less likely to be users than those who thought these laws were not justified. The implications of these findings for future research and for the design of more effective intervention strategies are discussed. It is suggested that interventions including student discussion of the moral and legal issues surrounding substance use may prove effective in postponing or even preventing substance use, particularly tobacco and marijuana consumption, or reducing the excess use of these substances. PMID:16234282

  20. A school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in high school students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite schools theoretically being an ideal setting for accessing adolescents and preventing initiation of substance use, there is limited evidence of effective interventions in this setting. Resilience theory provides one approach to achieving such an outcome through improving adolescent mental well-being and resilience. A study was undertaken to examine the potential effectiveness of such an intervention approach in improving adolescent resilience and protective factor scores; and reducing the prevalence of adolescent tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use in three high schools. Methods A non-controlled before and after study was undertaken. Data regarding student resilience and protective factors, and measures of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were collected from grade 7 to 10 students at baseline (n = 1449) and one year following a three year intervention (n = 1205). Results Significantly higher resilience and protective factors scores, and significantly lower prevalence of substance use were evident at follow up. Conclusions The results suggest that the intervention has the potential to increase resilience and protective factors, and to decrease the use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana by adolescents. Further more rigorous research is required to confirm this potential. PMID:21942951

  1. Motivational Interviewing for Incarcerated Adolescents: Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Reducing Alcohol and Marijuana Use After Release*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L. A. R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Monti, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents was evaluated. Method: Adolescents (N = 162, 84% male; M = 17.10 years old) were randomly assigned to receive motivational interviewing or relaxation training, with follow-up assessment 3 months after release. Results: Compared with those who received relaxation training, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of alcohol and marijuana use at follow-up, with some evidence for moderating effects of depression. At low levels of depression, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of use. Adolescents who received relaxation training and who had high levels of depressive symptoms early in incarceration showed less use at follow-up than those low in depressive symptoms who received relaxation training. Conclusions: This brief motivational interviewing intervention during incarceration reduces alcohol and marijuana use after release. In addition, depressive symptoms early in incarceration should be considered in treating these adolescents, but more work is needed to extend follow-up period and account for the impact of depression on outcomes. PMID:21513687

  2. Concomitant consumption of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and progression: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Caio Fabio Baeta; de Angelis, Bruno Brandão; Prudente, Henrique Maciel; de Souza, Bernardo Vieira Goulart; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel

    2012-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) corresponds to 95% of all malignant tumours of the mouth. The association between alcohol and tobacco is the major risk factor for this disease, increasing the chances for the development of OSCC by 35-fold. The plant, Cannabis sativa is smoked as cigarettes or blunts and is commonly used in association with tobacco and alcohol. Any type of smoking habit exposes individuals to a wide range of carcinogens or pro-carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as some ethanol derived substances such as acetaldehyde (AA), and all are genotoxic in the same way. In addition, ethanol acts in the oral mucosa as a solvent and therefore increases the cellular membrane permeability to carcinogens. Carcinogens found in tobacco are also concentrated in marijuana, but the latter also contains high levels of cannabinoids, bioactive compounds responsible for several effects such as euphoria and analgesia. However, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the major psychotropic cannabinoid found in plants, causes a reduction of cellular metabolism and induction of apoptosis, both of which are anti-neoplastic properties. Apart from limited epidemiologic and experimental data, the effects of concomitant chronic exposure to marijuana (or Δ(9)-THC), tobacco and alcohol in OSCC development and progression is poorly known. This paper reviews the most recent findings on the effects of marijuana over cellular proliferation, as well as in the risk for OSCC, with emphasis on its interaction with tobacco and ethanol consumption. PMID:22727410

  3. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  4. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot. PMID:26196073

  5. Are There Secondary Effects on Marijuana Use From Brief Alcohol Interventions for College Students?

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Jiao, Yang; Ray, Anne E.; Huh, David; Atkins, David C.; Larimer, Mary E.; Fromme, Kim; Corbin, William R.; Baer, John S.; Labrie, Joseph W.; Mun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether brief motivational interventions (BMIs) designed for reducing heavy drinking among college students have secondary effects on reducing marijuana use. Method: The data came from Project INTEGRATE, which combined data from 24 independent trials of BMIs and other individual-focused interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking and related problems among college students. We analyzed data from 10 samples across nine studies that used random assignment of participants into either a BMI or a control group and assessed marijuana use outcomes (N = 6,768; 41.5% men; 73.2% White; 57.7% first-year students; 19.2% current marijuana users at baseline). We derived three marijuana use groups within studies by cross-tabulating baseline and follow-up data: Nonusers, Reducers, and Stayers/Increasers. Results: Peto’s one-step odds ratio analyses for meta-analysis revealed no significant intervention effects on marijuana use at either short-term (1–3 month) or long-term (6–12 month) follow-up. Subsequent exploratory analyses showed that those who reduced drinking were more likely to be a marijuana Reducer or Nonuser, compared with a Stayer/Increaser, at both follow-ups. Conclusions: The BMIs to reduce heavy drinking evaluated in this study did not reduce marijuana use. However, our exploratory results suggest that if we can develop interventions for college students that effectively reduce drinking, we may also reduce their marijuana use. Furthermore, as recreational use of marijuana becomes legal or decriminalized and marijuana becomes more readily available, it may be necessary to develop interventions specifically targeting marijuana use among college students. PMID:25978822

  6. Early predictors of age at first use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J P; Kellam, S G; Brown, C H

    1982-08-01

    This paper is a report of the relationships between various measures of social adaptation to the first grade classroom and the age at which alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were first used by teenagers who began elementary school in a poor black urban community on the South Side of Chicago. Prospective longitudinal community epidemiological data were collected periodically in first and third grades from consecutive total cohorts of children in the 1960s. The 1966-67 population (cohort 3) was followed up at age 16 or 17. This population of 705 children is reported on here regarding early predictors of their first use of these substances. There are three main findings: (1) boys tended to use all substances at an earlier age than girls; (2) students who performed better on first grade IQ and Readiness tests tended to initiate substance use at an earlier age; (3) girls (but not boys) who were rated by their first grade teachers as shy or having learning problems tended to initiate use at a later age. The relationships of these findings to our past investigations of paths leading to substance use are discussed. PMID:6982159

  7. Validating a Five-Factor Marijuana Motives Measure: Relations with Use, Problems, and Alcohol Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffrey; Correia, Christopher J.; Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    Marijuana motives were studied in relationship to drinking motives among college students. Internal consistency and concurrent validity of the measure, gender, and interpersonal correlates of problem use patterns were examined. Analyses supported a five-factor marijuana motives model, prediction of use-related problems, and discriminant validity…

  8. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  9. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  10. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the neurotransmitter in the brain. It is this flood of dopamine that causes cocaine’s high. The drug ... Articles: Stimulants Research Report Series: Cocaine Statistics and Trends NIDA: DrugFacts: High School and Youth Trends Centers ...

  11. Effects of minimum legal drinking age on alcohol and marijuana use: evidence from toxicological testing data for fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs by adolescents and young adults. The question of whether these two drugs are substitutes or complements has important implications for public policy and prevention strategies, especially as laws regarding the use of marijuana are rapidly changing. Methods Data were drawn from fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 who died within 1 h of the crash in nine states with high rates of toxicology testing based from 1999 to 2011 on the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (N = 7,191). Drug tests were performed using chromatography and radioimmunoassay techniques based on blood and/or urine specimens. Relative risk regression and Joinpoint permutation analysis were used. Results Overall, 50.5% of the drivers studied tested positive for alcohol or marijuana. Univariable relative risk modeling revealed that reaching the minimum legal drinking age was associated with a 14% increased risk of alcohol use (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.28), a 24% decreased risk of marijuana use (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.10), and a 22% increased risk of alcohol plus marijuana use (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.66). Joinpoint permutation analysis indicated that the prevalence of alcohol use by age is best described by two slopes, with a change at age 21. There was limited evidence for a change at age 21 for marijuana use. Conclusions These results suggest that among adolescents and young adults, increases in alcohol availability after reaching the MLDA have marginal effect on marijuana use. PMID:26301177

  12. Changes in Use of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Services by Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance: A Parallel-Process Growth Mixture Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Paul E.; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    For the study reported here, the authors used growth mixture modeling to analyze changes in alcohol and marijuana use and the use of drug and alcohol treatment services for a sample of 180 adolescents with serious emotional disturbance (ages 12-14 years at the beginning of the 7-year longitudinal study). Three latent classes of substance users…

  13. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  14. The role of the neurokinin-1 receptor in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol and cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Schank, Jesse R; King, Courtney E; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Heilig, Markus; Weinshenker, David; Schroeder, Jason P

    2014-04-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1Rs) have been shown to mediate alcohol and opiate, but not cocaine reward in rodents. We recently reported that NK1R antagonism also blocks stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats, but it is presently unknown whether these antirelapse properties extend to other drug classes. Although some work has suggested that intracranial substance P (SP) infusion reinstates cocaine seeking following extinction, no studies have indicated a direct role for the NK1R in reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Here, we explored the effect of the NK1R antagonist L822429 on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol or cocaine seeking in Long-Evans rats. Consistent with our previous findings with footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in Wistar rats, we found that L822429 attenuates yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, but does not affect baseline alcohol self-administration. We observed a similar suppression of yohimbine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking by L822429, and found that Long-Evans rats exhibit greater sensitivity to NK1R antagonism than Wistar rats. Accordingly, Long-Evans rats exhibit differences in the expression of NK1Rs in some subcortical brain regions. Combined, our findings suggest that while NK1R antagonism differentially influences alcohol- and cocaine-related behavior, this receptor mediates stress-induced seeking of both drugs. PMID:24173499

  15. Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.

    PubMed

    Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment

  16. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  17. Substitution of Marijuana for Alcohol: The Role of Perceived Access and Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Randi J.; Lohrmann, David K.; Greene, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown significant declines in gateway drug use among participants in a school/community substance abuse prevention intervention in a midwestern, suburban school district (Lohrmann, Alter, Greene, & Younoszai, 2005). Though still at or below national levels, student marijuana use was not impacted as positively. The current study…

  18. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  19. The Relationships of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, and Other Illegal Drug Use to Delinquency among Mexican-American, Black, and White Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Wright, Loyd S.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship between drug use and delinquent behavior among 348 high school males and 89 adjudicated delinquent males in maximum-security facility for violent and repeat offenders. Self-reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other illegal drug use were all significantly related to minor and violent delinquency for all 3 racial groups…

  20. Which matters most? Demographic, neuropsychological, personality, and situational factors in long-term marijuana and alcohol trajectories for justice-involved male youth.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Filbey, Francesca M; Loughran, Thomas A; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-09-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N = 1,056; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1-7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males' patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over 7 years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (a) Hispanic ethnicity, (b) less exposure (street) time, and (c) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (a) delinquent peers and (b) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths' long-term (7-year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth. PMID:26030166

  1. Which matters most? Demographic, Neuropsychological, Personality, and Situational Factors in Long-Term Marijuana and Alcohol Trajectories for Justice-Involved Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Filbey, Francesca M.; Loughran, Thomas A.; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N=1,056; 41.4% African-American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1–7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males’ patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over the seven years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (1) Hispanic ethnicity, (2) less exposure (street) time, and (3) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (1) delinquent peers and (2) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths’ long term (seven year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth. PMID:26030166

  2. Trends in Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use among College Students: Results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys--1993-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study…

  3. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats are more sensitive than Wistar rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine self-administered directly into the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Katner, Simon N; Oster, Scott M; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Deehan, Gerald A; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2011-10-01

    Wistar rats will self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), but not into the nucleus accumbens core. In human and animal literature, there is a genetic association between alcoholism and cocaine dependency. The current experiment examined whether selective breeding for high alcohol preference is also associated with greater sensitivity of the AcbSh to the reinforcing properties of cocaine. P and Wistar rats were given cocaine (0, 100, 200, 400, or 800 pmol/100 nl) to self-infuse into the AcbSh. Rats were given cocaine for the first 4 sessions (acquisition), artificial CSF for sessions 5 and 6 (extinction), and cocaine again in session 7 (reinstatement). During acquisition, P rats self-infused 200-800 pmol cocaine (59 infusions/session), whereas Wistar rats only reliably self-infused 800 pmol cocaine (38 infusions/session). Furthermore, P rats received a greater number of cocaine infusions in the 200, 400 and 800 pmol cocaine groups compared to respective Wistar groups during acquisition. Both P and Wistar rats reduced responding on the active lever when aCSF was substituted for cocaine, and reinstated responding in session 7 when cocaine was restored. However, P rats had significantly greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at all concentrations of cocaine tested, whereas Wistar rats only displayed greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at the 400 and 800 pmol cocaine concentrations. The present results suggest that, compared to Wistar rats, the AcbSh of P rats was more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The reinstatement data suggest that the AcbSh of P rats may have become sensitized to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Overall, the findings from this study support a genetic association between high alcohol preference and greater sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:21723879

  4. Crack cocaine smokers as adult children of alcoholics: the dysfunctional family link.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B C

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents data on a sample (N = 61) of crack-cocaine-dependent patients who were treated on an inpatient detoxification unit. The investigation explores adult child of an alcoholic status as a possible etiological factor in the development of addiction to crack cocaine. Data suggests the prevalence of adult child of an alcoholic (ACA) status in this population (61%). Adult child of a dysfunctional family (ACDF) status is also explored as possibly playing an important role as an antecedent or determinant of addiction. The vast majority of patients are adult children of a dysfunctional family (ACDF) of one kind or another (97%); for example, patients experienced domestic violence (25%) and physical abuse (28%). Perhaps as a result of less than ideal object relations in dysfunctional families, many patients were also diagnosed as having personality disorders (31%) or affective disorders (21%). Case vignettes augment research findings, supporting the contention that childhood development in a dysfunctional family constitutes a specific etiological factor in the development of crack cocaine dependence. The paper recommends matching crack-addicted ACAs/ACDFs to treatment modalities that address and remediate the personality and emotional problems that characterize ACAs/ACDFs. PMID:2388314

  5. Choice to view cocaine images predicts concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction*

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Woicik, Patricia A.; Konova, Anna B.; Maloney, Thomas; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying variables that predict drug use in treatment-seeking drug addicted individuals is a crucial research and therapeutic goal. This study tested the hypothesis that choice to view cocaine images is associated with concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction. Methods To establish choice-concurrent drug use associations, 71 cocaine addicted subjects (43 current users and 28 treatment seekers) provided data on (A) choice to view cocaine images and affectively pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images [collected under explicit contingencies (when choice was made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more probabilistic contingencies (when choice was made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)]; and (B) past-month cocaine and other drug use. To establish choice-prospective drug use associations, 20 of these treatment-seeking subjects were followed over the next six months. Results Baseline cocaine-related picture choice as measured by both tasks positively correlated with subjects’ concurrent cocaine and other drug use as driven by the actively-using subjects. In a subsequent multiple regression analysis, choice to view cocaine images as compared with affectively pleasant images (under probabilistic contingencies) was the only predictor that continued to be significantly associated with drug use. Importantly, this same baseline cocaine>pleasant probabilistic choice also predicted the number of days drugs were used (cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana) over the next six months. Conclusions Simulated cocaine choice – especially when probabilistic and when compared with other positive reinforcers – may provide a valid laboratory marker of current and future drug use in cocaine addiction. PMID:23218913

  6. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  7. The effects of perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R

    2008-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future. PMID:18201842

  8. Rare missense variants in CHRNB3 and CHRNA3 are associated with risk of alcohol and cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Gabe; Kapoor, Manav; Budde, John; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard; Nurnberger, John; Kramer, John; Brooks, Andy; Tischfield, Jay; Almasy, Laura; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Rice, John; Saccone, Nancy; Bierut, Laura; Goate, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that variants in nicotinic receptor genes are associated with nicotine, alcohol and cocaine dependence. Because of the substantial comorbidity, it has often been unclear whether a variant is associated with multiple substances or whether the association is actually with a single substance. To investigate the possible contribution of rare variants to the development of substance dependencies other than nicotine dependence, specifically alcohol and cocaine dependence, we undertook pooled sequencing of the coding regions and flanking sequence of CHRNA5, CHRNA3, CHRNB4, CHRNA6 and CHRNB3 in 287 African American and 1028 European American individuals from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). All members of families for whom any individual was sequenced (2504 African Americans and 7318 European Americans) were then genotyped for all variants identified by sequencing. For each gene, we then tested for association using FamSKAT. For European Americans, we find increased DSM-IV cocaine dependence symptoms (FamSKAT P = 2 × 10−4) and increased DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms (FamSKAT P = 5 × 10−4) among carriers of missense variants in CHRNB3. Additionally, one variant (rs149775276; H329Y) shows association with both cocaine dependence symptoms (P = 7.4 × 10−5, β = 2.04) and alcohol dependence symptoms (P = 2.6 × 10−4, β = 2.04). For African Americans, we find decreased cocaine dependence symptoms among carriers of missense variants in CHRNA3 (FamSKAT P = 0.005). Replication in an independent sample supports the role of rare variants in CHRNB3 and alcohol dependence (P = 0.006). These are the first results to implicate rare variants in CHRNB3 or CHRNA3 in risk for alcohol dependence or cocaine dependence. PMID:24057674

  9. The Added Risk of Opioid Problem Use among Treatment-Seeking Youth with Marijuana and/or Alcohol Problem Use

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-risk behaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. PMID:20403020

