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  1. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Blendy, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation.

  2. Multigenerational and Transgenerational Inheritance of Drug Exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Yohn, Nicole L.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Blendy, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation. PMID:25839742

  3. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in US birth cohorts since 1919.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R A; Gerstein, D R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined recent trends in initiation of psychoactive drug use. METHODS: Data from the 1991 through 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse were used to compare the percentages of US cohorts born from 1919 through 1975 who began using drugs before the ages of 15, 21, and 35. RESULTS: Initiation of cigarette smoking by males peaked in the 1941-1945 cohort, then declined steadily. For females, early smoking initiation rose through the 1951-1955 cohort and then stabilized. Initiation of alcohol use was less common than smoking for pre1950 cohorts but increased steadily, approaching cigarette use for cohorts born in the early 1970s. Only 2% of teenagers born in 1930-1940 tried marijuana; half the teenagers born in 1956-1965 did so. The percentage initiating marijuana use declined in the 1980s, more so among young adults than among teenagers. The use of cocaine and other illicit drugs echoed the rise of marijuana use but peaked later and showed less evidence of subsequent decline. Sex differences declined over time for every drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cohorts born since World War II have had much higher rates of illicit drug use initiation, but trends have varied by drug type, possibly reflecting changes in relative prices. PMID:9584029

  4. Women Inmate Substance Abusers’ Reactivity to Visual Alcohol, Cigarette, Marijuana, and Crack-Cocaine Cues: Approach and Avoidance as Separate Dimensions of Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Breiner, Mary J.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Christensen, Rita L.; Lang, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition for multidimensional assessments of cue-elicited craving, few studies have attempted to measure multiple response domains associated with craving. The present study evaluated the Ambivalence Model of Craving (Breiner et al., 1999; Stritzke et al., 2007) using a unique cue reactivity methodology designed to capture both the desire to use (approach inclination) and desire to not consume (avoidance inclination) in a clinical sample of incarcerated female substance abusers. Participants were 155 incarcerated women who were participating in or waiting to begin participation in a nine-month drug treatment program. Results indicated that all four substance cue-types (alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and crack cocaine) had good reliability and showed high specificity. Also, the validity of measuring approach and avoidance as separate dimensions was supported, as demonstrated by meaningful clinical distinctions between groups evincing different reactivity patterns and incremental prediction of avoidance inclinations on measures of stages of change readiness. Taken together, results continue to highlight the importance of measuring both approach and avoidance inclinations in the study of cue-elicited craving. PMID:23543075

  5. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  6. Nutritional effects of marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mohs, M E; Watson, R R; Leonard-Green, T

    1990-09-01

    Use of addictive drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine, affects food and liquid intake behavior, taste preference, and body weight. Changes in specific nutrient status and metabolism can also develop; heroin addiction can cause hyperkalemia and morphine use can result in calcium inhibition. Nutrition-related physiological aspects, such as impaired gastrin release, hypercholesterolemia, hypothermia, and hyperthermia, are also seen with morphine use. Nutrition-related conditions can affect sensitivity to and dependence on drugs and their effects. Diabetes decreases sensitivity to and dependence on morphine, protein deprivation produces preferential fat utilization with low cocaine use, and vitamin D deficiency decelerates morphine dependency. During use and/or withdrawal from nicotine, heroin, marijuana, and cocaine, major changes in food selection and intake occur, which result in weight gain or loss. Detailed human studies are needed to investigate the effects of drug use on the broad spectrum of nutrients and to determine the role of nutrition during drug withdrawal.

  7. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates, and Marijuana The first in a 5-part series, offers ... when a person uses cocaine, opiates (heroine), or marijuana. Download PDF 4.13 MB Chat Day Transcripts ...

  8. Post-treatment drinking among HIV patients: Relationship to pre-treatment marijuana and cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND For individuals with HIV, heavy drinking can pose serious threats to health. Some interventions are effective at reducing drinking in this population, but many HIV-infected heavy drinkers also use marijuana or cocaine. Although these drugs have predicted poor alcohol outcomes in other treatment studies, whether this occurs among HIV patients who drink heavily is unknown. METHODS Participants were binge-drinking HIV primary care patients (N=254) enrolled in a randomized trial of three brief drinking interventions over 60 days that varied in intensity. We investigated the relationship of baseline past-year drug use (marijuana-only, cocaine-only, both, neither) to end-of-treatment drinking quantity and frequency. We also evaluated whether the relationship between intervention type and end-of-treatment drinking varied by baseline drug use. Final models incorporated control for patients’ demographic and HIV characteristics. RESULTS In final models, drinking frequency at the end of treatment did not vary by baseline drug use, but drinking quantity did (X2 [3] = 13.87, p<0.01), with individuals using cocaine-only drinking significantly more per occasion (B=0.32, p<0.01). Baseline drug use also interacted with intervention condition in predicting end-of-treatment drinking quantity (X2 [6] = 13.98, p<0.05), but not frequency, with the largest discrepancies in end-of-treatment drinks per drinking day by intervention intensity among cocaine-only patients. CONCLUSIONS In general, HIV patients using cocaine evidenced the highest levels of drinking after alcohol intervention. However, these individuals also evidenced the most pronounced differences in end-of-treatment drinking by intervention intensity. These results suggest the importance of more intensive intervention for individuals using alcohol and cocaine. PMID:25920801

  9. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  10. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  11. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  12. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  13. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  14. Genes and pathways co-associated with the exposure to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and/or nicotine: a review of proteomics analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Yuan, Wenji; Li, Ming D

    2011-12-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic neuronal disease. In recent years, proteomics technology has been widely used to assess the protein expression in the brain tissues of both animals and humans exposed to addictive drugs. Through this approach, a large number of proteins potentially involved in the etiology of drug addictions have been identified, which provide a valuable resource to study protein function, biochemical pathways, and networks related to the molecular mechanisms underlying drug dependence. In this article, we summarize the recent application of proteomics to profiling protein expression patterns in animal or human brain tissues after the administration of alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine/heroin/butorphanol, or nicotine. From available reports, we compiled a list of 497 proteins associated with exposure to one or more addictive drugs, with 160 being related to exposure to at least two abused drugs. A number of biochemical pathways and biological processes appear to be enriched among these proteins, including synaptic transmission and signaling pathways related to neuronal functions. The data included in this work provide a summary and extension of the proteomics studies on drug addiction. Furthermore, the proteins and biological processes highlighted here may provide valuable insight into the cellular activities and biological processes in neurons in the development of drug addiction.

  15. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  16. Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a known antecedent to cocaine relapse. Through associative conditioning, it is hypothesized that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine and thus the salience of cocaine-related cues, which are important in maintaining drug-taking behavior. Cocaine-using individuals display a robust cocaine cue attentional bias as measured by fixation time during the visual probe task. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol administration on cocaine cue attentional bias using eye-tracking technology to directly measure attentional allocation. Methods Twenty current cocaine users completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study that tested the effect of three doses of alcohol (0.00, 0.325, 0.65 g/kg alcohol) on cocaine cue attentional bias using the visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. The participant-rated and physiological effects of alcohol were also assessed. Results Participants displayed a robust cocaine cue attentional bias following both placebo and alcohol administration as measured by fixation time, but not response time. Alcohol administration did not influence cocaine cue attentional bias, but increased craving for cocaine in a dose dependent manner. Alcohol produced prototypic psychomotor and participant-rated effects. Conclusions Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias. Alcohol-induced cocaine craving suggests that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine but not the salience of cocaine-related cues. PMID:26331880

  17. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  18. A meta-analysis of marijuana, cocaine and opiate toxicology study findings among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Joseph B; Wilson, David B; Maguire, Edward R; Ainsworth, Stephanie A; Clodfelter, Tammatha A

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT Aim To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics. Methods A meta-analysis of 18 independent studies identified from an extensive review of 239 published articles that met the inclusion criteria of reporting marijuana, cocaine and/or opiate toxicology test results for homicide victims. A total of 28 868 toxicology test results derived from 30 482 homicide victims across five countries were examined. Results On average, 6% of homicide victims tested positive for marijuana, 11% tested positive for cocaine, and 5% tested positive for opiates. The proportion of homicide victims testing positive for illicit drugs has increased over time. Age had a strong curvilinear relationship with toxicology test results, but gender differences were not apparent. Hispanic and African American homicide victims were more likely to test positive for cocaine; Caucasians were most likely to test positive for opiates. Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia. Conclusion There are relatively few studies of illicit drug toxicology reports from homicide victims that allow for cross-cultural comparisons. This study provides a basis for comparing future local toxicology test results to estimates from existing research.

  19. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Marijuana refers to ... drugs-abuse/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  20. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  1. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plan Search Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Revised February 2017 Photo by NIDA What is marijuana? Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, ...

  2. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  3. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  4. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  5. Impacts of Changing Marijuana Policies on Alcohol Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fleming, Charles B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kosterman, Rick; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana policies are rapidly evolving. In the United States, recreational use of marijuana is now legal in four states and medical marijuana is legal in 23 states. Research evaluating such policies has focused primarily on how policies affect issues of price, access to, use, and consequences of marijuana. Due to potential spillover effects, researchers also need to examine how marijuana policies may impact use and consequences of alcohol. Methods The current paper is a critical review of articles evaluating alcohol outcomes associated with marijuana decriminalization, medical marijuana legalization, and non-medical or recreational marijuana legalization. We identified articles and reports through (1) online searches of EBSCO host database including Academic search premier, Econlit, Legal collection, Medline, Psych articles, and PsycINFO, as well as PubMed and Google Scholar databases; (2) review of additional articles cited in papers identified through electronic searches; and (3) targeted searches of state and local government records regarding marijuana law implementation. We reviewed studies with respect to their data sources and sample characteristics, methodology, and the margin of alcohol and marijuana use, timing of policy change, and the aspects of laws examined. Results The extant literature provides some evidence for both substitution (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to less alcohol use as marijuana becomes a substitute) and complementary (i.e., more liberal marijuana policies related to increases in both marijuana and alcohol use) relationships in the context of liberalization of marijuana policies in the United States. Conclusions Impact of more liberal marijuana policies on alcohol use is complex, and likely depends on specific aspects of policy implementation, including how long the policy has been in place. Further, evaluation of marijuana policy effects on alcohol use may be sensitive to the age group studied and the

  6. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  7. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  8. Normalising desistance: contextualising marijuana and cocaine use careers in young adults.

    PubMed

    Roussell, Aaron; Omori, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    Although there is a vast literature on drug use and addiction, there is little work that addresses the long-term use of drugs within the general population. We take a more contextual look in examining longitudinal drug use patterns over the course of 14 years for a representative sample of young adults in their late teens and early twenties in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We use a growth trajectory modelling approach for cocaine and marijuana users to determine general use careers. Using contextual and life-course variables, we then estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to predict group membership. In addition to establishing general use career groups, we ask how well mainstream theories comport with our findings and how the different chemical makeup of cocaine and marijuana influence our findings. We find four general use career groups: (i) high use/late desistance; (ii) peaked use/strong desistance; (iii) low use; and (iv) stable use/gradual desistance. Our results suggest similar careers for users of both drugs, with desistance over time as the rule for all groups. We also find some support for life-course and contextual factors in drug using patterns, but our findings challenge other psychological and criminological theories.

  9. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a…

  10. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the…

  11. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Neighbors, Clayton; Christina Hove, M.; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Method: Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Results: Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults’ passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention. PMID:26402355

  12. Differences between Alcoholics and Cocaine Addicts Seeking Treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-03-03

    This study explored the characteristics of a representative sample of patients who were addicted to either alcohol or cocaine, comparing the profiles of both types of drug users. A sample of 234 addicted patients (109 alcoholics and 125 cocaine addicts) who sought outpatient treatment in a Spanish clinical centre was assessed. Data on socio-demographic, consumption, psychopathological and maladjustment characteristics were collected using the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Demographically, differences were observed with regard to age (alcoholics were older than cocaine addicts; t = 12.2, p = .001), employment (the alcoholic group had more labor problems; χ 2 = 6.2, p = .045) and family consequences (worse in alcoholics; t = 2.3, p = .025). The EuropASI results showed statistically significant differences in addiction severity, with alcoholics showing a greater severity than cocaine addicts. In terms of psychopathology, alcoholics presented more associated symptomatology than cocaine addicts. According to these results, patients with alcohol dependence have a different profile from patients with cocaine dependence, resulting in different repercussions for important areas of their lives. These differences should be taken into account when standard treatments for addiction are implemented.

  13. Identifying classes of conjoint alcohol and marijuana use in entering freshmen.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert; Macia, Kathryn; Shields, Micah; Macher, Rayna; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    The current study identified classes of conjoint marijuana and alcohol use in entering college freshmen using latent profile analysis (N = 772; 53% male, 60% White; Mage = 18). Results yielded 4 distinct groups: Class 1 (moderate drinking with recent marijuana use: 22% of sample), Class 2 (moderate drinking with no recent marijuana use: 25%), Class 3 (light drinking with no recent marijuana use: 40%) and Class 4 (heavy drinking with recent marijuana use: 14%). Separate pairwise contrasts examined cross-class differences in demographics and drinking behaviors, comparing differences in drinking when current marijuana use was controlled (Class 1 vs. 4) and differences in marijuana use when drinking was held relatively constant (Class 1 vs. 2). Among moderate drinkers, recent marijuana users were more likely to drink more than intended, drink to get drunk, and had more problems (including higher rates of blackouts, physical injury, and DUI) relative to peers who refrained from marijuana. No cross-class differences were found for alcohol expectancies or behavioral motives. Findings from these analyses show the presence of distinct groups of conjoint users with different drinking behaviors and consequence profiles, and suggest that conjoint alcohol-marijuana use may be more problematic overall than single substance involvement and highlight the need for developing campus prevention and intervention programs that address the increased risk from polysubstance involvement.

  14. A comparison of motivations for use among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder in a sample of simultaneous cocaine and alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Pakula, Basia; Roth, Eric A

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the motivations for using cocaine and alcohol comparing those who primarily smoked crack and those who primarily used cocaine powder when using simultaneously with alcohol. Motivations examined included: 1) to cope with a negative affect, 2) enhancement, 3) to be social and 4) to conform. The research design was a cross-sectional study in which clients in treatment for cocaine and alcohol problems completed a self-administered questionnaire about their substance use. Among those who primarily smoked crack or snorted cocaine when also using alcohol (n=153), there were 93 participants who reported primarily snorting cocaine and 60 participants who primarily reported smoking crack. Bivariate analyses found that those who primarily smoked crack reported lower social motivations to use alcohol and cocaine. When adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate analysis, social motivation was still significantly different between groups. Additionally, those who primarily smoked crack were more likely to be older, report higher cocaine dependence severity, be unemployed and were less likely to have completed some post-secondary education, than those who primarily snorted cocaine. No differences were found in enhancement, coping or conformity motivations between the two groups. These results suggest that simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may have social importance to those who primarily snort cocaine, but that this importance is less evident to those who smoke crack. Consequently, future studies examining motivations for simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use should distinguish between different routes of cocaine administration.

  15. Outcomes Associated with Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Urban Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Johnson, Renee M.; Matson, Pamela A.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study identifies and compares outcomes in young adulthood associated with longitudinal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence among urban youth. Method Data come from a cohort of 678 urban, predominantly Black children followed from ages 6–25 (1993–2012). Analyses are based on the 608 children who participated over time (53.6% male). Longitudinal patterning of alcohol and marijuana use were based on annual frequency reports from grades 8–12 and estimated through latent profile analysis. Results We identified four classes of alcohol and marijuana use including Non-Use (47%), Moderate Alcohol Use (28%), Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use (12%) and High Dual Use (13%). A marijuana only class was not identified. Analyses show negative outcomes in adulthood associated with all three adolescent substance use classes. Compared to the non-use class, all use classes had statistically significantly higher rates of substance dependence. Those in the ‘High Dual Use’ class had the lowest rate of high school graduation. Comparing classes with similar alcohol but different marijuana patterns, the ‘Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use’ class had a statistically significant increased risk of having a criminal justice record and developing substance use dependence in adulthood. Conclusion Among urban youth, heterogeneous patterns of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence are evident, and these patterns are associated with distinct outcomes in adulthood. These findings suggest a need for targeted education and intervention efforts to address the needs of youth using both marijuana and alcohol, as well as the importance of universal early preventive intervention efforts. PMID:26517712

  16. Examining a Partial Biopsychosocial Model for Monthly Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Barry, Adam E; Merianos, Ashley L

    Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used substances among adolescents. In the context of the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM), this study investigated the relationships between psychological and normative factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Data were analyzed from 1053 middle and high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between BPSM constructs. Results indicate that latent constructs of the BPSM are significant antecedent factors to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; however, the relationships between study constructs were inconsistent with those theorized by BPSM. Findings support the importance of theory testing for complex models applied to new topics and new populations.

  17. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  18. Prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age 10.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2004-01-01

    The effects of prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure on school achievement at 10 years of age were examined. Women were interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, high-school-educated, and light-to-moderate users of marijuana and alcohol. The sample was equally divided between Caucasian and African-American women. At the 10-year follow-up, the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana or alcohol on the academic performance of 606 children were assessed. Exposure to one or more marijuana joints per day during the first trimester predicted deficits in Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) reading and spelling scores and a lower rating on the teachers' evaluations of the children's performance. This relation was mediated by the effects of first-trimester marijuana exposure on the children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Second-trimester marijuana use was significantly associated with reading comprehension and underachievement. Exposure to alcohol during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy predicted poorer teachers' ratings of overall school performance. Second-trimester binge drinking predicted lower reading scores. There was no interaction between prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure. Each was an independent predictor of academic performance.

  19. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  20. Alcohol and cocaine use among first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Canterbury, R J; Gressard, C F; Vieweg, W V; Grossman, S J; Westerman, P S; McKelway, R B

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed 1528 first-year students at the University of Virginia, 1 month after their arrival on campus, who had used alcohol at some time in their lives. Our survey was designed to identify alcohol and cocaine use, and related psychosocial patterns. Men drank more and more often than women. Our data suggest that body weight should be considered in defining those who drink heavily and often. We define 'frequent heavy drinking' as five or more drinks in a row each week for men and three to four drinks or more in a row each week for women. Frequent heavy drinkers, cocaine users, and students with psychosocial problems appeared disproportionately among students planning to join fraternities and sororities. Although first-year students used cocaine infrequently, its users followed the patterns of frequent heavy drinkers. We believe efforts to correct alcohol and cocaine misuse by college students should be directed, in part, at social organizations such as Greek-letter societies. Also, we must attend to psychosocial features that predispose to alcohol and cocaine misuse.

  1. Screening for marijuana and cocaine abuse by immunoanalysis and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Sara; Heredia-Lezama, Karina; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Fuentes-Lara, Griselda; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Deciga-Campos, Myrna

    2008-10-01

    Drug abuse among college students is characterized by lower academic performance and long-term negative consequences. Screening to detect students at high risk of consuming drugs is of primary importance to insure early identification and appropriate levels of care. As a result, this study aimed to determine the current or past use of drug abuse through a questionnaire applied to a student population at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. The results were confirmed by immunoanalysis and gas chromatography of urine. We interviewed 181 students aged 15 to 21 (gender was not considered in this study), and urine samples were collected for analytical analysis. For detection of metabolites Delta9-THCA-A and benzoylecgonine from marijuana and cocaine, respectively, a homogenous enzymatic inmmunoanalysis was used; subsequent samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer with quadrupole detector. Seven samples of the total (181) did not completely fit the inclusion criteria and were eliminated. The results showed 0.50% and 1.16% positive samples for benzoylecgonine and Delta9-THCA-A, respectively. These results are not different from those of the National Questionnaire on Addiction. We can establish a program for detecting drug consumption in our students. This kind of study is important in order to implement programs that can help us to decrease the abuse of drugs in our college population.

  2. An overview of cocaethylene, an alcohol-derived, psychoactive, cocaine metabolite.

    PubMed

    Landry, M J

    1992-01-01

    Cocaethylene is a psychoactive ethyl homologue of cocaine, and is formed exclusively during the coadministration of cocaine and alcohol. Not a natural alkaloid of the coca leaf, cocaethylene can be identified in the urine, blood, hair, and neurological and liver tissue samples of individuals who have consumed both cocaine and alcohol. With a pharmacologic profile similar to cocaine, it can block the dopamine transporter on dopaminergic presynaptic nerve terminals in the brain. It increases dopamine synaptic content, provoking enhanced postsynaptic receptor stimulation, resulting in euphoria, reinforcement, and self-administration. Equipotent to cocaine with regard to dopamine transporter affinity, cocaethylene appears to be far less potent than cocaine with regard to serotonin transporter binding. Lacking the serotonergic-related inhibitory mechanism, cocaethylene appears to be more euphorigenic and rewarding than cocaine. Synthesized and administered cocaethylene has a behavioral stimulation profile similar to cocaine. Cocaethylene has been shown to be less potent and equipotent to cocaine, and alcohol plus cocaine produces more stimulatory locomotor behavior in mice than either drug alone. Equipotent to cocaine with regard to primate reinforcement and self-administration, cocaethylene can substitute for cocaine in drug discrimination studies, and can produce stimulation of operant conditioning in rats. With regard to lethality, cocaethylene has been shown to be more potent than cocaine in mice and rats. The combination of cocaine and alcohol appears to exert more cardiovascular toxicity than either drug alone in humans. Alcohol appears to potentiate cocaine hepatotoxicity in both humans and mice.

  3. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  4. Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use among Fourth-Grade Urban Schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Patricia J.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use by fourth graders in Washington, DC (n=4,675 in 1988-89 and n=4,678 in 1990-91). Lifetime prevalence of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use without parental knowledge, and smoking more than a puff of a cigarette declined, although marijuana use and cigarette experimentation did not decline. (SLD)

  5. Young Adults’ Exposure to Alcohol- and Marijuana-Related Content on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Nguyen, E. Peter; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Bierut, Laura J.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Twitter is among the most popular social media platforms used by young adults, yet it has been underutilized in substance use research compared with older platforms (e.g., MySpace and Facebook). We took a first step toward studying the associations between exposure to pro–alcohol- and marijuana-related content among young adults via Twitter and current heavy episodic drinking and current marijuana use, respectively. Method: We conducted an online survey of 587 (254 men, 333 women) Twitter users between ages 18 and 25 years in February 2014 using an online survey system that has been previously used in research on health behaviors and attitudes. Results: Current heavy episodic drinking was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-alcohol content. Similarly, current marijuana use was significantly associated with higher levels of exposure to pro-marijuana content. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in-depth research regarding young adults’ exposure to pro–alcohol- and marijuana-related content via Twitter may provide a foundation for developing effective prevention messages on this social media platform to counter the pro–alcohol and marijuana messages. PMID:26997194

  6. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cocaine KidsHealth > For Teens > Cocaine A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Cocaine What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive drug ...

  7. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and marijuana use and IPV perpetration. Participants were college women who had consumed alcohol in the previous month and were in a dating relationship (N = 173). For up to 90 consecutive days, women completed daily surveys that assessed their alcohol use, marijuana use, angry affect (anger, hostility, and irritation), and violence perpetration (psychological and physical). On alcohol use days, marijuana use days, and with increases in angry affect, the odds of psychological aggression increased. Only alcohol use days and increases in angry affect increased the odds of physical aggression. Moreover, the main effects of alcohol and marijuana use on aggression were moderated by angry affect. Alcohol was positively associated with psychological and physical aggression when angry affect was high, but was unrelated to aggression when angry affect was low. Marijuana use was associated with psychological aggression when angry affect was high. Findings advance our understanding of the proximal effect of alcohol and marijuana use on dating violence, including the potential moderating effect of angry affect on this relation. PMID:24274434

  8. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  9. Developing public health regulations for marijuana: lessons from alcohol and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Chaloupka, Frank J; Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2014-06-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes-not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century.

  10. The protective effects of ethnic identity for alcohol and marijuana use among Black young adults.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Lisa A; Bry, Brenna H

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in alcohol and marijuana use among 167 Black university students could be accounted for by degree of ethnic identity. After controlling for year in school, sex, and friends' substance use, higher levels of ethnic identity indeed were found to be significantly related to lower beer/hard liquor use, wine use, and marijuana use, accounting for approximately 31%, 6%, and 4% of the variance, respectively. For marijuana use, however, friends' substance use accounted for more of the variance (13%) than did ethnic identity (4%).

  11. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... used cocaine (any form of cocaine, such as, powder, crack, or freebase, one or more times during ... 2.2 No change 1999—2013 Ever used methamphetamines (also called "speed", "crystal", "crank", or "ice", one ...

  12. Storytelling for Empowerment: Decreasing At-Risk Youth's Alcohol and Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Annabelle; Arthur, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Research compared Storytelling for Empowerment Program participants' pre and posttest responses on drug use. High contact participants had the most marked changes with a decrease in their alcohol and marijuana use. All participants in the last year of the program, regardless of contact hours, decreased their alcohol use and increased in their…

  13. High-dose naltrexone therapy for cocaine-alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Green, Charles E; Herin, David V; Stotts, Angela L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of high-dose (100 mg/d) naltrexone versus placebo in a sample of 87 randomized subjects with both cocaine and alcohol dependence. Medication conditions were crossed with two behavioral therapy platforms that examined whether adding contingency management (CM) that targeted cocaine abstinence would enhance naltrexone effects compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) without CM. Primary outcome measures for cocaine (urine screens) and alcohol use (timeline followback) were collected thrice-weekly during 12 weeks of treatment. Retention in treatment and medication compliance rates were low. Rates of cocaine use and drinks per day did not differ between treatment groups; however naltrexone did reduce frequency of heavy drinking days, as did CBT without CM. Notably, adding CM to CBT did not enhance treatment outcomes. These weak findings suggest that pharmacological and behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy in the treatment of a single drug dependence disorder may not provide the coverage needed when targeting dual drug dependence.