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in

  11. Crosswalk between DSM-IV Dependence and DSM-5 Substance Use Disorders for Opioids, Cannabis, Cocaine and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Wilson M.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascertaining agreement between DSM-IV and DSM-5 is important to determine the applicability of treatments for DSM-IV conditions to persons diagnosed according to the proposed DSM-5. Methods Data from a nationally representative sample of US adults were used to compare concordance of past-year DSM-IV Opioid, Cannabis, Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence with past-year DSM-5 disorders at thresholds of 3+, 4+ 5+ and 6+ positive DSM-5 criteria among past-year users of opioids (n=264), cannabis (n=1,622), cocaine (n=271) and alcohol (n=23,013). Substance-specific 2×2 tables yielded overall concordance (kappa), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Results For DSM-IV Alcohol, Cocaine and Opioid Dependence, optimal concordance occurred when 4+ DSM-5 criteria were endorsed, corresponding to the threshold for moderate DSM-5 Alcohol, Cocaine and Opioid Use Disorders. Maximal concordance of DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence and DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder occurred when 6+ criteria were endorsed, corresponding to the threshold for severe DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder. At these optimal thresholds, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV generally exceeded 85% (>75% for cannabis). Conclusions Overall, excellent correspondence of DSM-IV Dependence with DSM-5 Substance Use Disorders was documented in this general population sample of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and opioid users. Applicability of treatments tested for DSM-IV Dependence is supported by these results for those with a DSM-5 Alcohol, Cocaine or Opioid Use Disorder of at least moderate severity or Severe Cannabis Use Disorder. Further research is needed to provide evidence for applicability of treatments for persons with milder substance use disorders. PMID:23642316

  12. Marijuana use motives and social anxiety among marijuana-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2007-10-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M(age)=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety. PMID:17478056

  13. Characteristics of Rural Crack and Powder Cocaine Users: Gender and Other Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Sandra K.; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of gender with cocaine use in rural areas. This study describes these relationships among stimulant users residing in rural areas of Arkansas, Kentucky and Ohio. Objectives Understanding characteristics of crack and powder cocaine users in rural areas may help inform prevention, education and treatment efforts to address rural stimulant use. Methods Participants were 690 stimulant users, including 274 (38.6%) females, residing in 9 rural counties. Cocaine use was measured by self-report of cocaine use, frequency of use, age of first use, and cocaine abuse/dependence. Powder cocaine use was reported by 49% of this sample of stimulant users and 59% reported using crack cocaine. Findings Differing use patterns emerged for female and male cocaine users in this rural sample; females began using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine at later ages than males but there were no gender differences in current powder cocaine use. Females reported more frequent use of crack cocaine and more cocaine abuse/dependence than males, and in regression analyses, female crack cocaine users had 1.8 times greater odds of reporting frequent crack use than male crack users. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings suggest differing profiles and patterns of cocaine use for male and female users in rural areas, supporting previous findings in urban areas of gender-based vulnerability to negative consequences of cocaine use. Further research on cocain use in rural areas can provide insights into gender differences that can inform development and refinement of effective interventions in rural communities. PMID:21851207

  14. Dare to Delay? The Impacts of Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use Onset on Cognition, Brain Structure, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Wright, Natasha E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings. PMID:23847550

  15. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Sobrian, Sonya K.; Holson, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation. PMID:22144967

  16. Triple Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods. We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study, a psychosocial investigation, at 4 time waves (mean ages = 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). We used Mplus to obtain the 3 variable trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from time 2 to time 5 and then conducted logistic regression analyses. Results. A 5-trajectory group model, ranging from the use of all 3 substances (23%) to a nonuse group (9%), best fit the data. Membership in the trajectory group that used all 3 substances was associated with an increased likelihood of both ASPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.83; 95% CI = 1.14, 40.74; P < .05) and GAD (AOR = 4.35; 95% CI = 1.63, 11.63; P < .001) in adulthood, as compared with the nonuse group, with control for earlier proxies of these conditions. Conclusions. Adults with comorbid tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use should be evaluated for use of other substances and for ASPD, GAD, and other psychiatric disorders. Treatment programs should address the use of all 3 substances to decrease the likelihood of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24922120

  17. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  18. Treatment-refractory substance use disorder: Focus on alcohol, opioids, and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    Substance use disorders are common, but only a small minority of patients receive adequate treatment. Although psychosocial therapies are effective, relapse is common. This review focusses on novel pharmacological and other treatments for patients with alcohol, opioid, or cocaine use disorders who do not respond to conventional treatments. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and the opioid antagonist naltrexone have been approved for the treatment of alcoholism. A novel, "as needed" approach is the use of the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene to reduce alcohol consumption. Other novel pharmacological approaches include the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, anticonvulsants such as topiramate and gabapentin, the partial nicotine receptor agonist varenicline, and other drugs. For opioid dependence, opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine is the first-line treatment option. Other options include oral or depot naltrexone, morphine sulfate, depot or implant formulations, and heroin (diacetylmorphine) in treatment-refractory patients. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for cocaine addiction; however, 3 potential pharmacological treatments are being studied, disulfiram, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Pharmacogenetic approaches may help to optimize treatment response in otherwise treatment-refractory patients and to identify which patients are more likely to respond to treatment, and neuromodulation techniques such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation also may play a role in the treatment of substance use disorders. Although no magic bullet is in sight for treatment-refractory patients, some novel medications and brain stimulation techniques have the potential to enrich treatment options at least for some patients. PMID:26577297

  19. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    ... use marijuana. Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. The drug is usually ... and heart rhythm disturbances Extreme hyperactivity and physical violence Heart attack Seizures Stroke Sudden collapse (cardiac arrest)

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to stereotypes seen in the media, several studies have found use of alcohol and other substances among racial and ethnic minority college students to be lower than among white students. At historically black colleges, for instance, about half the percentage of students report using tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine compared with students at…

  1. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  2. Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Use among First Year U.S. College Students: A time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Stolar, Marilyn; Richardson, Elizabeth; Tiffany, Stephen; Flay, Brian; Collins, Linda; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Bailey, Steffani; Clayton, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the day-to-day patterns of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use among first year college students in the U.S. Using 210 days of weekly time-line follow-back diary data collected in 2002-2003, the authors examined within-person patterns of use. The sample was 48% female and 90% Caucasian. Sixty eight percent of the participants were permanent residents of Indiana. Univariate time series analysis was employed to evaluate behavioral trends for each substance across the academic year and to determine the predictive value of day-to-day substance use. Some of the most common trends included higher levels of substance use at the beginning and/or end of the academic year. Use on any given day could be predicted best from the amount of corresponding substance use one day prior. Conclusions While universal intervention might best be focused in the earliest weeks on campus and at the end of the year when substance use is at its highest, the diversity of substance use trajectories suggests the need for more targeted approaches to intervention. Study limitations are noted. PMID:18393083

  3. Family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: The mediating role of negative emotional symptoms and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies. PMID:27344116

  4. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  5. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...Since 1985, FRA has conducted post-accident toxicological testing (post-accident testing) on blood, urine, and, if an employee is deceased, tissue samples from railroad employees involved in serious train accidents. If an accident qualifies for post-accident testing, FRA routinely conducts tests for alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), and certain amphetamines, opiates,......

  6. Parenting under the influence: the effects of opioids, alcohol and cocaine on mother-child interaction.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Brigham, Gregory S

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 20% of adults receiving treatment for a substance use disorder live with their minor children (Stanger et al., 1999) and women in drug use treatment are twice as likely as men to have children in their household (Wechsberg et al., 1998). Parental drug use impacts the family through reduced family resources such as money and food, and researchers consistently note parenting deficits among substance users (Solis, Shadur, Burns, & Hussong, 2012). Little is known about differences in parenting and mother-child interaction among mothers with different drugs of choice or among mothers of older children, between 8 and 16 years. This study reports the findings from a sample of treatment seeking opioid, alcohol and cocaine using mothers and their 8-16-year-old child. Findings from a mother-child observational task and self-reported parenting measure indicated less undermining autonomy and higher mother maternal acceptance among opioid compared to alcohol addicted mothers. African American mothers were observed to have fewer negative interactional behaviors than Whites and both African American mothers and children self-reported higher firm control and maternal acceptance. Overall, mothers appeared to struggle with effective discipline with older versus younger children. Findings offer useful information to clinicians seeking to effectively tailor their interventions to women and children who present with different drugs of abuse, race/culture and developmental stage of child. PMID:24589871

  7. The Role of Constraint in the Development of Nicotine, Marijuana, and Alcohol Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The personality-related construct of behavioral disinhibition is hypothesized to confer a generalized risk for alcohol and drug dependence. On average, rates of substance use and scores on measures of disinhibition peak in adolescence and decline as people mature into adulthood. The present study investigated this developmental change by evaluating the relationship between disinhibition and substance use disorders using a longitudinal study of 2,608 twins assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. These ages include the period of highest risk for substance use disorders (ages 17-24) as well as when substance dependence symptoms typically decline (ages 24-29). Disinhibition was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire higher-order scale of Constraint, as well as its constituent facet scales of Harm Avoidance, Control, and Traditionalism. Constraint’s relationship with substance dependence was statistically significant but small and largely genetic, with the genetic relationship declining from adolescence into adulthood. However, this result appeared to be almost entirely driven by Traditionalism, a propensity to hold traditional moral and social values, and not an obvious component of behavioral disinhibition. The results suggest that personality measures of Control and Harm Avoidance play only a small role in the development of substance dependence during late adolescence, and previous findings linking personality measures of disinhibition and substance use may be driven significantly by social and moral values than deficits in impulse control. PMID:24343204

  8. A Comparison of Individual-Level and Community-Level Predictors of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among a Sample of Newly Arrested Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2011-01-01

    Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…

  9. Neuroplastic alterations in the limbic system following cocaine or alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Garret D; Hopf, F Woodward; Tye, Kay M; Chen, Billy T; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in the CNS are thought to be a fundamental component of learning and memory. While pioneering studies in the hippocampus and cerebellum have detailed many of the basic mechanisms that can lead to alterations in synaptic transmission based on previous activity, only more recently has synaptic plasticity been monitored after behavioral manipulation or drug exposure. In this chapter, we review evidence that drugs of abuse are powerful modulators of synaptic plasticity. Both the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area as well medium spiny neurons in nucleus accumbens show enhanced excitatory synaptic strength following passive or active exposure to drugs such as cocaine and alcohol. In the VTA, both the enhancement of excitatory synaptic strength and the acquisition of drug-related behaviors depend on signaling through the N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are mechanistically thought to lead to increased synaptic insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). Synaptic insertion of AMPARs by drugs of abuse can be long lasting, depending on the route of administration, number of drug exposures, or whether the drugs are received passively or self-administered. PMID:21161748

  10. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Drug and Environmental Effects at 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Lynn T.; Nelson, Suchitra; Short, Elizabeth; Min, Meeyoung O.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Lewis, Barbara; Russ, Sandra; Minnes, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess school age cognitive and achievement outcomes after prenatal cocaine exposure, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Study design At 9 years, 371 children (192 cocaine exposure, CE; 179 non-exposure, NCE) were assessed for IQ and school achievement in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth. An extensive number of confounding variables were controlled, including quality of caregiving environment, polydrug exposure, lead, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and foster/adoptive care. Results CE predicted poorer Perceptual Reasoning IQ with a linear relationship of the concentration of the cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine, to degree of impairment. Effects were mediated through birth head circumference, indicating a relationship with fetal brain growth. Negative effects of alcohol, lead, and marijuana exposure and positive effects of home environment were additive. Children with CE in foster/adoptive care had better home environments and lower lead levels. School achievement was not affected. Conclusions There were persistent teratologic effects of CE on specific cognitive functions and additive effects of alcohol, lead, marijuana, IDA, and home environment. Documenting environmental factors in behavioral teratology studies is important because in this sample, CE was associated with better home environments and lower environmental risk for a substantial number of children. PMID:18571546

  11. Cocaine abuse among opioid addicts: demographic and diagnostic factors in treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Gawin, F H; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1986-01-01

    Cocaine is becoming a major drug of abuse among the general population and among opiate addicts. Reports from the early 1970s found that most abusers were older Black males with some antisocial characteristics. Cocaine abuse at that time was reported by about 17% of opiate addicts seeking treatment and by 7 to 11% of ex-addicts on methadone maintenance. However, that rate increased dramatically during the 1970s, and in our 1980 study of 533 addicts we found that 74% of opiate addicts applying for treatment used cocaine. It was the second most abused nonopioid drug after marijuana, surpassing alcohol intoxication. Although the mean number of days of abuse over the previous 30 days was substantially lower among the addicts on our methadone maintenance program (mean = 1.4 days, n = 120) than among the addicts applying for treatment (mean = 9 days, n = 204), the following associations with cocaine abuse were consistent in both subsamples. Cocaine abuse was more frequent among Blacks. It was associated with a variety of antisocial indices including Research Diagnostic Criteria antisocial personality disorder, number of arrests, and legal, family, employment, and drug abuse problems as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index and the Social Adjustment Scale. Several differences emerged between Black and White cocaine-abusing addicts, the most interesting being an increased rate of anxiety disorders among White cocaine abusers. Based on these associations, we offer several guidelines for treating cocaine abuse in opiate addicts. PMID:3788892

  12. A fatal overdose of cocaine associated with coingestion of marijuana, buprenorphine, and fluoxetine. Body fluid and tissue distribution of cocaine and its metabolites determined by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry(HILIC-MS).

    PubMed

    Giroud, Christian; Michaud, Katarzyna; Sporkert, Frank; Eap, Chin; Augsburger, Marc; Cardinal, Pascal; Mangin, Patrice

    2004-09-01

    Chromatographic separation of highly polar basic drugs with ideal ionspray mass spectrometry volatile mobile phases is a difficult challenge. A new quantification procedure was developed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry with turbo-ionspray ionization in the positive mode. After addition of deuterated internal standards and simple clean-up liquid extraction, the dried extracts were reconstituted in 500 microL pure acetonitrile and 5 microL was directly injected onto a Waters Atlantis HILIC 150- x 2.1-mm, 3-microm column. Chromatographic separations of cocaine, seven metabolites, and anhydroecgonine were obtained by linear gradient-elution with decreasing high concentrations of acetonitrile (80-56% in 18 min). This high proportion of organic solvent makes it easier to be coupled with MS. The eluent was buffered with 2 mM ammonium acetate at pH 4.5. Except for m-hydroxy-benzoylecgonine, the within-day and between-day precisions at 20, 100, and 500 ng/mL were below 7 and 19.1%, respectively. Accuracy was also below +/- 13.5% at all tested concentrations. The limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL (%Diff < 16.1, %RSD < 4.3) and the limit of detection below 0.5 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to a fatal overdose. In Switzerland, cocaine abuse has dramatically increased in the last few years. A 45-year-old man, a known HIV-positive drug user, was found dead at home. According to relatives, cocaine was self-injected about 10 times during the evening before death. A low amount of cocaine (0.45 mg) was detected in the bloody fluid taken from a syringe discovered near the corpse. Besides injection marks, no significant lesions were detected during the forensic autopsy. Toxicological investigations showed high cocaine concentrations in all body fluids and tissues. The peripheral blood concentrations of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and methylecgonine were 5.0, 10.4, and 4.1 mg/L, respectively. The brain concentrations of cocaine

  13. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  14. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection. PMID:27556668

  15. The Angular Interval between the Direction of Progression and Body Orientation in Normal, Alcohol- and Cocaine Treated Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gakamsky, Anna; Oron, Efrat; Valente, Dan; Mitra, Partha P.; Segal, Daniel; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we characterize the coordination between the direction a fruit-fly walks and the direction it faces, as well as offer a methodology for isolating and validating key variables with which we phenotype fly locomotor behavior. Our fundamental finding is that the angular interval between the direction a fly walks and the direction it faces is actively managed in intact animals and modulated in a patterned way with drugs. This interval is small in intact flies, larger with alcohol and much larger with cocaine. The dynamics of this interval generates six coordinative modes that flow smoothly into each other. Under alcohol and much more so under cocaine, straight path modes dwindle and modes involving rotation proliferate. To obtain these results we perform high content analysis of video-tracked open field locomotor behavior. Presently there is a gap between the quality of descriptions of insect behaviors that unfold in circumscribed situations, and descriptions that unfold in extended time and space. While the first describe the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, the second quantify cumulative measures and subjectively defined behavior patterns. Here we reduce this gap by phenotyping extended locomotor behavior in terms of the coordination between low-level kinematic variables, which we quantify, combining into a single field two disparate fields, that of high content phenotyping and that of locomotor coordination. This will allow the study of the genes/brain/locomotor coordination interface in genetically engineered and pharmacologically manipulated animal models of human diseases. PMID:24146845

  16. Expression of Glutamatergic Genes in Healthy Humans across 16 Brain Regions; Altered Expression in the Hippocampus after Chronic Exposure to Alcohol or Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Rosser, Alexandra A.; Zhou, Zhifeng; Mash, Deborah C.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from ‘BrainSpan’ was obtained across 16 brain regions from nine control adults. We also generated RNA-Seq data from postmortem hippocampus from eight alcoholics, eight cocaine addicts and eight controls. Expression analyses were undertaken of 28 genes encoding glutamate ionotropic (AMPA, kainate, NMDA) and metabotropic receptor subunits, together with glutamate transporters. The expression of each gene was fairly consistent across the brain with the exception of the cerebellum, the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus and the striatum. GRIN1, encoding the essential NMDA subunit, had the highest expression across all brain regions. Six factors accounted for 84% of the variance in global gene expression. GRIN2B (encoding GluN2B), was up-regulated in both alcoholics and cocaine addicts (FDR corrected p = 0.008). Alcoholics showed up-regulation of three genes relative to controls and cocaine addicts: GRIA4 (encoding GluA4), GRIK3 (GluR7) and GRM4 (mGluR4). Expression of both GRM3 (mGluR3) and GRIN2D (GluN2D) was up-regulated in alcoholics and down-regulated in cocaine addicts relative to controls. Glutamatergic genes are moderately to highly expressed throughout the brain. Six factors explain nearly all the variance in global gene expression. At least in the hippocampus, chronic alcohol use largely up-regulates glutamatergic genes. The NMDA GluN2B receptor subunit might be implicated in a common pathway to addiction, possibly in conjunction with the GABAB1 receptor subunit. PMID:25262781

  17. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population. PMID:25578000

  18. Decriminalizing Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Argues for the decriminalization of marijuana and claims this action would provide a number of policy options. Cautions that a policy of total prohibition has unattainable goals. Points to the failure of recriminalization policies of the past 10 years as the most persuasive argument for decriminalization. (KO)

  19. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  20. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  1. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  2. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  3. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  4. Pain-related anxiety and marijuana use motives: a pilot test among active marijuana-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Julianna; Gonzalez, Adam; Howell, Ashley; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined pain-related anxiety in regard to marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (N = 180; 45% women; M(age) = 21.11 years, SD = 6.41). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relations between pain-related anxiety and marijuana use motives. After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, current rate of alcohol consumption, level of bodily pain (current), and other marijuana use motives, pain-related anxiety was significantly and uniquely associated with coping and conformity motives for marijuana use. Pain-related anxiety was not significantly related to other marijuana use motives. These results offer novel empirical insight pertaining to a relation between pain-related anxiety and coping as well as conformity motives for marijuana use among active users. PMID:21038155

  5. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  6. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  7. Marijuana use motives: concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265-273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (M(age)=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective was to evaluate the incremental validity of marijuana motives in relation to frequency of past 30-day use after controlling for the theoretically relevant factors of the number of years using marijuana (lifetime), current levels of alcohol, as well as tobacco smoking use. As expected, coping, enhancement, social, and expansion motives each were uniquely and significantly associated with past 30-day marijuana use over and above the covariates; conformity motives were not a significant predictor. A second aim was to explore whether coping, but no other marijuana motive, was related to the emotional vulnerability individual difference factor of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety). As hypothesized, after controlling for number of years using marijuana (lifetime), past 30-day marijuana use, current levels of alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety sensitivity was incrementally and uniquely related to coping motives for marijuana use, but not other motives. These results are discussed in relation to the clinical implications of better understanding the role of motivation for marijuana use among emotionally vulnerable young adults. PMID:16647822

  8. Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: the dopamine-morphine hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Bianchi, Enrica; Guarna, Massimo; Fricchione, Gregory L; Zhu, Wei; Cadet, Patrick; Mantione, Kirk J; Casares, Federico M; Kream, Richard M; Esch, Tobias

    2007-06-01

    Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes. PMID:17534245

  9. Brodifacoum intoxication with marijuana smoking.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, F G; Clarke, S H; Lefkowitz, J B

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a significant history of drug and alcohol abuse, which included smoking marijuana mixed with brodifacoum. As a consequence, the patient developed a prolonged coagulopathy that persisted for more than 1 year. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature in which super-warfarin intoxication has been associated with marijuana smoking. This report should increase the awareness of pathologists and clinicians when examining a patient with a history of drug abuse who exhibits persistent vitamin K1-dependent coagulopathy. PMID:9111096

  10. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  11. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4- to 9-Years as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at 4, 6, and 9 years of age. Neonatal medical risk and other prenatal exposures (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) were also examined for their unique effects on child IQ. Mixed models analysis indicated that prenatal cocaine exposure interacted with gender as cocaine exposed boys had lower composite IQ scores. Age of assessment did not moderate this relation, indicating that cocaine exposed boys had lower IQs across this age period. A stimulating home environment and high maternal verbal IQ also predicted higher composite IQ scores. Cocaine exposed boys had lower scores on the Abstract/Visual Reasoning subscale, with trends for lower scores on the Short-term Memory and Verbal Reasoning subscales, as exposure effects were observed across domains. The findings indicate that cocaine exposure continues to place children at risk for mild cognitive deficits into preadolescence. Possible mechanisms for the exposure by gender interaction are discussed. PMID:18605824

  12. Effects of Marijuana Use on Impulsivity and Hostility in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Laws, Holly B.; Roche, Michael J.; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marijuana use is increasingly prevalent among young adults. While research has found adverse effects associated with marijuana use within experimentally controlled laboratory settings, it is unclear how recreational marijuana use affects day-to-day experiences in users. The present study sought to examine the effects of marijuana use on within-person changes in impulsivity and interpersonal hostility in daily life using smartphone administered assessments. METHODS Forty-three participants with no substance dependence reported on their alcohol consumption, tobacco use, recreational marijuana use, impulsivity, and interpersonal hostility over the course of 14 days. Responses were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS Marijuana use was associated with increased impulsivity on the same day and the following day relative to days when marijuana was not used, independent of alcohol use. Marijuana was also associated with increased hostile behaviors and perceptions of hostility in others on the same day when compared to days when marijuana was not used. These effects were independent of frequency of marijuana use or alcohol use. There were no significant effects of alcohol consumption on impulsivity or interpersonal hostility. CONCLUSIONS Marijuana use is associated with changes in impulse control and hostility in daily life. This may be one route by which deleterious effects of marijuana are observed for mental health and psychosocial functioning. Given the increasing prevalence of recreational marijuana use and the potential legalization in some states, further research on the potential consequences of marijuana use in young adults’ day-to-day life is warranted. PMID:25595054

  13. Nicotine primes the effect of cocaine on the induction of LTP in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-You; Kandel, Denise B; Kandel, Eric R; Levine, Amir

    2013-11-01

    In human populations, there is a well-defined sequence of involvement in drugs of abuse, in which the use of nicotine or alcohol precedes the use of marijuana, which in turn, precedes the use of cocaine. The term "Gateway Hypothesis" describes this developmental sequence of drug involvement. In prior work, we have developed a mouse model to study the underlying metaplastic behavioral, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exposure to one drug, namely nicotine, affects the response to another drug, namely cocaine. We found that nicotine enhances significantly the changes in synaptic plasticity in the striatum induced by cocaine (Levine et al., 2011). Here we ask: does the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine also apply in the amygdala, a brain region that is involved in the orchestration of emotions and in drug addiction? We find that pretreatment with nicotine enhances long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in response to cocaine in the amygdala. Both short-term (1 day) and long-term (7 days) pre-exposure to nicotine facilitate the induction of LTP by cocaine. The effect of nicotine on LTP is unidirectional; exposure to nicotine following treatment with cocaine is ineffective. This metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine is long lasting but reversible. The facilitation of LTP can be obtained for 24 but not 40 days after cessation of nicotine. As is the case in the striatum, pretreatment with Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, simulates the priming effect of nicotine. These results provide further evidence that the priming effect of nicotine may be achieved, at least partially, by the inhibition of histone acetylation and indicate that the amygdala appears to be an important brain structure for the processing of the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23597510

  14. Toxicology observation: nystagmus after marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Thomas; Halcomb, S Eliza

    2013-05-01

    Traditional teaching has held that horizontal-gaze nystagmus is a sign of intoxication by sedatives such as alcohol but not marijuana. This is a case report of an adult male who presents with 3 days of visual disturbance and dizziness following marijuana use. The exam was notable for gaze-evoked nystagmus and ataxia. Lab testing was normal except that urine drug screening was positive for marijuana only. Imaging included computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head. Prior studies showing a negative association of nystagmus with marijuana are reviewed. This case is presented as a possible exception to the generalisation that marijuana is not associated with nystagmus. PMID:23622488

  15. Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, José; Stein, Dan J; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Methods and Findings Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex–cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male–female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. Conclusions Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent

  16. [Subtypes of cocaine addicts with and without associated problematic alcohol use: towards a neuropsychology of personality applied to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M

    2012-01-01

    It is important to know which personality factors are associated with addiction so to distinguish addicts that require specialized treatment from those who do not, and to identify those addicts who achieve abstinence from those who continue their substance use despite the negative consequences. Cloninger's model includes biological and psychosocial variables that can be characterized in neuropsychological terms. Two samples were analyzed: individuals who had begun cocaine addiction treatment (n=183) and a non-clinical population sample (n = 183), matched for sex, age and educational level. Alcohol abuse/dependence was monitored as an independent variable. Significant differences and large effect size were found between addicts and non-clinical population in Novelty Seeking and Self-Directedness, and to a lesser extent, in Harm Avoidance. These differences increase when problematic use of alcohol is added. According to the profile of traits, clusters of addicts were established and differences were obtained in variables such as functional/dysfunctional impulsivity, dysexecutive symptoms and perceived stress. Six clusters were identified, some of minor severity, the most severely problematic clusters being characterized by higher levels of dysfunctional impulsivity, more dysexecutive symptoms and higher levels of perceived stress. Self-Directedness seems to reflect the deficit of prefrontal systems in the regulation of behavior, as well as in emotion and impulse control. It is proposed that evaluation of the personality is more useful than the mere assessment of symptoms for classifying addicts, determining their needs and designing a therapeutic itinerary. PMID:23241716

  17. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  18. The influence of personality disorder indication, social support, and grief on alcohol and cocaine use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Vaughan, Ellen L; Connell, Christian M; Tate, David C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:17846878

  19. The Relationship between Youth's Moral and Legal Perceptions of Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana and Use of These Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonini, Claudia; Donovan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of the morality of alcohol and other drug use and the perceived legitimacy of laws regulating such use have received scant attention in the international public health literature. To date, the focus has mainly been on emphasizing the health and social disbenefits of substance use in an attempt to counter the perceived…

  20. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  1. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  2. Estimated effects of in utero cocaine exposure on language development through early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Accornero, Veronica H; Mansoor, Elana; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C

    2011-01-01

    The potential longitudinal effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on language functioning were estimated from early childhood through early adolescence in a large, well-retained urban sample of 451 full-term children (242 cocaine-exposed, 209 non-cocaine-exposed) participating in the Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study (MPCS). The sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status through maternal interview, and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine, and infant meconium. Age-appropriate versions of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) were used to measure total, expressive, and receptive language at ages 3, 5, and 12years. Longitudinal latent growth curve (LLGC) modeling of the data revealed an association between PCE (measured dichotomously as yes/no) and lower functioning in expressive and total language scores, after considering other sources of variation including child's age at testing, sex, prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, and additional medical and social-demographic covariates. Analyses of level of PCE showed a gradient, i.e. dose-dependent, relationship between PCE level and expressive, receptive, and total language scores in the models controlling for age, child's sex, and other prenatal drug exposures. With additional covariate control these findings were most stable for the total language score. The evidence supports an inference about an enduring stable cocaine-specific effect on children's language abilities, with no effect on language growth over time in the longitudinal trajectory of language development. PMID:21256422

  3. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  4. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  5. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction.

    PubMed

    Haile, Colin N; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-10-14

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine's reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  6. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  7. Marijuana use motives: A confirmatory test and evaluation among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Marshall, Erin C; Leyro, Teresa M

    2007-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the measurement model and construct validity of marijuana use motives as measured by the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM; [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., and Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 265-273]). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and incremental tests of validity of marijuana use motives were conducted on a sample of young adult marijuana users (n=227, 127 women; M(age)=20.11, SD=4.30 years). As hypothesized, CFA analysis of marijuana use motives, as indexed by the MMM, demonstrated support for a multidimensional measurement model; specifically, a five-factor solution denoting Enhancement, Conformity, Expansion, Coping, and Social motives for marijuana use, each with satisfactory levels of internal consistency. Subsequent tests of incremental validity suggested that only certain motives were uniquely related to current substance use and cognitive-affective factors. Results are discussed in relation to refining the scientific understanding of marijuana use motives. PMID:17602842

  8. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance taken from the tops of female marijuana plants. It contains the highest amount of THC. Marijuana is called many other names, including cannabis, grass, hashish, joint, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, weed.

  9. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  11. Marijuana. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about marijuana. Article 1 reports on the results of a study by the National Academy of Sciences on the health effects of marijuana. A summary report of adverse health and behavioral consequences of cannabis (marijuana) use is provided in article 2. Article 3 presents the Surgeon General's warnings on…

  12. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Changes ... PDF (3MB) ePub (319KB) Kindle (625KB) Online Only Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  13. The Economic Geography of Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in California

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of laws that permit the use of marijuana for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical marijuana industry in some US states. This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical marijuana dispensaries according to estimated marijuana demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Method Telephone survey data from 5,940 residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of marijuana demand. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate marijuana demand (i.e. market potential) for 7,538 census block groups. Locations of actively operating marijuana dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models. Results Marijuana dispensaries were located in block groups with greater marijuana demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. For the sampled block groups, a 10% increase in demand within a block group was associated with 2.4% greater likelihood of having a dispensary, and a 10% increase in the city-wide demand was associated with a 6.7% greater likelihood of having a dispensary. Conclusion High demand for marijuana within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of marijuana dispensaries at a block-group level. The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. PMID:24439710

  14. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a lot of cocaine cuts down or quits taking the drug. Symptoms ... even if the user is not completely off cocaine and still has some of the drug in ...

  15. Saying No to Marijuana: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  16. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  17. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  18. Marijuana neurobiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence. PMID:19042204

  19. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  20. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  1. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. PMID:11366751

  2. Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M

    2015-01-01

    With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. PMID:26460915

  3. Incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity in relation to marijuana withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-09-01

    The present investigation examined the relation between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and marijuana withdrawal severity among 84 (47 female) young adult marijuana smokers. As expected, after covarying for the theoretically-relevant variables of frequency of past 30-day marijuana use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, volume of alcohol consumed, and anxious arousal as well as anhedonic depressive symptoms, both the global AS factor and the AS-mental incapacitation concerns factor were significantly related to the severity of retrospectively reported marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding cognitive-emotional variables related to the marijuana withdrawal. PMID:17236723

  4. Relations between anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations to coping and conformity marijuana use motives among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Hogan, Julianna; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2009-02-01

    The present investigation examines anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations in relation to Coping and Conformity marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 135; 46.7% women; Mage = 20.45, SD = 5.0). After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, average volume of alcohol used over the past year, negative affectivity, and other marijuana use motives, anxiety sensitivity was significantly and uniquely associated with Coping and Conformity motives for marijuana use. Distress tolerance evidenced significant and unique incremental relations to Coping motives, whereas fear reactivity to bodily sensations was unrelated to any marijuana use motive. These results provide novel information related to the role of emotional sensitivity and tolerance factors as they pertain to specific types of motives for marijuana use among young adults. PMID:19186932

  5. [Cocaine addiction].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W; Scantamburlo, G; Pinto, E; Karila, L

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis in the general population. Cocaine is a powerful stimulating agent of the central nervous system and a highly addictogenic drug. Somatic and psychiatric consequences of cocaine addiction are major and clinically relevant. The increasing consumption of cocaine and the importance of its consequences justify an update of our knowledge about cocaine addiction. PMID:23888579

  6. Predictors of violence following Emergency Department visit for cocaine-related chest pain.

    PubMed

    Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T; Tripathi, Shanti; Weber, James; Maio, Ronald F; Booth, Brenda M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 1-year violence outcomes among non-injured patients treated in the Emergency Department (ED) for cocaine-related chest pain. An urban Level I ED required patients with chest pain (age 60 and younger) provide a urine sample for cocaine testing. Cocaine-positive consenting patients (n=219) were interviewed in the ED; 80% completed follow-up interviews over 12-months (n=174; 59% male, 79% African-American, mean age=38.8, standard deviation 9.06; range=19-60). Baseline rates of past year violent victimization and perpetration history were: 38% and 30%, respectively. During the 12-month follow-up, rates of victimization and perpetration outcomes were 35% and 30%, respectively. Predictors of violence outcomes (either victimization or perpetration) in the year post-ED visit based on characteristics were measured at baseline or during the follow-up period (i.e., gender, age, psychological distress, binge drinking days, cocaine use days, marijuana use days, substance abuse/dependence diagnosis, victimization/perpetration history). Victimization during the follow-up was related to younger age, more frequent binge drinking and marijuana use at baseline, and victimization history, and to substance abuse/dependence, more frequent binge drinking, and psychiatric distress at follow-up. Specifically, participants who reported victimization at baseline were approximately 3 times more likely to report victimization at 12-month follow-up. Perpetration during the follow-up was related to younger age and more frequent binge drinking at baseline, and to substance abuse/dependence, more frequent binge drinking, and psychiatric distress at follow-up. Overall, no significant gender differences were observed in violence; however, women were more likely than men to report injury during the most severe partner violence incident. Violence is a common problem among patients presenting to an inner-city ED for cocaine-related chest pain, with younger age and frequency of binge