  14. Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic performance in college students

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V.; Pittman, Brian; Rosen, Rivkah R.; Aslanzadeh, Farah; Tennen, Howard; Leen, Samantha; Hawkins, Keith; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol S.; Dager, Alecia; Fallahi, Carolyn; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol and marijuana are the two most abused substances in US colleges. However, research on the combined influence (cross sectional or longitudinal) of these substances on academic performance is currently scant. Methods Data were derived from the longitudinal 2-year Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study including 1142 freshman students who completed monthly marijuana use and alcohol consumption surveys. Subjects were classified into data-driven groups based on their alcohol and marijuana consumption. A linear mixed-model (LMM) was employed using this grouping factor to predict grade point average (GPA), adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and clinical factors. Results Three data-driven clusters emerged: 1) No/low users of both, 2) medium-high alcohol/no-low marijuana, and 3) medium-high users of both substances. Individual cluster derivations between consecutive semesters remained stable. No significant interaction between clusters and semester (time) was noted. Post-hoc analysis suggest that at the outset, compared to sober peers, students using moderate to high levels of alcohol and low marijuana demonstrate lower GPAs, but this difference becomes non-significant over time. In contrast, students consuming both substances at moderate-to-high levels score significantly lower at both the outset and across the 2-year investigation period. Our follow-up analysis also indicate that when students curtailed their substance use over time they had significantly higher academic GPA compared to those who remained stable in their substance use patterns over the two year period. Conclusions Overall, our study validates and extends the current literature by providing important implications of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement in college. PMID:28273162

  15. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  16. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  17. Attitudes Associated With Alcohol and Marijuana Referral Actions by Resident Assistants

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Cynthia J.; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined associations between resident assistant (RA) attitudes and referral actions to identify training strategies for strengthening the ability of these paraprofessionals to recognize and refer college students in their living units who misuse alcohol and marijuana. The study’s hypotheses were that (1) referral self-efficacy and perceived referral norms would be positively associated with RA referral actions and (2) perceived referral barriers and referral anticipatory anxiety would be negatively associated with RAs’ referral actions. A total of 317 RAs at eight residential campuses in different regions of the U.S. took part in the study. All participating RAs had at least one semester of work experience. Just prior to the Fall semester of 2012, RA’s responded to an online survey that assessed their alcohol and marijuana referral attitudes and referral actions. Overall, RAs reported considerable anxiety about approaching and referring students who may have an alcohol and/or marijuana problem. Perceived referral norms among RAs indicated substantial variability in perceptions about others’ expectations of them for referring students who may have alcohol and marijuana problems. Results from two multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that referral self-efficacy distinguished RAs who took alcohol referral actions and marijuana referral actions from those who did not do so. Neither length of RA service nor time spent on campus was associated with referral actions. RA training programs could give attention to strengthening referral self-efficacy through a series of increasingly difficult skill-building activities during pre- and in-service training. In addition, senior residence life and housing professional staff may consider assessing the extent to which RAs under their supervision follow established protocols for assisting students with possible alcohol and marijuana problems. The development of evidence-based RA training

  18. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Cocaine COCAINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... your Save in directory and then click Save. Cocaine Crack Cocaine RESOURCE CENTER Controlled Substances Act DEA ...

  19. The association between substance use disorders and early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in two American Indian populations

    PubMed Central

    O'CONNELL, JOAN M.; NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; WHITESELL, NANCY R.; SPICER, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with diagnoses of alcohol and marijuana use disorders in two American Indian (AI) populations. Method Data were drawn from a psychiatric epidemiologic study of 3084 AIs living on or near two reservations. We analysed data for adults aged 18–54 years at the time of interview (n = 2739). Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with lifetime diagnoses of abuse and dependence. Results Overall, younger AIs (18–29 years old) were more likely than older AIs (40–54 years old) to initiate substance use early and initiate use with marijuana, with or without alcohol. Persons who initiated alcohol use before age 14 were more than twice as likely as those who initiated use at older ages to meet criteria for alcohol or marijuana use disorders (p < 0.01). The odds of abuse or dependence were two to five times higher among persons who reported combined use of alcohol and marijuana (p < 0.01) than among those who reported use of either substance. Conclusions These findings document the need to address both early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:26582968

  20. Alcohol, cannabis and cocaine usage in patients with trauma injuries.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Duncan, N D; Mitchell, D I

    1999-12-01

    Sera from 111 patients with trauma injuries, who presented to the Accident and Emergency Unit (A&E), University Hospital of the West Indies, during a 3-month period, were screened for blood alcohol. Urine specimens were analysed for metabolites of cannabis and cocaine. Sixty-two per cent (62%) of patients were positive for at least one substance and 20% for two or more. Positivity rates were as follows: cannabis (46%), alcohol (32%) with 71% of these having blood alcohol levels (BAC) greater than 80 mg per decilitre; cocaine (6%). Substance usage was most prevalent in the third decade of life. The patients who yielded a positive result were significantly younger than those who were negative. There was no significant difference in age or substance usage between the victims of interpersonal violence or road traffic accidents. In the group designated "other accidents", patients were significantly older and had a lower incidence of substance usage than the other two groups. Cannabis was the most prevalent substance in all groups. Fifty per cent (50%) and fifty-five per cent (55%) of victims of road accidents and interpersonal violence, respectively, were positive for cannabis compared with 43% and 27% for alcohol, respectively. There was no significant difference in Hospital Stay or Injury Severity Score between substance users and non-users.

  1. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  2. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  3. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  4. Dressing in Costume and the Use of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Other Drugs by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kimberly A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared behavior of college students who wore costumes on Halloween with those who did not. Findings from 805 females and 448 males surveyed over 5-year period revealed significant associations between dressing in costume and drinking alcohol and between masquerading with group and using marijuana and other drugs. Found no significant…

  5. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cocaine KidsHealth > For Teens > Cocaine Print A A A ... Quit? Avoiding Cocaine en español Cocaína What Is Cocaine? Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive drug ...

  6. Dressing in costume and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs by college students.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Jasper, C R; Hill, D R

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the behavior of college students who wore costumes on Halloween with those who did not. It was designed to examine the degree to which college students disguised their identity at Halloween, whether they masqueraded with a group, and whether these factors were related to alcohol and other drug use behaviors. The sample included 805 females and 448 males from two colleges. They were surveyed over a five-year period. The findings revealed significant associations between dressing in costume and drinking alcohol, and between masquerading with a group and using marijuana and other drugs. No significant associations were found between disguise of identity and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs.

  7. Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Nick J.; Yeager, Rebecca D.

    Cocaine was first used by Europeans in the nineteenth century when extract from the coca leaf was combined with various beverages. Cocaine comes as a white crystalline powder. However, a product called crack cocaine may come as an opaque crystal similar in size and shape to rock salt. A third form of cocaine is known as coca paste, which is an…

  8. The Effect of Perceived Risk on the Combined Used of Alcohol and Marijuana: Results from Daily Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Patrick, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies looking at the association between perceived risk and simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana are scarce. The present study has three purposes: (1) To examine the association between alcohol and marijuana use at the daily level; (2) To document how this association varies by the perceived risk of using alcohol and marijuana simultaneously; (3) To test whether the association varies by college attendance. Methods 89 young adults (Mean Age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.5) participated between October 2012 and May 2013. Participants completed a 30-minute survey followed by 14 brief daily surveys in each of three waves. Results Alcohol use on a given day was associated with increased odds of marijuana use that day, especially among young adults with lower perceived risk. For college students, the association between alcohol and marijuana was weaker than for non-students. Conclusions Alcohol and marijuana use were associated at a daily level, especially among young adults with lower perceived risk and those who were not attending college. PMID:26086039

  9. Controlling Cocaine: Supplying Versus Demand Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    programs are administered to preteens , while cocaine use does not normally start until the late teens and early twenties. 7 A primary activity of...initiation for various drugs. Prevention programs attempt to convince preteens to abstain from marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Therefore, to argue that

  10. School-Level Correlates of Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Danielle; Mrug, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background School-level characteristics are related to students’ substance use, but little research systematically examined multiple school characteristics in relation to different types of substance use across grade levels. Objectives This study examines multiple school-level characteristics as correlates of students’ tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and combined substance use across three grade levels. Methods Students (N = 23,615) from 42 urban and suburban middle schools and 24 high schools in the U.S. reported on their tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Students’ mean age was 14 years; 47% were male, 53% African American and 41% Caucasian. School-level data included poverty, racial composition, academic achievement, student-teacher ratio, absenteeism, and school size. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regressions tested associations between school-level predictors and adolescent substance use in middle school, early high school and late high school. Results School-level poverty, more ethnic minority students, low achievement, and higher absenteeism were related to alcohol, marijuana and combined substance use, particularly at lower grade levels. By contrast, cigarette smoking was more prevalent in more affluent high schools with more White students. After adjusting for other school characteristics, absenteeism emerged as the most consistent predictor of student substance use. Conclusions/Importance Interventions addressing absenteeism and truancy in middle and high schools may help prevent student substance use. Schools serving poor, urban, and mostly minority students may benefit from interventions targeting alcohol and marijuana use, whereas interventions focusing on tobacco use prevention may be more relevant for schools serving more affluent and predominantly White students. PMID:26584423

  11. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  12. Stress and Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in Families with Undocumented Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Merten, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Families in which one or more members are undocumented immigrants experience unique hardships. Yet, little is known about stress and substance use among adolescents growing up in these families. The present study examined associations between two sources of adolescent stress (i.e., low parental involvement due to contextual constraints and family economic insecurity) and lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among adolescents in families with undocumented members. The sample was comprised of 102 adolescents (10–18 years old) and one of his or her parents. Participants responded a survey in English or Spanish. Adolescent lifetime use of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana was 51%, 32.4%, and 37.3%, respectively. Chi–Square analyses found no significant gender differences in lifetime substance use. Logistic regression models showed that adolescent stress due to hindered parental involvement increased the odds of both lifetime cigarette and marijuana use after controlling for gender, age, linguistic acculturation, familism, parental control, and negative peer affiliation. Being a girl increased the odds of lifetime alcohol use. Family economic stress was not associated with lifetime substance use. Results suggest that hindered parental involvement might be a stressor and a risk factor for cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents growing up in families with undocumented members. Because parents in these families are likely to be undocumented, policies that allow immigrants to apply for legal status could improve parents' working conditions and facilitate parental involvement; in turn, such policies could decrease the risk for adolescent substance use among children of Latino immigrants. PMID:26900317

  13. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, ... Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe. Cocaine speeds up your whole body. You may feel ...

  14. Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Treatment Nonadherence Among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Huang, Quian; Levy, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face peak risks for onset and intensification of alcohol and marijuana use. However, we know little about these behaviors and their associations with knowledge or treatment adherence among chronically ill youth, a medically vulnerable group. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of consented youth ages 9 to 18 years receiving care for asthma/cystic fibrosis, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a self-administered online tool. Prevalence and correlates of risk behaviors and associations with knowledge and treatment adherence were estimated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, controlling for demographics, mental health, and the multiclinic sampling frame. RESULTS: Of 403 consented youth (75.8% response), 51.6% were girls, 75.1% were white, and average age was 15.6 years. Of high school youth, 36.5% and 12.7% reported past-year alcohol use and binge drinking, respectively; 20% reported past-year marijuana use. Among high school youth, 53.1% and 37.2% answered correctly that alcohol can interfere with their medications and laboratory tests; youth answering incorrectly were 8.53 and 4.46 times more likely to drink and binge drink, respectively (P values < .001). Thirty-two percent and 8.3% of high school youth reported regularly forgetting or skipping their medications in the past 30 days; compared with past-year nondrinking youth, drinkers were 1.79 and 1.61 times as likely to report regularly missing or skipping medications (P values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and marijuana use are common among youth with chronic medical conditions. Alcohol use is associated with treatment nonadherence. Education and preventive interventions are warranted to ameliorate risk. PMID:26668849

  15. The Relationships of Parental Alcohol Versus Tobacco and Marijuana Use With Early Adolescent Onset of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Kerr, David C. R.; Pears, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the use of tobacco and marijuana by fathers or mothers predicted onset of alcohol use in their offspring over and above effects of parental alcohol use. Method: The present study included 146 children of 93 parents (90 fathers and 85 mothers). The fathers were originally recruited as boys to the Oregon Youth Study, a study of community, familial, and individual risk factors for delinquency. Results: Only mothers’ but not fathers’ alcohol use was associated with children’s age at onset. Children’s age at onset was predicted by mothers’ tobacco use and by the interaction of fathers’ marijuana use and alcohol use. These effects were observed when controlling for parental education, child’s gender, and also child’s antisocial behavior—a general developmental risk factor for substance use onset in adolescence. Conclusions: Mothers’ substance use played a major role in childhood onset of alcohol use, yet the role of maternal substance use as a risk factor for their children has previously received less attention than the role of paternal substance use. Also, findings imply that it may be important to identify children of polysubstance-using parents for targeted prevention programs. PMID:26751359

  16. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  17. Concurrent Alcohol Dependence Among Methadone-Maintained Cocaine Abusers Is Associated with Greater Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shannon A.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol dependence (AD) among polysubstance abusers has been associated with negative consequences, although it may not necessarily lead to poor treatment outcomes. One of the most efficacious treatments for cocaine abuse is contingency management (CM), but little research has explored the impact of AD on abstinence outcomes, particularly among patients in methadone maintenance. Using data from three trials of CM for cocaine use, we compared baseline characteristics and post-treatment and follow-up cocaine outcomes between methadone maintained, cocaine dependent patients (N=193) with and without concurrent AD, randomized to standard care (SC) with or without CM. Patients with and without concurrent AD had similar baseline characteristics, with the exception that AD patients reported more alcohol use. AD patients achieved longer durations of cocaine abstinence and were more likely to submit a cocaine negative sample at follow-up than non-AD patients. Patients randomized to CM achieved better outcomes than those randomized to SC, but there was no interaction between treatment condition and AD status. These findings suggest that cocaine using methadone patients with AD achieve greater cocaine abstinence than their non-AD counterparts and should not be necessarily viewed as more difficult to treat. PMID:21463068

  18. Proximal and time-varying effects of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and other hard drug use on adolescent dating aggression.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  20. Policies and Practices Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drugs among American Secondary Schools and Their Association with Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines school policies relating to alcohol and illicit drug use, and their associations with the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana use among students. Both "punitive" and "supportive" policies are examined. Other studies examining punitive disciplinary measures--such as close monitoring of student behavior, having various security…

  1. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  2. Adverse psychosocial outcomes associated with drug use among US high school seniors: a comparison of alcohol and marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Fenstermaker, Michael; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is debate about whether marijuana (cannabis) use is more dangerous than alcohol use. Although difficult to make objective comparisons, research is needed to compare relative dangers in order to help inform preventive efforts and policy. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; Weighted n = 7437; modal age: 18) who reported lifetime use of alcohol or marijuana. Students were asked to indicate whether they experienced various adverse psychosocial outcomes resulting from use of each substance. We examined which outcomes were more prevalent for each substance. Results Compared to alcohol use, marijuana use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with teachers or supervisors, result in less energy or interest, and result in lower school or job performance. Compared to marijuana use, alcohol was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others; it was also reported to lead to more regret (particularly among females), and driving unsafely. Marijuana users were more likely to report no adverse outcomes. Females and white students were more likely to report various adverse outcomes and higher frequency use of each substance also increased occurrences of reported adverse outcomes. Conclusions Marijuana and alcohol are associated with unique adverse psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes differ by sex and race/ethnicity, and perception or experience of outcomes may also be related to legal status and associated stigma. Public health interventions may be more effective by focusing on harm reduction strategies for these drug-specific outcomes. PMID:25169838

  3. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Boscarino, Joseph A; Bucuvalas, Michael; Gold, Joel; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2002-06-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in the United States since the Civil War. Studies after earlier disasters have reported rates of psychological disorders in the acute postdisaster period. However, data on postdisaster increases in substance use are sparse. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among residents of Manhattan, New York City, 5-8 weeks after the attacks. Among 988 persons included, 28.8% reported an increase in use of any of these three substances, 9.7% reported an increase in smoking, 24.6% reported an increase in alcohol consumption, and 3.2% reported an increase in marijuana use. Persons who increased smoking of cigarettes and marijuana were more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were those who did not (24.2% vs. 5.6% posttraumatic stress disorder for cigarettes; 36.0% vs. 6.6% for marijuana). Depression was more common among those who increased than for those who did not increase cigarette smoking (22.1 vs. 8.2%), alcohol consumption (15.5 vs. 8.3%), and marijuana smoking (22.3 vs. 9.4%). The results of this study suggest a substantial increase in substance use in the acute postdisaster period after the September 11th attacks. Increase in use of different substances may be associated with the presence of different comorbid psychiatric conditions.

  4. Examining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Association between Adolescent Sleep and Alcohol or Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Ewing, Brett; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the association between self-reported measures of trouble sleeping, total sleep time (TST), and bedtimes and odds of past month alcohol and marijuana (AM) use in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Design Web-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Los Angeles (LA) County, California. Participants The sample is comprised of 2539 youth representing four distinct racial/ethnic categories (Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, Asian, and “Other”; mean age= 15.54; 54.23% female) from Los Angeles. Measurements The survey assessed TST and bedtimes (weekdays and weekends), trouble sleeping, and past month AM use, as well as relevant covariates (sociodemographics and mental health symptoms). Results Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of sleep problems and AM use, the associations between sleep problems and AM use were consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, shorter TST, later bedtimes, and trouble sleeping, were each associated with significantly higher odds of past month alcohol use, whereas later bedtimes and shorter TST were also associated with increased odds of past month marijuana use, even after adjusting for other known risk factors. Conclusions Sleep problems are associated with increased AM use in teens, even after controlling for sociodemographics and mental health symptoms. Further longitudinal research on sleep and AM use is critical to identify novel prevention and intervention efforts to reduce disparities in the relationship between sleep and AM use. PMID:26436131

  5. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  6. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  7. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Junior High School Students: Family, Peers, School Problems, and Psychosocial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes survey data from over 400 junior high school students in grades 7 and 8 to determine the relations among family drug use factors; peer drug use factors; school problems; psychosocial concerns; alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use; and abstinence. (SLD)

  8. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  10. Alcohol and marijuana use in early adulthood for at-risk men: Time-varying associations with peer and partner substance use

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Feingold, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Time-varying associations of 185 at-risk men’s (from the Oregon Youth Study) substance use with that of their peers and partner over a 10-year period (ages 23 to 32 years) were examined. Moderation of effects by time with peers and partner and their age were tested. Method Growth models were used to predict changes in heavy episodic drinking (HED) alcohol use and marijuana use as a function of substance use by their female partners and male peers. Results Time with peers and peer substance use significantly predicted HED (ORs=1.6, 2.3), alcohol use (ORs=1.6, 2.1), volume of alcohol use (IRRs = 1.5, 1.3), and marijuana use (ORs=12.8, 1.7); peer marijuana use predicted volume of marijuana use (B=2.5). Partner substance use significantly predicated marijuana volume (B=2.7). Partner alcohol use predicted alcohol volume (IRR=1.1), but was moderated by time with partner and age (IRR=1.0). Time with partner and partner marijuana use predicted marijuana use (OR=0.5, 2.7), as did the interaction of the two (OR=3.8). Conclusions Outcome-specific substance use of peers and partners was significantly associated with indicators of alcohol and marijuana use in men’s early adulthood, with robust effects of peer substance use through age 30 years and with time spent with peers influencing alcohol use. Time with partner was protective against marijuana use unless the partner used marijuana. Peers and partners should be considered in intervention efforts to effectively reduce men’s substance use in early adulthood. PMID:24793369

  11. Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jesse J.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men, but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender response to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems, or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. PMID:19034737

  12. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot.

  13. Enhanced morphine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, A; Mikkola, J; Korpi, E R; Hyytiä, P; Seppälä, T; Ahtee, L

    1999-03-01

    Locomotor stimulation and behavioral sensitization induced by acute and repeated treatment with alcohol, cocaine or morphine were studied in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol), alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats and non-selected Wistar rats. Daily treatment with alcohol (ethanol, 0.4 or 1.0 g/kg, IP) for 6 days had no effect on locomotor activity either in the AA or ANA rats. Acute cocaine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) produced a locomotor stimulation in the animals of all lines studied, and there was no difference in this effect between the AA and ANA rats. During a 4-day repeated cocaine treatment, the AA rats became sensitized with the 10 mg/kg dose, while the ANA rats did not show any sensitization with this dose. With the 20 mg/kg cocaine dose, in addition to locomotor stimulation, the rats of all lines studied showed stereotyped behavior, which response was enhanced during repeated treatment. Morphine-induced locomotor stimulation was larger in the AA rats than in the ANA or Wistar rats both with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg doses and only the AA rats were sensitized during 4-day treatment with the 1 mg/kg dose. With the 3.0 mg/kg morphine dose, only the AA rats showed a weak sensitization evident only during the initial 30 min after morphine injection. As the drug-induced behavioral sensitization is an important factor in the development of drug addiction, it is possible that mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility of the AA rats to morphine- and cocaine-induced sensitization contribute to the high intake of alcohol and other abused drugs by these animals.

  14. Breastfeeding and the use of recreational drugs--alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Liston, J

    1998-08-01

    This paper both reviews the current literature and explores anecdotal information as reported by Nursing Mothers' Breastfeeding Counsellors relating to breastfeeding and the use of alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana. All of these drugs do enter breastmilk to some extent and can have a detrimental effect on the production, volume, composition and ejection of breastmilk, as well as a direct adverse effect on the infant. Breastfeeding mothers should be encouraged to restrict their intake of these so-called recreational drugs. It is acknowledged that this is a particularly stressful period in a mother's life and that she may need additional support and practical suggestions to limit the exposure of these drugs to the infant.

  15. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  16. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  17. Nuclear changes in oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Webber, L P; Pellicioli, A C A; Magnusson, A S; Danilevicz, C K; Bueno, C C; Sant'Ana Filho, M; Rados, P V; Carrard, V C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of drugs of abuse on oral mucosa are only partly understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate the frequency of nuclear changes in normal-appearing oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users and (2) assess their association with cell proliferation rate. Oral smears were obtained from the border of the tongue and floor of the mouth of 26 crack cocaine users (24 males and 2 females), 29 alcoholics (17 males and 12 females), and 35 controls (17 males and 18 females). Histological slides were submitted to Feulgen staining to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN), binucleated cells (BN), broken eggs (BE), and karyorrhexis (KR). A significant increase in the frequency of MN was observed in cells exfoliated from the tongue of crack cocaine users (p = 0.01), and alcoholics showed a higher frequency of KR in cells obtained from the floor of the mouth (p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the use of crack cocaine induces clastogenic effects, whereas alcoholism is associated with higher degrees of keratinization in the floor of the mouth.

  18. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  19. Alcohol-induced brain growth restrictions (microencephaly) were not affected by concurrent exposure to cocaine during the brain growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Chen, W J; Andersen, K H; West, J R

    1994-09-01

    The prevalence of concomitant use of alcohol and cocaine among drug abusers has raised concern about the possible increased risk of fetal damage. The aim of this study was to assess the interactive effects of alcohol and cocaine on lethality, somatic growth, and brain growth using an animal model system. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were used as subjects. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 9 artificially reared groups which varied with respect to the combination treatments of cocaine (0, 40, or 60 mg/kg) and alcohol (0, 3.3, or 4.5 g/kg). All artificially reared pups were given daily cocaine and alcohol treatments during a major part of the brain growth spurt period (postnatal days 4-9). An additional group of suckled control animals raised by their natural dams was included to control for artificial rearing. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Drug-induced lethality was higher in cocaine-treated groups when compared with non-cocaine-treated groups, and the concurrent administration of high doses of alcohol and cocaine significantly increased the mortality rate. 2) Somatic growth, in terms of body weight, was not affected by alcohol, cocaine, or the combination of both drugs using the artificial rearing technique. 3) Alcohol exposure during this brain growth spurt period significantly reduced whole brain weight, as well as forebrain, cerebellum, and brain stem weights. 4) In contrast to alcohol, cocaine failed to exert a detrimental effect on brain weight measures during this early postnatal period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The influence of marijuana and alcohol use on condom use behavior: findings from a sample of young adult female bar drinkers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high-risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251 young adult, female bar drinkers. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type (known or casual) during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (Levels 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex.

  1. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  2. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  3. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  4. Cocaine effects on pregnancy and infant outcome: do we really know how bad it is?

    PubMed

    Dungy-Poythress, L J

    1995-01-01

    While cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with a number of negative outcomes for both mothers and infants, it is unclear to what extent cocaine is specifically responsible for these negative outcomes and how its effects are distinct from those associated with substance abuse in general. Use of other drugs commonly associated with cocaine abuse, such as alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, has also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Untoward pregnancy effects often ascribed to cocaine abuse in pregnancy may be more appropriately attributed to these or other drugs or to the unhealthy life-style associated with the long-term abuser rather than to cocaine itself. Epidemiologic data concerning cocaine use in pregnancy describe only associations of drug use and do not prove causality. Future research and longitudinal studies are needed to examine the roles of maternal and environmental factors in predicting differences in cocaine-exposed and nonexposed pregnancies.