  7. Predictors of Violence Following Emergency Department Visit for Cocaine-Related Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T.; Tripathi, Shanti; Weber, James; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined one-year violence outcomes among non-injured patients treated in the Emergency Department (ED) for cocaine-related chest pain. An urban Level I ED required patients with chest pain (age 60 and younger) provide a urine sample for cocaine testing. Cocaine-positive consenting patients (n=219) were interviewed in the ED; 80% completed follow-up interviews over 12-months (n=174; 59% male, 79% African-American, mean age = 38.8, standard deviation 9.06; range = 19 to 60). Baseline rates of past year violent victimization and perpetration history were: 38% and 30%, respectively. During the12-month follow-up, rates of victimization and perpetration outcomes were 35% and 30%, respectively. Predictors of violence outcomes (either victimization or perpetration) in the year post-ED visit based on characteristics measured at baseline or during the follow-up period (i.e., gender, age, psychological distress, binge drinking days, cocaine use days, marijuana use days, substance abuse/dependence diagnosis, victimization/perpetration history). Victimization during the follow-up was related to younger age, more frequent binge drinking and marijuana use at baseline, and victimization history, and to substance abuse/dependence, more frequent binge drinking, and psychiatric distress at follow-up. Specifically, participants who reported victimization at baseline were approximately 3 times more likely to report victimization at 12-month follow-up. Perpetration during the follow-up was related to younger age and more frequent binge drinking at baseline, and to substance abuse/dependence, more frequent binge drinking, and psychiatric distress at follow-up. Overall, no significant gender differences were observed in violence; however, women were more likely than men to report injury during the most severe partner violence incident. Violence is a common problem among patients presenting to an inner city ED for cocaine-related chest pain, with younger age and frequency of

  8. Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

  9. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms identify "Type B" cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Kampman, Kyle; Dackis, Charles; Sparkman, Thorne; Pettinati, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of substance dependence typologies briefly show that multivariate systems originally developed for identifying subtypes of alcoholics, such as Babor's Type A and B system, may also be valid in abusers of other substances, such as cocaine. Type B patients are characterized by an earlier onset of addiction and more severe symptoms of their addiction, psychopathology, and impulsivity. The Type B classification has also been associated with deficits in serotonergic function. We have found that patients who exhibit more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms, as measured by scores on the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA), have poor treatment outcome and share many characteristics with "Type B" patients. In this paper, we review baseline characteristics of cocaine-dependent patients from several recently completed outpatient cocaine dependence treatment trials to assess the association of cocaine withdrawal symptom severity and the Type B profile. Identifying subtypes of cocaine-dependent patients may improve our ability to treat cocaine dependence by targeting treatments for specific subtypes of patients. We examined the ability of the CSSA scores to capture Type B characteristics in cocaine dependence by analyzing a series of cocaine medication trials that included 255 cocaine-dependent subjects. High CSSA scores at baseline were associated with a history of violent behavior, a family history of substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, higher addiction severity, and co-morbid psychiatric diseases. Patients with high CSSA scores are also more likely to meet criteria for Type B (Type II) cocaine dependence. Identifying Type B cocaine-dependent patients may help to develop targeted psychosocial or pharmacological treatments for these difficult-to-treat patients. PMID:18214724

  10. Neuroimmune Mechanisms of Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  11. Neuroimmune mechanisms of alcohol and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  12. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite. PMID:25697213

  13. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  14. Marijuana and the lung.

    PubMed

    Patrick, G B

    1980-05-01

    Short-term effects of marijuana smoking include bronchodilatation; long-term effects on the respiratory tree appear comparable with those of heavy cigarette use. Contamination of marijuana with paraquat, a potent herbicide, does not at this time appear to constitute a significant hazard to the lungs. PMID:7375399

  15. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol

  16. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure. PMID:25895138

  17. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  18. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  19. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  20. Cocaine intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    ... deadly. See also: Drug abuse Drug abuse and dependence Drug abuse first aid Cocaine withdrawal ... Perrone J, Hoffman RS. Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, and ... eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide . 6th ed. ...

  1. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000947.htm Cocaine withdrawal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a ...

  2. Alcohol and Illegal Drug Use Behaviors and Prescription Opioids Use: How do Nonmedical and Medical Users Compare, and Does Motive to Use Really Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Ghandour, Lilian A.; El Sayed, Donna S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The study compared illegal drug and alcohol use behaviors between medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids (PO) and nonmedical users with distinct motives to use. Method An ethically-approved cross-sectional study (2010) was conducted on a representative sample of private university students (n=570), using a self-filled anonymous questionnaire. Results About 25% reported using PO only medically and 15% nonmedically. The prevalence of alcohol and illegal drug use was consistently higher among nonmedical than medical PO users. Adjusting for age and gender, lifetime medical users of PO were more likely to use marijuana only (OR=1.8, 95%CI= 1.1, 2.8), while nonmedical users were at higher odds of using marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine/crack, and alcohol problematically. Compared to non-users, students who took PO nonmedically for non-therapeutic reasons were more likely to use various illegal drugs, but nonmedical users who took PO to relieve pain/help in sleep were only more likely to use marijuana (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.1, 5.4) and alcohol (e.g., alcohol abuse, OR=3.8, 95%CI= 1.4, 10.1). Conclusion Youth who use PO nonmedically to self-treat have a different alcohol and illegal drug-using profile than those who take it for non-therapeutic reasons. PMID:23391856

  3. Marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the early 1970's the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the U.S. has been increasing, however, potential environmental exposures accounting for this rise have not been identified. A prior study reported a significant association among frequent and long-term current users of marijuana and TGCT risk. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of marijuana use and TGCT in a hospital-based case-control study conducted at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Methods TGCT cases diagnosed between January 1990 and October 1996 (n=187) and male friend controls (n=148) were enrolled in the study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 50 at the time of cases' diagnosis and resided in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, or Oklahoma. Associations of marijuana use and TGCT were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, prior cryptorchidism, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake. Results Overall, TGCT cases were more likely to be frequent marijuana users (daily or greater) than were controls [OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.1]. In the histologic-specific analyses nonseminoma cases were significantly more likely than controls to be frequent users [OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.2] and long-term users (10+ years) [OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.1]. Discussion Our finding of an association between frequent marijuana use and TGCT, particularly among men with nonseminoma, is consistent with the findings of a previous report. Additional studies of marijuana use and TGCT are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of endocannabinoid signaling and cannabinoid receptors in TGCT. PMID:20925043

  4. Severity of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Child Language Functioning Through Age Seven Years: A Longitudinal Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Vogel, April L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine exposure on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through age 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status through maternal interview and toxicology assays of maternal and infant urine and infant meconium. Language functioning was measured at ages 3 and 5 years using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals–Preschool (CELF-P) and at age 7 years using the Core Language Domain of the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to examine two components of language functioning, a more stable aptitude for language performance and a time-varying trajectory of language development, across the three time points and their relationship to varying levels of prenatal cocaine exposure. Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was characterized using a latent construct combining maternal self-report of cocaine use during pregnancy by trimesters and maternal and infant bioassays, allowing all available information to be taken into account. The association between severity of exposure and language functioning was examined within a model including factors for fetal growth, gestational age, and IQ as intercorrelated response variables and child’s age, gender, and prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana exposure as covariates. Results indicated that greater severity of prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with greater deficits within the more stable aptitude for language performance (D = −0.071, 95% CI = −0.133, −0.009; p = 0.026). There was no relationship between severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and the time-varying trajectory of language development. The observed cocaine-associated deficit was independent of multiple alternative

  5. Motives for marijuana use among heavy-using high school students: An analysis of structure and utility of the Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-06-01

    Motives for marijuana use are important predictors of problematic outcomes associated with marijuana use. Most measures, to date, were developed by adapting alcohol motives measures. However, the Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) was created using a bottom-up approach to evaluate twelve distinct motives for use. The CMMQ was developed and validated in a normative college population. As such, no known study has evaluated the factor structure and utility of the CMMQ in a heavy-using, high school student population. The current study utilized a sample of 252 heavy marijuana-using high school students recruited for a combination motivational enhancement/cognitive behavioral intervention. Results from baseline measures indicated that the factor structure of the CMMQ was maintained in this population. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed distinct relationships with measures of negative consequences of use, including indices of marijuana use, marijuana-related problems, self-efficacy, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In particular, the Coping motive was associated with several negative outcomes, which is consistent with previous marijuana and alcohol motives literature. Results suggest that the CMMQ may be useful in assessing marijuana motives among heavy marijuana-using adolescents. PMID:26878304

  6. Cocaine use trajectories of club drug-using young adults recruited using time-space sampling.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin L; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2011-12-01

    Cocaine is the most widely used club drug. Yet, little is known about how patterns of cocaine use vary over time among young adults of diverse gender and sexual identities. This study used latent class growth analysis to identify trajectories of cocaine use over a year and explored individual and substance use factors associated with these trajectories. A sample of 400 young adults (mean age=23.9 years) with recent club drug use were recruited from New York City bars and nightclubs using time-space sampling. Participants completed quantitative measures at baseline, 4-, 8- and 12-months follow-up. A 4-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Consistent use (48%), Inconsistent use (14%), Decreasing Likelihood of use (28%), and Consistent non-use (11%). Those most likely to be in the Consistent use class had the highest frequency of baseline club drug dependence (χ2 (3, 397)=15.1, p<.01), cocaine dependence (χ2 (3, 397) = 18.9, p<.01), recent alcohol use (χ2 (3, 397)=12.48, p<.01), and drug sensation-seeking (χ2 (3, 397)=9.03, p<.01). Those most likely to be in the Consistent Non-use class had the highest frequency of baseline marijuana use (χ2 (3, 397)=2.71, p<.05). Contrary to hypotheses, there were no differences in most-likely trajectory class by gender/sexual-orientation, age, ethnicity, education, employment status, or income. Findings highlight the diversity of cocaine use patterns over time among young adults, and the personal and substance use characteristics that are associated with each. PMID:21907497

  7. Myocardial infarction and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Charles, R; Holt, S; Kirkham, N

    1979-04-01

    Myocardial infarction in the virtual absence of risk factors occurred in a 25-year old man shortly after smoking a cigarette containing marijuana. Subsequent coronary arteriography was normal. PMID:466984

  8. The academic consequences of marijuana use during college.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  9. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  10. Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol and use marijuana, a new Brazilian study suggests. Researchers reviewed self- ... d used tobacco and 7 percent had used marijuana. When asked about frequent use, 2 percent of ...

  11. Prevalence of Marijuana Use at College Entry and Risk Factors for Initiation During Freshman Year

    PubMed Central

    Suerken, Cynthia K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Marijuana is currently the most commonly used drug on college campuses. Marijuana use among college students is increasing, and many students begin using marijuana during college. The goal of this study was to investigate predictors of lifetime marijuana use at college entry and initiation during freshman year. Methods We used responses from the first two semesters of a longitudinal study of 3,146 students from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia. Random-effects logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors that predict lifetime marijuana use at college entry and initiation during freshman year. Results Nearly 30% of students reported ever having used marijuana at college entry. Among students who had never used marijuana prior to college, 8.5% initiated use during freshman year. In multivariable logistic regression models, having at least $100 per month in spending money; attending church rarely or never; current use of cigarettes, alcohol, and hookah tobacco; lifetime use of other illicit drugs; and a higher propensity toward sensation seeking were associated with a higher likelihood of having used marijuana at least once at college entry. Hispanic ethnicity, living on campus, and current use of cigarettes and alcohol were associated with a higher likelihood of initiating marijuana use during freshman year. Conclusion These results have implications for targeting substance abuse prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24455784

  12. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brumback, T; Castro, N; Jacobus, J; Tapert, S

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  13. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  14. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  15. Medical marijuana and dronabinol.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    Many people living with HIV use marijuana to manage agitation, spasms, chronic pain, depression, nausea arising from chemotherapy, and loss of appetite. Concerns over the use of marijuana or dronabinol (a pharmaceutical version of tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) include potential contamination from pesticides or other chemicals used in the growing process, and the potential of increasing the likelihood of lung infections. Use of THC is associated with reduced levels of testosterone and may have similar effects on other hormones in women. THC can also interact with other mood-altering medications such as Valium, librium, Xanax, seconal, Nembutal, or phenobarbital, by exaggerating their effect. PMID:11363969

  16. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  18. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  19. Development and Preliminary Validation of a Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Hendershot, Christian S.; Grossbard, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has evaluated motives for using marijuana based on users' self-reported reasons. This article details the construction and psychometric validation of a new marijuana motives questionnaire. Method: Participants included 346 marijuana-using college students who completed online assessments regarding their motives for, frequency of, and problems associated with their marijuana use. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 12-factor scale, including the following: (1) Enjoyment, (2) Conformity, (3) Coping, (4) Experimentation, (5) Boredom, (6) Alcohol, (7) Celebration, (8) Altered Perception, (9) Social Anxiety, (10) Relative Low Risk, (11) Sleep/Rest, and (12) Availability. Regression results indicated enjoyment, boredom, altered perception, relative low-risk, and sleep/rest were each uniquely associated with greater frequency of use. Experimentation and availability motives were associated with less use. After accounting for use, coping and sleep/rest were associated with significantly more consequences whereas enjoyment was associated with fewer consequences. Additional results comparing the scale to an existing marijuana motives measure indicated comparatively good convergent validity. Conclusions: Emerging adult college students may have several different reasons for using marijuana, which are uniquely related to use and negative consequences. Results are considered in terms of their implications for brief interventions. PMID:19261240

  20. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  1. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. PMID:25503438

  2. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  3. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  4. From Ganja to crack: Caribbean participation in the underground economy in Brooklyn, 1976-1986. Part 2. Establishment of the cocaine (and crack) economy.

    PubMed

    Hamid, A

    1991-07-01

    Shortages in the supply of marijuana, which became acute around 1981, caused Rastafari marijuana distributors very reluctantly to disregard religious injunctions against the use of any psychoactive substance except marijuana, and to experiment with the use and distribution of cocaine hydrochloride powder for intranasal administration and, later, for smoking (freebase and crack). This experimentation proved ruinous, and many were retired ignominiously from drug distribution. In the crack era they have been succeeded by completely new social, cultural, and economic arrangements. PMID:1959997

  5. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  6. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the munchies." When someone smokes marijuana, they often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  7. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado*

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Methods Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994–2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥ 0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994–June 2009 while July 2009–2011 represented the post-commercialization period. Results In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p < 0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Conclusions Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. PMID:24831752

  8. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Kolikonda, Murali K; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath; Lippmann, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration. Marijuana remains largely illegal, and may induce adverse consequences. Clinical applications are not approved, thus are restricted and only recommended in selected treatment unresponsive cases, with appropriate monitoring. PMID:27354925

  9. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456

  10. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  11. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Harrison, Anna J.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Aaby, David A.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug— in youths during the 12 years after detention. Methods. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). Results. By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). Conclusions. After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse—during incarceration and after release—would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population. PMID:26985602

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Validity of Suspected Alcohol and Drug Violations in Aviation Employees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, transportation employees who are suspected of using alcohol and drugs are subject to reasonable-cause testing. This study aims to assess the validity of suspected alcohol and drug violations in aviation employees. Methods Using reasonable-cause testing and random testing data from the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2005, we calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of suspected alcohol and drug violations. The true status of violations was based on testing results, with an alcohol violation being defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ≥40 mg/dL and a drug violation as a test positive for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or opiates. Results During the 11-year study period, a total of 2,284 alcohol tests and 2,015 drug tests were performed under the reasonable-cause testing program. The PPV was 37.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.7–39.7%] for suspected alcohol violations and 12.6% (95% CI, 11.2–14.1%) for suspected drug violations. Random testing revealed an overall prevalence of 0.09% (601/649,796) for alcohol violations and 0.6% (7,211/1,130,922) for drug violations. The LR+ was 653.6 (95% CI, 581.7–734.3) for suspected alcohol violations and 22.5 (95% CI, 19.6–25.7) for suspected drug violations. Discussion The discriminative power of reasonable-cause testing suggests that, despite its limited positive predictive value, physical and behavioral observation represents an efficient screening method for detecting alcohol and drug violations. The limited positive predictive value of reasonable-cause testing in aviation employees is due in part to the very low prevalence of alcohol and drug violations. PMID:20712820

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  16. Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

  17. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... also allow for health care providers to prescribe medical marijuana for health reasons. Can smoking marijuana help me ... not be used as a substitute for the medical advice one one’s personal health ... series, contact J.Corn at jcorn@thoracic.org. www.thoracic.org

  18. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    PubMed

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure. PMID:27408790

  19. Frequent Marijuana Use, Binge Drinking and Mental Health Problems Among Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Diana R.; Hart, Carl L.; McNeil, Michael P.; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Methods Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N =1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Results Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. PMID:25930151

  20. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  1. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, Lauren M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. Objective This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. Method College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Results Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. Conclusions It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time. PMID:26678375

  2. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  3. Cocaine. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles on cocaine includes a report describing cocaine as the recreational drug of the middle class, statistics from the United States Department of Health on health consequences of cocaine use, an article on "speedballing" (use of cocaine and heroin in combination), and a discussion of the various ways cocaine is…

  4. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  5. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma-ray emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.

    1994-10-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  6. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.; Lindquist, R.P.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is made ...

  9. Substance use -- cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000793.htm Substance use - cocaine To use the sharing features on this page, ... Charlie, coca, coke, flake, rock, snow, speedball, toot. Cocaine's Effects on Your Brain Cocaine is a strong ...

  10. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  11. Developmental trajectories of cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Linda C; Cicchetti, Domenic; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Zhang, Heping

    2003-10-01

    Few data are available concerning the trajectories of mental and motor development across time for cocaine-exposed children compared with others. Findings are presented from individual group curve analyses of the mental and motor development measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) on repeated visits from 3 through 36 months of a group of prenatally cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed children (n = 265) compared with those exposed to no drugs (n = 129) or no-cocaine-but-other-drugs (n = 66), including alcohol and/or tobacco. Across time, there was a general decline in motor performance but cocaine-exposed-infants showed a trend toward a greater decrease than children in the other two comparison groups. For mental performance, there was also a decline across age but only through 24 months and no differences in the trajectory of the cocaine-exposed group compared to the other two. And, across all assessment ages, cocaine-exposed-infants showed lower BSID-II mental performance compared to both non-drug and non-cocaine-exposed children. Results suggest that prenatally cocaine-exposed children show delayed developmental indices, particularly in their mental performance, but their trajectories across time are similar to those from impoverished, non-cocaine-exposed groups. PMID:14578693

  12. Impact of environmental factors on marijuana use in 11 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pejnović Franelić, Iva; Kuzman, Marina; Pavić Šimetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between environmental factors (perceived availability of marijuana, perceived use among friends and siblings, use of alcohol and tobacco, family structure, parental control, school performance) and lifetime prevalence and frequent and early marijuana use in high school students. Methods We used self-reported data from 15-16 years old participants of the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted in 11 countries: Denmark, Estonia, Norway, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Countries varied according to lifetime prevalence (8.7%-47.8%) and frequent (8.7%-23.9%) and early (3.0%-13.0%) marijuana use. Daily tobacco smoking was most strongly associated with lifetime marijuana use for boys in 7 and for girls in 5 countries, with highest odds ratio (OR, 95% and confidence interval – CI) for boys in Denmark (OR, 13.52; 95% CI, 8.16-22.4), and for girls in the Czech Republic (OR, 21.21; 95% CI, 12.99-34.62). Perceived marijuana availability was most strongly associated with frequent marijuana use for boys in 4 countries (highest in Slovenia: OR, 19.28; 95% CI, 6.52-57.02) and girls in 5 (highest in Slovenia: OR, 19.05; 95% CI, 5.18-70.04). Perceived use of marijuana among friends was most strongly associated with frequent marijuana use in 5 countries, both for boys (highest in Norway: OR, 23.91; 95% CI, 4.16-137.48) and girls (highest in Denmark: OR, 75.42; 95% CI, 13.11-433.90). Perceived use of marijuana among friends was most strongly associated with early marijuana use in 8 countries for boys (highest in Norway: OR, 54.03; 95% CI, 3.34-875.19) and 3 countries for girls (highest in Denmark: OR, 7.29; 95%CI, 1.77-30.12). Conclusion In each country, marijuana use was associated with similar factors, regardless of marijuana use prevalence in that country.The influence

  13. Association of marijuana smoking with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers: Pooled analysis from the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Morgan A.; Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Kelsey, Karl; Straif, Kurt; Berthiller, Julien; Schwartz, Stephen M; Smith, Elaine; Wyss, Annah; Brennan, Paul; Olshan, Andrew F.; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; McClean, Michael; Chen, Chu; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W.; Fernandez, Leticia; Posner, Marshall; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers have increased over the last twenty years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950. Methods Pooled analysis of individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the U.S. and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls. Results Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.47) and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer decreased with increasing frequency (ptrend=0.005), duration (ptrend=0.002), and joint-years of marijuana use (ptrend=0.004), and was reduced among never users tobacco and alcohol users. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with Head and Neck Carcinoma may differ by tumor site. Impact The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure. PMID:24351902

  14. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Scientists are developing other medications to treat stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. People who use ...

  15. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  16. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users. PMID:22873011

  17. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  19. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

  20. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478

  1. Lack of effect of ethanol on cocaine prime-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are commonly co-abused for reasons that are incompletely understood. Laboratory animal studies have suggested that, although the reinforcing effects of low cocaine doses are increased following chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption, acute EtOH administration does not consistently alter cocaine self-administration. The present study examined whether EtOH influences another abuse-related effect of cocaine: reinstatement of extinguished responding. Rhesus monkeys that had previously consumed EtOH for 8 weeks (2.0 g/kg over 1 h, 5 days/week) self-administered up to 10 injections per day of 0.1 mg/kg cocaine under a fixed-interval 300-s schedule. After responding had been extinguished by substituting saline for cocaine, a pre-session infusion of saline or EtOH (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg, intravenously over 10 min) was followed by a 'priming' injection of saline or cocaine (intravenously). Responding was increased significantly by priming injections of cocaine, but not saline. EtOH infusions neither reinstated behavior when administered before a saline prime nor altered the priming effect of cocaine. The inability of EtOH to alter the response-reinstating ability of cocaine provides further evidence for a lack of acute behavioral interactions between cocaine and EtOH. PMID:27509315

  2. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects. In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.

  3. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Meseck, Kristin; Jankowska, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods. PMID:27213075

  4. Purpose in Life Predicts Treatment Outcome Among Adult Cocaine Abusers in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; MacKinnon, Selene; Johnson, Jennifer; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2010-01-01

    A sense of purpose in life has been positively associated with mental health and well-being and has been negatively associated with alcohol use in correlational and longitudinal studies, but has not been studied as a predictor of cocaine treatment outcome. This study examined pre-treatment purpose in life as a predictor of response to a 30-day residential substance use treatment program among 154 participants with cocaine dependence. Purpose in life was unrelated to cocaine or alcohol use during the 6 months pretreatment. After controlling for age, baseline use, and depressive symptoms, purpose in life significantly (p < .01) predicted relapse to any use of cocaine and to alcohol, and the number of days cocaine or alcohol was used in the six months after treatment. Findings suggest that increasing purpose in life may be an important aspect of treatment among cocaine dependent patients. PMID:21129893

  5. Relationship between custodial status and psychosocial problems among cocaine-abusing parents initiating substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marilyn W; Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Using the Addiction Severity Index and Brief Symptom Inventory, drug use and psychosocial problems are compared between 93 custodial and 125 non-custodial mothers and fathers initiating outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. Compared to non-custodial parents, custodial parents experienced more severe current cocaine and alcohol problems, including spending more money on cocaine and alcohol, as well as using more cocaine and being intoxicated on more days. Non-custodial parents demonstrated more psychological distress, more prior history of alcohol problems, and greater current employment and legal problems than custodial parents. Suggestions are made for differential treatment plans based on these findings. PMID:16257878

  6. Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

  7. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  8. Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Johannigman, Suzanne; Eschiti, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important. PMID:23899972

  9. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

  10. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  11. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  12. Medical marijuana: Legal and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise

    2015-10-16

    Nearly half of the United States has legalized medical marijuana. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in six states can authorize patients for medical marijuana use. Knowledge of legal and regulatory aspects of medical marijuana laws will protect an APRN's license and the public. PMID:26383024

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Anxiety sensitivity interacts with marijuana use in the prediction of anxiety symptoms and panic-related catastrophic thinking among daily tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; McLeish, Alison C; Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-07-01

    The present investigation evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity interacted with marijuana use in relation to the prediction of panic-relevant variables among young adult tobacco smokers (n=265). Approximately 73% of the sample was composed of current marijuana smokers, with 78.5% of this sub-sample using marijuana more than once per week. As expected, after covarying cigarettes per day, alcohol use, and negative affectivity, the interaction between marijuana use and anxiety sensitivity predicted anxiety symptoms and agoraphobic cognitions. Partially consistent with prediction, the interaction between frequency of marijuana use and anxiety sensitivity predicted only anxiety symptoms. These results are discussed in relation to better understanding the potential role of regular marijuana use and anxiety sensitivity for panic-relevant emotional vulnerability among regular tobacco smokers. PMID:16122698

  15. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  16. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  17. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716

  18. Cannabis (marijuana) contamination of United States and foreign paper currency.

    PubMed

    Lavins, Eric S; Lavins, Bethany D; Jenkins, Amanda J

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that United States paper currency in general circulation is contaminated with trace amounts of illicit substances such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. As is the case with cocaine, differentiating "background levels" of the various cannabinoid constituents of Cannabis sativa L., namely, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) contaminating currency found in the general circulation from currency associated with illegal drug activity is imperative if a legal nexus is to be established with the latter. We analyzed 165 randomly collected paper currency notes from 12 U.S. cities (N = 125) and 4 foreign countries (N = 40) for THC, CBD, CBN, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Uncirculated US 1 dollar notes were added as negative controls. Drug residues were washed from individual bills, extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction protocol, derivatized, and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by selected ion monitoring. For the US 1 dollar currency, THC was present in 1.6% (2 notes), CBN 10.31% (13 notes), CBD 1.6% (2 notes). The following concentrations were determined: 0.085 microg/bill and 0.146 microg/bill for THC; 0.014-0.774 microg/bill (mean 0.166 microg/bill) for CBN; and 0.032 microg/bill and 0.086 microg/bill for CBD. For the foreign currency (Colombia, Qatar, India, and New Zealand), THC and CBN were present in 22.5% (9 notes). The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.026-0.065 microg/bill (mean 0.049 microg/bill), CBN 0.061-0.197 microg/bill (mean 0.115 microg/bill). All of the positive THC and CBN were found in the New Zealand polypropylene notes. This study demonstrated that marijuana (cannabinoids) may contaminate both paper and plastic currency. PMID:15516293

  19. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493

  20. Tobacco, marijuana, and sensation seeking: comparisons across gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual groups.

    PubMed

    Trocki, Karen F; Drabble, Laurie A; Midanik, Lorraine T

    2009-12-01

    This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the past 5 years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same-sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians, and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared with heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368

  1. Reasons for Recent Marijuana Use in Relation to Use of Other Illicit Drugs among High School Seniors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Methods Data from recent-marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted N=6,481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Results Using “to experiment” decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana “to experiment” decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for “insight” increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to “boredom” increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. Conclusions This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs. PMID:26115351

  2. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  3. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  4. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  5. Substance use - cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... injecting into a vein (speedballing) Smoking it (this type of cocaine is called freebase or crack) Street names for cocaine include blow, bump, C, candy, Charlie, coca, coke, flake, rock, snow, speedball, toot.

  6. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  7. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  8. Daily marijuana use is not associated with brain morphometric measures in adolescents or adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Depue, Brendan E; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2015-01-28

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  9. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  10. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  11. Cocaine Use in the Infertile Male Population: A Marker for Conditions Resulting in Subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Samplaski, Mary K.; Bachir, Bassel G.; Lo, Kirk C.; Grober, Ethan D.; Lau, Susan; Jarvi, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to evaluate the incidence and effect of cocaine use in the infertile male population. Materials and Methods Men presenting for fertility evaluation reporting cocaine usage were identified via prospectively collected database. Data were analyzed for usage patterns, reproductive history, associated drug use and medical conditions, hormonal and semen parameters. Results Thirty-eight out of 4,400 (0.9%) men reported cocaine use. Most used cocaine every 3 months or less. Compared with non-cocaine using men, cocaine users reported more recreational drug use (89 vs. 9.2%), marijuana use (78.9 vs. 11.4%), chlamydia (10.5 vs. 3%), herpes (7.9 vs. 2.5%), and tobacco use (55.3 vs. 19.5%). After excluding men with causes for azoospermia, the mean semen parameters for cocaine users were: volume 2.47 ± 1.02 ml; concentration 53.55 ± 84.04 × 106/ml; motility 15.72 ± 12.26%; total motile sperm count 76.67 ± 180.30 × 106. Conclusions Few (< 1%) men in our infertile population reported the use of cocaine, and the frequency of use was low. Given the low use rates and limitations of reporting bias, it is difficult to determine the direct effect of cocaine use on male fertility. However, while infrequent cocaine use seems to have limited impact on semen parameters, men reporting cocaine use represent a different cohort of men than the overall infertile population, with higher rates of concurrent substance abuse, tobacco use and infections, all of which may negatively impact their fertility. Reported cocaine users should be screened for concurrent drug use and infections. PMID:26195962

  12. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  13. Saying No to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  14. D2R DNA Transfer Into the Nucleus Accumbens Attenuates Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; UMEGAKI, HIROYUKI; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) D2 receptor (D2R) agonists and antagonists can modulate self-administration behavior, conditioned place preference, and locomotor responses to cocaine. Low levels of D2R have also been observed in cocaine addicted subjects and in non human primates after chronic cocaine exposures. Prior studies had shown that D2R upregulation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rodents trained to self-administer alcohol markedly attenuated alcohol preference and intake. Here we assess the effects of D2R upregulation in the NAc on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. Following 2 weeks of i.v. cocaine self-administration (CSA), rats were stereotaxically treated with an adenovirus that carried the D2R gene to upregulate D2R in the NAc. D2R vector treatment resulted in a significant decrease (75%) in cocaine infusions and lever presses (70%) for cocaine. This effect lasted 6 days before cocaine consumption returned to baseline levels, which corresponds roughly to the time it takes D2R to return to baseline levels. These findings show that CSA and D2R in the NAc are negatively correlated and suggest that cocaine intake is modulated in part by D2R levels in NAc. Thus strategies aimed at increasing D2R expression in NAc may be beneficial in treating cocaine abuse and addiction. PMID:18418874

  15. Examining possible gender differences among cocaine-dependent outpatients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Badger, Gary J; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2002-08-01

    Potential differences in sociodemographics, drug use, and measures of treatment outcome were examined among 137 male and 51 female cocaine-dependent outpatients. More women than men were unemployed, received public assistance, and were living with their children. Women reported fewer years of regular cocaine use, spending less money per week on cocaine, less prior treatment for cocaine abuse, and were more likely than men to test positive for cocaine at intake. With respect to other drug use, fewer women than men reported using sedatives and tested positive for sedatives at intake. Women reported a lower frequency of alcohol use before intake, and fewer women than men met criteria for cannabis dependence. Men and women experienced comparable improvement during the course of treatment and follow-up. PMID:12233993

  16. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain

    2004-06-01

    As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. PMID:15173518

  17. Population-Based Case-Control Study of Recreational Drug Use and Testis Cancer Risk Confirms Association between Marijuana Use and Non-Seminoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lacson, John Charles A.; Carroll, Joshua D.; Tuazon, Ellenie; Castelao, Esteban J.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cortessis, Victoria K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence increased steadily in recent decades, but causes remain elusive. Germ cell function may be influenced by cannabinoids, and two prior epidemiologic studies report that use of marijuana may be associated with non-seminomatous TGCT. Here we evaluate the relationship between TGCTs and exposure to marijuana and other recreational drugs using a population-based case-control study. Methods 163 TGCT cases diagnosed in Los Angeles County from December 1986 to April 1991 were enrolled with 292 controls matched on age, race/ethnicity and neighborhood. Participants were asked about drug use by structured in-person interview. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for history of cryptorchidism; education; religiosity; and reported use of marijuana, cocaine and amyl nitrite. Results Compared to never use, ever use of marijuana had two-fold increased risk (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.02–3.68) while ever use of cocaine was negatively associated with TGCT (OR=0.54, 95%CI: 0.32–0.91). Stratification on tumor histology revealed a specific association of marijuana use with non-seminoma and mixed histology tumors (OR=2.42, 95%CI: 1.08–5.42). Conclusions We observed a specific association of marijuana use with risk of non-seminoma and mixed tumors. This is the first report of a negative association between cocaine use and TGCT risk. Results warrant mechanistic studies of marijuana’s effect on the endocannabinoid system and TGCT risk, and caution that recreational and therapeutic cannabinoids by young men may confer malignant potential to testicular germ cells. PMID:22965656

  18. Alcohol and Drug Use among Patients Presenting to an Inner-city Emergency Department: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristen L.; Murray, Regan L.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Massey, Lynn S.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    The inner city Emergency Department (ED) provides a window of opportunity for screening for alcohol and other drug misuse and substance use disorders (SUDs), in order to facilitate linkage for individuals who are in need of services targeting such issues. The majority of prior work in this area has focused on alcohol use. This study used latent class analyses to characterize substance use/SUDs among adults presenting to the ED for medical complaints or injuries. Participants (n=14,557; 77% participation; 45% male; 54% African-American) completed a computerized survey assessing demographics, health functioning, and substance use/SUDs. Although injured patients were significantly more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, and were more likely to have an alcohol use disorder, presenting complaint was not related to other drug use/diagnoses. Five latent classes were identified: (1) non users/SUDs (65.9%) (2) binge drinkers (24.3%), (3) marijuana users/SUD (3.5%), (4) cocaine users/SUD (2.9%), and (5) poly-drug users (3.3%). Compared to class 1, participants in the other classes were younger, male, without health insurance, with poor mental health functioning, tobacco users, and had prior substance use treatment. African-Americans were most likely to be in classes 3 or 4 and employed participants were most likely to be in class 2. In comparison to class 1, classes 2 and 3 reported better physical health; class 2 was more likely to present for injury whereas class 5 was more likely to present for a medical complaint. ED-based screening and interventions approaches need to address the co-occurrence of alcohol, illicit drug, and psychoactive prescription drug use. PMID:21514734

  19. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 estimates to 2012–2013 estimates). However, youth perceptions of great risk of harm from monthly marijuana ... change. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm From Marijuana Use: 2013 ...