  5. Validation of a Measure to Assess Alcohol- and Marijuana-Related Risks and Consequences Among Incarcerated Adolescents*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph S.; Martin, Rose Marie; Golembeske, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Few measures exist to assess risky behaviors and consequences as they relate to substance use in juvenile delinquents. This study sought to validate such a measure on a racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 175). Results indicate that alcohol-related risky behaviors and consequences comprise a single scale as do marijuana-related risky behaviors and consequences. Furthermore, results suggest that the retention of common items for both scales produces reliable and valid scales and maintains parsimony. Internal consistencies were more than adequate (0.72 – 0.83) and test-retest stabilities, even across several months were acceptable (0.52 - 0.50). The scales evidenced a high degree of concurrent and predictive incremental validity in predicting conduct disorder, dependence symptoms, and consumption patterns. Researchers can use these scales to measure a generalized construct tapping risks and consequences as related to alcohol and marijuana use. Ease of use may make these scales appealing to clinicians who can provide feedback to clients regarding risky behaviors involving alcohol and marijuana. PMID:20149558

  6. Concomitant consumption of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and progression: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Caio Fabio Baeta; de Angelis, Bruno Brandão; Prudente, Henrique Maciel; de Souza, Bernardo Vieira Goulart; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel

    2012-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) corresponds to 95% of all malignant tumours of the mouth. The association between alcohol and tobacco is the major risk factor for this disease, increasing the chances for the development of OSCC by 35-fold. The plant, Cannabis sativa is smoked as cigarettes or blunts and is commonly used in association with tobacco and alcohol. Any type of smoking habit exposes individuals to a wide range of carcinogens or pro-carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as some ethanol derived substances such as acetaldehyde (AA), and all are genotoxic in the same way. In addition, ethanol acts in the oral mucosa as a solvent and therefore increases the cellular membrane permeability to carcinogens. Carcinogens found in tobacco are also concentrated in marijuana, but the latter also contains high levels of cannabinoids, bioactive compounds responsible for several effects such as euphoria and analgesia. However, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the major psychotropic cannabinoid found in plants, causes a reduction of cellular metabolism and induction of apoptosis, both of which are anti-neoplastic properties. Apart from limited epidemiologic and experimental data, the effects of concomitant chronic exposure to marijuana (or Δ(9)-THC), tobacco and alcohol in OSCC development and progression is poorly known. This paper reviews the most recent findings on the effects of marijuana over cellular proliferation, as well as in the risk for OSCC, with emphasis on its interaction with tobacco and ethanol consumption.

  7. Levetiracetam has opposite effects on alcohol- and cocaine-related behaviors in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J Elliott; Chen, Meng; Stamatakis, Alice M; Krouse, Michael C; Howard, Elaina C; Faccidomo, Sara; Hodge, Clyde W; Fish, Eric W; Malanga, C J

    2013-06-01

    The antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) is a potential treatment for alcohol use disorders, yet few preclinical studies exist on its effects in animal models relevant to drug or alcohol abuse. We investigated the effects of LEV on locomotor stimulation following acute and repeated administration of alcohol or cocaine and on alcohol- and cocaine-mediated changes in responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) in C57BL/6J mice. LEV alone (10.0-100.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally) had no significant effect on locomotor activity or intracranial self-stimulation. Pretreatment with LEV reduced acute locomotor stimulation by 2.0 g/kg alcohol, attenuated the development of locomotor sensitization to alcohol with repeated exposure, and produced a shift in the dose-response curve for alcohol on BSR threshold without affecting maximum operant response rate (MAX). Conversely, LEV pretreatment enhanced both acute locomotor stimulation by 15 mg/kg cocaine and development of locomotor sensitization following repeated exposure and produced a leftward shift in the dose-response curve for cocaine on BSR threshold without affecting MAX. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro showed that LEV reduced excitatory currents in both ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons and nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons, consistent with a presynaptic effect. The opposite effects of LEV pretreatment on alcohol- and cocaine-related behaviors may predict its clinical utility in the treatment of patients with alcohol, but not psychostimulant abuse disorders.

  8. Are There Secondary Effects on Marijuana Use From Brief Alcohol Interventions for College Students?

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Jiao, Yang; Ray, Anne E.; Huh, David; Atkins, David C.; Larimer, Mary E.; Fromme, Kim; Corbin, William R.; Baer, John S.; Labrie, Joseph W.; Mun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether brief motivational interventions (BMIs) designed for reducing heavy drinking among college students have secondary effects on reducing marijuana use. Method: The data came from Project INTEGRATE, which combined data from 24 independent trials of BMIs and other individual-focused interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking and related problems among college students. We analyzed data from 10 samples across nine studies that used random assignment of participants into either a BMI or a control group and assessed marijuana use outcomes (N = 6,768; 41.5% men; 73.2% White; 57.7% first-year students; 19.2% current marijuana users at baseline). We derived three marijuana use groups within studies by cross-tabulating baseline and follow-up data: Nonusers, Reducers, and Stayers/Increasers. Results: Peto’s one-step odds ratio analyses for meta-analysis revealed no significant intervention effects on marijuana use at either short-term (1–3 month) or long-term (6–12 month) follow-up. Subsequent exploratory analyses showed that those who reduced drinking were more likely to be a marijuana Reducer or Nonuser, compared with a Stayer/Increaser, at both follow-ups. Conclusions: The BMIs to reduce heavy drinking evaluated in this study did not reduce marijuana use. However, our exploratory results suggest that if we can develop interventions for college students that effectively reduce drinking, we may also reduce their marijuana use. Furthermore, as recreational use of marijuana becomes legal or decriminalized and marijuana becomes more readily available, it may be necessary to develop interventions specifically targeting marijuana use among college students. PMID:25978822

  9. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  10. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sean P.; Harris, Robert A.; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  11. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  12. Marijuana and Other Substance Use Among Motor Vehicle Operators: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Harrell, Paul; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The deleterious effect of multiple-substance use on driving performance is well established, but relatively little research has examined the patterns of drug use among multiple-substance users and its relationship to both alcohol use and adverse driving outcomes. Method: The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of substance users among a population of drivers who screened positively for 2 or more of 13 substances other than alcohol (N = 250). A series of logistic regression analyses was conducted to examine demographic predictors of latent class assignment and class association with adverse driving outcomes. Results: Four distinct subclasses of users were identified among multiple-substance-using drivers: Class 1 consisted of individuals who demonstrated high levels of all substances indicators (5%). The second class demonstrated high levels of marijuana and cocaine use and lower levels of all other substances (27%). The third class screened high for marijuana and nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics use (36%), whereas the last class demonstrated high nonmedical prescription opiate analgesics and benzodiazepine use (32%). Drivers in Class 2 (marijuana and cocaine users) were more likely to be younger and have a positive breath alcohol concentration than drivers in any other class. Conclusions: Because multidrug users show dissimilar characteristics, the propensity of researchers to lump all multiple-substance users together may either erroneously attribute the potentially profound impact of those in the marijuana and cocaine use class to all multiple-substance users or dilute their specific contribution to crash risk. PMID:26562599

  13. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2016-04-28

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse.

  14. Executive function and cortical thickness in youths prenatally exposed to cocaine, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Prapti; Warner, Tamara D.; Kan, Eric C.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Small and detrimental, albeit inconsistent, effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) during early childhood have been reported. The teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol (PAE) and tobacco exposure (PTE) on neurobehavior are more firmly established than PCE. We tested if co-exposure to all three drugs could be related to greater differences in brain structure than exposure to cocaine alone. Participants (n=42, PCE=27; age range = 14–16 years) received an executive function battery prior to a T1-weighted 3T structural MRI scan. Cortical thickness was measured using FreeSurfer (v5.1). Fetal drug exposure was quantified through maternal self-reports usage during pregnancy. Using general linear modeling, we found no main effects of PCE on cortical thickness, but significant main effects of PAE and PTE in superior and medial frontal regions, after co-varying for the effects of age, sex, and each drug of exposure. Significant alcohol-by-tobacco interactions, and significant cocaine-by-alcohol interactions on cortical thickness in medial parietal and temporal regions were also observed. Poly-drug exposure and cognitive function also showed significant interactions with cortical thickness: lower cortical thickness was associated with better performance in PCE-exposed adolescents. Results suggest that although children with PCE have subtle but persistent brain cortical differences until mid-to-late adolescence. PMID:25743199

  15. A pilot study of alcohol and drug-related traffic accidents and death in two Jamaican parishes, 1991.

    PubMed

    Francis, M; Eldemire, D; Clifford, R

    1995-09-01

    This study is a preliminary effort to document the role of drugs in motor vehicle accidents as it examines the presence of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine in blood samples of thirty-one motor vehicle fatalities. The study identified that males (90.3%) and pedestrians (41.9%) were killed most often. Evidence of alcohol intake was found in 77.5% of the fatalities and 35.5% had alcohol levels above the legal acceptable limits. Traces of marijuana were found in 22.5% and a combination of alcohol and marijuana in 22.5% of the victims.

  16. Marijuana impairs growth in mid-gestation fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Y L; Wang, X; Anderson, V; Beck, O; Minkoff, H; Dow-Edwards, D

    2005-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17-22), and detailed drug use and medical histories were obtained. Toxicological assays (maternal urine and fetal meconium) were used in conjunction with the maternal report to assign groups. Subjects with documented cocaine and opiate use were excluded. Main developmental outcome variables were fetal weight, foot length, body length, and head circumference; ponderal index was also examined. Analyses were adjusted for maternal alcohol and cigarette use. Marijuana (n=44)- and nonmarijuana (n=95)-exposed fetuses had similar rates of growth with increased age. However, there was a 0.08-cm (95% CI -0.15 to -0.01) and 14.53-g (95% CI -28.21 to 0.86) significant reduction of foot length and body weight, respectively, for marijuana-exposed fetuses. Moreover, fetal foot length development was negatively correlated with the amount and frequency of marijuana use reported by the mothers. These findings provide evidence of a negative impact of prenatal marijuana exposure on the mid-gestational fetal growth even when adjusting for maternal use of other substances well known to impair fetal development.

  17. Daily Reports of Positive and Negative Affect and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Student and Non-Student Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. Objectives The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and non-student young adults. Methods High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N=72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Results Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among non-students. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college. PMID:26683453

  18. Functional activation during the Stroop is associated with recent alcohol but not marijuana use among high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Rachel E; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Dodd, Andrew B; Hansen, Natasha S; Mayer, Andrew R; Ling, Josef M; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-10-30

    Despite studies showing the relevance of different decision-making abilities, including response inhibition, to likelihood of using substances during adolescence, few have examined these neural processes among high-risk, substance-using youth. The current study explored associations between alcohol and marijuana use and functional activation differences during Stroop performance among a large sample (N=80) of ethnically-diverse, high-risk youth in an fMRI-based task. In the absence of associations between substance use and task behavioral performance, adolescents with greater alcohol use showed less activation during the more cognitively difficult portion of the task across clusters in bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and right and left superior temporal gyrus. No associations were observed with marijuana use. The current results may suggest neural patterns of deactivation in regions important for cognitive control, such that alcohol use may confer additional risk for future decreased inhibition among these high-risk adolescents. The ability to inhibit prepotent responses has been shown to predict later response to treatment, and early interventions to encourage further development of cognitive control could represent promising options for treatment.

  19. Alcohol and Marijuana Use Outcomes in the Healthy Choices Motivational Interviewing Intervention for HIV-Positive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Healthy Choices is a motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors among HIV-positive youth. This study investigated the effects of this intervention program specifically on alcohol and marijuana use. Youth living with HIV (n=143, mean age=20.7, 51.5% male) were recruited from four sites in the United States, and randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The four-session intervention focused on two of three possible problem behaviors based on entry screening; this study focused on 143 HIV-positive youth who received the intervention for substance use. At 15-month follow-up past-week alcohol use was significantly lower for intervention youth than control youth (39.7% versus 53.6%, χ2=2.81, 0.05alcohol use, but more importantly the intervention was effective over time in significantly reducing the adolescent's probability of being classified into the high-risk trajectory group. The intervention was less effective in reducing marijuana use. PMID:22191456

  20. The effects of perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R

    2008-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future.

  1. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  2. Social Support among Late Adolescent Users of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmon, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data on 1,121 older adolescents and young adults from a national longitudinal survey examined effects of community involvement, social satisfaction, social network size, race, gender, and age on use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Social support did influence use of alcohol and other drugs, but the direction of influence varied by…

  3. Treatment-refractory substance use disorder: Focus on alcohol, opioids, and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-10-03

    Substance use disorders are common, but only a small minority of patients receive adequate treatment. Although psychosocial therapies are effective, relapse is common. This review focusses on novel pharmacological and other treatments for patients with alcohol, opioid, or cocaine use disorders who do not respond to conventional treatments. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and the opioid antagonist naltrexone have been approved for the treatment of alcoholism. A novel, "as needed" approach is the use of the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene to reduce alcohol consumption. Other novel pharmacological approaches include the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, anticonvulsants such as topiramate and gabapentin, the partial nicotine receptor agonist varenicline, and other drugs. For opioid dependence, opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine is the first-line treatment option. Other options include oral or depot naltrexone, morphine sulfate, depot or implant formulations, and heroin (diacetylmorphine) in treatment-refractory patients. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for cocaine addiction; however, 3 potential pharmacological treatments are being studied, disulfiram, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Pharmacogenetic approaches may help to optimize treatment response in otherwise treatment-refractory patients and to identify which patients are more likely to respond to treatment, and neuromodulation techniques such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation also may play a role in the treatment of substance use disorders. Although no magic bullet is in sight for treatment-refractory patients, some novel medications and brain stimulation techniques have the potential to enrich treatment options at least for some patients.

  4. Effects of prenatal tobacco, alcohol and marijuana exposure on processing speed, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer.

    PubMed

    Willford, Jennifer A; Chandler, Lynette S; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTE and PME were associated with deficits in visual-motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT.

  5. Effects of Prenatal Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Exposure on Processing Speed, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Interhemispheric Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTEand PME were associated with deficits in visual motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT. PMID:20600845

  6. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  7. Alcohol and Marijuana Use Patterns Associated With Unsafe Driving Among U.S. High School Seniors: High Use Frequency, Concurrent Use, and Simultaneous Use

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O’Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article examines noncausal associations between high school seniors’ alcohol and marijuana use status and rates of self-reported unsafe driving in the past 12 months. Method: Analyses used data from 72,053 students collected through annual surveys of nationally representative cross-sectional samples of U.S. 12th-grade students from 1976 to 2011. Two aspects of past-12-month alcohol and marijuana use were examined: (a) use frequency and (b) status as a nonuser, single substance user, concurrent user, or simultaneous user. Measures of past-12-month unsafe driving included any tickets/warnings or accidents, as well as tickets/warnings or accidents following alcohol or marijuana use. Analyses explored whether an individual’s substance use frequency and simultaneous use status had differential associations with their rate of unsafe driving. Results: Higher substance use frequency (primarily alcohol use frequency) was significantly and positively associated with unsafe driving. The rate of engaging in any unsafe driving was also significantly and positively associated with simultaneous use status, with the highest rate associated with simultaneous use, followed by concurrent use, followed by use of alcohol alone. Individuals who reported simultaneous use most or every time they used marijuana had the highest likelihood of reporting unsafe driving following either alcohol or marijuana use. Conclusions: This article expands the knowledge on individual risk factors associated with unsafe driving among teens. Efforts to educate U.S. high school students (especially substance users), parents, and individuals involved in prevention programming and driver’s education about the increased risks associated with various forms of drug use status may be useful. PMID:24766749

  8. Substitution of Marijuana for Alcohol: The Role of Perceived Access and Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Randi J.; Lohrmann, David K.; Greene, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown significant declines in gateway drug use among participants in a school/community substance abuse prevention intervention in a midwestern, suburban school district (Lohrmann, Alter, Greene, & Younoszai, 2005). Though still at or below national levels, student marijuana use was not impacted as positively. The current study…

  9. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  10. Unsafe Driving by High School Seniors: National Trends from 1976 to 2001 in Tickets and Accidents after Use of Alcohol, Marijuana and Other Illegal Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2003-01-01

    Study reports trends among high school seniors in number of tickets or warnings received, number of vehicle accidents, and number of these events occurring after use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illegal drugs. Despite decline in the number of accidents and tickets received after drinking or drug use, aggressive policies are still needed to…

  11. Which matters most? Demographic, Neuropsychological, Personality, and Situational Factors in Long-Term Marijuana and Alcohol Trajectories for Justice-Involved Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Filbey, Francesca M.; Loughran, Thomas A.; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N=1,056; 41.4% African-American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1–7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males’ patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over the seven years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (1) Hispanic ethnicity, (2) less exposure (street) time, and (3) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (1) delinquent peers and (2) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths’ long term (seven year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth. PMID:26030166

  12. Which matters most? Demographic, neuropsychological, personality, and situational factors in long-term marijuana and alcohol trajectories for justice-involved male youth.

    PubMed

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Filbey, Francesca M; Loughran, Thomas A; Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-09-01

    Justice-involved youth have high rates of alcohol and marijuana use. However, little is known about what may drive these rates over time. Using a large-scale (N = 1,056; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic) longitudinal study with strong retention (M retention = 90% over Years 1-7), we utilized random-effects regression to determine the comparative contribution of four sets of factors in justice-involved males' patterns of marijuana and heavy alcohol use (number of times drunk) over 7 years of follow-up: demographic, personality, situational, and neuropsychological factors. Across both marijuana and heavy alcohol use models, three factors were particularly strong contributors to lower rates of substance use: (a) Hispanic ethnicity, (b) less exposure (street) time, and (c) better impulse control. Similarly, two factors were strong contributors to increased rates of marijuana and heavy alcohol use: (a) delinquent peers and (b) family member arrest. Together, these findings indicate the relative superiority of these independent variables over other categories (i.e., neuropsychological factors) in predicting high-risk youths' long-term (7-year) rates of substance use. These findings also suggest the importance of evaluating the connection of these areas for high-risk, adjudicated youth.

  13. Delay Discounting in Adults Receiving Treatment for Marijuana Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Petry, Nancy M.; LaPaglia, Donna M.; Reynolds, Brady; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Delay discounting is an index of impulsive decision-making and reflects an individual’s preference for smaller immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. Multiple studies have indicated comparatively high rates of discounting among tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and other types of drug users, but few studies have examined discounting among marijuana users. This report is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial that randomized adults with marijuana dependence to receive one of four treatments that involved contingency management (CM) and cognitive–behavioral therapy interventions. Delay discounting was assessed with the Experiential Discounting Task (Reynolds & Schiffbauer, 2004) at pretreatment in 93 participants and at 12 weeks posttreatment in 61 participants. Results indicated that higher pretreatment delay discounting (i.e., more impulsive decision-making) significantly correlated with lower readiness to change marijuana use (r = − 0.22, p = .03) and greater number of days of cigarette use (r = .21, p = .04). Pretreatment discounting was not associated with any marijuana treatment outcomes. CM treatment significantly interacted with time to predict change in delay discounting from pre- to posttreatment; participants who received CM did not change their discounting over time, whereas those who did not receive CM significantly increased their discounting from pre- to posttreatment. In this sample of court-referred young adults receiving treatment for marijuana dependence, delay discounting was not strongly related to treatment outcomes, but there was some evidence that CM may protect against time-related increases in discounting. PMID:23245197

  14. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  15. Marijuana use motives and social anxiety among marijuana-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2007-10-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M(age)=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety.

  16. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  17. Unilateral hemorrhagic macular infarction associated with marijuana, alcohol and antiepileptic drug intake.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Serdar; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet; İnan, Sibel; Aktaş, Hatice; Özcura, Fatih

    2017-03-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with a complaint of a painless and sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Fundus photography revealed loss of transparency and edema in the central macular region. Optical coherence tomography showed increased reflectivity and diffused swelling in the inner retinal layers. Fluorescein angiography revealed a large area of capillary non-perfusion with a pronounced hypofluorescent area with distinct borders. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a hemorrhagic macular infarction associated with marijuana and pregabalin misuse.

  18. Dare to Delay? The Impacts of Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use Onset on Cognition, Brain Structure, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Wright, Natasha E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings. PMID:23847550

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to stereotypes seen in the media, several studies have found use of alcohol and other substances among racial and ethnic minority college students to be lower than among white students. At historically black colleges, for instance, about half the percentage of students report using tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine compared with students at…

  20. Developmental Patterns of Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use and Their Joint Association with Sexual Risk Behavior and Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Musci, Rashelle J; Matson, Pamela A; Johnson, Renee M; Reboussin, Beth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2017-02-01

    Urban populations disproportionately experience poor sexual outcomes, including high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, the contribution of substance use across adolescence to poor sexual outcomes in young adulthood has not been investigated in depth, despite offering opportunities for more targeted prevention. This study aimed to estimate joint trajectories of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use to determine if they relate differently to four sexual outcomes: multiple sexual partners, sex without a condom, teenage pregnancy, and contraction of a sexually transmitted infection in young adulthood (by age 25). Data came from a longitudinal study of urban youth followed from age 6 to age 25, with annual assessments during adolescence and young adulthood (n = 608). The sample showed high levels of sexual risk, with young adults on average having sex without a condom once in the past month, 28.5% having multiple sexual partners in the past month, one quarter having contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and over 60% of the women being pregnant as a teenager and 36% of the men having gotten a partner pregnant. Applying longitudinal latent profile analysis to estimate joint trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from grades 8-12, we identified four classes representing high dual use, moderate alcohol use, moderate alcohol use with increasing marijuana use, and non-use. Class membership differently predicted all four outcomes investigated with high dual users having the highest level of teenage pregnancy and the increasing marijuana trajectory having the highest risk of engaging with multiple sexual partners in the past month. Results suggest implications for both sexual risk and substance use prevention for urban youth.

  1. Triple Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods. We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study, a psychosocial investigation, at 4 time waves (mean ages = 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). We used Mplus to obtain the 3 variable trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from time 2 to time 5 and then conducted logistic regression analyses. Results. A 5-trajectory group model, ranging from the use of all 3 substances (23%) to a nonuse group (9%), best fit the data. Membership in the trajectory group that used all 3 substances was associated with an increased likelihood of both ASPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.83; 95% CI = 1.14, 40.74; P < .05) and GAD (AOR = 4.35; 95% CI = 1.63, 11.63; P < .001) in adulthood, as compared with the nonuse group, with control for earlier proxies of these conditions. Conclusions. Adults with comorbid tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use should be evaluated for use of other substances and for ASPD, GAD, and other psychiatric disorders. Treatment programs should address the use of all 3 substances to decrease the likelihood of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24922120

  2. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use: Relationships to Undergraduate Students' Creative Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Dana, Robert Q.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and the use of alcohol and other drugs is examined using the Creative Behavior Inventory and the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The age at which students (N=176) first used specific drugs was negatively or negligibly related to creative achievement. Limited evidence for a social expectancy effect was…

  3. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  4. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  5. Family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: The mediating role of negative emotional symptoms and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies.

  6. Trends in marijuana and other illicit drug use among college students: results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys: 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study were used in the study. They found significant increases in percentages of students' use of marijuana in the past 30 days (from 13% to 17%), past year (from 23% to 30%), and lifetime (from 41% to 47%) between 1993 and 2001, with most of the increase occurring between 1993 and 1997. Past 30-day use of other illicit drugs increased from 4% to 7% and past year use increased from 11% to 14%. More than 98% of marijuana and other illicit drug users used another substance. They also either smoked, were binge drinkers, and/or were users of another illicit drug. Drug prevention programs should emphasize heavy alcohol use and smoking and should start when students are in high school or earlier.

  7. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  8. A systematic review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol, cocaine and opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Roozen, Hendrik G; Boulogne, Jiska J; van Tulder, Maurits W; van den Brink, Wim; De Jong, Cor A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2004-04-09

    The community reinforcement approach (CRA) has been applied in the treatment of disorders resulting from alcohol, cocaine and opioid use. The objectives were to review the effectiveness of (1) CRA compared with usual care, and (2) CRA versus CRA plus contingency management. Studies were selected through a literature search of RCTs focusing on substance abuse. The search yielded 11 studies of mainly high methodological quality. The results of CRA, when compared to usual care: there is strong evidence that CRA is more effective with regard to number of drinking days, and conflicting evidence with regard to continuous abstinence in the alcohol treatment. There is moderate evidence that CRA with disulfiram is more effective in terms of number of drinking days, and limited evidence that there is no difference in effect in terms of continuous abstinence. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that CRA with "incentives" is more effective with regard to cocaine abstinence. There is limited evidence that CRA with "incentives" is more effective in an opioid detoxification program. There is limited evidence that CRA is more effective in a methadone maintenance program. Finally, there is strong evidence that CRA with abstinence-contingent "incentives" is more effective than CRA (non-contingent incentives) treatment aimed at cocaine abstinence.

  9. The effects of price and perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew J; Sumnall, Harry R; Field, Matt; Clayton, Hannah; Cole, Jon C

    2007-07-10

    Behavioural economic models of substance use describe the relationship between changes in unit price and consumption. However, these models rarely take account of the perceived quality (i.e. potency) of controlled drugs. Therefore we investigated the effects of both price and quality on the decision to purchase controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers. Forty current polysubstance misusers (29 males, 11 females; mean age 23.8) were recruited into the study. Participants were asked to hypothetically purchase drugs from a price list of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy at different levels of quality and price (i.e. better quality drugs cost more money). The disposable income available for those purchases was systematically varied in order to determine the impact of income on the decision to purchase drugs. Demand for both normal and strong alcohol was income inelastic. Demand for both poor and average quality cannabis and ecstasy was income inelastic, but demand for good quality cannabis and ecstasy was income elastic. The demand for poor quality cocaine was income inelastic, with the demand for both average and good quality cocaine being income elastic. Participants reported too few purchases of amphetamine, which precluded behavioural economic analysis. These results suggest that, like other goods, controlled drugs are purchased based upon the consumer's interpretations of their relative value. Therefore, it is probable that the purchase and subsequent use of controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers will be heavily influenced by the economic environment.

  10. A Comparison of Individual-Level and Community-Level Predictors of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among a Sample of Newly Arrested Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2011-01-01

    Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…

  11. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  12. Increases in Alcohol and Marijuana Use During the Transition Out of High School Into Emerging Adulthood: The Effects of Leaving Home, Going to College, and High School Protective Factors*

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, HELENE RASKIN; McMORRIS, BARBARA J.; CATALANO, RICHARD F.; FLEMING, CHARLES B.; HAGGERTY, KEVIN P.; ABBOTT, ROBERT D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. Method Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project. Results Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention. PMID:17060997

  13. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...

  14. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Ellen A A; Crone, Eveline A; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2009-08-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14 women), and methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n = 38; 25 women) with sex-matched healthy comparisons (n = 36; 17 women) on complex decision making as measured with the Iowa Gambling Task, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. Cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals were impaired on complex decision making, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, but not on response inhibition. The deficits in working memory and cognitive flexibility were milder than the decision-making deficits and did not change as a function of memory load or task switching. Interestingly, decision making was significantly more impaired in women addicted to cocaine or methamphetamine than in men addicted to these drugs. Together, these findings suggest that drug of choice and sex have different effects on executive functioning, which, if replicated, may help tailor intervention.

  15. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tziortzis, Desey; Mahoney, James J; Kalechstein, Ari D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Impulsivity and craving have been independently hypothesized to contribute to sustained drug use and relapse in addiction. The primary focus of this project was to determine the relationship between impulsivity and craving in 85 cocaine-dependent and 73 methamphetamine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking volunteers. Drug use was assessed with a 14-item, self-report drug and alcohol use questionnaire. Self report instruments utilized included the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which probed "just before your last use of cocaine (for cocaine-dependent participants) or methamphetamine (for methamphetamine-dependent participants), how much craving did you experience?" The groups were similar with respect to recent use of cocaine or methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal significant differences between cocaine and methamphetamine groups for total impulsivity or total craving. Simple linear regression revealed correlations between total impulsivity and total craving in cocaine (r(2)=0.05, p≤0.03) and methamphetamine users (r(2)=0.09, p≤0.008). Participants were separated into high impulsivity (HIBIS) or low impulsivity (LOBIS) subgroups using a median split. ANOVA revealed significantly higher craving in the HIBIS group versus the LOBIS group in methamphetamine users (p≤0.02), but not in cocaine users. For both cocaine and methamphetamine groups, level of impulsivity and craving were found to be related to some drug use variables including years of alcohol use, severity of withdrawal, and craving level following drug use. Taken together, this study shows a marginal relationship between impulsivity and craving, which may further the understanding of motivational factors contributing to ongoing drug use and addiction in psychostimulant users.

  16. Variation in Youthful Risks of Progression from Alcohol and Tobacco to Marijuana and to Hard Drugs Across Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1979-97 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse data to investigate the probabilities of progression through a sequence of stages of substance use. Progression to marijuana and hard drugs was uncommon in people born before World War II. The stages phenomenon emerged with the baby boom and peaked among people born around 1960.…

  17. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Photo ... research-reports/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  18. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  19. Molecular mechanism for a gateway drug: epigenetic changes initiated by nicotine prime gene expression by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Levine, Amir; Huang, Yanyou; Drisaldi, Bettina; Griffin, Edmund A; Pollak, Daniela D; Xu, Shiqin; Yin, Deqi; Schaffran, Christine; Kandel, Denise B; Kandel, Eric R

    2011-11-02

    In human populations, cigarettes and alcohol generally serve as gateway drugs, which people use first before progressing to marijuana, cocaine, or other illicit substances. To understand the biological basis of the gateway sequence of drug use, we developed an animal model in mice and used it to study the effects of nicotine on subsequent responses to cocaine. We found that pretreatment of mice with nicotine increased the response to cocaine, as assessed by addiction-related behaviors and synaptic plasticity in the striatum, a brain region critical for addiction-related reward. Locomotor sensitization was increased by 98%, conditioned place preference was increased by 78%, and cocaine-induced reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced by 24%. The responses to cocaine were altered only when nicotine was administered first, and nicotine and cocaine were then administered concurrently. Reversing the order of drug administration was ineffective; cocaine had no effect on nicotine-induced behaviors and synaptic plasticity. Nicotine primed the response to cocaine by enhancing its ability to induce transcriptional activation of the FosB gene through inhibition of histone deacetylase, which caused global histone acetylation in the striatum. We tested this conclusion further and found that a histone deacetylase inhibitor simulated the actions of nicotine by priming the response to cocaine and enhancing FosB gene expression and LTP depression in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, in a genetic mouse model characterized by reduced histone acetylation, the effects of cocaine on LTP were diminished. We achieved a similar effect by infusing a low dose of theophylline, an activator of histone deacetylase, into the nucleus accumbens. These results from mice prompted an analysis of epidemiological data, which indicated that most cocaine users initiate cocaine use after the onset of smoking and while actively still smoking, and that initiating cocaine use after smoking

  20. Marijuana: The Real Story. It's Your Choice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on marijuana is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  1. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  2. Perspectives on marijuana use and abuse and recommendations for preventing abuse.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J F

    1981-01-01

    Survey research on levels of use and attitudes toward marijuana by youth indicate a consistently favorable attitude toward occasional, moderate use. Use of marijuana is contrasted with the use of alcohol and tobacco by youth. Research findings re the dangers of marijuana use are summarized. The inability of legislators and law enforcement personnel to control access to and use of marijuana, coupled with the high cost of our present legal response to the marijuana challenge, leads to recommending legalization of marijuana, as well as, developing a generic primary prevention program for marijuana abuse which features distinguishing "responsible use" from "abuse." Criteria for judging marijuana abuse are provided.

  3. The effects of housing costs on polydrug abuse patterns: a comparison of heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated how price of housing affects hypothetical purchasing decisions. Participants (26 heroin, 28 cocaine, and 15 alcohol abusers, and 25 controls) were exposed to 4 conditions in which they "purchased" drugs, food, housing, and entertainment. Whereas income remained constant, housing prices varied across conditions. Except for 23% of heroin abusers, participants purchased housing regardless of cost, so that income increased as housing cost decreased. Demand for food was income inelastic, whereas demand for entertainment was income elastic. Each group showed income elastic demand for their drug of choice. Hypothetical choices were reliable; drug choices were correlated with urinalysis results, and willingness to forgo housing in the simulation was correlated with time spent homeless in real life. This study shows that changes in housing prices may affect choices for drug and nondrug reinforcers.

  4. Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: the dopamine-morphine hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Bianchi, Enrica; Guarna, Massimo; Fricchione, Gregory L; Zhu, Wei; Cadet, Patrick; Mantione, Kirk J; Casares, Federico M; Kream, Richard M; Esch, Tobias

    2007-06-01

    Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes.

  5. Low dose nicotine treatment during early adolescence increases subsequent cocaine reward.

    PubMed

    McQuown, Susan C; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of drug use, starting with tobacco and alcohol and progressing to marijuana and other illicit drugs. These findings have led to the suggestion that tobacco and alcohol are 'gateway' drugs that sensitize maturing reward pathways to the effects of illicit substances such as cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we have examined whether low-dose nicotine pretreatment alters acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adolescents more than in adults. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged postnatal day (P) 28 or P86, were given two daily intravenous injections of nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/0.1 ml) or saline for 4 days. At P32 and P90, rats were placed in self-administration chambers and tested for acquisition of cocaine (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg/inj) for 5 days. Data were collapsed across cocaine dose and sex since there was no significant effect of these variables. Adolescent rats pretreated with nicotine exhibited significantly greater cocaine-reinforced responding as compared to saline controls or adults (p<0.01). This drug pretreatment effect did not generalize to all rewards, since nicotine did not increase responding for sucrose pellets in adolescents. These findings provide evidence that the adolescent brain is uniquely vulnerable to the effects of nicotine on subsequent drug reward.

  6. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4- to 9-Years as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at 4, 6, and 9 years of age. Neonatal medical risk and other prenatal exposures (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) were also examined for their unique effects on child IQ. Mixed models analysis indicated that prenatal cocaine exposure interacted with gender as cocaine exposed boys had lower composite IQ scores. Age of assessment did not moderate this relation, indicating that cocaine exposed boys had lower IQs across this age period. A stimulating home environment and high maternal verbal IQ also predicted higher composite IQ scores. Cocaine exposed boys had lower scores on the Abstract/Visual Reasoning subscale, with trends for lower scores on the Short-term Memory and Verbal Reasoning subscales, as exposure effects were observed across domains. The findings indicate that cocaine exposure continues to place children at risk for mild cognitive deficits into preadolescence. Possible mechanisms for the exposure by gender interaction are discussed. PMID:18605824

  7. Nicotine primes the effect of cocaine on the induction of LTP in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-You; Kandel, Denise B; Kandel, Eric R; Levine, Amir

    2013-11-01

    In human populations, there is a well-defined sequence of involvement in drugs of abuse, in which the use of nicotine or alcohol precedes the use of marijuana, which in turn, precedes the use of cocaine. The term "Gateway Hypothesis" describes this developmental sequence of drug involvement. In prior work, we have developed a mouse model to study the underlying metaplastic behavioral, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exposure to one drug, namely nicotine, affects the response to another drug, namely cocaine. We found that nicotine enhances significantly the changes in synaptic plasticity in the striatum induced by cocaine (Levine et al., 2011). Here we ask: does the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine also apply in the amygdala, a brain region that is involved in the orchestration of emotions and in drug addiction? We find that pretreatment with nicotine enhances long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in response to cocaine in the amygdala. Both short-term (1 day) and long-term (7 days) pre-exposure to nicotine facilitate the induction of LTP by cocaine. The effect of nicotine on LTP is unidirectional; exposure to nicotine following treatment with cocaine is ineffective. This metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine is long lasting but reversible. The facilitation of LTP can be obtained for 24 but not 40 days after cessation of nicotine. As is the case in the striatum, pretreatment with Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, simulates the priming effect of nicotine. These results provide further evidence that the priming effect of nicotine may be achieved, at least partially, by the inhibition of histone acetylation and indicate that the amygdala appears to be an important brain structure for the processing of the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'.

  8. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  9. Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, José; Stein, Dan J; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Methods and Findings Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex–cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male–female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. Conclusions Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent

  10. [Subtypes of cocaine addicts with and without associated problematic alcohol use: towards a neuropsychology of personality applied to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M

    2012-01-01

    It is important to know which personality factors are associated with addiction so to distinguish addicts that require specialized treatment from those who do not, and to identify those addicts who achieve abstinence from those who continue their substance use despite the negative consequences. Cloninger's model includes biological and psychosocial variables that can be characterized in neuropsychological terms. Two samples were analyzed: individuals who had begun cocaine addiction treatment (n=183) and a non-clinical population sample (n = 183), matched for sex, age and educational level. Alcohol abuse/dependence was monitored as an independent variable. Significant differences and large effect size were found between addicts and non-clinical population in Novelty Seeking and Self-Directedness, and to a lesser extent, in Harm Avoidance. These differences increase when problematic use of alcohol is added. According to the profile of traits, clusters of addicts were established and differences were obtained in variables such as functional/dysfunctional impulsivity, dysexecutive symptoms and perceived stress. Six clusters were identified, some of minor severity, the most severely problematic clusters being characterized by higher levels of dysfunctional impulsivity, more dysexecutive symptoms and higher levels of perceived stress. Self-Directedness seems to reflect the deficit of prefrontal systems in the regulation of behavior, as well as in emotion and impulse control. It is proposed that evaluation of the personality is more useful than the mere assessment of symptoms for classifying addicts, determining their needs and designing a therapeutic itinerary.

  11. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  12. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products.

  13. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  14. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to ... they once were. Did you know that teen marijuana use has dropped dramatically since the late 1990s? ...

  15. Marijuana and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Marijuana and Teens No. 106; Updated July 2013 Many teenagers experiment with marijuana. Friends, peer pressure, and portrayal of marijuana in ...

  16. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2017 What is medical marijuana? Photo by ©Shutterstock.com/ Atomazul The term medical ...

  17. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of

  19. Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Knight, Wanda Grant; Pell, Tripler; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    , scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought to be specific effects of in utero cocaine exposure are correlated with other factors, including prenatal exposure to tobacco, marijuana, or alcohol, and the quality of the child’s environment. Further replication is required of preliminary neurologic findings. PMID:11268270

  20. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  1. A Study of the Use of Cigarettes, Alcohol, and Marijuana by Students Identified as "Seriously Emotionally Disturbed."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Peter E.; And Others

    A drug and alcohol survey was administered to 283 secondary school students in a large suburban school district in the eastern United States. The survey covered demographic information, life events, coping strategies, and prevalence of substance abuse, asking students about initial and current use of a wide range of substances including alcohol,…

  2. Correlates of cocaine/crack use among inner-city incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S Y; Magura, S; Shapiro, J L

    1994-11-01

    Inner-city male adolescents in jail in New York City (N = 427) were interviewed to examine correlates of cocaine or crack use. Twenty-three percent had used cocaine or crack in the month before arrest and 32% reported lifetime use. Substantial rates of robbery, murder, other violent crime, weapons possession, and drug dealing were found. However, type of crime, including violent crime, was not related either to cocaine/crack use or to drug dealing. Current cocaine/crack users were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and intranasal heroin; to have multiple previous arrests; to be out of school; to be psychologically distressed; to have been sexually molested as a child; to have substance abusing parents; and to have cocaine/crack-using friends. They were also more likely to have frequent sex with girls, to be gay or bisexual, and to engage in anal intercourse. The findings should be considered in developing more effective drug abuse prevention and treatment interventions, and HIV prevention education, for incarcerated at-risk adolescents.

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  4. Neural Correlates of the Severity of Cocaine, Heroin, Alcohol, MDMA and Cannabis Use in Polysubstance Abusers: A Resting-PET Brain Metabolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Laura; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Fernández-Serrano, Maria José; Gómez-Río, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. Methods Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM) (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB) whole-brain analyses). In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. Results The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. Conclusions Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:22768136

  5. Prenatal cocaine exposure and prolonged focus attention. Poor infant information processing ability or precocious maturation of attentional systems?

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Claudia A; Starr, Denise; Kuhn, Louise; Wasserman, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development of systems implicated in modulating attention. To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure affects infant attention, we assessed visual recognition memory and focused attention during free play. We enrolled at birth 380 infants, 113 cocaine exposed, using multiple biomarkers to assess drug exposure. Behavior was videotaped and coded off-line for sustained looking time (i.e. focused attention), banging and intrusion. Prenatal cocaine exposure was not associated with visual recognition memory, but was significantly associated with longer sustained looking times (average focused attention) at ages 6 months (p = 0.02) and 12 months (p = 0.04) in analyses that adjusted for variables, including maternal intelligence, education, depressive scores and other exposures (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). Cocaine-exposed infants at age 12 months also spent significantly less time in banging activity (p = 0.02) after adjusting for confounding variables. This finding was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development, neurological findings or time spent in focused attention. Prenatal cocaine exposure was significantly associated with longer periods of sustained looking or focused attention in infancy, a finding that could interpreted as a measure of poor processing efficiency, or alternatively as precocious maturation of attentional systems. Either interpretation has implications for later cognitive development. Lower banging activity among cocaine exposed was not explained through cocaine effects on motor development or neurological findings, suggesting that activity level itself is diminished in these infants. Whether focused attention findings impact long term development awaits further study.

  6. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  7. Effects of endogenous and exogenous progesterone on emotional intelligence in cocaine dependent men and women who also abuse alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevic, V; Sinha, R; Morgan, PT; Sofuoglu, M; Fox, HC

    2015-01-01

    Objective As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Methods Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55M/43F) and 56 healthy (28M/28F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 18 CDA (19M/9F) who received exogenous progesterone (400mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days. (Study 2). Results Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. Conclusions CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. PMID:25363303

  8. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  9. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  10. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  11. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  12. 4 CFR 25.8 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates, or amphetamines is prohibited..., marijuana, barbiturate, or amphetamine. This prohibition shall not apply in cases where the drug is...

  13. A double blind, placebo controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of cocaine dependence without co-morbid alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kampman, Kyle M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Spratt, Kelly; Wierzbicki, Michael R.; Dackis, Charles; O'Brien, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Modafinil is a medication approved for narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It has both dopaminergic and glutamatergic activity that could be useful for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Modafinil has reduced cocaine subjective effects and cocaine self-administration in human laboratory trials and has reduced cocaine use in cocaine dependent patients in some clinical trials. Methods This was an 8-week, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial involving 94 cocaine dependent subjects. Subjects received 300 mg of modafinil or identical placebo daily along with weekly individual therapy. The primary outcome measure was cocaine use measured by self-report, and confirmed by twice weekly urine benzoylecgonine tests (UBT). Additional outcome measures included cocaine craving measured by the Brief Substance Craving Scale and global improvement measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). Results The odds ratio (OR) in favor of abstinence for modafinil vs. placebo was 2.54 (p=. 03) and modafinil-treated subjects were significantly more likely than placebo-treated subjects to be abstinent from cocaine during the last 3 weeks of the trial, 23% vs. 9%, χ2 = 3.9, p <.05. Modafinil treated subjects were more likely to report very low levels of cocaine craving intensity and duration on the Brief Substance Craving Scale (OR = 2.04 p =.03 and OR 1.06 p = .03 respectively). Modafinil–treated subjects were also more likely than placebo-treated subjects to rate themselves as “very much improved” on the CGI (OR = 2.69, p= .03). Conclusion Modafinil may be an efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence. PMID:26320827

  14. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  15. Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age‐related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjurstrom, Martin F.; Olmstead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Sleep disturbance is a prominent complaint in cocaine and alcohol dependence. This controlled study evaluated differences of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep in cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent subjects, and examined whether substance dependence interacts with age to alter slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Design Cross‐sectional comparison. Setting Los Angeles and San Diego, CA, USA. Participants Abstinent cocaine‐dependent subjects (n = 32), abstinent alcohol‐dependent subjects (n = 73) and controls (n = 108); mean age 40.3 years recruited 2005–12. Measurements PSG measures of sleep continuity and sleep architecture primary outcomes of Stage 3 sleep and REM sleep. Covariates included age, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index and depressive symptoms. Findings Compared with controls, both groups of substance dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep (P < 0.001). A substance dependence × age interaction was found in which both cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent groups showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than controls (P < 0.05 for all), and cocaine‐dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than alcoholics (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, REM sleep was increased in both substance‐dependent groups (P < 0.001), and cocaine and alcohol dependence were associated with earlier age‐related increase in REM sleep (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture, including increased rapid eye movement sleep and accelerated age‐related loss of slow wave, Stage 3 sleep. PMID:26749502

  16. The Relationship between Youth's Moral and Legal Perceptions of Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana and Use of These Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonini, Claudia; Donovan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of the morality of alcohol and other drug use and the perceived legitimacy of laws regulating such use have received scant attention in the international public health literature. To date, the focus has mainly been on emphasizing the health and social disbenefits of substance use in an attempt to counter the perceived…

  17. The "PALS" Prevention Program and Its Long-Term Impact on Student Intentions to Use Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Judson W.; Moore, Dennis; Huber, Mary J.; Wilson, Josephine F.; Ford, Jo Ann; Kinzeler, Nicole; Mayer, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    A unique Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) prevention program called "PALS" (Prevention through Alternative Learning Styles) was implemented with middle school students with the goal of enhancing student knowledge of the harmful effects of ATOD, promoting the use of refusal skills and reducing intentions to use ATOD in the future.…

  18. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  19. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  20. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  1. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Test Your Knowledge: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... documented any effects of inhalants on the rump. Marijuana Question 1 Tetrahydrocannabinol is: Question 1: Options * A high tech gasoline A chemical in marijuana A brain neurotransmitter A dinosaur in Jurassic Park ...

  3. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms identify "Type B" cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Kampman, Kyle; Dackis, Charles; Sparkman, Thorne; Pettinati, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of substance dependence typologies briefly show that multivariate systems originally developed for identifying subtypes of alcoholics, such as Babor's Type A and B system, may also be valid in abusers of other substances, such as cocaine. Type B patients are characterized by an earlier onset of addiction and more severe symptoms of their addiction, psychopathology, and impulsivity. The Type B classification has also been associated with deficits in serotonergic function. We have found that patients who exhibit more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms, as measured by scores on the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA), have poor treatment outcome and share many characteristics with "Type B" patients. In this paper, we review baseline characteristics of cocaine-dependent patients from several recently completed outpatient cocaine dependence treatment trials to assess the association of cocaine withdrawal symptom severity and the Type B profile. Identifying subtypes of cocaine-dependent patients may improve our ability to treat cocaine dependence by targeting treatments for specific subtypes of patients. We examined the ability of the CSSA scores to capture Type B characteristics in cocaine dependence by analyzing a series of cocaine medication trials that included 255 cocaine-dependent subjects. High CSSA scores at baseline were associated with a history of violent behavior, a family history of substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, higher addiction severity, and co-morbid psychiatric diseases. Patients with high CSSA scores are also more likely to meet criteria for Type B (Type II) cocaine dependence. Identifying Type B cocaine-dependent patients may help to develop targeted psychosocial or pharmacological treatments for these difficult-to-treat patients.

  4. Adolescent marijuana use: risk factors and implications.

    PubMed

    Rob, M; Reynolds, I; Finlayson, P F

    1990-03-01

    A sample of 1,270 students in Years 7, 10 and 11 attending seven State high schools in a middle class area of Sydney answered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure many aspects of their family situation, school performance, spare time activities, drinking and drug taking behaviour and sexual activity. Data on the reported prevalence of marijuana use and the variables significantly associated with marijuana use are presented and discussed. Marijuana use was reported by 4.2% of 12 year olds (Year 7), 26.5% of 15 year olds (Year 10) and 26.7% of 16 year olds (Year 11). More than half of those who had ever used marijuana had used it during the week prior to the survey and there were no significant differences in the characteristics between these recent and the remaining users. Marijuana users reported significantly poorer family relationships than non-users and were about twice as likely as non-users to come from a broken home and/or to have a mother who works full-time, which is often a consequence of marital break-up. Marijuana users also displayed poorer school performance, spent less time on homework and had more school absenteeism than non-users. Marijuana users were more than three times as likely as non-users to have had heterosexual intercourse, drunk alcohol 3 or more times in the past week and to smoke cigarettes. Also, the reported use of stimulants, hallucinogens, narcotics (heroin) and sedatives was almost entirely restricted to those who reported marijuana use. Improvements in the quality of family life may prevent the use of marijuana and other probably more harmful drugs, as well as the indulgence in other acting-out behaviours.

  5. Prenatal cocaine effects on brain structure in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen; Burchinal, Margaret; Vachet, Clement; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine; Elam, Mala; Gerig, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is related to subtle deficits in cognitive and behavioral function in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Very little is known about the effects of in utero PCE on early brain development that may contribute to these impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain structural differences in infants with and without PCE. We conducted MRI scans of newborns (mean age = 5 weeks) to determine cocaine's impact on early brain structural development. Subjects were three groups of infants: 33 with PCE co-morbid with other drugs, 46 drug-free controls and 40 with prenatal exposure to other drugs (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, SSRIs) but without cocaine. Infants with PCE exhibited lesser total gray matter (GM) volume and greater total cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) volume compared with controls and infants with non-cocaine drug exposure. Analysis of regional volumes revealed that whole brain GM differences were driven primarily by lesser GM in prefrontal and frontal brain regions in infants with PCE, while more posterior regions (parietal, occipital) did not differ across groups. Greater CSF volumes in PCE infants were present in prefrontal, frontal and parietal but not occipital regions. Greatest differences (GM reduction, CSF enlargement) in PCE infants were observed in dorsal prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that PCE is associated with structural deficits in neonatal cortical gray matter, specifically in prefrontal and frontal regions involved in executive function and inhibitory control. Longitudinal study is required to determine whether these early differences persist and contribute to deficits in cognitive functions and enhanced risk for drug abuse seen at school age and in later life.

  6. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000947.htm Cocaine withdrawal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a ...

  7. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  8. The Economic Geography of Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in California

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of laws that permit the use of marijuana for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical marijuana industry in some US states. This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical marijuana dispensaries according to estimated marijuana demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Method Telephone survey data from 5,940 residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of marijuana demand. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate marijuana demand (i.e. market potential) for 7,538 census block groups. Locations of actively operating marijuana dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models. Results Marijuana dispensaries were located in block groups with greater marijuana demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. For the sampled block groups, a 10% increase in demand within a block group was associated with 2.4% greater likelihood of having a dispensary, and a 10% increase in the city-wide demand was associated with a 6.7% greater likelihood of having a dispensary. Conclusion High demand for marijuana within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of marijuana dispensaries at a block-group level. The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. PMID:24439710

  9. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  10. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  11. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  12. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  13. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  14. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  15. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of... property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  16. Frequency and Risk of Marijuana Use among Substance-Using Health Care Patients in Colorado with and without Access to State Legalized Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melissa K; Pampel, Fred C; Rivera, Laura S; Broderick, Kerryann B; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    With increasing use of state legalized medical marijuana across the country, health care providers need accurate information on patterns of marijuana and other substance use for patients with access to medical marijuana. This study compared frequency and severity of marijuana use, and use of other substances, for patients with and without state legal access to medical marijuana. Data were collected from 2,030 patients who screened positive for marijuana use when seeking health care services in a large, urban safety-net medical center. Patients were screened as part of a federally funded screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiative. Patients were asked at screening whether they had a state-issued medical marijuana card and about risky use of tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit substances. A total of 17.4% of marijuana users had a medical marijuana card. Patients with cards had higher frequency of marijuana use and were more likely to screen at moderate than low or high risk from marijuana use. Patients with cards also had lower use of other substances than patients without cards. Findings can inform health care providers of both the specific risks of frequent, long-term use and the more limited risks of other substance use faced by legal medical marijuana users.