  20. Does Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Lead to Criminal Involvement in Adulthood? Evidence from a Multiwave Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school drop-out and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime. PMID:20598815

  1. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  2. Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neonates with Prenatal Marijuana Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Grewen, Karen; Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments; however, findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2–6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; −MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug-free controls). Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula–cerebellum, right caudate–cerebellum, right caudate–right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate–cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypo-connectivity in all clusters compared with −MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and −MJ groups demonstrated hyper-connectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypo-connectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits. PMID:26582983

  3. Laboratory detection of marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Hawks, R L

    1985-08-01

    Frequent smoking of cannabis (marijuana) has been shown to be associated with a decline in social, mental, and perceptual skills and, during adolescence, with maladaptive emotional development. Urinalysis for the detection of such use can be a useful tool for the physician responsible for treatment and counseling of adolescents who develop habitual use of marijuana. Primary methods for urinalysis detection of cannabis use include the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) and the radioimmunoassay. These and other methods are discussed along with the issues of "false" results (both positive and negative) and the "limits of interpretation" that can be placed on a positive urine result. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the active constituents of cannabis are described as well as the interpretation of urinalysis results as they relate to use patterns. Guidelines are presented for the primary care physician for selecting candidates for such testing and for the use of such tests in the treatment or counseling of adolescents for whom marijuana abuse has become a psychological and social problem. PMID:2989570

  4. Cocaine Addiction: Psychology and Neurophysiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawin, Frank H.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of cocaine addiction, cocaine abstinence symptoms, and the short-term and long-term neurochemical actions of cocaine are discussed. The relative therapeutic value of various medications and treatment programs are discussed. (KR)

  5. Gambling Problems Among Community Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Magali; Nguyen, Noël; Bertrand, Karine; Perreault, Michel; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Morvannou, Adèle; Bruneau, Julie; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine use is highly prevalent and a major public health problem. While some studies have reported frequent comorbidity problems among cocaine users, few studies have included evaluation of gambling problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gambling problems and compare those who were at-risk gamblers with non-problem gamblers in terms of mental health problems, substance use problems, and some risk factors (i.e. family antecedents, erroneous perceptions and coping strategies) among individuals who smoke or inject cocaine. A total of 424 smoked or injected cocaine users recruited through community-based programs in Montreal (Quebec) completed the questionnaire, including the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the CAGE, and the Severity Dependence Scale. Of the sample, 18.4 % were considered at-risk gamblers, of whom 7.8 % had problems gambling and 10.6 % were moderate-risk gamblers. The at-risk group was more likely to have experienced a recent phobic disorder and alcohol problems than the non-problem group. A multivariate analysis showed that, compared to those who were non-problem gamblers, the at-risk ones were more likely to have lost a large sum of money when they first started gambling, believed that their luck would turn, and gambled in reaction to painful life events. These results indicate the need to include routines for screening to identify gambling problem among cocaine users. PMID:26983825

  6. Stable Isotopic Constraints on the Geographic Sources of Marijuana in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.; Haubenstock, N. A.; Howe, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    improvement of forensic technology in relatively remote areas such as Alaska. Officers for the Alaska Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Enforcement spend a significant amount of time controlling the production and distribution of marijuana, while the resources allocated for law enforcement must be utilized over a wide geographic area.

  7. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  8. What Parents Need To Know about Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication, part of the Office of National Drug Control Policys Asian Language Initiative, offers facts and answers about marijuana. It educates parents about what it is, its physical and physiological effects, slang terms, and how its used. It also identifies signs that indicate marijuana use, and provides tips for parents who want to…

  9. Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

  10. Personality Correlates of Undergraduate Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    The objective of this study was to investigate the personological factors underlying marijuana use in the college population. Under anonymous conditions, 148 students at two universities completed the California Psychological Inventory and a biographical questionnaire concerning drug usage. Four conclusions were reached: (1) marijuana use at two…

  11. Marijuana smoking and cold tolerance in man.

    PubMed

    Hanna, J M; Strauss, R H; Itagaki, B; Kwon, W J; Stanyon, R; Bindon, J; Hong, S K

    1976-06-01

    Ten men who were marijuana users served as subjects in a study of the effects of marijuana smoking on response to cold. Cold water (28 degrees C for 60 min) and cold air (20 degrees C for 120 min) mediums were utilized with three exposures in each medium. The three exposures followed smoking marijuana, smoking placebo, and a no-smoking control period. Additionally, a breathhold experiment preceded and followed the four smoking periods. Marijuana and placebo smoke were inhaled from a spirometer with each man receiving the smoke of 0.739 g of marijuana and placebo. Smoking marijuana did not greatly modify body heat content, since rectal temperature and most peripheral temperatures were not altered. However, temperatures over voluntary muscles likely to be involved in shivering were elevated. Heat production also greatly increased after marijuana, suggesting that it had stimulated shivering. Marijuana also produced tachycardia and abolished apneic bradycardia. The mechanism of this action is not clear, but some sympathetic involvement is indicated. PMID:779756

  12. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  13. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  14. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  15. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  16. A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Timothy H.

    1973-01-01

    Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

  17. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  18. Health effects of marijuana: a review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Panda Jnr

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use disorder has increased among marijuana users. Marijuana is an illicit drug that is becoming commonly used among youths and young adults and is detrimental to the human health. This review addresses the questions that most people have about the use and the effects of marijuana on the human health. The review focuses on the effects and its seriousness, affecting physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral changes to the human existence. Most of the findings in this review were based upon studies done recently in the United States of America. This review shows that that the most commonly used illicit drug (marijuana) contains an active chemical called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes the mind-altering effects. When marijuana is smoked, its active ingredient, THC, travels throughout the body, including the brain, to produce its many effects. THC attaches to sites called cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells in the brain, affecting the way those cells function. The questions addressed include: "Is there treatments for marijuana abusers?"; and "Can marijuana be used as some forms of medication to human?". PMID:18181401

  19. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  20. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  1. Medical consequences of cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Cocaine use among middle-class North Americans increased dramatically during the 1980s. Medical complications involve almost every organ system and are produced by intense vasoconstriction. Managing cocaine-induced disease requires careful identification and the use of alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, in addition to standard therapy and referral to specialists to manage cocaine withdrawal. Images p1976-a p1980-a PMID:8106032

  2. Psychopathology and Special Education Enrollment in Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Todd P.; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Higgins, Rosemary; Hammond, Jane; Roberts, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated how enrollment in special education services in 11 year old children relates to prenatal cocaine exposure, psychopathology, and other risk factors. Method Participants were 498 children enrolled in The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study examining outcomes of children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure and psychopathology on enrollment in an individualized education plan (a designation specific to children with special education needs), with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates. Results Prenatal cocaine exposure, an interaction of prenatal cocaine exposure and Oppositional Defiant Disorder, child Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, parent-reported internalizing behaviors, and teacher-reported externalizing behaviors, predicted enrollment in an individualized education plan. Other statistically significant variables in the model were male gender, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, white race, caregiver change, low socio-economic status, low child intelligence quotient, caregiver depression, and prenatal marijuana exposure. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan with adjustment for covariates. Psychopathology also predicted this special education outcome, in combination with and independent of prenatal cocaine exposure. PMID:22487696

  3. Crack Cocaine Education in the Public Schools: A Treatment Center and the Schools Unite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Glenn E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes crack cocaine education project conducted by Highlands County, Florida School System in cooperation with Florida Alcoholism Treatment Center which used 10 patients being treated for cocaine addiction to present drug information to students. Results showed statistically significant increases in self-esteem of patients following program.…

  4. Subtypes of Cocaine Abusers: Support for a Type A-Type B Distinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Systematically assessed replicability and generalizability of a multidimensional alcoholism typological system in 399 inpatient, outpatient, and non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers. Two different procedures supported the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of the Type A-Type B distinction in cocaine abusers. Multidimensional…

  5. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  6. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  7. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Personality Correlates of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Edwin J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Students completed California Psychological Inventory, Adjective Check List, and drug-use questionnaire. Continuous nonusers never disclosed marijuana use. Switched nonusers did not disclose marijuana use initially but did so later. Users disclosed marijuana use initially and later. Marijuana use can be predicted by patterns of reported…

  9. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  10. A functional haplotype implicated in vulnerability to develop cocaine dependence is associated with reduced PDYN expression in human brain.

    PubMed

    Yuferov, Vadim; Ji, Fei; Nielsen, David A; Levran, Orna; Ho, Ann; Morgello, Susan; Shi, Ruijin; Ott, Jurg; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-04-01

    Dynorphin peptides and the kappa-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding properties of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. We tested polymorphisms of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) for association with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in the promoter region, exon 4 coding, and 3' untranslated region, in 106 Caucasians and 204 African Americans who were cocaine dependent, cocaine/alcohol codependent, or controls. In Caucasians, we found point-wise significant associations of 3'UTR SNPs (rs910080, rs910079, and rs2235749) with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. These SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium, comprising a haplotype block. The haplotype CCT was significantly experiment-wise associated with cocaine dependence and with combined cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence (false discovery rate, q=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). We investigated allele-specific gene expression of PDYN, using SNP rs910079 as a reporter, in postmortem human brains from eight heterozygous subjects, using SNaPshot assay. There was significantly lower expression for C allele (rs910079), with ratios ranging from 0.48 to 0.78, indicating lower expression of the CCT haplotype of PDYN in both the caudate and nucleus accumbens. Analysis of total PDYN expression in 43 postmortem brains also showed significantly lower levels of preprodynorphin mRNA in subjects having the risk CCT haplotype. This study provides evidence that a 3'UTR PDYN haplotype, implicated in vulnerability to develop cocaine addiction and/or cocaine/alcohol codependence, is related to lower mRNA expression of the PDYN gene in human dorsal and ventral striatum. PMID:18923396

  11. Frequent marijuana use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H

    1985-01-01

    Although the adolescent's first use of marijuana is rarely pleasant, peer pressure often causes continued experimenting and a search for the euphoric "high." Preoccupation with use of the drug leads to mood changes, withdrawal, academic underachievement and confusion. Family members may refuse to admit that a drug problem exists and may subsequently develop dependency problems of their own. By assuming responsibility for the adolescent's drug problem, a parent enables the drug use to continue. To break this cycle, family members must seek guidance from a rehabilitation professional. PMID:3871295

  12. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  13. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  14. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  15. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  19. Characterizing the Followers and Tweets of a Marijuana-Focused Twitter Handle

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a popular social media forum for sharing personal experiences, interests, and opinions. An improved understanding of the discourse on Twitter that encourages marijuana use can be helpful for tailoring and targeting online and offline prevention messages. Objectives The intent of the study was to assess the content of “tweets” and the demographics of followers of a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (@stillblazingtho). Methods We assessed the sentiment and content of tweets (sent from May 1 to December 31, 2013), as well as the demographics of consumers that follow a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (approximately 1,000,000 followers) using Twitter analytics from Demographics Pro. This analytics company estimates demographic characteristics based on Twitter behavior/usage, relying on multiple data signals from networks, consumption, and language and requires confidence of 95% or above to make an estimate of a single demographic characteristic. Results A total of 2590 tweets were sent from @stillblazingtho during the 8-month period and 305 (11.78%) replies to another Twitter user were excluded for qualitative analysis. Of the remaining 2285 tweets, 1875 (82.06%) were positive about marijuana, 403 (17.64%) were neutral, and 7 (0.31%) appeared negative about marijuana. Approximately 1101 (58.72%) of the positive marijuana tweets were perceived as jokes or humorous, 340 (18.13%) implied that marijuana helps you to feel good or relax, 294 (15.68%) mentioned routine, frequent, or heavy use, 193 (10.29%) mentioned blunts, marijuana edibles, or paraphernalia (eg, bongs, vaporizers), and 186 (9.92%) mentioned other risky health behaviors (eg, tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sex). The majority (699,103/959,143; 72.89%) of @stillblazingtho followers were 19 years old or younger. Among people ages 17 to 19 years, @stillblazingtho was in the top 10% of all Twitter handles followed. More followers of @stillblazingtho in the United States were

  20. Possible Addiction Transference From Cocaine Insufflation to Oral Bupropion in Bipolar Patient

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Alberto; Brasil, Marco; Cruz, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alert for the risk of oral bupropion addiction in patients with cocaine dependence. Methods: Single-case study. Results: After a period of cocaine and alcohol abstinence, a 42-year-old patient started taking oral bupropion to relieve the symptoms of cocaine craving. He increased the bupropion dose up to 2250 mg/d without seizures. Conclusion: This case highlights the possibility of oral bupropion addiction after cocaine dependence. To our knowledge, it is the first case in the literature and emphasizes the risk of bupropion's misuse. Therefore, physicians should carefully examine the patient's profile before prescribing it, as well as follow appropriate measures. PMID:25494008

  1. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

  2. Paraquat and marijuana: epidemiologic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Powell, K E; James, L M; Taylor, P R

    1983-07-01

    In March 1978, 13 (21 per cent) of 61 marijuana samples from the southwestern United States were found to be contaminated with the herbicide paraquat, a pulmonary toxin, in concentrations from 3 to 2,264 parts per million. The source of the contamination was an aerial spraying program in Mexico, supported indirectly by United States funds. To evaluate US exposure, a nationwide survey of the paraquat content of confiscated marijuana was conducted. The survey found 33 (3.6 per cent) of 910 marijuana specimens to contain detectable paraquat. In states adjacent to Mexico (Census Region VI), 23 (12.8 per cent) of 180 specimens were contaminated. Combustion testing indicated that approximately 0.2 per cent of paraquat on marijuana passes into smoke. From these data, we projected that 100-200 marijuana smokers in Census Region VI would be exposed by inhalation to 500 micrograms or more of paraquat per year, a dose judged to represent a health hazard; nationally, between 150 and 300 smokers were projected to have such exposure. Another 6,000 persons in Region VI and 9,000 nationally were projected to be at risk of exposure to between 100 and 499 micrograms of paraquat annually. The risk of paraquat exposure was greatest among those smokers who make one large purchase of marijuana per year. No clinical cases of paraquat poisoning were recognized among marijuana smokers during these studies, but no systematic national search for such cases was undertaken. PMID:6859364

  3. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena. PMID:24405197

  4. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks. PMID:19642439

  5. Sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    effect on POEA and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine concentrations. Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., mood, anxiety, and psychosis disorders). Additionally, cocaine-addicted subjects showed a relationship between the concentrations of N-stearoyl-ethanolamine and 2-linoleoyl-glycerol and diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of comorbid psychopathologies for clinical purposes. PMID:25762940

  6. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    effect on POEA and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine concentrations. Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., mood, anxiety, and psychosis disorders). Additionally, cocaine-addicted subjects showed a relationship between the concentrations of N-stearoyl-ethanolamine and 2-linoleoyl-glycerol and diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of comorbid psychopathologies for clinical purposes. PMID:25762940

  7. California: marijuana compassionate use statewide initiative.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    An initiative to legalize medical access to and use of marijuana was submitted to the California Attorney General. Supporters must collect 430,000 valid signatures to include the initiative on California's 1996 ballot. The initiative allows possession, personal use, and cultivation of marijuana for a specified group of patients and exempts from punishment the patient's primary caregiver and the recommending physician. Californians for Compassionate Use views the petition as a vehicle to document public support of medical use of marijuana. Advocates are urged to write, call, or fax Californians for Compassionate Use for information on how to help gather signatures. PMID:11362878

  8. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  9. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  10. Marijuana Use from Middle to High School: Co-occurring Problem Behaviors, Teacher-Rated Academic Skills and Sixth-Grade Predictors.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome. PMID:25376473

  11. Exposure to the Above the Influence Antidrug Advertisements and Adolescent Marijuana Use in the United States, 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug campaign in 210 US media markets and adolescent marijuana and alcohol use from 2006 to 2008. Methods. We analyzed monthly advertising exposure (targeted rating points) data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and drug use data from the Monitoring the Future study. We estimated multivariate logistic regression models of marijuana use for students in grades 8, 10, and 12, with controls for individual, family, and media market characteristics and year and regional fixed effects. Results. For eighth-grade adolescent girls, greater exposure to antidrug advertisements was associated with lower rates of past-month marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52, 0.87) and lower rates of lifetime marijuana use (AOR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93), but not alcohol use (AOR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.84, 1.19). Associations were not significant for adolescent boys or for students in grades 10 and 12. Conclusions. Antidrug advertising may be an effective way to dissuade eighth-grade adolescent girls from initiating marijuana use. PMID:21421952

  12. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  13. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  14. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  15. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  16. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. 25.8 Section 25.8... OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.8 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. Operating a motor vehicle... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is...

  17. Substance Use in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... refers to the use of illegal drugs, including marijuana according to federal law, and misuse of prescription ...