  17. ADHD and marijuana use expectancies in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Seth C.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined mean level differences in marijuana expectancies and the differential associations between expectancies and marijuana use for individuals with and without a history of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Background Substance use expectancies are a widely studied risk factor for alcohol and other drug use. The relations between marijuana use expectancies and self-reported marijuana use have not been examined in young adults with ADHD, a population shown to be at risk for marijuana use. Method Participants were 306 (190 ADHD and 116 nonADHD) young adults (M age = 20.06, SD = 2.03) from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) who provided data about marijuana use and marijuana use expectancies. Results Individuals in the ADHD group reported lower levels of social enhancement, tension reduction, and cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies compared to individuals in the nonADHD group. Positive and negative marijuana use expectancies were associated with marijuana use frequency in the whole sample and statistically significant ADHD group by expectancy interactions were found. Sexual enhancement expectancies were more strongly associated with marijuana use frequency among individuals with ADHD histories while cognitive behavioral impairment expectancies were more strongly associated with marijuana use frequency among individuals without ADHD. Conclusions Marijuana use expectancies may be acquired, and operate differently, for individuals with and without ADHD histories. Although future research is needed to test this speculation, these differences may be associated with ADHD-related difficulties in higher order cognitive processes that affect the encoding and utilization of expectations regarding marijuana’s effects. PMID:26548364

  18. Sexual Risk Behavior and Heavy Drinking Among Weekly Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Caswell, Amy J.; Magill, Molly; Monti, Peter M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sexual behavior that incurs increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV incidence is associated with both heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Whereas detrimental effects of alcohol on increased sexual risk have been documented in event-level and laboratory studies, less is known about the combined use of alcohol and marijuana and their relative impact on sexual risk behavior. We examined the degree to which both heavy drinking and marijuana use were associated with condomless sexual intercourse with casual versus main partners in a sample of weekly marijuana smokers. Method: Participants reported substance use and sexual activity using a 60-day Timeline Followback interview method (n = 112). Results: Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that both alcohol and marijuana use were independently associated with greater odds of having sexual intercourse but were not associated with greater odds of unprotected sex with a casual partner. Heavy drinking on a given day was associated with increased odds of having casual protected sex. Using both substances synergistically increased the likelihood of unprotected sex with a main partner. Conclusions: Findings suggest that behaviors posing higher sexual risk (condomless intercourse or sex with casual partners) occur on days when alcohol use exceeds moderate drinking guidelines. Interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors may need to specifically target heavy drinking alone or when used with marijuana. PMID:26751360

  19. Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M

    2015-01-01

    With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy.

  20. Marijuana use in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275

  1. Medical marijuana and children.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains.

  2. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  3. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite.

  4. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  5. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.

  6. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  7. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  8. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Runaway Youths: A Test-Retest Study of the Form 90.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Tonigan, J Scott

    2004-06-21

    While excellent adolescent alcohol and drug screening tools are available, there are relatively few, if any, psychometrically validated measures to use in the assessment of adolescent treatment outcome. This study conducted a test-retest exercise of the Form 90 Drug and Alcohol (Form 90 DnA) to determine the stability of adolescent responses when administering the day-by-day calendar/grid approach. Homeless youth (N = 37) with alcohol, drug, or alcohol and drug abuse/dependence combined were recruited to participate in the test-retest study. High pre-post stability in means was obtained on measures of frequency of substance use in general, and on specific measures of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana use. The findings from this paper provide support for the reliability and validity of the Form 90 for use with adolescent runaways with a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis.

  9. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.

  10. Risk factors associated with tobacco, alcohol and drug use among adolescents attending secondary school in three cities from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morello, Paola; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Braun, Sandra N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James; Mejía, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco, alcohol and drug use starts at an early age. It is important to identify risk factors associated with initiation. In 2014, a survey was conducted among students attending first year of secondary schools in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Tucumán. A total of 3172 students completed the survey (42% were girls); their mean age was 12.8 years old. Findings showed that 10% had smoked; 32% had consumed alcohol; 17% had a heavy drinking episode in the past month; and 8% had used at least one illegal drug once in their lifetime. A high sensation seeking index was associated with the use of tobacco (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-8.1), alcohol (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 3.73-8.31), and marijuana, coca paste or cocaine, (OR: 11.73, 95% CI: 5.81-23.69). Having friends who smoke or drink was associated with tobacco (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 7.8-20.5) and alcohol use (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 4.15-6.40). Having permissive parents in terms of media use was associated with tobacco use (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.1-6.5), and perceiving a low parental support and control (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.40-6.52) was associated with marijuana, coca paste and cocaine use.

  11. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  12. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    PubMed

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  13. Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States Between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Zhang, Haitao; Jung, Jeesun; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Smith, Sharon M.; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Laws and attitudes toward marijuana in the United States are becoming more permissive but little is known about whether the prevalence rates of marijuana use and marijuana use disorders have changed in the 21st century. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative information on the past-year prevalence rates of marijuana use, marijuana use disorder, and marijuana use disorder among marijuana users in the US adult general population and whether this has changed between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Face-to-face interviews conducted in surveys of 2 nationally representative samples of US adults: the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (data collected April 2001-April 2002; N = 43 093) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III (data collected April 2012-June 2013; N = 36 309). Data were analyzed March through May 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Past-year marijuana use and DSM-IV marijuana use disorder (abuse or dependence). RESULTS The past-year prevalence of marijuana use was 4.1% (SE, 0.15) in 2001–2002 and 9.5% (SE, 0.27) in 2012–2013, a significant increase (P < .05). Significant increases were also found across demographic subgroups (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, urban/rural, and region). The past-year prevalence of DSM-IV marijuana use disorder was 1.5% (0.08) in 2001–2002 and 2.9% (SE, 0.13) in 2012–2013 (P < .05). With few exceptions, increases in the prevalence of marijuana use disorder between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013 were also statistically significant (P < .05) across demographic subgroups. However, the prevalence of marijuana use disorder among marijuana users decreased significantly from 2001–2002 (35.6%; SE, 1.37) to 2012–2013 (30.6%; SE, 1.04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The prevalence of marijuana use more than doubled between 2001–2002 and 2012–2013, and there was a large increase in

  14. Adverse effects of marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kathleen E; Kampman, Kyle M

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who used marijuana more frequently and began using marijuana at an earlier age experienced worse outcomes and long-lasting effects.

  15. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  16. Exploring the Link between Alcohol and Marijuana Use and Teen Dating Violence Victimization among High School Students: The Influence of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth M.; Debnam, Katrina; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a developmental period when dating behavior is first initiated and when the risk of abuse by or against a dating partner begins to emerge. It is also one in which experimentation with alcohol and illicit substances typically begins. The current study examined the association between recent alcohol use and recent…

  17. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  19. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Singer, L T; Garber, R; Kliegman, R

    1991-10-01

    The number of infants born to cocaine-using mothers has continued to rise during the past 5 years. Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy is associated with medical and life-style characteristics detrimental to fetal and infant development. Cocaine exposure has been independently linked to growth retardation and impaired fetal oxygenation even when polydrug use and other confounding factors are considered. Neurologic and neurobehavioral abnormalities noted in the immediate neonatal period have also been associated with fetal cocaine exposure. The direct and indirect toxic effects of cocaine, per se, have not yet been independently linked to specific behavioral outcomes because of small sample sizes, confounding factors, and lack of long-term follow-up. The impoverished environments and increased risk for out-of-family placement of cocaine-exposed infants are known independent correlates of negative developmental outcomes. Poor maternal nutrition, lack of prenatal care, and other health and life-style factors related to maternal cocaine use during pregnancy also appear to be factors mediating the developmental problems of cocaine-exposed infants. The cocaine-using mother often uses other drugs, particularly alcohol, independently known to be linked to growth and behavioral impairments similar to those proposed for cocaine-exposed infants. Accounting for these multiple confounding variables in studies of the specific effects of cocaine on neurobehavioral outcome may be scientifically appropriate, but in clinical practice these factors cannot be "isolated," and their statistical consideration in studies does not diminish clinical risk. Finally, currently available studies of behavioral outcome have restricted their samples to term infants. It is possible that preterm infants may be less affected by prenatal cocaine exposure because of decreased exposure. However, because epidemiologic studies suggest that prematurity is a sequelae of maternal cocaine use, restriction

  20. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  1. What Is Substance Abuse Treatment? A Booklet for Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... family member is dependent on alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, prescription medications, or other drugs, his or her ... from alcohol or drugs and people using cocaine, marijuana, opioids, or methamphetamine do not generally need to ...

  2. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  3. Cocaine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... my baby’s body too? Yes. Cocaine crosses the placenta and enters the developing baby. Cocaine can be ... Later in pregnancy, cocaine use can cause the placenta to pull away from the wall of the ...

  4. The Variety of Ecstasy/MDMA Users: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Parrott, Andy C.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Yang, Chongming; Blazer, Dan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potential heterogeneity of ecstasy or MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users. Data came from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to identify subtypes of ecstasy users. Approximately 1.6% (n=562) of adult participants (N=43,093) reported lifetime ecstasy use. LCA identified three subtypes of ecstasy users. Class 1 exhibited pervasive use of most drug classes (ecstasy–polydrug users, 37%). Class 2 reported a high rate of use of marijuana and cocaine and a moderate use of amphetamines (ecstasy–marijuana–stimulant users, 29%). Class 3 was characterized by a high rate of use of marijuana and a low use of primarily prescription-type drugs (ecstasy– marijuana users, 34%). Subtypes were distinguished by family income, history of substance abuse treatment, and familial substance abuse. Class 1 exhibited the highest prevalence of disorders related to the use of marijuana (77%), tobacco (66%), amphetamines (36%), opioids (35%), sedatives (31%), and tranquilizers (30%). The recent resurgence in ecstasy use among adults underscores the need to monitor trends in its use. PMID:19874166

  5. Impaired reproduction of three-dimensional objects by cocaine-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Elman, Igor; Chi, Won H; Gurvits, Tamara V; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lasko, Natasha B; Lukas, Scott E; Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a perceptual-motor task of figure copying in 27 cocaine-dependent, 26 marijuana-abusing or dependent, and 33 healthy subjects. Cocaine-dependent and healthy individuals did not differ in their scores on the copying of a two-dimensional diamond and a cross. In contrast, cocaine-dependent subjects displayed significantly poorer ability to copy a three-dimensional Necker cube, a smoking pipe, a hidden line elimination cube, a pyramid, and a dissected pyramid. Marijuana users' performance on all copied figures was comparable to that of the healthy comparison subjects. Considering that decreased three-dimensional copying ability has been found to be associated with fatal injuries, further studies are needed to investigate possible underlying mechanisms (e.g., parietal lobe damage) and their role in the pathophysiology of cocaine dependence.

  6. Development and Preliminary Validation of a Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Hendershot, Christian S.; Grossbard, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has evaluated motives for using marijuana based on users' self-reported reasons. This article details the construction and psychometric validation of a new marijuana motives questionnaire. Method: Participants included 346 marijuana-using college students who completed online assessments regarding their motives for, frequency of, and problems associated with their marijuana use. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 12-factor scale, including the following: (1) Enjoyment, (2) Conformity, (3) Coping, (4) Experimentation, (5) Boredom, (6) Alcohol, (7) Celebration, (8) Altered Perception, (9) Social Anxiety, (10) Relative Low Risk, (11) Sleep/Rest, and (12) Availability. Regression results indicated enjoyment, boredom, altered perception, relative low-risk, and sleep/rest were each uniquely associated with greater frequency of use. Experimentation and availability motives were associated with less use. After accounting for use, coping and sleep/rest were associated with significantly more consequences whereas enjoyment was associated with fewer consequences. Additional results comparing the scale to an existing marijuana motives measure indicated comparatively good convergent validity. Conclusions: Emerging adult college students may have several different reasons for using marijuana, which are uniquely related to use and negative consequences. Results are considered in terms of their implications for brief interventions. PMID:19261240

  7. Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides. Methods. We obtained state-level suicide data from the National Vital Statistics System’s Mortality Detail Files for 1990–2007. We used regression analysis to examine the association between medical marijuana legalization and suicides per 100 000 population. Results. After adjustment for economic conditions, state policies, and state-specific linear time trends, the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides was not statistically significant at the .05 level. However, legalization was associated with a 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = −17.1%, −3.7%) and 9.4% (95% CI = −16.1%, −2.4%) reduction in the suicide rate of men aged 20 through 29 years and 30 through 39 years, respectively. Estimates for females were less precise and sensitive to model specification. Conclusions. Suicides among men aged 20 through 39 years fell after medical marijuana legalization compared with those in states that did not legalize. The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events. However, this relationship may be explained by alcohol consumption. The mechanism through which legalizing medical marijuana reduces suicides among young men remains a topic for future study. PMID:24432945

  8. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  9. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use.

  10. Inter-and Intragenerational Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise

    1974-01-01

    A survey of a representative sample of high school students in New York State revealed that involvement with other drug using adolescents is a more important correlate of marijuana use than is parental use of psychoactive drugs or alcohol. Implications of these data for parental and peer influence, the generation gap, and social change are…

  11. College Students' Adjustment and Frequency of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Herbert J.; Davis, Gary L.

    1972-01-01

    Maladjustment scores and frequency of use were unrelated; however, the very heaviest drug users were more maladjusted. Users also were more likely to have been in psychotherapy than nonusers. Very heavy marijuana users are, like alcoholics, in considerable psychological distress, whereas moderate users show no personality dysfunction. (Author)

  12. The effects of medical marijuana laws on illegal marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Wei Luke

    2014-12-01

    More and more states have passed laws that allow individuals to use marijuana for medical purposes. There is an ongoing, heated policy debate over whether these laws have increased marijuana use among non-patients. In this paper, I address that question empirically by studying marijuana possession arrests in cities from 1988 to 2008. I estimate fixed effects models with city-specific time trends that can condition on unobserved heterogeneities across cities in both their levels and trends. I find that these laws increase marijuana arrests among adult males by about 15-20%. These results are further validated by findings from data on treatment admissions to rehabilitation facilities: marijuana treatments among adult males increased by 10-20% after the passage of medical marijuana laws.

  13. Sex Differences in the Effects of Marijuana on Simulated Driving Performance†

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, one in six teenagers has driven under the influence of marijuana. Driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol is equally prevalent, despite the fact that marijuana use is less common than alcohol use. Much of the research examining the effects of marijuana on driving performance was conducted in the 1970s and led to equivocal findings. During that time, few studies included women and driving simulators were rudimentary. Further, the potency of marijuana commonly used recreationally has increased. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on driving performance using a realistic, validated driving simulator. Eighty-five subjects (n = 50 males, 35 females) participated in this between-subjects, double-blind, placebo controlled study. In addition to an uneventful, baseline segment of driving, participants were challenged with collision avoidance and distracted driving scenarios. Under the influence of marijuana, participants decreased their speed and failed to show expected practice effects during a distracted drive. No differences were found during the baseline driving segment or collision avoidance scenarios. No differences attributable to sex were observed. This study enhances the current literature by identifying distracted driving and the integration of prior experience as particularly problematic under the influence of marijuana. PMID:20464803

  14. Sex differences in the effects of marijuana on simulated driving performance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Beth M; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I; Pearlson, Godfrey D; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2010-03-01

    In the United States, one in six teenagers has driven under the influence of marijuana. Driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol is equally prevalent, despite the fact that marijuana use is less common than alcohol use. Much of the research examining the effects of marijuana on driving performance was conducted in the 1970s and led to equivocal findings. During that time, few studies included women and driving simulators were rudimentary. Further, the potency of marijuana commonly used recreationally has increased. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on driving performance using a realistic, validated driving simulator. Eighty-five subjects (n = 50 males, 35 females) participated in this between-subjects, double-blind, placebo controlled study. In addition to an uneventful, baseline segment of driving, participants were challenged with collision avoidance and distracted driving scenarios. Under the influence of marijuana, participants decreased their speed and failed to show expected practice effects during a distracted drive. No differences were found during the baseline driving segment or collision avoidance scenarios. No differences attributable to sex were observed. This study enhances the current literature by identifying distracted driving and the integration of prior experience as particularly problematic under the influence of marijuana.

  15. Craving is associated with amygdala volumes in adolescent marijuana users during abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Claudia B.; McQueeny, Tim; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Amygdala volume abnormalities have been reported in relation to craving in substance-dependent adults, but it remains unclear if these effects are seen in adolescent marijuana (MJ) users, particularly following abstinence. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between amygdala volume and craving during 28 days of abstinence in adolescent MJ users. Methods MJ-using adolescents (n = 22) aged 16–19 were recruited as part of a larger study on brain function in teen drug users. Craving measures were collected twice per week throughout a 28-day abstinence period. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at the end of the 28 days of confirmed abstinence. Left and right amygdala volumes were traced by hand (ICC>0.86). Composite scores for self-reported craving and withdrawal symptoms throughout the 28-day abstinence period were calculated to provide four composite measures of total craving, mood, sleep, and somatic complaints. Results Results revealed that greater craving during abstinence was significantly associated with smaller left and right amygdala volumes, after controlling for age and gender. Other measures of withdrawal, including mood, somatic complaints and sleep problems, were not related to amygdala morphometry. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous findings in adult alcohol-and cocaine-dependent individuals, who demonstrated a relationship between reduced amygdala volumes and increased craving. Future studies are needed to determine if these brain-behavior relationships are attributable to MJ use or predate the onset of substance use. PMID:25668330

  16. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Harrison, Anna J.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Aaby, David A.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug— in youths during the 12 years after detention. Methods. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). Results. By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). Conclusions. After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse—during incarceration and after release—would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population. PMID:26985602

  17. Regulation of cocaine craving by cognitive strategies in an online sample of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Reynolds, Anna R; Stoops, William W

    2016-08-01

    Emphasis on the negative consequences of drug use is a critical component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) skills to regulate craving. Despite the relative success of CBT for treating substance use disorders, effective human laboratory models of CBT are lacking. Recent reports have indicated that the regulation of craving (ROC) task provides a valid model of craving regulation for nicotine, alcohol, and methamphetamine use. The present study examined ROC in an online sample of regular cocaine users (n = 44) recruited from Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. In the ROC task, cognitive regulation strategies were manipulated by instructing participants to think about either the positive or negative consequences of consuming cocaine. Participants were then presented with cocaine images while engaging in each cognitive regulation strategy and asked to report current craving that was then compared to neutral look conditions. Food images served as a control. A cocaine purchase task was also completed to assess economic demand for cocaine and its relationship with cocaine craving. The use of negative appraisal strategies that model those used in CBT significantly attenuated craving for cocaine. Cocaine craving was also stimulus-specific, with greater smoked cocaine craving reported by individuals with a history of smoked cocaine use. This online extension of the ROC task provides converging evidence for its use as a model of CBT cocaine-craving regulation. Futures studies can use this model to examine the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of CBT for cocaine use and the relationship between craving regulation and drug-use behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this "the munchies." People who smoke marijuana often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  19. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  20. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kolikonda, Murali K.; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration. Marijuana remains largely illegal, and may induce adverse consequences. Clinical applications are not approved, thus are restricted and only recommended in selected treatment unresponsive cases, with appropriate monitoring. PMID:27354925

  1. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects. In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  5. Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

  6. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  7. Frequent Marijuana Use, Binge Drinking and Mental Health Problems Among Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Diana R.; Hart, Carl L.; McNeil, Michael P.; Silver, Rae; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives In light of the rapidly changing legal status of marijuana in the U.S., there has been increased interest in the potentially adverse outcomes of heavy marijuana use among young persons. The goal of this study was to investigate frequent marijuana use among undergraduates, and its association with the use of illicit substances, mental health problems, and stress. Methods Undergraduates from one university in the Northeast were surveyed using a questionnaire derived from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (N =1,776). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between frequency of marijuana use and other substance use, binge drinking, negative consequences of drinking, mental health problems, and perceived stress. Analyses were adjusted for demographics differences such as gender, race, year in school, and sorority/fraternity membership. Results Approximately 1 in 12 undergraduates (8.5%) reported using marijuana more than 10 days in the past month. Frequent marijuana use was associated with increased likelihood of other substance use and alcohol-related negative outcomes. Marijuana use was associated with increased reports of anxiety, and frequent use was associated with depression and substance use problems. Perceived stress was not associated with marijuana use. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings, indicating that frequent use is related to depression, other substance use and negative outcomes, contribute to our understanding of marijuana use among undergraduates. Given the relatively high prevalence of marijuana use among young persons, future studies should seek to uncover potentially causal relationships between frequent marijuana use and a variety of negative outcomes. PMID:25930151

  8. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, Lauren M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. Objective This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. Method College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Results Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. Conclusions It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time. PMID:26678375

  9. Purpose in Life Predicts Treatment Outcome Among Adult Cocaine Abusers in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; MacKinnon, Selene; Johnson, Jennifer; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2010-01-01

    A sense of purpose in life has been positively associated with mental health and well-being and has been negatively associated with alcohol use in correlational and longitudinal studies, but has not been studied as a predictor of cocaine treatment outcome. This study examined pre-treatment purpose in life as a predictor of response to a 30-day residential substance use treatment program among 154 participants with cocaine dependence. Purpose in life was unrelated to cocaine or alcohol use during the 6 months pretreatment. After controlling for age, baseline use, and depressive symptoms, purpose in life significantly (p < .01) predicted relapse to any use of cocaine and to alcohol, and the number of days cocaine or alcohol was used in the six months after treatment. Findings suggest that increasing purpose in life may be an important aspect of treatment among cocaine dependent patients. PMID:21129893

  10. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  11. Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Johannigman, Suzanne; Eschiti, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important.

  12. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.; Lindquist, R.P.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  13. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma-ray emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.

    1994-10-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  14. New medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Kampman, Kyle M

    2005-12-01

    Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health problem in the United States. Although some cocaine- dependent patients will respond well to drug counseling, for many, standard psychosocial treatment is inadequate. Therefore, the development of an effective medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence is a research priority. However, despite many years of research, no medication has emerged as consistently effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Progress in the understanding of the neurobiology of cocaine dependence has led to the discovery of several promising medications that have already shown encouraging results in controlled clinical trials. Among more severely addicted patients, propranolol may be helpful in promoting an initial period of stable abstinence. For the prevention of relapse, medications that block cocaine euphoria or reduce cocaine craving have shown promise. Potential relapse-prevention medications include GABAergic medications, such as baclofen, tiagabine, and topiramate, and the glutamatergic medication, modafinil. Surprisingly, an old treatment for alcohol dependence, disulfiram, may also have efficacy for cocaine relapse prevention. Finally, a vaccine capable of stimulating the production of cocaine specific antibodies has shown promise in preliminary studies for the prevention of relapse to cocaine use.

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, PCP, and opioids (both heroin and ...

  17. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... other medications to treat stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. People who use more than one ...

  18. Drug Facts

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  19. Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Gurley, R J; Aranow, R; Katz, M

    1998-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the role of marijuana as a therapeutic agent; however, many practitioners are taught very little about existing marijuana data. The authors therefore undertook a comprehensive literature review of the topic. References were identified using textbooks, review and opinion articles, and a primary literature review in MEDLINE. Sources were included in this review based primarily on the quality of the data. Some data exists that lends credence to many of the claims about marijuana's properties. In general, however, the body of literature about marijuana is extremely poor in quality. Marijuana and/or its components may help alleviate suffering in patients with a variety of serious illnesses. Health care providers can best minimize short term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally ill patients by having a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of marijuana, potential adverse reactions, infection risks, and drug interactions (along with on-going monitoring of the patient). For chronic conditions, the significance and risk of short and long term adverse effects must be weighed against the desired benefit. Patients who are best suited to medicinal marijuana will be those who will gain substantial benefit to offset these risks, and who have failed a well-documented, compliant and comprehensive approach to standard therapies.

  20. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English ... how drugs affect the brain and nervous system. Mind Over Matter is produced by the National Institute ...

  1. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  2. Nationwide Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... mostly reflects a recent rise in use of marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug. Marijuana use ...

  3. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  5. The role of weight control as a motivation for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, C; Malcolm, R; Brewerton, T

    1998-01-01

    Heavy use of cocaine and alcohol in female cocaine abusers with eating disorders has been reported, but the prevalence and motivation for concurrent substance use has not been well investigated. This study of 37 female and 40 male cocaine abusers demonstrated that almost half of the women used cocaine and/or alcohol as a weight control measure, and 13% of the males did the same. Thirteen (72%) of 18 females endorsing weight-related use of cocaine had a current diagnosis of an eating disorder. Only two males (5%) had a past history of an eating disorder. Eleven (85%) of those women with a current eating disorder endorsed using alcohol as an appetite suppressant. These findings support the need to evaluate weight control motivation in cocaine users and to provide specific treatment aimed at addressing the interaction between the eating disorder and the substance abuse problem.

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Beth M; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I; Pearlson, Godfrey D; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2010-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n=35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men, likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted.

  8. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  9. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  10. An MR-compatible device for delivering smoked marijuana during functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Blaise deB.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the preferred method of administration for two of the most frequently abused drugs, marijuana and nicotine. The high temporal and spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) make it a natural choice for studying the neurobiological effects of smoked drugs if the challenges of smoking in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner can be overcome. We report on a design for an MR-compatible smoking device that can be used for smoking marijuana (or tobacco) during fMRI examinations. Nine volunteers smoked marijuana cigarettes (3.51% Δ9-THC) on two occasions: with and without the device. The device allowed subjects to smoke while they lay in the scanner, while containing all smoke and odors. Plasma Δ9-THC, subjective reports of intoxication, and heart rate increases are reported, and were all similar in individuals smoking marijuana either with or without the device. The use of this device will help advance research studies on smoked drugs including marijuana, tobacco and crack cocaine. PMID:17521714

  11. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.

  12. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Meseck, Kristin; Jankowska, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods. PMID:27213075

  13. Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood: Developmental Trajectories and Their Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study assesses the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, children living at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. Method This study used a longitudinal design. The sample participants (N=548) were first studied at mean age 14 and last studied at mean age 43. Results Six trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic/heavy users (3.6%), increasing users (5.1%), chronic/occasional users (20%), decreasers (14.3%), quitters (22.5%), and nonusers/experimenters (34.5%). With three exceptions, as compared with being a nonuser/experimenter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy, the increasing, or the chronic/occasional user trajectory group was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and having a spouse/partner who used marijuana at early midlife. In addition, compared with being a quitter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy user trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, alcohol dependence/abuse, and spouse/partner marijuana use. Implications for intervention are presented. Conclusions Trajectories of marijuana use, especially chronic/heavy use, increasing use, and chronic/occasional use, are associated with unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. The importance of the findings for prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27168181

  14. Effects of marijuana on equilibrium, psychomotor performance, and simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Liguori, A; Gatto, C P; Robinson, J H

    1998-11-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is frequently found in the blood of drivers involved in automobile accidents, and marijuana use has been associated with impaired field sobriety test performance. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of marijuana (0, 1.77, or 3.95% THC) on equilibrium and simulated driving. Ten marijuana users (seven men, three women) smoked one marijuana cigarette at the beginning of each session. Then 2 min later, they began a 60-min test battery that included subjective effects scales, a computerized test of body sway, a rapid judgment task and brake latency measurement in a driving simulator, critical flicker fusion (CFF), and a choice reaction time task (CRT). Self-report ratings of 'high' and 'drug potency' increased comparably following both active doses. The high, but not the low, dose significantly increased body sway. The high dose also marginally increased brake latency by a mean of 55 ms (P < 0.10), which is comparable to an increase in stopping distance of nearly 5 feet at 60 mph Judgment, CFF, and CRT scores did not differ across dose conditions. The equilibrium and brake latency data with 3.95% THC are similar to prior results in our laboratory in participants with breath alcohol concentrations near 0.05%.