  18. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  19. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  20. The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A

    2016-07-01

    The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed. PMID:27215434

  1. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x□ age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592

  2. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  3. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  4. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  5. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  6. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  7. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-04-01

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365386

  8. An Adaptive Approach for Identifying Cocaine Dependent Patients Who Benefit from Extended Continuing Care

    PubMed Central

    McKay, James R.; Van Horn, Deborah; Lynch, Kevin G.; Ivey, Megan; Cary, Mark S.; Drapkin, Michelle; Coviello, Donna M.; Plebani, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Study tested whether cocaine dependent patients using cocaine or alcohol at intake or in the first few weeks of intensive outpatient treatment would benefit more from extended continuing care than patients abstinent during this period. The effect of incentives for continuing care attendance was also examined. Methods Participants (N=321) were randomized to: treatment as usual (TAU), TAU and Telephone Monitoring and Counseling (TMC), or TAU and TMC plus incentives (TMC+). The primary outcomes were: (1) abstinence from all drugs and heavy alcohol use, and (2) cocaine urine toxicology. Follow-ups were at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results Cocaine and alcohol use at intake or early in treatment predicted worse outcomes on both measures (ps≤ .0002). Significant effects favoring TMC over TAU on the abstinence composite were obtained in participants who used cocaine (OR=1.95 [1.02, 3.73]) or alcohol (OR=2.47 [1.28, 4.78]) at intake or early in treatment. A significant effect favoring TMC+ over TAU on cocaine urine toxicology was obtained in those using cocaine during that period (OR= 0.55 [0.31, 0.95]). Conversely, there were no treatment effects in participants abstinent at baseline, and no overall treatment main effects. Incentives almost doubled the number of continuing care sessions received, but did not further improve outcomes. Conclusion An adaptive approach for cocaine dependence in which extended continuing care is provided only to patients who are using cocaine or alcohol at intake or early in treatment improves outcomes in this group while reducing burden and costs in lower risk patients. PMID:24041231

  9. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  10. Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

  11. Cocaine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the semen and may reduce the number of sperm, and increase the number of abnormal sperm. This can result in fertility problems. Cocaine can attach to sperm. This has led to the suggestion that sperm ...

  12. Phenytoin Toxicity from Cocaine Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of phenytoin (PHT) as a cocaine adulterant was reported decades ago; that practice is still current. Ironically PHT has also been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A drug smuggler developed PHT toxicity after swallowing several rocks of crack. We investigated the current trends of PHT as a cocaine adulterant and its toxicological implications. We also reviewed the clinical use of PTH in relation to cocaine. The use of PHT as cocaine cut is a current practice. This may affect the clinical manifestations and the management of the cocaine-related visits to the emergency department. PMID:24672596

  13. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement. PMID:18173103

  14. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  15. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  16. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Federal CCF.'' [74 FR 59196] Because many of the commenters were transportation industry employers, C/TPAs... in order for collectors, laboratories, and Medical Review Officers to know how to use the new form...'' after ``Marijuana Metabolite'' and ``BZE'' after ``Cocaine Metabolite'' to specify the drug analytes;...

  17. EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

  18. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Brain's Response to Marijuana Print The Brain's Response to Marijuana Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome to my magazine series exploring the brain's response to drugs. In this issue, we'll investigate ...

  19. Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160603.html Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men Study ... a time when more people are turning to medical marijuana for pain relief. "This study underscores the importance ...

  20. More U.S. Adults Using Marijuana Than Ever

    MedlinePlus

    ... pointed out that over the past 20 years, medical marijuana has been legalized in 25 states and the ... Queensland in Australia. "Over the period in which medical marijuana was legalized in the U.S., adult use of ...

  1. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects. PMID:24564006

  2. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  3. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  4. Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants K2/Spice Kratom LSD (Acid) ...

  5. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... heart rate. Similar to other addictive drugs like cocaine and heroin, nicotine increases levels of the neurotransmitter ...

  6. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... distance, and decrease coordination. Drivers who have used cocaine or methamphetamine can be aggressive and reckless when ...

  7. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  8. Treat Jail Detainees' Drug Abuse to Lower HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  9. Methamphetamine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... effects as those of other stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines. These include increased wakefulness, increased physical ...

  10. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  11. Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  12. NIDA Notes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Slow-Release Amphetamine Medication Benefits Patients With Comorbid Cocaine Addiction and ADHD ( August 2016 ) Treatment with an ...

  13. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... includes ecstasy and LSD) in the past month. Cocaine use has gone down in the last few ...

  14. Painkiller (Oxy, Vike) Facts

    MedlinePlus

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  15. Methamphetamine: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... e.g., methylphenidate and amphetamines), as well as cocaine and methamphetamine. Tolerance: A condition in which higher ...

  16. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a decreased risk for addiction to heroin or cocaine. The other linked variants in two genes— OPRM1 , ...

  17. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

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  1. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE AMONG BLACKS

    PubMed Central

    Racine, C.; Vincent, M.; Rogers, A.; Donat, M.; Ojike, N. I.; Necola, O.; Yousef, E.; Masters-Israilov, A.; Jean-Louis, G.; McFarlane, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased legalization of marijuana has resulted in renewed interest in its effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk. Conflicting data exist regarding marijuana effects on body weight, waist circumference as well as lipid profiles, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data available on this effect in the black population. Objective To assess the metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors as well as body weight and waist circumference among urban black marijuana users. Methods A cross sectional study design involving 100 patients seen in a Family Practice clinic at University hospital of Brooklyn, NY, USA, over a period of 3 months from January 2014 to March 2014. Participants were administered a questionnaire regarding marijuana use, and other associated behaviors. Socio-demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. We report measures of central tendencies, and dispersion for continuous variables and the frequency of distribution for categorical variables. Results Of the 100 patients surveyed, 57% were females. The mean (±SEM) age of the entire cohort was 46.3 years±1.5; range, 19–78 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.6 kg/m2±0.73; SBP=128.0 mmHg±1.69; DBP=76.1 mmHg±1.17. Current marijuana users had the lowest waist circumference compared to former or never users respectively (32.9±0.66 vs. 35.9±0.88 vs. 33.4±0.74), p<0.01. Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg was significantly higher among former marijuana users compared to current or never users, (80.0±2.1 vs. 73.3±2.3 vs. 73.4±1.6), p<0.01. Current marijuana users showed a tendency (not statistically significant) towards lower total cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, compared to former users or never users. Conclusion Current marijuana use is associated with significantly lower waist

  2. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  3. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  4. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  5. Maternal marijuana use has independent effects on risk for spontaneous preterm birth but not other common late pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Leemaqz, Shalem Y; Dekker, Gustaaf A; McCowan, Lesley M; Kenny, Louise C; Myers, Jenny E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-07-01

    Widespread legalisation of marijuana raises safety concerns for its use in pregnancy. This study investigated the association of marijuana use prior to and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective cohort of 5588 nulliparous women from the international SCOPE study. Women were assessed at 15±1 and 20±1 weeks' gestation. Cases [278 Preeclampsia, 470 gestational hypertension, 633 small-for-gestational-age, 236 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB), 143 gestational diabetes] were compared separately with 4114 non-cases. Although the numbers are small, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation was associated with SPTB independent of cigarette smoking status [adj OR 2.28 (95% CI:1.45-3.59)] and socioeconomic index (SEI) [adj OR 2.17 (95% CI:1.41-3.34)]. When adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, alcohol and SEI, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation had a greater effect size [adj OR 5.44 (95% CI 2.44-12.11)]. Our data indicate that increasing use of marijuana among young women of reproductive age is a major public health concern. PMID:27142189

  6. State Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in The United States: 1991 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th

  7. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). The median THC concentration over the 5-year period ranged from 5.2 to 6.3 ng/mL, with individual concentrations ranging up to 90 ng/mL. An average of 56% of cases were at or >5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. PMID:25217548

  8. Drug patterns in the chronic marijuana user.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, H; Clark, C

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the drug patterns and attitudes of a heavy marijuana user sample drawn from the local "counter-culture." The results indicate that the heavier marijuana user has a different subjective attitude and perception of the drug's effect than a light user. Second, multiple drug usage is, in general, the current and accepted mode within the sample. Finally, it appears that age of initial usage of a specific agent, duration, frequency of usage, and perceived drug effects may be dependent variables with reference to heavy marijuana and multiple drug usage. With respect to these variables, the question arises concerning what proportion of lighter drug using samples may, with time, adopt heavier and more varied drug patterns. PMID:1254370

  9. Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a

  10. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  11. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  12. Voters in two States endorse medicinal marijuana.

    PubMed

    1996-11-29

    Voters in California and Arizona decided that the medical use of marijuana should be legal and available to treat people with terminal illnesses, such as AIDS. These initiatives were opposed by both President Clinton and his challenger Bob Dole, and three former presidents warn that these measures will undermine drug prevention efforts. Law enforcement officials in both States campaigned against these initiatives. The measures do not change Federal laws, leaving physicians with a legal dilemma. If physicians prescribe marijuana, the Drug Enforcement Administration could investigate them and revoke their licenses to dispense prescriptions. PMID:11364055

  13. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713

  14. Fluorescence Immunoassay for Cocaine Detection.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kenjjou, Noriko; Shigetoh, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    A fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) has been developed for the detection of cocaine using norcocaine labeled with merocyanine dye and a monoclonal antibody specific to cocaine. Using this FIA, the detection range for cocaine was between 20.0 and 1700 μg/L with a limit of detection of 20.0 μg/L. Other cocaine derivatives did not interfere significantly with the detection when using this immunoassay technique with cross-reactivity values of less than 20%. Thus this FIA could be considered a useful tool for the detection of cocaine. PMID:26977890

  15. Empathic responsivity at 3 years of age in a sample of cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D; Molnar, Danielle S; Colder, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and behavioral and physiological responsivity. Participants were 216 mother-infant dyads (116 cocaine exposed-CE, 100 nonexposed-NCE) recruited at birth. Measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained during baseline and during a task designed to elicit empathy (exposure to infant crying). When the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, results of model testing indicated that lower gestational age, prenatal exposure to cocaine and postnatal exposure to alcohol were each associated with a reduced suppression of RSA during the empathy task. These findings provide additional support for an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and dysregulation during early childhood during affect-eliciting environmental challenges. PMID:24444666

  16. Benzodiazepine inhibits anxiogenic-like response in cocaine or ethanol withdrawn planarians.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sunil; Roberts, Adam; Bires, Kristofer; Tallarida, Christopher S; Kim, Erin; Wu, Michael; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-09-01

    Planarians spend less time in light versus dark environments. We hypothesized that planarians withdrawn from cocaine or ethanol would spend even less time in the light than drug-naive planarians and that a benzodiazepine would inhibit this response. Planarians pretreated in cocaine or ethanol were placed at the midline of a Petri dish containing spring water that was split evenly into dark and light compartments. Planarians withdrawn from cocaine (1, 10, 100 μmol/l) or ethanol (0.01%) spent less time in the light compartment than water controls; however, this withdrawal response to cocaine (100 μmol/l) or ethanol (0.01%) was abolished by clorazepate (0-100 μmol/l). These data suggest that planarians, similar to rodents, show benzodiazepine-sensitive, anxiogenic-like responses during cocaine or alcohol withdrawal. PMID:27028903

  17. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  18. Cocaine detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srijanto, Bernadeta; Cheney, Christine P.; Hedden, David L.; Gehl, Anthony; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    2008-03-01

    Sensitive and inexpensive sensors play a significant role in the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites. Specifically, reliable in vivo detection of cocaine and cocaine metabolites serves as a useful tool in research of the body's reaction to the drug and in the treatment of the drug addiction. We present here a promising cocaine biosensor to be used in the human body. The sensor's active element consists of piezoresistive microcantilevers coated with an oligonucleotide-based aptamer as the cocaine binder. In vitro cocaine detection was carried out by flowing a cocaine solution over the microcantilevers. Advantages of this device are its low power consumption, its high sensitivity, and its potential for miniaturization into an implantable capsule. The limit of detection for cocaine in distilled water was found to be 1 ng/ml.

  19. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

  20. Variability in Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and pro-marijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states. PMID:26415061

  1. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  2. High-risk cocktails and high-risk sex: examining the relation between alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption, sexual behavior, and drug use in college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption has garnered considerable attention in the literature in recent years. Drinking AmED beverages has been associated with a host of negative outcomes. The present study sought to examine associations between AmED consumption and high-risk sexual behaviors in a sample of young adults. Participants (N=704; 59.9% female) completed an online survey assessing AmED consumption, other drug use, and sexual behavior. A total of 19.4% of the entire sample (and 28.8% of those who reported using alcohol) reported consuming AmED. Participants who reported consuming AmED were significantly more likely to report marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy use. Those who reported consuming AmED also had increased odds of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex while under the influence of drugs, and sex after having too much to drink. Relationships between AmED consumption and sexual behavior remained significant after accounting for the influence of demographic factors and other substance use. Results add to the literature documenting negative consequences for AmED consumers, which may include alcohol dependence, binge drinking, and the potential for sexually transmitted infections via high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:23006245

  3. Physical Victimization of Rural Methamphetamine and Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Tripathi, Shanti; Lynch, Christian; Leukefeld, Carl; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and physical violence often co-occur, but little has been published on the correlates associated with receipt of partner versus non-partner physical violence for rural users of methamphetamine and/or cocaine. In this study, participants’ substance use, depression and past-year physical victimization were assessed. In separate logistic regression models, received partner violence in females was associated with age; alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine abuse/dependence; and number of drugs used in the past six months. In males, received non-partner violence was associated with age, cocaine abuse/dependence and being Caucasian. Findings suggest a relationship between stimulant use and received violence among rural substance users and a need for victimization screenings in settings where such individuals seek health care. PMID:22455188

  4. Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Anti-marijuana Ads, Usage Intentions, and Actual Marijuana Usage

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The association of adolescents’ appraisals of the anti-marijuana television ads used in the National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12 to 18 year old respondents (N = 2993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multi-level linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all p < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents’ usage status predicted intentions and actual usage one year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions, and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both p < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users reporting more positive attitudes towards the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding pre-implementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  5. Hapten Optimization for Cocaine Vaccine with Improved Cocaine Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Muthu; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of any effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction, immunotherapy is being actively pursued as a therapeutic intervention. While several different cocaine haptens have been explored to develop anti-cocaine antibodies, none of the hapten was successfully designed which had a protonated tropane nitrogen as is found in native cocaine under physiological conditions, including the succinyl norcocaine (SNC) hapten that has been tested in phase II clinical trials. Herein, we discuss three different cocaine haptens: hexyl-norcocaine (HNC), bromoacetamido butyl- norcocaine (BNC), and succinyl-butyl- norcocaine (SBNC), each with a tertiary nitrogen structure mimicking that of native cocaine which could optimize the specificity of anti-cocaine antibodies for better cocaine recognition. Mice immunized with these haptens conjugated to immunogenic proteins produced high titer anti-cocaine antibodies. However, during chemical conjugation of HNC and BNC haptens to carrier proteins, the 2β methyl ester group is hydrolyzed and immunizing mice with these conjugate vaccines in mice produced antibodies that bound both cocaine and the inactive benzoylecgonine metabolite. While in the case of the SBNC conjugate vaccine hydrolysis of the methyl ester did not appear to occur, leading to antibodies with high specificity to cocaine over BE. Though we observed similar specificity with a SNC hapten, the striking difference is that SBNC carries a positive charge on the tropane nitrogen atom, and therefore it is expected to have better binding of cocaine. The 50% cocaine inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for SBNC antibodies (2.8 μM) was significantly better than the SNC antibodies (9.4 μM) when respective hapten-BSA was used as a substrate. In addition, antibodies from both sera had no inhibitory effect from BE. In contrast to BNC and HNC, the SBNC conjugate was also found to be highly stable without any noticeable hydrolysis for several months at 4°C and 2-3 days in p

  6. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative expectancies were both associated with increased marijuana use. Youth that reported more symptoms of both anxiety and depression and stronger positive expectancies for marijuana also reported more consequences. We found that youth experiencing the greatest level of consequences from marijuana were those that reported more depressive symptoms and stronger positive expectancies for marijuana. Findings suggest that these symptoms, combined with strong positive expectancies about marijuana’s effects, have implications for consequences among at-risk youth. PMID:25977590

  7. Government delays release of medical marijuana supply.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Liz

    2002-07-01

    The federal government's initiative to make marijuana available for medical use continues to run into problems and delays. In a recent development, the first crop produced by the government's designated grower turned out to be too impure to use. The delays have led to the launch of a lawsuit against the federal government. PMID:14765485

  8. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  9. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  10. Medical marijuana: A treatment worth trying?

    PubMed

    Metts, Julius; Wright, Steven; Sundaram, Jawahar; Hashemi, Nastran

    2016-03-01

    With medical marijuana available in more and more states, family physicians need to know what the evidence says about its use. This review includes a step-by-step guide and a list of red flags to watch for. PMID:27158689

  11. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  12. Perceptions of ganja and cocaine in urban Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Broad, K; Feinberg, B

    1995-01-01

    This article, based on ethnographic research, discusses the dynamic relationship between ganja (marijuana) and cocaine in five areas within Montego Bay, an urban-tourist center in Jamaica, West Indies. The focus is on the contrasting and conflicting social perceptions related to the current role of each substance in the society, as well as the interrelationship between these two substances. Of particular interest in the analysis of use and distribution patterns of each substance is the seemingly conflicting moral versus economic dilemma surrounding the drug trade; perceptions related to the effects of these two substances on the body and mind; and perceptions related to the role these substances play in local crime and physical violence. Community-level social perceptions will be compared to official discourse and actions regarding demand reduction, prevention, and enforcement of "drug" laws. PMID:8594169

  13. Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Deborah C.; ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath; Adi, Nikhil; Qin, Yujing; Buck, Andrew; Pablo, John

    2007-01-01

    The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine “rush”. Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05). RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4). The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction. PMID:18000554

  14. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  15. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  16. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21685223

  17. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  18. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    PubMed

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients. PMID:25199471

  19. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied. PMID:26881768

  20. Pregnancy, breast-feeding, and marijuana: a review article.

    PubMed

    Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states? PMID:25101905

  1. Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Jessica Ravikoff; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Levine, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Methods Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. Results A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was “very helpful” for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.24-9.82; P = 0.02). Age and chronic abdominal pain were also multivariate predictors of medicinal use of marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97; P < 0.001 and OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8–12.2; P = 0.001). Half of the never users expressed an interest in using marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. Conclusions A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions. PMID:24185313

  2. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  3. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  4. EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL AVAILABILITY OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA USE ACROSS FIFTY CALIFORNIA CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to assess statistical associations between individual demographic and personality characteristics, the city-level physical availability of medical marijuana (as measured through densities per roadway mile of storefront dispensaries and delivery services), and the incidence and prevalence of marijuana use. Method Individual level data on marijuana use were collected during a telephone survey of 8,853 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Data on medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services were obtained via six different websites and official city lists. Three outcome variables pertaining to lifetime, past year use, and frequency of past year use were analyzed using random effects logistic models (for lifetime and past year use) and random effects tobit models (for frequency of past 365-day use). Results The current study finds that the total physical availability of medical marijuana through dispensaries and delivery services per roadway mile at the city-level is positively related to current marijuana use and greater frequency of use, controlling for a variety of demographic and personality characteristics. As expected, current physical availability of medical marijuana was unrelated to lifetime use. Conclusions Regulations on the number and densities of marijuana outlets may be a sufficient means to restrain overall levels of marijuana use within cities. However, alternative use of delivery services may also provide easy access to marijuana and mitigate these effects. PMID:25156224

  5. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:25624385

  6. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  7. [Marijuana for medical purposes--public health perspective].

    PubMed

    Gazdek, Davorka

    2014-01-01

    Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant. PMID:25327006

  8. Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490

  9. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.B.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-03-07

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  10. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  11. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana. PMID:23656852

  12. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  13. Marijuana-induced primary process content in the TAT.

    PubMed

    West, A; Martindale, C; Hines, D; Roth, W T

    1983-10-01

    Seventy-two normal adult male subjects wrote TAT stories under baseline and either placebo- or marijuana-ingestion conditions. Marijuana subjects received 20 mg. doses of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. The stories were keypunched and content analyzed with the Regressive Imagery Dictionary, which yields a score for primary process content. Results indicate that marijuana, relative to placebo, caused subjects to write stories with a higher proportion of primary process content than they had included in baseline stories. PMID:6315911

  14. Characteristics of pregnant women exposed to cocaine in Toronto between 1985 and 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, K; Koren, G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of pregnant women exposed to cocaine. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Women attending the Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, from September 1985 to March 1990. PATIENTS: All women who had admitted using cocaine before or during pregnancy. Of the two control groups the first comprised women who had admitted using cannabinoids but not cocaine before or during pregnancy and the second those who attended the clinic just before the cocaine case but who had not used illicit drugs. OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, marital status, ethnic background, number of pregnancies, children and elective or spontaneous abortions, socioeconomic status of woman and male partner, alcohol use, cigarette use, frequency of cocaine use and total amount taken. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 1625 women 91 (5.6%) admitted to using cocaine: 86 during the current pregnancy, 3 before the current pregnancy, 1 before planning a pregnancy and 1 during a previous pregnancy. None of the cocaine users were considered to be addicts; only 20% had used the drug more than 10 times. A total of 74 women used cannabinoids only. The mean age of the cocaine users was 27.1 (standard deviation [SD] 5.3) years; this was significantly lower than that of the control subjects (30.5 [SD 5.2] years) (p less than 0.001). More of the cocaine users than of the women in either of the two control groups were single (60% v. 38% and 14%, p less than 0.001). The cannabinoid users had significantly higher parity and the nonusers a significantly lower incidence of elective abortions than the cocaine users. The cocaine users had a significantly lower socioeconomic status than the control subjects (p less than 0.001); similarly, the male partners of the cocaine users had a significantly lower socioeconomic status than the partners of the control subjects (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant cocaine users who seek drug counselling represent a unique risk group, with clustering of

  15. Explaining the recent decline in cocaine use among young adults: further evidence that perceived risks and disapproval lead to reduced drug use.

    PubMed

    Bachman, J G; Johnston, L D; O'Malley, P M

    1990-06-01

    This paper explores alternative explanations for the recent sharp decline in cocaine use among high school seniors, using questionnaire data from annual nationwide surveys conducted from 1976 through 1988. Results show important parallels with earlier analyses of the longer-term decline in marijuana use. Although lifestyle factors (e.g., religious commitment, truancy, evenings out for fun and recreation) show strong links with use of marijuana and cocaine, these factors have not developed trends in ways that can account for the declines in use of either drug. Reported availability of either drug has not been reduced. Instead, increases in perceived risks and disapproval appear to have contributed substantially to the recent declines in use of marijuana and cocaine. The findings provide strong support for the use of realistic information about risks and consequences as an important ingredient in efforts to prevent drug use. Coupled with the findings on availability, the results emphasize the importance of efforts to reduce demand (as opposed to supply). PMID:2102496

  16. Medical marijuana: legal issues for physicians, others.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1996-12-20

    California's and Arizona's pro marijuana for medical use initiatives possess practical problems, particularly those regarding possible dangers to physicians who recommend use of cannabis. Doctors, regardless of safeguards placed in the State initiatives, may still face Federal charges and criminal liability according to the California Medical Association (CMA). The CMA believes the safest course for doctors to take is to not recommend marijuana at all, and health care providers are being cautious. No one knows whether Federal authorities will aggressively enforce the law against doctors or others, however, the government appears to be proceeding from the notion that such initiatives are a national strategy to legalize drugs. It appears that, for public relations reasons, prosecution efforts may be limited to distributors that may include buyers' clubs. Congress may also draft a Federal bill aimed at effectively nullifying the two initiatives. Californians for Medical Rights, the organization that sponsored Proposition 215, is working on strategies to protect doctors. PMID:11364025

  17. Medical marijuana: clearing away the smoke.

    PubMed

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287

  18. Strategy and tactics of marijuana research

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, Harry

    1973-01-01

    Before undertaking marijuana research, certain demands must be met in the following areas: educational and health facilities, the legal position, funding, Food and Drug Directorate regulations and law enforcement. Methodological problems include those concerned with pharmacology, nature of effect, set, setting, subjects, dependent variables and controls. The second portion of this paper describes the methodology and findings of a clinical study of 81 volunteers, selected according to specified criteria, screened psychiatrically and psychologically, then assigned to one of seven experimental groups. Dosage and smoking procedure were standardized for both marijuana and placebo. The experience was evaluated subjectively by the volunteers at the end of each experimental session and again on the following morning. PMID:4567765

  19. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287

  20. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth. PMID:26757396

  1. Acute oral marijuana poisoning in the dog.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J C; Hawkins, B J; Woodward, M G

    1979-11-15

    Ingestion of marijuana by three dogs in unrelated incidents resulted in depression-type toxicosis in each case. The most evident clinical signs were central nervous system depression and ataxia. Emesis and hypothermia were noted in two of the cases. Symptomatic and supportive treatment was accompanied by clinical improvement. In two cases, recovery was slow, with clinical signs apparent for 36 to 48 hours after onset. In the third case, clinical signs were apparent for only 3 hours. PMID:521354

  2. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives. PMID:22089341

  3. Snow Control - An RCT protocol for a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption in problematic cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cocaine use has increased in most European countries, including Switzerland, and many states worldwide. The international literature has described treatment models that target the general population. In addition to supplying informative measures at the level of primary and secondary prevention, the literature also offers web-based self-help tools for problematic substance users, which is in line with tertiary prevention. Such programs, however, have been primarily tested on individuals with problematic alcohol and cannabis consumption, but not on cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of a randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine use in problematic cocaine users. The primary outcome is severity of cocaine dependence. Secondary outcome measures include cocaine craving, consumption of cocaine and other substances of abuse in the past month, and changes in depression characteristics. The therapy group will receive a 6-week self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption based on methods of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, principles of Motivational Interviewing and self-control practices. The control group will be presented weekly psycho-educative information with a quiz. The predictive validity of participant characteristics on treatment retention and outcome will be explored. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy to reduce or abstain from cocaine use. It will also investigate predictors of outcome and retention. This trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials and is traceable as NTR-ISRCTN93702927. PMID:21943294

  4. Copper thiocyanato complexes and cocaine - a case of 'black cocaine'.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Grzesiak, Ireneus; Krest, Alexander; Stirnat, Kathrin; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Klein, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of a black powder confiscated by German customs was elucidated. Black powders are occasionally used as a 'transporter' for cocaine and are obviously especially designed to cloak the presence of the drug. The material consisting of cocaine, copper, iron, thiocyanate, and graphite was approached by analytical tools and chemical modelling. Graphite is added to the material probably with the intention of masking the typical infrared (IR) fingerprints of cocaine and can be clearly detected by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(2+) and NCS(-) ions, when carefully reacted with cocaine hydrochloride, form the novel compound (CocH)2 [Cu(NCS)4 ] (CocH(+)  = protonated cocaine), which has been characterised by single crystal XRD, IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Based on some further experiments the assumed composition of the original black powder is discussed. PMID:24753444

  5. Palatine perforation induced by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Rosas, Miguel; Jimenez-Santos, Cecilia Irene; García-González, Claudia Lorena

    2006-05-01

    Worldwide, the use of cocaine has an increased over the years, various secondary effects have been described. Here we present a 48 years old female with a 2-month evolution bucconasal ulcer in the hard palate induced by cocaine usage accompanied by swallow and phonation dysfunctions. Ethiopathogenesis, differential diagnoses and treatment are discussed. PMID:16648760

  6. Cocaine/Crack: The Big Lie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This pamphlet focuses on cocaine and crack use and the addictive nature of cocaine/crack. It contains a set of 21 questions about crack and cocaine, each accompanied by a clear and complete response. Interspersed throughout the booklet are photographs and quotes from former cocaine or crack users/addicts. Questions and answers focus on what…

  7. Prevention of Youthful Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Timmen L; Banys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Considerable money and effort have been expended in attempts to prevent drug use by youth, with disappointing results. Too often, prevention programs have singled out youth with simplistic messages of exaggerated risk and the same politically acceptable solution for all-abstinence. Historically, prevention efforts have been less effective by not being soundly based in science and failing also to address adult drug and alcohol use as part of the problem. The Institute of Medicine continuum of care model developed in 1994 offers a framework for a more sophisticated, three-tiered approach to prevention, defined as all services provided prior to a clinical diagnosis of a substance use disorder. By dividing prevention efforts into universal (delivered to broad populations without consideration of individual risk for developing substance use disorder), selected (targeting sub-groups of individuals identified on the basis of characteristics known to create an elevated risk for substance use disorder), and indicated (addressing individuals identified on the basis of manifest risk behaviors), prevention can be better tailored to meet different levels of need. Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) and community coalitions provide examples of how IOM's continuum of care model can be integrated into drug prevention programs for youth. PMID:26891015

  8. Associations between Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use with Coronary Artery Plaque among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sean G.; Plankey, Michael; Post, Wendy S.; Li, Xiuhong; Stall, Ronald; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Witt, Mallory D.; Kingsley, Lawrence; Cox, Christopher; Budoff, Matthew; Palella, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We characterized associations between smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use and coronary plaque by HIV serostatus within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods MACS participants (N = 1005, 621 HIV+ and 384 HIV-) underwent non-contrast CT scanning to measure coronary artery calcium; 764 underwent coronary CT angiograms to evaluate plaque type and extent. Self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, smoked/inhaled cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, marijuana, inhaled nitrites, and erectile dysfunction drugs was obtained at semi-annual visits beginning 10 years prior to CT scanning. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were performed, stratified by HIV serostatus. Results Among HIV+ men, current smoking, former smoking, and cumulative pack years of smoking were positively associated with multiple coronary plaque measures (coronary artery calcium presence and extent, total plaque presence and extent, calcified plaque presence, and stenosis >50%). Smoking was significantly associated with fewer plaque measures of comparable effect size among HIV- men; current smoking and calcified plaque extent was the only such association. Heavy alcohol use (>14 drinks/week) was associated with stenosis >50% among HIV+ men. Among HIV- men, low/moderate (1–14 drinks/week) and heavy alcohol use were inversely associated with coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque extent. Few significant associations between other recreational drug use and plaque measures were observed. Conclusion Smoking is strongly associated with coronary plaque among HIV+ men, underscoring the value of smoking cessation for HIV+ persons. Alcohol use may protect against coronary artery calcium and calcified plaque progression in HIV- (but not HIV+) men. Few positive associations were observed between recreational drug use and coronary plaque measures. PMID:26811937

  9. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  10. Immunotoxicity of cocaine and crack.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Chasapis, Christos T; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2011-06-01

    The toxicity of cocaine and crack was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, using several endpoints, such as the DNA content of the macronuclei and the phagocytic ability. Both forms induced an increase in the DNA content of the protozoan, which indicates the stimulation of the mitotic process. In contrast, the phagocytic activity, of the protozoan was decreased after the administration of cocaine, an effect that was more extensive after the administration of crack. These results, derived from previous experiments, suggest a possible relationship between the observed immunosuppression in cocaine abusers and the immunosuppression found in the protozoan. This suppression subsequently may play a role in the development of other opportunistic infections in drug abusers. This paper, based on in vivo experiments with the protozoan Tetrahymena, suggests the compromised immune response in cocaine addicts and assures the reported effects of cocaine on immune cell function. PMID:21696343

  11. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  12. Glutamatergic neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Uys, Joachim D; Reissner, Kathryn J

    2011-01-01

    Neuroadaptations among glutamatergic projections within the mesocorticolimbic circuits engaged by drugs of abuse have been described since the 1990s. There is now substantial evidence that drugs of abuse lead to long-term changes in glutamatergic signaling and encompass multiple levels of analysis. For example, cocaine induces changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations and in synaptic glutamatergic transmission. In addition, glutamate receptors are required for the expression of cocaine-related behaviors, and long-term changes have been reported in the expression of proteins at glutamatergic synapses, in glutamate-related redox regulation of neurons, and in glutamatergic synaptic and structural plasticity following chronic exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we will describe the neurocircuitry involved, and will summarize evidence for adaptations in glutamatergic neuroplasticity as a mechanism for cocaine addiction. Finally, we will discuss progress in the development of glutamate-mediated pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21199777

  13. Heavy cocaine use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Schwartz, R H; Martin, D M

    1989-04-01

    Adolescents are susceptible to becoming cocaine users. Twenty-eight teenagers in a drug rehabilitation program were identified as heavy cocaine users and questioned about their experiences. They reported family conflict leading to running away (86%), school drop-out (24%) and delinquent behaviors such as stealing (96%) and vandalism (57%). Cocaine use started at 14 years for 21%, with progression from onset to at least weekly use within eight weeks (54%). Side effects included sleep disturbance (18%) and tolerance to cocaine (25%). Withdrawal was characterized by cocaine craving up to one month later (93%). The majority (96%) were polydrug abusers. Possible causes of teen substance abuse are discussed, and the importance of prevention is emphasized. PMID:2927994

  14. Covalent modification of proteins by cocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shi-Xian; Bharat, Narine; Fischman, Marian C.; Landry, Donald W.

    2002-03-01

    Cocaine covalently modifies proteins through a reaction in which the methyl ester of cocaine acylates the -amino group of lysine residues. This reaction is highly specific in vitro, because no other amino acid reacts with cocaine, and only cocaine's methyl ester reacts with the lysine side chain. Covalently modified proteins were present in the plasma of rats and human subjects chronically exposed to cocaine. Modified endogenous proteins are immunogenic, and specific antibodies were elicited in mouse and detected in the plasma of human subjects. Covalent modification of proteins could explain cocaine's autoimmune effects and provide a new biochemical approach to cocaine's long-term actions.

  15. Structure-affinity relationship of the cocaine-binding aptamer with quinine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Slavkovic, Sladjana; Altunisik, Merve; Reinstein, Oren; Johnson, Philip E

    2015-05-15

    In addition to binding its target molecule, cocaine, the cocaine-binding aptamer tightly binds the alkaloid quinine. In order to understand better how the cocaine-binding aptamer interacts with quinine we have used isothermal titration calorimetry-based binding experiments to study the interaction of the cocaine-binding aptamer to a series of structural analogs of quinine. As a basis for comparison we also investigated the binding of the cocaine-binding aptamer to a set of cocaine metabolites. The bicyclic aromatic ring on quinine is essential for tight affinity by the cocaine-binding aptamer with 6-methoxyquinoline alone being sufficient for tight binding while the aliphatic portion of quinine, quinuclidine, does not show detectable binding. Compounds with three fused aromatic rings are not bound by the aptamer. Having a methoxy group at the 6-position of the bicyclic ring is important for binding as substituting it with a hydrogen, an alcohol or an amino group all result in lower binding affinity. For all ligands that bind, association is driven by a negative enthalpy compensated by unfavorable binding entropy. PMID:25858454

  16. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... Monitoring the Future 2015 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2014 View ...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  19. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  20. Effects of Marijuana Use during Pregnancy on Newborn Cry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; Dreher, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Investigated acoustic characteristics of the cries of 20 infants whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy. Cries of infants of marijuana users were shorter, had a higher percentage of dysphonation, a higher amd more variable fundamental frequency, and a lower first format than cries of 20 infants in a control group. (RJC)