  15. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  16. Co-Occurring Marijuana Use is Associated with Medication Nonadherence and Nonplanning Impulsivity in Young Adult Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Corbin, William R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of alcohol and marijuana use in clinical samples of young adults. The present study investigated whether co-occurring marijuana use is associated with characteristics indicative of a high level of risk in young adult heavy drinkers. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 years (N = 122) participated in an ongoing 8-week randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of placebo-controlled naltrexone plus brief individual counseling to reduce heavy drinking. At intake participants completed self-report assessments on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related negative consequences, motivation to reduce drinking, trait impulsivity, expectancies for alcohol-induced disinhibition, use of cigarettes, and history of medication nonadherence. In univariate tests heavy drinkers with and without co-occurring marijuana use did not differ on alcohol consumption, most alcohol-related negative consequences, and motivation to reduce drinking. In multivariate tests controlling for demographic characteristics, co-occurring heavy alcohol and marijuana use was significantly associated with nonplanning impulsivity (β = 2.95) and a history of both unintentional (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.30) and purposeful (aOR = 3.98) nonadherence to medication. Findings suggest that young adult heavy drinkers with co-occurring marijuana use exhibit a high-risk clinical profile and may benefit from interventions that increase adherence to medications. PMID:22189052

  17. Alcohol criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders among DUI offenders: Greater severity among women and multiple offenders

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Grucza, Richard A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John R.; Bierut, Laura Jean; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), a high-risk family study of alcohol dependence, were used to examine differences in alcohol diagnostic criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders by gender and by number of DUI offenses. Results Individuals with two or more DUIs exhibited greater severity of alcohol dependence than those with none or one DUI. This severity was characterized in three ways: (1) higher endorsement of alcohol diagnostic criterion items, with evidence of greater severity among women, (2) higher prevalence of co-occurring lifetime psychiatric disorders, and (3) higher rates of drug use and of dependence on cocaine, stimulants, and, for women only, marijuana and opiates. Conclusions By examining gradations of disorder within a combination of two high-risk indicators, DUI and family vulnerability, this study provides useful information for clinical research about individuals with chronic and severe alcohol problems. In addition, the observed gender differences in this high-risk sample will contribute to the literature on alcohol dependence among women at the more severe end of the dependence spectrum. PMID:19167170

  18. Making sense of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D

    1999-01-01

    The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.

  19. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  20. Medical Marijuana in Certain Neurological Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Systematic Review for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES MEDICAL MARIJUANA IN CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS This fact sheet presents the current research on medical marijuana (cannabis) for treating certain neurological disorders. The American ...

  1. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162472.html Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  2. Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hampson, A J; Grimaldi, M; Lolic, M; Wink, D; Rosenthal, R; Axelrod, J

    2000-01-01

    Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined as neuroprotectants in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. The psychotropic cannabinoid receptor agonist delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol, (a non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana), both reduced NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptor mediated neurotoxicities. Neuroprotection was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating a (cannabinoid) receptor-independent mechanism of action. Glutamate toxicity can be reduced by antioxidants. Using cyclic voltametry and a fenton reaction based system, it was demonstrated that Cannabidiol, THC and other cannabinoids are potent antioxidants. As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.

  3. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain; Yancy, W Samuel

    2004-06-01

    This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  4. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  5. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

  6. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  7. Cocaine and the heart

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine is the second commonest illicit drug used and the most frequent cause of drug related deaths. Its use is associated with both acute and chronic complications that may involve any system, the most common being the cardiovascular system. Cocaine misuse has a major effect in young adult drug users with resulting loss of productivity and undue morbidity with cocaine related cardiac and cerebrovascular effects. Many cocaine users have little or no idea of the risks associated with its use. Patients, health care professionals, and the public should be educated about the dangers and the considerable risks of cocaine use. This review concentrates on the cardiovascular effects of cocaine and their management. PMID:16143686

  8. Cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A

    1994-07-15

    Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) deaths involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) deaths involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of deaths where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).

  9. Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mark; Paran, Daphna; Elkayam, Ori

    2016-01-01

    The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, otolaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients. PMID:27824551

  10. Gambling Problems Among Community Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Magali; Nguyen, Noël; Bertrand, Karine; Perreault, Michel; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Morvannou, Adèle; Bruneau, Julie; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine use is highly prevalent and a major public health problem. While some studies have reported frequent comorbidity problems among cocaine users, few studies have included evaluation of gambling problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gambling problems and compare those who were at-risk gamblers with non-problem gamblers in terms of mental health problems, substance use problems, and some risk factors (i.e. family antecedents, erroneous perceptions and coping strategies) among individuals who smoke or inject cocaine. A total of 424 smoked or injected cocaine users recruited through community-based programs in Montreal (Quebec) completed the questionnaire, including the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the CAGE, and the Severity Dependence Scale. Of the sample, 18.4 % were considered at-risk gamblers, of whom 7.8 % had problems gambling and 10.6 % were moderate-risk gamblers. The at-risk group was more likely to have experienced a recent phobic disorder and alcohol problems than the non-problem group. A multivariate analysis showed that, compared to those who were non-problem gamblers, the at-risk ones were more likely to have lost a large sum of money when they first started gambling, believed that their luck would turn, and gambled in reaction to painful life events. These results indicate the need to include routines for screening to identify gambling problem among cocaine users.

  11. Medical consequences of cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Cocaine use among middle-class North Americans increased dramatically during the 1980s. Medical complications involve almost every organ system and are produced by intense vasoconstriction. Managing cocaine-induced disease requires careful identification and the use of alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, in addition to standard therapy and referral to specialists to manage cocaine withdrawal. Images p1976-a p1980-a PMID:8106032

  12. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  13. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  14. Cocaine withdrawal in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Raffa, R B; Valdez, J M

    2001-10-26

    Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8x10(-9) to 8x10(-5) M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83x10(-19) J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.

  15. Subchronic cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212-2) treatment during cocaine abstinence alters subsequent cocaine seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    González-Cuevas, Gustavo; Aujla, Harinder; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Navarro, Miguel; Weiss, Friedbert

    2007-11-01

    The co-abuse of marijuana with cocaine is widespread, but it has not been until recently that the relationship between the behavioral effects of cannabinoids and cocaine has begun to be unveiled in animal models. Male Wistar rats were trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine until a stable baseline was reached. Rats then were subjected to a 5-day cocaine deprivation period during which they were treated daily with the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (R-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate) (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg; i.p.). Following this subchronic treatment, rats were tested, in counterbalanced order, in a test of anxiety (elevated plus-maze), as well as extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests, the latter conducted according to a between-within procedure. Subchronic administration of WIN 55,212-2 was found to produce dose-dependent alterations of performance in the extinction, reinstatement, and anxiety tests with the lowest dose of WIN 55,212-2 producing the highest resistance to extinction and reinstatement, and the highest dose of WIN 55,212-2 producing the highest anxiolytic activity. Subchronic treatment with WIN 55,212-2 in rats without a history of cocaine self-administration did not affect anxiety levels. The results suggest an important role of the cannabinoid system in neuronal processes underlying cocaine seeking behavior. However, further studies will be necessary to understand possible implications of these findings for a role of the cannabinoid system as a treatment target for human cocaine abuse.

  16. Peripartum cocaine use and adverse pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Little, Bertis B.; Snell, Laura M.; Trimmer, Kenneth J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Ghali, Fred; Blakely, Craig A.; Garret, Andrea

    1999-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze possible adverse effects of peripartum cocaine use on maternal and fetal outcomes. Informed consent was given by 720 (97%) of 740 women who delivered consecutively at a large urban public hospital to test an umbilical cord blood sample for the presence of non-medically administered drugs of abuse and alcohol and to be interviewed for the study. Samples were tested for the presence of a cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine-BZE) by radioimmunoassay. The presence of other substances of abuse (alcohol, methamphetamine, opiates) resulted in exclusion from the sample of 143 subjects. Thus, in this cohort analysis, drug-free controls (N = 469) were compared to those positive for cocaine only (N = 108). Peripartum exposure to cocaine only, and no other substances of abuse, was associated with an increased frequency of abruptio placentae (1.9% vs 0% for control, P < 0.004), thick meconium stained amniotic fluid (3.9% vs 0.7% for controls, P < 0.006), premature rupture of membranes (P < 0.02), genitourinary anomalies (OR = 3.6, P < 0.05), abdominal wall defects (OR = 4.4, P < 0.01) and increased frequency of low birth weight (OR = 2.0, P < 0.02). These are important findings because previous studies have been complicated by the confounding effects of other substances of abuse. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:598-602, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cannabis (marijuana) contamination of United States and foreign paper currency.

    PubMed

    Lavins, Eric S; Lavins, Bethany D; Jenkins, Amanda J

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that United States paper currency in general circulation is contaminated with trace amounts of illicit substances such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. As is the case with cocaine, differentiating "background levels" of the various cannabinoid constituents of Cannabis sativa L., namely, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) contaminating currency found in the general circulation from currency associated with illegal drug activity is imperative if a legal nexus is to be established with the latter. We analyzed 165 randomly collected paper currency notes from 12 U.S. cities (N = 125) and 4 foreign countries (N = 40) for THC, CBD, CBN, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Uncirculated US 1 dollar notes were added as negative controls. Drug residues were washed from individual bills, extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction protocol, derivatized, and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by selected ion monitoring. For the US 1 dollar currency, THC was present in 1.6% (2 notes), CBN 10.31% (13 notes), CBD 1.6% (2 notes). The following concentrations were determined: 0.085 microg/bill and 0.146 microg/bill for THC; 0.014-0.774 microg/bill (mean 0.166 microg/bill) for CBN; and 0.032 microg/bill and 0.086 microg/bill for CBD. For the foreign currency (Colombia, Qatar, India, and New Zealand), THC and CBN were present in 22.5% (9 notes). The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.026-0.065 microg/bill (mean 0.049 microg/bill), CBN 0.061-0.197 microg/bill (mean 0.115 microg/bill). All of the positive THC and CBN were found in the New Zealand polypropylene notes. This study demonstrated that marijuana (cannabinoids) may contaminate both paper and plastic currency.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. The power of the proposition: frequency of marijuana offers, parental knowledge, and adolescent marijuana use

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jason T.; Tan, Cara N.; Navarro, Mario A.; Alvaro, Eusebio; Crano, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The frequency with which adolescents are offered marijuana has been investigated as a predictor of marijuana use. The current study was designed to test whether the number of marijuana offers received provides an indirect path between parental knowledge and adolescents’ marijuana use. Methods Data from the nationally representative National Survey of Parents and Youth were examined. Analysis 1 tested the association between frequency of being offered marijuana and adolescents’ (N = 4264) marijuana usage in the subsequent year. Analysis 2, spanning a three-year time frame, tested whether the frequency of marijuana offers at the second year of the panel study bridged the relationship between parental knowledge in Year 1 and marijuana use in Year 3. Results Analysis 1 indicated that the frequency with which adolescents were offered marijuana predicted usage one year later, after controlling for previous usage and nine other common predictors of marijuana use. Analysis 2 revealed an indirect relationship between parental knowledge and use through the number of marijuana offers the adolescent received. Conclusion There was a strong link between the number of offers received and adolescents’ future marijuana use. Higher parental knowledge predicted reductions in offer frequency, which was associated with lower levels of marijuana use. Reducing the number of marijuana offers an adolescent receives could serve as a useful focus for intervention programs targeting parents. PMID:25620730

  1. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  2. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are, after marijuana (and alcohol), the most commonly abused substances by ...

  3. MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... combination with other drugs such as alcohol or marijuana. How does MDMA affect the brain? MDMA increases ...

  4. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  5. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...

  6. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels.

  7. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493

  8. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Effects of Cocaine on Brains and Bodies Previous Index Next ... About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | ...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3250 - Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3250 Cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system. (a) Identification. A cocaine and cocaine metabolite test system is a device intended to measure cocaine and a cocaine...

  14. Medical marijuana: Irresponsible medical care?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nayvin

    2017-03-01

    Illness should continue to be treated by health professionals employing scientific evidence. This is responsible policy. It is not appropriate or medically justified for family physicians to refer patients to medical marijuana clinics; instead, they should inform their patients that medical treatment must be based on scientific evidence.

  15. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  16. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  17. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  18. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  19. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  20. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  1. Cocaine and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Das, G

    1993-12-01

    Cocaine abuse today has reached greater heights than it did during the first cocaine epidemic in the late nineteenth century. It is estimated that one out of every four Americans has used cocaine and some six million people in the US use it regularly. Although cocaine affects all systems in the body, the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters in the neuronal synapses. Almost all CNS effects of cocaine can be attributed to this mechanism. Euphoria, pharmacological pleasure and intense cocaine craving share basis in this system. The effects of cocaine on other organ systems, in addition to its effects on the CNS, account for the majority of the complications associated with cocaine abuse. In this paper, the CNS effects following cocaine administration and their treatment are discussed.

  2. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  3. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  4. Sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    effect on POEA and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine concentrations. Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., mood, anxiety, and psychosis disorders). Additionally, cocaine-addicted subjects showed a relationship between the concentrations of N-stearoyl-ethanolamine and 2-linoleoyl-glycerol and diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of comorbid psychopathologies for clinical purposes.

  5. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    effect on POEA and N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine concentrations. Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., mood, anxiety, and psychosis disorders). Additionally, cocaine-addicted subjects showed a relationship between the concentrations of N-stearoyl-ethanolamine and 2-linoleoyl-glycerol and diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of comorbid psychopathologies for clinical purposes. PMID:25762940

  6. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  7. Effects of prenatal cocaine on hearing, vision, growth, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Crossland, W J; Holmes, P A; Overbeck, G W; Tilak, J P

    1998-06-21

    The illicit use of cocaine has increased dramatically over the last 10-12 years. There has been a corresponding increase in cocaine abuse among obstetric patients and in the number of "cocaine babies." According to some estimates, these children make up more than half of the drug-associated births. This problem is therefore a major public health concern. Consequently, our laboratory investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on hearing, vision, growth, and exploratory/stress behavior. This chapter summarizes the literature on animals and humans on these topics and presents new observations from our laboratory. In terms of maternal toxicity, prenatal cocaine exposure causes hypertension, placental abruption, spontaneous abortion, poor pregnancy weight gain, and undernutrition secondary to appetite suppression. Some offspring effects include in utero growth retardation, cephalic hemorrhage, fetal edema, altered body composition, congenital malformations, and even pre- and postnatal death. The offspring can also exhibit a variety of behavioral, visual, hearing, and language disorders. Differential effects of animal strain and late gestational cocaine exposure are discussed. Comparisons are made between prenatal cocaine, the fetal alcohol syndrome, and the effects of prenatal undernutrition. Recommendations for clinical assessment and intervention are made.

  8. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Response to Marijuana Print The Brain's Response to Marijuana Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome to ... issue, we'll investigate the fascinating facts about marijuana. You may have heard it called pot, weed, ...

  9. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  10. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sabia, Joseph J; Swigert, Jeffrey; Young, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on body weight, physical wellness, and exercise. Using data from the 1990 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a difference-in-difference approach, we find that the enforcement of MMLs is associated with a 2% to 6% decline in the probability of obesity. We find some evidence of age-specific heterogeneity in mechanisms. For older individuals, MML-induced increases in physical mobility may be a relatively important channel, while for younger individuals, a reduction in consumption of alcohol, a substitute for marijuana, appears more important. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that MMLs may be more likely to induce marijuana use for health-related reasons among older individuals, and cause substitution toward lower-calorie recreational 'highs' among younger individuals. Our estimates suggest that MMLs induce a $58 to $115 per-person annual reduction in obesity-related medical costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Marijuana alters the human cerebellar clock.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Turner, Beth M; Koeppel, Julie; Magnotta, Vincent A; Ponto, Laura Boles; Watkins, G Leonard; Hichwa, Richard D; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2003-06-11

    The effects of marijuana on brain perfusion and internal timing were assessed using [15O] water PET in occasional and chronic users. Twelve volunteers who smoked marijuana recreationally about once weekly, and 12 volunteers who smoked daily for a number of years performed a self-paced counting task during PET imaging, before and after smoking marijuana and placebo cigarettes. Smoking marijuana increased rCBF in the ventral forebrain and cerebellar cortex in both groups, but resulted in significantly less frontal lobe activation in chronic users. Counting rate increased after smoking marijuana in both groups, as did a behavioral measure of self-paced tapping, and both increases correlated with rCBF in the cerebellum. Smoking marijuana appears to accelerate a cerebellar clock altering self-paced behaviors.

  12. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain

    2004-06-01

    As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.

  13. Cocaethylene is more potent than cocaine in mediating lethality.

    PubMed

    Hearn, W L; Rose, S; Wagner, J; Ciarleglio, A; Mash, D C

    1991-06-01

    Cocaethylene is a pharmacologically active cocaine metabolite that is formed in the presence of ethanol by the activity of liver enzymes. The pharmacology of cocaethylene has not been extensively investigated and its acute toxicity is unknown. The acute toxicity of cocaethylene was compared to cocaine in Swiss-Webster mice. The LD50 of cocaethylene was 60.7 mg/kg and 63.8 mg/kg in female and male mice, respectively. In comparison, the LD50 of cocaine was 93.0 mg/kg in both female and male mice. These studies demonstrate that the cocaine-alcohol metabolite, cocathylene, is more potent in mediating lethality than the parent drug.

  14. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the cardiovascular effects after the coadministration of cocaine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Laizure, S Casey; Parker, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    One of the most common drug dependencies occurring with alcoholism is cocaine dependence. This combination is particularly worrisome because of the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with their coabuse. Although it is well known that ethanol increases the cardiovascular effects of cocaine by inhibiting cocaine clearance and the formation of cocaethylene, it has also been postulated that ethanol enhances the cardiovascular effects of cocaine independent of the two latter mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular pharmacodynamics of the cocaine-ethanol interaction to determine whether ethanol directly enhanced the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Dogs (n = 6) were administered cocaine alone (3 mg/kg i.v.) and in combination with ethanol (1 g/kg i.v.) on separate study days. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the electrocardiogram were monitored continuously, and blood samples were collected periodically after drug administration. Concentration-time data were fitted to a two-compartment model, and concentration-effect data were fitted to a simple E(max) model using WinNonlin software. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were compared between the two treatment phases by a paired t test. The administration of ethanol before cocaine resulted in a decrease in cocaine clearance, but there were no differences in any of the other pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameter values between the cocaine alone and cocaine plus ethanol phases. As has been demonstrated in previous animal and human studies, the clearance of cocaine was decreased by prior administration of ethanol. However, ethanol did not change the concentration-effect relationship of the cardiovascular response to cocaine administration. It is concluded from this study that ethanol does not directly enhance the cardiovascular effects of cocaine.

  15. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  16. Smoking and marijuana use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Haywood L; Graves, Cornelia R

    2013-03-01

    The obstetrical, neonatal, and childhood risk associated with prenatal smoking are well known. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in up to 25% of low birth weight infants primarily from preterm birth and fetal growth restriction and up to 10% of all infant mortality. The relationship between prenatal marijuana smoking and obstetrical and infant outcomes is less clear. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Neither exposure to cigarette nor marijuana smoke has evidence for teratogenicity, but both have been implicated in developmental and hyperactivity disorders in children. Pregnant women should be counseled on the risk of both cigarette and marijuana smoking.

  17. Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neonates with Prenatal Marijuana Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Grewen, Karen; Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments; however, findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2–6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; −MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug-free controls). Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula–cerebellum, right caudate–cerebellum, right caudate–right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate–cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypo-connectivity in all clusters compared with −MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and −MJ groups demonstrated hyper-connectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypo-connectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits. PMID:26582983

  18. Cocaine exposure in utero: perinatal development and neonatal manifestations--review.

    PubMed

    Kain, Z N; Kain, T S; Scarpelli, E M

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether cocaine exposure in utero increases the risk of major structural malformations remains controversial. Most animal studies have demonstrated that cocaine can have a teratogenic effect. The ultimate association between cocaine exposure and fetal development must be inferred from human data. The relative effects of cocaine exposure, exposure to other illicit drugs and alcohol and deficient prenatal care are difficult to assess. Little specific information is available about the amount, duration, and timing of cocaine use during the nine months of pregnancy. Unlike the case with many other teratogens, cocaine exposure at any point in pregnancy can result in some abnormality. The extent of damage and the organ involved depend on the particular stage of morphogenesis. A large scale prospective human study is needed to confirm the suggested teratogenic effects. Since it involves an illicit drug such a study is obviously difficult to perform.

  19. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  20. Correlation between serum ghrelin levels and cocaine-seeking behaviour triggered by cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Michela; Catalano, Antonio; Pellitteri, Michele; Di Francesco, Carla; Marini, Francesca; Gerrard, Philip A; Heidbreder, Christian A; Melotto, Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide with growth hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing activities. A growing body of evidence suggests that ghrelin may affect the central reward system and modulate the activity of the mesolimbic system. Recent clinical studies also showed a significant positive correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and craving in alcoholics. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential role of serum ghrelin levels in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour triggered by cocaine-associated cues. In addition, serum corticosterone levels were determined in the light of evidence suggesting that corticosterone plays a modulatory role in cocaine-seeking behaviour. Male Lister Hooded rats under a restricted diet regime were first trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Conditioned stimuli (CS: tone and cue-light on for 5 seconds) were presented contingently with cocaine delivery. Once a stable baseline of cocaine self-administration was observed, lever presses were extinguished to less than 30% of baseline rates by removing both cocaine and CS. Reinstatement of responding was then induced by re-exposure to cocaine-associated CS. Blood samples for the enzyme immunoassay determination of serum ghrelin and the radioimmunoassay determination of serum corticosterone levels were collected 30 minutes before the beginning of reinstatement sessions. Rats significantly reinstated their responding when exposed to CS. A positive and significant correlation was observed between ghrelin levels (r = 0.64; P < 0.05), but not corticosterone (r = 0.37; NS), and the increased active lever presses only in animals exposed to CS. These findings suggest a potential role of ghrelin in the modulation of cue-triggered reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour.

  1. Stable Isotopic Constraints on the Geographic Sources of Marijuana in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.; Haubenstock, N. A.; Howe, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    improvement of forensic technology in relatively remote areas such as Alaska. Officers for the Alaska Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Enforcement spend a significant amount of time controlling the production and distribution of marijuana, while the resources allocated for law enforcement must be utilized over a wide geographic area.

  2. Balanced placebo design with marijuana: Pharmacological and expectancy effects on impulsivity and risk taking

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Reynolds, Brady; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Haney, Margaret; de Wit, Harriet; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Marijuana is believed to increase impulsivity and risk taking, but the processes whereby it affects such behaviors are not understood. Indeed, either the pharmacologic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or the expectancy of receiving it may lead to deficits in cognitive processing and increases in risk taking. Objectives and methods We examined the relative effects of expecting to receive active marijuana and the pharmacological drug effects using a balanced placebo design. Young adult regular marijuana users (N=136) were randomly assigned into one of four groups in a two × two instructional set (Told THC vs. Told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8 % THC vs. placebo) design. Dependent measures included subjective intoxication, behavioral impulsivity, and decision-making related to risky behaviors. Results Active THC, regardless of expectancy, impaired inhibition on the Stop Signal and Stroop Color-Word tasks. Expectancy of having smoked THC, regardless of active drug, decreased impulsive decision-making on a delay discounting task among participants reporting no deception and increased perception of sexual risk among women, consistent with a compensatory effect. Expectancy of smoking THC in combination with active THC increased negative perceptions from risky alcohol use. Active drug and expectancy independently increased subjective intoxication. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of marijuana expectancy effects as users believing they are smoking marijuana may compensate for expected intoxication effects when engaged in deliberate decision-making by making less impulsive and risky decisions. Effects of marijuana on impulsive disinhibition, by contrast, reflect direct pharmacologic effects for which participants did not compensate. PMID:22588253

  3. Marijuana Use and Viral Suppression in Persons Receiving Medical Care for HIV-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.; Zhou, Zhi; Burrell, Larry E.; Kelso, Natalie E; Whitehead, Nicole E.; Harman, Jeffery S.; Cook, Christa L.; Cook, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is common among persons living with HIV (PLWH), but its effect on HIV clinical outcomes has not been thoroughly studied. Objectives We determined the association between marijuana use and HIV viral suppression among PLWH. Methods Data came from five repeated cross-sections (2009 – 2013) of the Florida Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based sample of PLWH in Florida. Data were obtained via interview and medical record abstraction. Weighted logistic regression models were used to determine the association between marijuana use (past 12-months) and durable viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA value of ≤ 200 copies/milliliter in all measurements within the past 12-months). Results Of the 1,902 PLWH receiving antiretroviral therapy and completed an interview and had a linked medical record abstraction, 20% reported marijuana use in the past 12 months (13% less than daily and 7% daily use). Of the total sample, 73% achieved durable viral suppression. In multivariable analysis, marijuana use was not significantly associated with durable viral suppression in daily [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 1.33] or in less than daily [AOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.37] users as compared to non-users when adjusting for sociodemographic factors, time since HIV diagnosis, depressive symptoms, alcohol, cigarette and other substance use. Conclusion In this sample of PLWH receiving medical care in Florida, there was no statistically significant association between marijuana use and viral suppression. As our findings suggest the possibility of a clinical important effect, there is a need for additional evidence from other samples and settings that include more marijuana users. PMID:27398989

  4. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Marijuana Misuse Interactions On White Matter and Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H.; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk. PMID:21420833

  5. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  6. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  7. Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

  8. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  9. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  10. A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Timothy H.

    1973-01-01

    Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

  11. The Effects of Marijuana on Human Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Joseph H.

    Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…

  12. Personality Correlates of Undergraduate Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    The objective of this study was to investigate the personological factors underlying marijuana use in the college population. Under anonymous conditions, 148 students at two universities completed the California Psychological Inventory and a biographical questionnaire concerning drug usage. Four conclusions were reached: (1) marijuana use at two…

  13. Effects of prenatal marijuana on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andra M; Fried, Peter A; Hogan, Matthew J; Cameron, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The neurophysiological effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on response inhibition were assessed in 18- to 22-year-olds. Thirty-one participants from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) performed a blocked design Go/No-Go task while neural activity was imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The OPPS is a longitudinal study that provides a unique body of information collected from each participant over 20 years, including prenatal drug history, detailed cognitive/behavioral performance from infancy to young adulthood, and current and past drug usage. The fMRI results showed that with increased prenatal marijuana exposure, there was a significant increase in neural activity in bilateral prefrontal cortex and right premotor cortex during response inhibition. There was also an attenuation of activity in left cerebellum with increased prenatal exposure to marijuana when challenging the response inhibition neural circuitry. Prenatally exposed offspring had significantly more commission errors than nonexposed participants, but all participants were able to perform the task with more than 85% accuracy. These findings were observed when controlling for present marijuana use and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol and caffeine, and suggest that prenatal marijuana exposure is related to changes in neural activity during response inhibition that last into young adulthood.

  14. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  15. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  16. Microaggressions and marijuana use among college students.

    PubMed

    Pro, George; Sahker, Ethan; Marzell, Miesha

    2017-03-09

    This study examines the association between exposure to microaggressions and marijuana use, using original survey data from a sample of racial/ethnic minority college students (n = 332) from a large Division I university in the United States. Nearly all of our sample (96%) reported at least one experience with microaggressions in the past 6 months, while 33% reported using marijuana regularly. We modeled regular use of marijuana using multiple logistic regression, with consideration of sex, age, race/ethnicity, and microaggression scale scores as covariates. Age, sex, the microinvalidations subscale score, and the full microaggression scale score were significantly associated with marijuana use in our full models (p < .01; p = .01; p = .02; p = .03, respectively). With each additional experience of microaggression, the odds of regular marijuana use increase. Academic communities may consider the primary prevention of discriminatory behavior when addressing student substance use.

  17. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  18. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  19. Marijuana Motivations Across Adolescence: Impacts on Use and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Sitney, Miranda; White, Helene R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivational models for marijuana use have focused on reasons to use marijuana, but rarely consider motives to abstain. Objectives We examined how both adolescent marijuana abstinence motives and use motives contribute to marijuana use and problems at the end of emerging adulthood. Methods 434 community recruited youth who had not initiated marijuana use at baseline were followed from adolescence (at ages 12, 15, and 18 years) into emerging adulthood (age 25 years). Motives to abstain and to use marijuana, marijuana consumption, and marijuana-related problems were assessed across time. Results Endorsing more motives to abstain from marijuana across adolescence predicted less marijuana use in emerging adulthood and fewer marijuana-related problems when controlling for past motives to abstain and marijuana-related behavior. Positive reinforcement use motives related to increased marijuana consumption and problems, and negative reinforcement motives predicted problems when controlling for past marijuana use motives and behaviors. Expansion motives during adolescence related to lower marijuana use in emerging adulthood. When considered together, motives to abstain buffered the effect of negative reinforcement motives on outcomes at age 25 for youth endorsing a greater number of abstinence motives. Conclusions/Implications Given these findings, inclusion of both motives to use and abstain is warranted within comprehensive models of marijuana use decision making and may provide important markers for prevention and intervention specialists. PMID:25396758

  20. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  1. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  2. Neurovascular complications of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Daras, M; Tuchman, A J; Koppel, B S; Samkoff, L M; Weitzner, I; Marc, J

    1994-08-01

    Use of cocaine in the USA, has reached epidemic proportions since 1983, when "crack" was introduced, its higher potency compared with cocaine HCl has been associated with a tremendous increase in the incidence of strokes. This study reports our experience with 55 cases of neurovascular events (25 ischemic and 30 hemorrhagic) related to cocaine use in 54 patients. Only 15 patients had other risk factors for stroke. Twenty six patients smoked "crack", 10 snorted cocaine and 12 injected it intravenously. Strokes occurred within 3 h of cocaine use in 15 patients with infarcts and 17 with hemorrhages. Ten infarcts occurred after an overnight binge. Of the hemorrhage group 9 were subarachnoid, 16 intracerebral (8 basal ganglia, 7 hemispheric and one brain stem) and 5 intraventricular. Computerized tomography (CT) showed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, as well as one of the vein of Galen. Four aneurysms and 3 AVMs were identified on angiography. CT revealed 15 infarcts; it was normal in 7 patients with pure motor hemiparesis and in 3 with findings consistent with anterior spinal artery infarction. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the cerebrovascular complications. A sudden rise in systemic arterial pressure may cause hemorrhages, frequently in association with an underlying aneurysm or AVM. Vasospasm, arteritis, myocardial infarction with cardiac arrhythmias and increased platelet aggregation may provoke infarcts.

  3. Nabilone decreases marijuana withdrawal and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8 mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2-8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8 mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule 'liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment.

  4. Reaction Pathway for Cocaine Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of (+)-Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2017-01-01

    A recently designed and discovered cocaine hydrolase (CocH), engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), has been proven promising as a novel enzyme therapy for treatment of cocaine overdose and addiction because it is highly efficient in catalyzing hydrolysis of naturally occurring (−)-cocaine. It has been known that the CocH also has a high catalytic efficiency against (+)-cocaine, a synthetic enantiomer of cocaine. Reaction pathway and the corresponding free energy profile for the CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine have been determined, in the present study, by performing first-principles pseudobond quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)-free energy (FE) calculations. Acordingt to the QM/MM-FE results, the catalytic hydrolysis process is initiated by the nucleophilic attack on carbonyl carbon of (−)-cocaine benzoyl ester via hydroxyl oxygen of S198 side chain, and the second reaction step (i.e. dissociation of benzoyl ester) is rate-determining. This finding for CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine is remarkably different from that for the (+)-cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by bacterial cocaine esterase in which the first reaction step of the deacylation is associated with the highest free energy barrier (~17.9 kcal/mol). The overall free energy barrier (~16.0 kcal/mol) calculated for the acylation stage of CocH-catalyzed hydrolysis of (+)-cocaine is in good agreement with the experimental free energy barrier of ~14.5 kcal/mol derivated from the experimental kinetic data.

  5. [Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Effect of nicotine, alcohol and marihuana on clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, K R; Kolbe, H; Dengler, R

    1997-12-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder of unknown etiology. While several studies have provided evidence that nicotine causes an improvement, only anecdotal reports suggest that alcohol and marijuana influence the symptomatology. Using a structured interview, we questioned a larger group of patients with Tourette syndrome (n = 47) about the use of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana and their subjective experiences. Of 28 smoking patients only 2 (7%) reported a tic reduction when smoking. Of 35 patients drinking alcohol 24 (69%) noted an improvement. Thirteen patients reported the use of marijuana, of whom 11 (85%) noted a marked improvement. Our results provided strong evidence that the use of both alcohol and marijuana causes much more improvement in TS than nicotine smoking. We suggest that marijuana influences an assumed interaction between cannabinoid and dopamine receptors and, by this, influences the dopaminergic processes in basal ganglia and motor activity.

  6. A novel method of cocaine delivery to fruit flies using a graphic arts airbrush.

    PubMed

    Lease, Kevin A; Hirsh, Jay

    2005-01-30

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for studying pathways regulating responses to cocaine. We describe a new method for delivering cocaine to Drosophila. Freebase cocaine dissolved in ethanol is sprayed onto cold-anaesthetized flies using a graphic arts airbrush modified to reproducibly control the drug dosage. Cocaine dose response curves were generated to characterize the behavioral responses of flies using the airbrush method or the established cocaine smoke method of drug delivery. The stereotypic responses observed with the airbrush showed a dose-dependent increase and were qualitatively similar to those elicited by cocaine smoke. The variation in behaviors of flies dosed with the airbrush was smaller than that of the smoke-dosed flies, indicating that the airbrush method gives better reproducibility. Since flies are exposed to alcohol as well as cocaine in the airbrush behavioral paradigm, it was important to control for possible effects of ethanol. Control experiments indicated that none of the stereotypies elicited with cocaine were caused by vehicle alone and very little ethanol remains in the flies following this protocol. The utility of the airbrush method was demonstrated by its use in a pilot genetic screen that identified a cocaine resistant mutant.

  7. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

  8. Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a

  9. Characterizing the Followers and Tweets of a Marijuana-Focused Twitter Handle

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a popular social media forum for sharing personal experiences, interests, and opinions. An improved understanding of the discourse on Twitter that encourages marijuana use can be helpful for tailoring and targeting online and offline prevention messages. Objectives The intent of the study was to assess the content of “tweets” and the demographics of followers of a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (@stillblazingtho). Methods We assessed the sentiment and content of tweets (sent from May 1 to December 31, 2013), as well as the demographics of consumers that follow a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (approximately 1,000,000 followers) using Twitter analytics from Demographics Pro. This analytics company estimates demographic characteristics based on Twitter behavior/usage, relying on multiple data signals from networks, consumption, and language and requires confidence of 95% or above to make an estimate of a single demographic characteristic. Results A total of 2590 tweets were sent from @stillblazingtho during the 8-month period and 305 (11.78%) replies to another Twitter user were excluded for qualitative analysis. Of the remaining 2285 tweets, 1875 (82.06%) were positive about marijuana, 403 (17.64%) were neutral, and 7 (0.31%) appeared negative about marijuana. Approximately 1101 (58.72%) of the positive marijuana tweets were perceived as jokes or humorous, 340 (18.13%) implied that marijuana helps you to feel good or relax, 294 (15.68%) mentioned routine, frequent, or heavy use, 193 (10.29%) mentioned blunts, marijuana edibles, or paraphernalia (eg, bongs, vaporizers), and 186 (9.92%) mentioned other risky health behaviors (eg, tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sex). The majority (699,103/959,143; 72.89%) of @stillblazingtho followers were 19 years old or younger. Among people ages 17 to 19 years, @stillblazingtho was in the top 10% of all Twitter handles followed. More followers of @stillblazingtho in the United States were

  10. Subcortical grey matter alterations in cocaine dependent individuals with substance-induced psychosis compared to non-psychotic cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Willi, Taylor S; Lang, Donna J; Honer, William G; Smith, Geoff N; Thornton, Allen E; Panenka, William J; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Su, Wayne; Vertinsky, A Talia; Leonova, Olga; Rauscher, Alexander; MacEwan, G William; Barr, Alasdair M

    2016-10-01

    After prolonged psychostimulant abuse, transient psychotic symptoms referred to as "substance-induced psychosis" (SIP) can develop - closely resembling symptoms observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The comparability in psychotic presentation between SIP and schizophrenias suggests that similar underlying neural deficits may contribute to the expression of psychosis across these disorders. To date, neuroanatomical characterization of grey matter structural alterations in SIP has been limited to methamphetamine associated psychosis, with no studies controlling for potential neurotoxic effects of the psychostimulant that precipitates psychosis. To investigate grey matter subcortical alterations in SIP, a voxel-based analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) was performed between a group of 74 cocaine dependent nonpsychotic individuals and a group of 29 individuals with cocaine-associated psychosis. The cocaine-associated psychosis group had significantly smaller volumes of the thalamus and left hippocampus, controlling for age, total brain volume, current methamphetamine dependence, and current marijuana dependence. No differences were present in bilateral caudate structures. The findings of reduced thalamic and hippocampal volumes agree with previous reports in the schizophrenia literature, suggesting alterations of these structures are not specific to schizophrenia, but may be common to multiple forms of psychosis.

  11. Substance Use in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... refers to the use of illegal drugs, including marijuana according to federal law, and misuse of prescription ...

  12. Monitoring the Future 2014 Survey Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana use as harmful compared to just over one- ...

  13. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... they are related to chemicals found in the marijuana plant. Because of this similarity, synthetic cannabinoids are ...

  14. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  15. Cocaine detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srijanto, Bernadeta; Cheney, Christine P.; Hedden, David L.; Gehl, Anthony; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    2008-03-01

    Sensitive and inexpensive sensors play a significant role in the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites. Specifically, reliable in vivo detection of cocaine and cocaine metabolites serves as a useful tool in research of the body's reaction to the drug and in the treatment of the drug addiction. We present here a promising cocaine biosensor to be used in the human body. The sensor's active element consists of piezoresistive microcantilevers coated with an oligonucleotide-based aptamer as the cocaine binder. In vitro cocaine detection was carried out by flowing a cocaine solution over the microcantilevers. Advantages of this device are its low power consumption, its high sensitivity, and its potential for miniaturization into an implantable capsule. The limit of detection for cocaine in distilled water was found to be 1 ng/ml.

  16. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective.

  17. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit.

  18. Alcohol: The Real Story. It's Your Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on alcohol is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  19. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children.

    PubMed

    Napper, Lucy E; Froidevaux, Nicole M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-10-01

    While research suggests that parents continue to influence students' marijuana use after matriculation to college, there is limited data examining how parents communicate about marijuana use and what impact parent marijuana communication has on college student outcomes. The aim of the current study is to investigate the types of parent marijuana messages that college students receive and the relationship between parent communication and students' marijuana attitudes and behaviors. Students (N = 506) completed a survey assessing marijuana approval, use, negative consequences, and parent communication. A factor analysis of parent communication items yielded three factors: risk communication, permissive communication, and marijuana use communication. Risk communication was the most common form of communication. In multivariate models, risk communication was associated with increased odds of a student remaining abstinent but not with frequency of marijuana use or negative consequences. Greater permissive communication was associated with more approving student attitudes, greater odds of non-abstinence, more frequent use in the past year, and more negative consequences. These findings highlight the need to consider the different types of messages parents deliver when designing interventions aimed at engaging parents in marijuana prevention efforts.

  20. The context of desire to use marijuana: momentary assessment of young people who frequently use marijuana.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug.

  1. Examining the Relationship between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  2. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  3. Marijuana Use from Middle to High School: Co-occurring Problem Behaviors, Teacher-Rated Academic Skills and Sixth-Grade Predictors.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome.

  4. Substance use -- cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be monitored as you recover. At this time, there is no medicine that can help reduce the use of cocaine by blocking its effects. But, scientists are researching such medicines. ... that involved your drug use. Spend more time with family and friends you lost touch with ...

  5. Marijuana use trajectories during college predict health outcomes nine years post-matriculation

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have linked marijuana use with a variety of health outcomes among young adults. Information about marijuana’s long-term health effects is critically needed. Methods Data are from a ten-year study of 1,253 young adults originally recruited as first-year college students and assessed annually thereafter. Six trajectories of marijuana use during college (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Early-Decline, College-Peak, Late-Increase, Chronic) were previously derived using latent variable growth mixture modeling. Nine health outcomes assessed in Year 10 (modal age 27) were regressed on a group membership variable for the six group trajectories, holding constant demographics, baseline health status, and alcohol and tobacco trajectory group membership. Results Marijuana trajectory groups differed significantly on seven of the nine outcomes (functional impairment due to injury, illness, or emotional problems; psychological distress; subjective well-being; and mental and physical health service utilization; all ps<.001), but not on general health rating or body mass index. Non-Users fared better than the Late-Increase and Chronic groups on most physical and mental health outcomes. The declining groups (Early-Decline, College-Peak) fared better than the Chronic group on mental health outcomes. The Late-Increase group fared significantly worse than the stable groups (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Chronic) on both physical and mental health outcomes. Conclusions Even occasional or time-limited marijuana use might have adverse effects on physical and mental health, perhaps enduring after several years of moderation or abstinence. Reducing marijuana use frequency might mitigate such effects. Individuals who escalate their marijuana use in their early twenties might be at especially high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:26778758

  6. Combined cocaine hydrolase gene transfer and anti-cocaine vaccine synergistically block cocaine-induced locomotion.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M; Shen, Xiaoyun; Kinsey, Berma; Parks, Robin J; Gao, Yang; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Mice and rats were tested for reduced sensitivity to cocaine-induced hyper-locomotion after pretreatment with anti-cocaine antibody or cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In Balb/c mice, direct i.p. injection of CocH protein (1 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but it suppressed responses to i.p. cocaine up to 80 mg/kg. When CocH was injected i.p. along with a murine cocaine antiserum that also did not affect spontaneous locomotion, there was no response to any cocaine dose. This suppression of locomotor activity required active enzyme, as it was lost after pretreatment with iso-OMPA, a selective BChE inhibitor. Comparable results were obtained in rats that developed high levels of CocH by gene transfer with helper-dependent adenoviral vector, and/or high levels of anti-cocaine antibody by vaccination with norcocaine hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). After these treatments, rats were subjected to a locomotor sensitization paradigm involving a "training phase" with an initial i.p. saline injection on day 1 followed by 8 days of repeated cocaine injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A 15-day rest period then ensued, followed by a final "challenge" cocaine injection. As in mice, the individual treatment interventions reduced cocaine-stimulated hyperactivity to a modest extent, while combined treatment produced a greater reduction during all phases of testing compared to control rats (with only saline pretreatment). Overall, the present results strongly support the view that anti-cocaine vaccine and cocaine hydrolase vector treatments together provide enhanced protection against the stimulatory actions of cocaine in rodents. A similar combination therapy in human cocaine users might provide a robust therapy to help maintain abstinence.

  7. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  8. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  9. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  10. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  11. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  12. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  13. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana... alcoholic beverages shall not apply when possessed or consumed by staff or resident officers in...

  14. Synthetic Pot: Not Your Grandfather's Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ford, Benjamin M; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L

    2017-03-01

    In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives.

  15. Determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in indoor air as an indicator of marijuana cigarette smoking using adsorbent sampling and in-injector thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Lien; Ling, Yong-Chien; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Pai, Chung-Yen

    2007-08-13

    The marijuana leaves are usually mixed with tobaccos and smoked at amusement places in Taiwan. Recently, for investigation-legal purposes, the police asked if we can identify the marijuana smoke in a KTV stateroom (a private room at the entertainment spot for singing, smoking, alcohol drinking, etc.) without marijuana residues. A personal air-sampler pump fitted with the GC liner-tube packed with Tenax-TA adsorbent was used for air sampling. The GC-adsorbent tube was placed in the GC injector port and desorbed directly, followed by GC-MS analysis for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in indoor air. The average desorption efficiency and limit of detection for delta9-THC were 89% and 0.1 microg m(-3), respectively, approximately needing 1.09 mg of marijuana leaves smoked in an unventilated closed room (3.0 m x 2.4 m x 2.7 m) to reach this level. The mean delta9-THC contained in the 15 marijuana plants seized from diverse locations was measured to be 0.32%. The delta9-THC in room air can be successfully identified from mock marijuana cigarettes, mixtures of marijuana and tobacco, and an actual case. The characteristic delta9-THC peak in chromatogram can serve as the indicator of marijuana. Positive result suggests marijuana smoking at the specific scene in the recent past, facilitating the formulation of further investigation.

  16. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  17. Nociceptin receptor activation does not alter acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of conditioned cocaine preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Sartor, G C; Powell, S K; Wiedner, H J; Wahlestedt, C; Brothers, S P

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that targeting nociceptin receptor (NOP) signaling may have therapeutic efficacy in treating alcohol and opioid addiction. However, little is known about the therapeutic value of selective NOP agonists for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Recently, we identified a highly selective, brain-penetrant NOP small molecule agonist (SR-8993), and using this compound, we previously showed that nociceptin receptor activation attenuated consolidation of fear-related memories. Here, we sought to determine whether SR-8993 also affects the rewarding properties of cocaine. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we show that SR-8993 (3 or 10 mg/kg) failed to disrupt acquisition or expression of cocaine CPP (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, SR-8993 did not affect rate of extinction or reinstatement (yohimbine- and cocaine-induced) of cocaine CPP. These studies indicate that selective activation of NOP may not be sufficient in reducing behavioral responses to cocaine.

  18. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  19. Does heavy adolescent marijuana use lead to criminal involvement in adulthood? Evidence from a multiwave longitudinal study of urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2010-11-01

    While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school dropout and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime.

  20. Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

  1. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  2. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  3. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-04-03

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity among cocaine and heroin users in the community.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Silvia; Herrero, Ma Jesús; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Molist, Gemma; Barrio, Gregorio; de la Fuente, Luís; Brugal, Ma Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. Moreover, co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders are common among drug users. This paper examines psychiatric disorders of young cocaine and heroin users using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). A cohort of 1266 young (18-30 years) current regular cocaine (705) and heroin (561) users were recruited outside the health services in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville, Spain. The WMH-CIDI was used to evaluate mental disorders; the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) measured the degree of dependence; and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) assessed social support, in a crosssectional study design. About 43% was diagnosed with a lifetime mental disorder. The most common diagnoses were depression (37.5%) and specific phobia (6.8%). During the last 12 months, prevalence rates were also slightly higher in heroin group (26.4%) than in cocaine cohort (21.7%). Every day cocaine consumption, having unstable living conditions and low social support were variables highly associated with psychiatric morbidity in cocaine cohort. In heroin cohort, earning money through illegal activities was associated with psychiatric morbidity, while the moderate use of alcohol acted as a protective factor for mental pathology. Morbidity was associated to having received psychiatric/psychological treatment during the last 12 months in both cohorts. This study has shown a relatively high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in cocaine and heroin users recruited in non-clinical settings. Future studies examining differences between cocaine and heroin patterns of consumption associated with mental diseases are necessary.

  5. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  6. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.

  7. Anti-cocaine vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Berma M; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is an ongoing and serious problem which has lead to the growth of a brutal criminal enterprise, particularly in the Americas and Europe. At present, there are no effective pharmacological agents available to treat the addiction by blocking cocaine or reversing its effects. In order to help motivated addicts conquer their addiction, vaccines against cocaine are being developed, and one has progressed to clinical trials. This review will discuss the concept of anti-drug vaccines in general, the successes and limitations of the various anti-cocaine vaccine approaches, the results of the clinical trials with an anti-cocaine vaccine, and some new vaccine-mediated approaches to combat cocaine addiction. PMID:20822352

  8. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  9. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  10. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... in order for collectors, laboratories, and Medical Review Officers to know how to use the new form...'' after ``Marijuana Metabolite'' and ``BZE'' after ``Cocaine Metabolite'' to specify the drug analytes; (3) In Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, a line has been included on which the Medical Review Officer...

  11. Gene expression in human hippocampus from cocaine abusers identifies genes which regulate extracellular matrix remodeling.

    PubMed

    Mash, Deborah C; ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath; Adi, Nikhil; Qin, Yujing; Buck, Andrew; Pablo, John

    2007-11-14

    The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine "rush". Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05). RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4). The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction.

  12. Modeling the Demand for Cocaine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    the Demand for Cocaine Susan S. Everingham C. Peter Rydell Pre~redfor the Office of NatinalDrug Control Policy United States Army DRUG POLICY...Demand for Cocaine . 60 50- sm 40- squared 30- delta prevalence 20- 10- 0.2 0 0.15 0.15 󈧄 b C; 0 i Sum squared delta 0.2 prevalence 0.195 EQ 50-50 0,19...model of the demand for cocaine that was fit to 20 years of data on the current cocaine epidemic in the United States. It also describes the analysis

  13. Cocaine-induced mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J; Farreras, N; Ortiz De Zárate L; Bachs, E

    2000-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old man with distal ileum infarction after intravenous abuse of cocaine. He underwent resection of a gangrenous bowel segment and survived. We review the literature regarding intestinal ischaemia related to cocaine. To date, 19 cases have been published. Like most previously reported cases, our patient was young and had no previous history of arteriosclerosis. He suffered cocaine-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic abdominal pain in cocaine consumers.

  14. Perceptions of ganja and cocaine in urban Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Broad, K; Feinberg, B

    1995-01-01

    This article, based on ethnographic research, discusses the dynamic relationship between ganja (marijuana) and cocaine in five areas within Montego Bay, an urban-tourist center in Jamaica, West Indies. The focus is on the contrasting and conflicting social perceptions related to the current role of each substance in the society, as well as the interrelationship between these two substances. Of particular interest in the analysis of use and distribution patterns of each substance is the seemingly conflicting moral versus economic dilemma surrounding the drug trade; perceptions related to the effects of these two substances on the body and mind; and perceptions related to the role these substances play in local crime and physical violence. Community-level social perceptions will be compared to official discourse and actions regarding demand reduction, prevention, and enforcement of "drug" laws.

  15. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  16. The relationship of tobacco and marijuana smoking characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M S; Tashkin, D P

    1995-01-01

    In an ongoing study of the pulmonary effects of heavy, habitual marijuana smoking, detailed marijuana and tobacco smoking histories were obtained from 467 adult regular smokers of marijuana and/or tobacco. Frequency and cumulative amounts of tobacco and marijuana smoking were similar for smokers and nonsmokers of tobacco, except that pack-years and cigarettes/day at the time of the interview were both significantly less for tobacco smokers who also smoked marijuana compared those who did not. For all subjects who smoked both substances at any time, changes in tobacco and marijuana smoking amounts after commencement of regular smoking of the other substance were similar for tobacco and marijuana; the existing smoking habit decreased in approximately one third of the subjects and remained the same in slightly more than one half of the subjects. Of the dual smokers, 49% began smoking tobacco before marijuana, while 33% began smoking marijuana first; 85% of marijuana smokers who quit tobacco smoking did so after beginning regular marijuana smoking. Self-reported depth of inhalation and breath-holding time of marijuana smoke were similar for tobacco and non-tobacco smokers; smoking topography for tobacco was also comparable for smokers and non-smokers of marijuana.

  17. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.

  18. Characteristics and behaviors of mothers who have a child with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Michael J; Dominique, Yvette; O'Leary, Leslie A; Sniezek, Joseph E; Floyd, R Louise

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and behaviors of mothers of children with FAS in the United States using population-based data from the FAS Surveillance Network (FASSNet). FASSNet used a multiple source methodology that identified FAS cases through passive reporting and active review of records from hospitals, specialty clinics, private physicians, early intervention programs, Medicaid, birth certificates and other vital records, birth defects surveillance programs, and hospital discharge data. The surveillance included children born during January 1, 1995-December 31, 1997. In the four states included in our analysis - Arizona, New York, Alaska, and Colorado - there were 257 confirmed cases and 96 probable cases for a total of 353 FAS cases. Compared to all mothers in the states where surveillance occurred, mothers of children with FAS were significantly more likely to be older, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Black, not Hispanic, unmarried, unemployed, and without prenatal care, to smoke during pregnancy, to have a lower educational level, and to have more live born children. A significant proportion of mothers (9-29%) had another child with suspected alcohol effects. Compared to all US mothers, they were also significantly more likely to be on public assistance, to be on Medicaid at their child's birth, to have received treatment for alcohol abuse, to have confirmed alcoholism, to have used marijuana or cocaine during pregnancy, to have their baby screen positive for alcohol or drugs at birth, to have had an induced abortion, to have had a history of mental illness, to have been involved in binge drinking during pregnancy, and to have drunk heavily (7 days/week) during pregnancy. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify women who are at high risk of having a child with FAS and target these women for interventions.

  19. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    PubMed

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  20. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions, including mood lability, sleep disruption and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in non-treatment-seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were in-patient. On the first in-patient day, active marijuana [6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week, completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, and decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Compared with placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence.

  1. EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

  2. Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162372.html Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds Researchers suggest 2007 recession ... more American adults choose to puff at the marijuana pipe, a gender difference is becoming clear -- men ...

  3. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  4. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    PubMed Central

    TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487

  5. Copper thiocyanato complexes and cocaine - a case of 'black cocaine'.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Grzesiak, Ireneus; Krest, Alexander; Stirnat, Kathrin; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Klein, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of a black powder confiscated by German customs was elucidated. Black powders are occasionally used as a 'transporter' for cocaine and are obviously especially designed to cloak the presence of the drug. The material consisting of cocaine, copper, iron, thiocyanate, and graphite was approached by analytical tools and chemical modelling. Graphite is added to the material probably with the intention of masking the typical infrared (IR) fingerprints of cocaine and can be clearly detected by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(2+) and NCS(-) ions, when carefully reacted with cocaine hydrochloride, form the novel compound (CocH)2 [Cu(NCS)4 ] (CocH(+)  = protonated cocaine), which has been characterised by single crystal XRD, IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Based on some further experiments the assumed composition of the original black powder is discussed.

  6. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE AMONG BLACKS

    PubMed Central

    Racine, C.; Vincent, M.; Rogers, A.; Donat, M.; Ojike, N. I.; Necola, O.; Yousef, E.; Masters-Israilov, A.; Jean-Louis, G.; McFarlane, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased legalization of marijuana has resulted in renewed interest in its effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk. Conflicting data exist regarding marijuana effects on body weight, waist circumference as well as lipid profiles, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data available on this effect in the black population. Objective To assess the metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors as well as body weight and waist circumference among urban black marijuana users. Methods A cross sectional study design involving 100 patients seen in a Family Practice clinic at University hospital of Brooklyn, NY, USA, over a period of 3 months from January 2014 to March 2014. Participants were administered a questionnaire regarding marijuana use, and other associated behaviors. Socio-demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. We report measures of central tendencies, and dispersion for continuous variables and the frequency of distribution for categorical variables. Results Of the 100 patients surveyed, 57% were females. The mean (±SEM) age of the entire cohort was 46.3 years±1.5; range, 19–78 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.6 kg/m2±0.73; SBP=128.0 mmHg±1.69; DBP=76.1 mmHg±1.17. Current marijuana users had the lowest waist circumference compared to former or never users respectively (32.9±0.66 vs. 35.9±0.88 vs. 33.4±0.74), p<0.01. Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg was significantly higher among former marijuana users compared to current or never users, (80.0±2.1 vs. 73.3±2.3 vs. 73.4±1.6), p<0.01. Current marijuana users showed a tendency (not statistically significant) towards lower total cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, compared to former users or never users. Conclusion Current marijuana use is associated with significantly lower waist

  7. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  8. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Marijuana Print A A A en español Lo que ... sobre las drogas: La mariguana What It Is: Marijuana (say: mare-uh-WAH-nuh) is the most ...

  9. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  10. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  11. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  12. Effects of a Theory-Based, Peer-Focused Drug Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes innovative, theory-based, peer-focused college drug education academic course and its effect on perceived levels of risk associated with the use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Evaluation of the effects of the course indicated the significant effect on perceived risk of cocaine, but not alcohol or marijuana. (Author/ABL)

  13. Maternal marijuana use has independent effects on risk for spontaneous preterm birth but not other common late pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Leemaqz, Shalem Y; Dekker, Gustaaf A; McCowan, Lesley M; Kenny, Louise C; Myers, Jenny E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-07-01

    Widespread legalisation of marijuana raises safety concerns for its use in pregnancy. This study investigated the association of marijuana use prior to and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective cohort of 5588 nulliparous women from the international SCOPE study. Women were assessed at 15±1 and 20±1 weeks' gestation. Cases [278 Preeclampsia, 470 gestational hypertension, 633 small-for-gestational-age, 236 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB), 143 gestational diabetes] were compared separately with 4114 non-cases. Although the numbers are small, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation was associated with SPTB independent of cigarette smoking status [adj OR 2.28 (95% CI:1.45-3.59)] and socioeconomic index (SEI) [adj OR 2.17 (95% CI:1.41-3.34)]. When adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, alcohol and SEI, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation had a greater effect size [adj OR 5.44 (95% CI 2.44-12.11)]. Our data indicate that increasing use of marijuana among young women of reproductive age is a major public health concern.

  14. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.B.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-03-07

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  15. Cocaine/Crack: The Big Lie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This pamphlet focuses on cocaine and crack use and the addictive nature of cocaine/crack. It contains a set of 21 questions about crack and cocaine, each accompanied by a clear and complete response. Interspersed throughout the booklet are photographs and quotes from former cocaine or crack users/addicts. Questions and answers focus on what…

  16. Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sheryl A; Ammerman, Seth D

    2017-03-01

    Many states have recently made significant changes to their legislation making recreational and/or medical marijuana use by adults legal. Although these laws, for the most part, have not targeted the adolescent population, they have created an environment in which marijuana increasingly is seen as acceptable, safe, and therapeutic. This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use. The recently published technical report provides the detailed evidence and references regarding the research on which the information in this clinical report is based.

  17. State Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in The United States: 1991 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th

  18. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P < 0.05). The median THC concentration over the 5-year period ranged from 5.2 to 6.3 ng/mL, with individual concentrations ranging up to 90 ng/mL. An average of 56% of cases were at or >5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities.

  19. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  20. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Bu, Qian; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Deng, Yi; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Hou, Jing; Du, Changman; Zhao, Qian; Fu, Dengqi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  1. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations.

  2. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  3. Marijuana use development over the course of adolescence among North American Indigenous youth

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the links between marijuana use trajectories and marijuana abuse/dependence (DSM-IV) using five waves of data from 718 North American Indigenous adolescents between 10 and 17 years from eight reservations sharing a common language and culture. Growth mixture models indicated that 15% of youth began using by 11–12 years of age and that another 20% began shortly thereafter. These early users had odds of abuse/dependence 6.5 times larger than abstainers. Girls were also unexpectedly found to be particularly at risk of early use, and this did not reflect other background and psychosocial factors, including friend use. While the timing, patterns, and consequences of use were similar to those reported for alcohol use previously, the social influences on use differed in important ways. PMID:23017929

  4. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  5. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  6. Variability in Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and pro-marijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states. PMID:26415061

  7. Sigma receptors and cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Mesangeau, Christophe; Poupaert, Jacques H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Sigma receptors have been well documented as a protein target for cocaine and have been shown to be involved in the toxic and stimulant actions of cocaine. Strategies to reduce the access of cocaine to sigma receptors have included antisense oligonucleotides to the sigma-1 receptor protein as well as small molecule ligand with affinity for sigma receptor sites. These results have been encouraging as novel protein targets that can attenuate the actions of cocaine are desperately needed as there are currently no medications approved for treatment of cocaine toxicity or addiction. Many years of research in this area have yet to produce an effective treatment and much focus was on dopamine systems. A flurry of research has been carried out to elucidate the role of sigma receptors in the blockade of cocaine effects but this research has yet to yield a clinical agent. This review summarizes the work to date on the linkage of sigma receptors and the actions of cocaine and the progress that has been made with regard to small molecules. Although there is still a lack of an agent in clinical trials with a sigma receptor mechanism of action, work is progressing and the ligands are becoming more selective for sigma systems and the potential remains high.

  8. Marijuana Use Predicts Cognitive Performance on Tasks of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Sagar, Kelly A.; Racine, Megan T.; Dreman, Meredith W.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite growing evidence that chronic marijuana use is associated with cognitive impairment, particularly when use is initiated at an early age, national trends demonstrate significant decreases in the perceived risk of marijuana corresponding with increased use, especially among youth. The current study assessed the impact of marijuana use on executive function and whether patterns of marijuana use, including earlier age at onset, higher frequency, and increased magnitude of use, predict impairment. Method: Forty-four chronic, heavy marijuana smokers (37 male, 7 female) and 32 healthy, nonsmoking control participants (20 male, 12 female) recruited from the Greater Boston area completed two assessments of executive function: the Stroop Color Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: Marijuana smokers had poorer executive function relative to control participants, a between-group difference that was primarily driven by individuals with early onset of marijuana use (before age 16; n = 21); significance remained even when controlling for frequency and magnitude of use. Further, earlier age at marijuana onset and increased marijuana use predicted poorer neurocognitive performance, and perseverative errors on the WCST significantly predicted marijuana group membership. Conclusions: These findings underscore the impact of early onset of marijuana use on executive function impairment independent of increased frequency and magnitude of use. In addition, poorer performance on the WCST may serve as a neuropsychological marker for heavy marijuana users. These results highlight the need for additional research to identify predictors associated with early marijuana use, as exposure to marijuana during a period of developmental vulnerability may result in negative cognitive consequences. PMID:26997188

  9. Medicinal and recreational marijuana use by patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Furler, Michelle D; Einarson, Thomas R; Millson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Bendayan, Reina

    2004-04-01

    The goal of this study was to describe and compare the prevalence, predictors and patterns of marijuana use, specifically medicinal marijuana use among patients with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Any marijuana use in the year prior to interview and self-defined medicinal use were evaluated. A cross-sectional multicenter survey and retrospective chart review were conducted between 1999 and 2001 to evaluate overall drug utilization in HIV, including marijuana use. HIV-positive adults were identified through the HIV Ontario Observational Database (HOOD), 104 consenting patients were interviewed. Forty-three percent of patients reported any marijuana use, while 29% reported medicinal use. Reasons for use were similar by gender although a significantly higher number of women used marijuana for pain management. Overall, the most commonly reported reason for medicinal marijuana use was appetite stimulation/weight gain. Whereas male gender and history of intravenous drug use were predictive of any marijuana use, only household income less than $20,000 CDN was associated with medicinal marijuana use. Age, gender, HIV clinical status, antiretroviral use, and history of intravenous drug use were not significant predictors of medicinal marijuana use. Despite the frequency of medicinal use, minimal changes in the pattern of marijuana use upon HIV diagnosis were reported with 80% of current medicinal users also indicating recreational consumption. Although a large proportion of patients report medicinal marijuana use, overlap between medical and recreational consumption is substantial. The role of poverty in patient choice of medicinal marijuana despite access to care and the large proportion of women using marijuana for pain constitute areas for further study.

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Media and marijuana: A longitudinal analysis of news media effects on adolescents' marijuana use and related outcomes, 1977-1999.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This study examined how aggregate levels of news coverage about marijuana have impacted adolescents' marijuana behavior generally, and through the intervening variables of personal disapproval and perceived harmfulness of marijuana, two variables that existing research has identified as significant predictors of adolescent marijuana use at the aggregate level. It was hypothesized that news coverage of reasons why people should not use marijuana would cause increase in aggregate marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Conversely, news coverage of positive aspects of marijuana use would cause decreases in marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Results of distributed lagged time-series regression and non-linear modeling offered support for two of the three proposed hypotheses. Aggregate media coverage explained a significant portion of the variation in adolescents' abstinence from marijuana use over time. It also explained a significant portion of the variation in personal disapproval of marijuana. Personal disapproval was found to partially mediate the relationship between media coverage and marijuana abstinence. Implications for the conceptualization of media effects on health behaviors are discussed.

  12. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela J; Becker, James T; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

  13. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population.

  14. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  15. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  16. Cocaine esterase: interactions with cocaine and immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mei-Chuan; Bowen, Luvina D; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Cooper, Ziva D; Woods, James H

    2007-02-01

    Cocaine esterase (CocE) is the most efficient protein catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine characterized to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo potency of CocE in blocking cocaine-induced toxicity in the mouse and to assess CocE's potential immunogenicity. Cocaine toxicity was quantified by measuring the occurrence of convulsions and lethality. Intravenous administration of CocE (0.1-1 mg) 1 min before cocaine administration produced dose-dependent rightward shifts of the dose-response curve for cocaine toxicity. More important, i.v. CocE (0.1-1 mg), given 1 min after the occurrence of cocaine-induced convulsions, shortened the recovery time after the convulsions and saved the mice from subsequent death. Effects of repeated exposures to CocE were evaluated by measuring anti-CocE antibody titers and the protective effects of i.v. CocE (0.32 mg) against toxicity elicited by i.p. cocaine (320 mg/kg) (i.e., 0-17% occurrence of convulsions and lethality). CocE retained its potency against cocaine toxicity in mice after a single prior CocE exposure (0.1-1 mg), and these mice did not show an immune response. CocE retained similar effectiveness in mice after three prior CocE exposures (0.1-1 mg/week for 3 weeks), although these mice displayed 10-fold higher antibody titers. CocE partially lost effectiveness (i.e., 33-50% occurrence of convulsions and lethality) in mice with four prior exposures to CocE (0.1-1 mg/2 week for four times), and these mice displayed approximately 100-fold higher antibody titers. These results suggest that CocE produces robust protection and reversal of cocaine toxicity, indicating CocE's therapeutic potential for acute cocaine toxicity. Repeated CocE exposures may increase its immunogenicity and partially reduce its protective ability.

  17. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with perinatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Davis, E; Fennoy, I; Laraque, D; Kanem, N; Brown, G; Mitchell, J

    1992-04-01

    Cocaine in all forms is the number one illicit drug of choice among pregnant women. Records of 70 children with cocaine exposure in utero who were referred for developmental evaluation at a large inner-city hospital were reviewed in an effort to determine whether a specific pattern of abnormalities could be discerned. Patients received physical examinations, neurological screenings, and behavioral and developmental assessments based on the Gesell Developmental Inventory, and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Documentation of specified drug use was obtained by history. Mean age (SEM) at referral was 19.2 (1.7) months. All mothers used cocaine in one of its forms, although polydrug use was common. Growth parameters were low (median = 15th percentile). Significant neurodevelopmental abnormalities were observed, including language delay in 94% of the children and an extremely high frequency of autism (11.4%). The high rate of autistic disorders not known to occur in children exposed to alcohol or opiates alone suggests specific cocaine effects.

  18. Shifting Drug Policy: The Politics of Marijuana in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Marijuana, medical marijuana, drug war, cannabis , Controlled Substances Act, international drug policy. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 97 16...Department decision to restrict marijuana ( cannabis ) importation ...39 Figure 3. Fifty state marijuana laws in 2013...World Drug Report discusses that marijuana (referenced as cannabis in the report) is a drug that has a usage history dating back thousands of years, is

  19. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  20. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  1. Cocaine, Appetitive Memory and Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suchismita

    2013-01-01

    This review examines existing cognitive experimental and brain imaging research related to cocaine addiction. In section 1, previous studies that have examined cognitive processes, such as implicit and explicit memory processes in cocaine users are reported. Next, in section 2, brain imaging studies are reported that have used chronic users of cocaine as study participants. In section 3, several conclusions are drawn. They are: (a) in cognitive experimental literature, no study has examined both implicit and explicit memory processes involving cocaine related visual information in the same cocaine user, (b) neural mechanisms underlying implicit and explicit memory processes for cocaine-related visual cues have not been directly investigated in cocaine users in the imaging literature, and (c) none of the previous imaging studies has examined connectivity between the memory system and craving system in the brain of chronic users of cocaine. Finally, future directions in the field of cocaine addiction are suggested. PMID:25009766

  2. Cocaine Conditioned Behavior: A Cocaine Memory Trace or an Anti-Habituation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Robert J.; Damianopoulos, Ernest N.; Shanahan, Arielle B.

    2008-01-01

    Whether cocaine locomotor conditioning represents a cocaine positive effect; i.e., a Pavlovian cocaine conditioned response; or, a cocaine negative effect; i.e., interference with habituation to the test environment, is a subject of some controversy. Three separate experiments were conducted to compare the behavior (locomotion and grooming) of separate groups of rats given 1, 9 or 14 cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatments paired/unpaired with placement into an open-field arena. The behavior of the cocaine groups on subsequent saline tests were compared with the habituation rates of saline treated rats. After one cocaine pairing with the test environment, the subsequent behavior of the cocaine-paired group on saline tests was similar to a non-habituated control group. In the two experiments with repeated cocaine pairings to the test environment, the subsequent behavior of the cocaine treated groups did not parallel that of the non-habituated saline control groups. These results were not explicable in terms of cocaine anti-habituation effects. It is suggested that cocaine contextual cues paired with cocaine treatment can activate cocaine memory traces which with subsequent cocaine treatments are reinforced and strengthened. In this way repeated cocaine use can forge conditioned stimulus connections to the cocaine behavioral response that are highly resistant to extinction. PMID:18571225

  3. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  5. Cocaine Use: 2002 and 2003. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine, including crack cocaine, was responsible for 12.8 percent of admissions to substance abuse treatment services in 2002.1 The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report their use of illicit drugs, including cocaine. NSDUH defines cocaine use as use of cocaine in any form, including crack cocaine.…

  6. Pregnancy, breast-feeding, and marijuana: a review article.

    PubMed

    Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states?

  7. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  8. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied.

  9. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    PubMed

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  10. Effects of cocaine, cocaine metabolites and cocaine pyrolysis products on the hindbrain cardiac and respiratory centers of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Erzouki, H K; Allen, A C; Newman, A H; Goldberg, S R; Schindler, C W

    1995-01-01

    Hemodynamic and respiratory effects of vertebral artery or i.v. administration of cocaine, cocaine metabolites and cocaine pyrolysis products were measured in anesthetized rabbits. Vertebral artery administration of 1 mg of cocaine produced decreases in blood pressure and heart rate and respiratory arrest. Cocaethylene (1 mg), a cocaine metabolite produced following co-administration of cocaine and ethanol, had comparable effects except that the respiratory arrest following cocaethylene had a longer duration of action than did cocaine. A decrease in blood pressure was also observed following 1 mg of norcocaine; however, unlike cocaine, norcocaine did not affect respiration. Acute tolerance was not observed to any of the effects of 1 mg of cocaine, cocaethylene or norcocaine following vertebral artery administration. None of these compounds had significant effects following i.v. administration of the same dose. The cocaine metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were without effect by either route in doses up to 3 mg. In contrast to cocaine, the cocaine pyrolysis products anhydroecgonine methyl ester (3 mg) and noranhydroecgonine methyl ester (3 mg) produced similar effects via both routes of administration. Both compounds produced decreases in blood pressure and heart rate and an increase in respiratory rate. Anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (3 mg), a metabolite hypothetically formed from the cocaine pyrolysis product in individuals co-administering ethanol, had effects similar to the other pyrolysis products, although its effects were not as prominent via the i.v. route of administration. Acute tolerance was observed upon administration of the cocaine pyrolysis products. These results indicate that the cocaine pyrolysis products do not share a common mechanism of action with either cocaine or the cocaine metabolites.

  11. Response to cocaine, alone and in combination with methylphenidate, in cocaine abusers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Levin, Frances R; Foltin, Richard W; Kleber, Herbert D; Evans, Suzette M

    2006-04-28

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in adult cocaine abusers. Yet, it remains to be determined how the response to cocaine differs in cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to cocaine abusers without ADHD. Further, since ADHD is commonly treated with stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), it is important to examine whether MPH maintenance alters the response to cocaine in cocaine abusers with ADHD. Thus, the first phase of this study compared the response to cocaine in adult cocaine abusers with ADHD to those without ADHD. The second phase assessed the effects of oral sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR) maintenance (40 and 60 mg) on the response to cocaine only in those with ADHD. Cocaine abusers with ADHD (N=7) and without ADHD (N=7) who were not seeking treatment remained inpatient initially for 1 week, when the effects of cocaine alone were tested (Phase 1). Cocaine abusers with ADHD remained inpatient for an additional 3 weeks, during which the effects of cocaine during oral MPH-SR maintenance were tested (Phase 2). During cocaine fixed dosing sessions, participants received four injections of i.v. cocaine (0, 16 or 48 mg/70 kg), spaced 14 min apart. During cocaine choice sessions, participants had a choice between receiving i.v. cocaine (16 or 48 mg/70 kg) or two tokens, each exchangeable for 2 US dollars. Subjective effects related to ADHD symptoms (e.g. ratings of "Able to Concentrate") were significantly lower in cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to those without ADHD when placebo cocaine was administered. Active cocaine produced similar increases in cardiovascular and positive subjective effects in both groups and there was no difference in cocaine choice between the two groups. These data suggest that the response to cocaine is not different between cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to those without ADHD. When the cocaine abusers with ADHD were maintained on MPH-SR, cardiovascular effects were increased, however, this did

  12. EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL AVAILABILITY OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA USE ACROSS FIFTY CALIFORNIA CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to assess statistical associations between individual demographic and personality characteristics, the city-level physical availability of medical marijuana (as measured through densities per roadway mile of storefront dispensaries and delivery services), and the incidence and prevalence of marijuana use. Method Individual level data on marijuana use were collected during a telephone survey of 8,853 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Data on medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services were obtained via six different websites and official city lists. Three outcome variables pertaining to lifetime, past year use, and frequency of past year use were analyzed using random effects logistic models (for lifetime and past year use) and random effects tobit models (for frequency of past 365-day use). Results The current study finds that the total physical availability of medical marijuana through dispensaries and delivery services per roadway mile at the city-level is positively related to current marijuana use and greater frequency of use, controlling for a variety of demographic and personality characteristics. As expected, current physical availability of medical marijuana was unrelated to lifetime use. Conclusions Regulations on the number and densities of marijuana outlets may be a sufficient means to restrain overall levels of marijuana use within cities. However, alternative use of delivery services may also provide easy access to marijuana and mitigate these effects. PMID:25156224

  13. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  14. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine.

  15. Combined Effects of Marijuana and Nicotine on Memory Performance and Hippocampal Volume

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M.; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  16. Marijuana: a decade and a half later, still a crude drug with underappreciated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H

    2002-02-01

    In 1984, I published in this journal a review entitled "Marijuana: A Crude Drug With a Spectrum of Underappreciated Toxicity." In the introduction to that article, I disclosed that our son Keith, who was 15 years old at the time, was in a long-term, modified outpatient adolescent drug and alcohol rehabilitation program because he had become dependent on marijuana with its associated behavioral, interpersonal, scholastic, and antisocial problems. Keith and most of his friends had experimented several times with LSD, beer, and several other drugs but never used injection drugs. Marijuana was clearly Keith's drug of choice and the only drug he used with regularity. Approximately 1 year later, Keith graduated from the treatment program. He completed the early aftercare component, relapsed several times, and completed a 4-month refresher drug rehabilitation program in another state. Nine years after admission to the first rehabilitation program, Keith finally attained some adult goals. Now 34 years old, he has been drug-free for 10 years. He is the president and owner of a successful discount cellular phone business that he started. More important, a decade ago, he reestablished an excellent and close relationship with his parents. As far as I can tell, Keith remains drug-free except for an occasional beer.

  17. [Marijuana for medical purposes--public health perspective].

    PubMed

    Gazdek, Davorka

    2014-01-01

    Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant.

  18. Variability in medical marijuana laws in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social, and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and promarijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states.

  19. Alcohol and other psychoactive drugs in trauma patients aged 10–14 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.; Chanmugam, A.; Rothman, R.; DiScala, C.; Paidas, C.; Kelen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To examine the prevalence of alcohol and/or other psychoactive drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine (AODs), involved in preteen trauma patients. Methods—Toxicological testing results were analyzed for 1356 trauma patients aged 10–14 years recorded in the National Pediatric Trauma Registry for the years 1990–95. Results—Of the 1356 patients who received toxicological screening at the time of admission, 116 (9%) were positive for AODs. AOD involvement increased with age. Patients with pre-existing mental disorders were nearly three times as likely as other patients to be AOD positive (23% v 8%, p<0.01). AOD involvement was more prevalent in intentional injuries and in injuries that occurred at home. Conclusions—AODs in preteen trauma are of valid concern, in particular among patients with mental disorders or intentional injuries. The role of AODs in childhood injuries needs to be further examined using standard screening instruments and representative study samples. PMID:10385826

  20. Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490