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Sample records for alcohol marketing predicts

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Predicting Alcohol Treatment Outcome: Using Expectancy to Enhance Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; Berger, Barry

    Research in the field of alcohol abuse evidences a long history of attempts to predict outcome from alcohol treatment programs using situational and intrapsychic factors. To investigate whether alcohol reinforcement expectancies are related to drinking behavior, 42 male veteran graduates of an inpatient alcohol treatment program were interviewed 1…

  3. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  4. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves. PMID:16167561

  5. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  6. MAOA EXPRESSION PREDICTS VULNERABILITY FOR ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Juanes, Rita; Wilhem, Larry J.; Park, Byung; Lee, Richard; Locke, Jason; Helms, Christa; Gonzales, Steven; Wand, Gary; Jones, Sara R.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Ferguson, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    The role of the monoamines dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) and the monoamine-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have been repeatedly implicated in studies of alcohol use and dependence. Genetic investigations of MAOA have yielded conflicting associations between a common polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) and risk for alcohol abuse. The present study provides direct comparison of tissue-specific MAOA expression and the level of alcohol consumption. We analyzed rhesus macaque MAOA (rhMAOA) expression in blood from males before and after 12-months of alcohol self-administration. In addition, nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from alcohol-access and control (no alcohol access) subjects at the 12-month time point for comparison. The rhMAOA expression level in the blood of alcohol-naïve subjects was negatively correlated with subsequent alcohol consumption level. The mRNA expression was independent of rhMAOA-LPR genotype and global promoter methylation. After 12 months of alcohol use, blood rhMAOA expression had decreased in an alcohol dose-dependent manner. Also after 12 months, rhMAOA expression in the NAc core was significantly lower in the heavy drinkers, as compared to control subjects. The CSF measured higher levels of DA and lower DOPAC/DA ratios amongst the heavy drinkers at the same time point. These results provide novel evidence that blood MAOA expression predicts alcohol consumption and that heavy alcohol use is linked to low MAOA expression in both the blood and NAc core. Together, the findings suggest a mechanistic link between dampened MAOA expression, elevated DA and alcohol abuse. PMID:26148813

  7. Multinational Alcohol Market Development and Public Health: Diageo in India.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and alcohol consumption is rising steadily in India. The growth of multinational alcohol corporations, such as Diageo, contributes to India's changing alcohol environment. We provide a brief history of India's alcohol regulation for context and examine Diageo's strategies for expansion in India in 2013 and 2014. Diageo is attracted to India's younger generation, women, and emerging middle class for growth opportunities. Components of Diageo's responsibility strategy conflict with evidence-based public health recommendations for reducing harmful alcohol consumption. Diageo's strategies for achieving market dominance in India are at odds with public health evidence. We conclude with recommendations for protecting public health in emerging markets.

  8. Alcohol marketing in televised international football: frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matches broadcast on public service and commercial channels, or between matches that did and did not feature England. Methods Eight matches selected by stratified random sampling were recorded. All visual references to alcohol were identified using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. Results 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified over 1487 minutes of broadcast - an average of 1.24 references per minute. The mean number of references per minute was higher in matches that did vs did not feature England (p = 0.004), but did not differ between matches broadcast on public service vs commercial channels (p = 0.92). Conclusions The frequency of visual references to alcohol was universally high and higher in matches featuring the only UK home team - England - suggesting that there may be targeting of particularly highly viewed matches. References were embedded in broadcasts, and not particular to commercial channels including paid-for advertising. New UK codes-of-conduct on alcohol marketing at sporting events will not reduce the level of marketing reported here. PMID:24885718

  9. Alcohol Marketing Receptivity, Marketing-specific Cognitions and Underage Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927

  10. Predictability and Prediction for an Experimental Cultural Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin; Ormerod, Paul

    Individuals are often influenced by the behavior of others, for instance because they wish to obtain the benefits of coordinated actions or infer otherwise inaccessible information. In such situations this social influence decreases the ex ante predictability of the ensuing social dynamics. We claim that, interestingly, these same social forces can increase the extent to which the outcome of a social process can be predicted very early in the process. This paper explores this claim through a theoretical and empirical analysis of the experimental music market described and analyzed in [1]. We propose a very simple model for this music market, assess the predictability of market outcomes through formal analysis of the model, and use insights derived through this analysis to develop algorithms for predicting market share winners, and their ultimate market shares, in the very early stages of the market. The utility of these predictive algorithms is illustrated through analysis of the experimental music market data sets [2].

  11. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  12. Price dynamics in political prediction markets

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Saikat Ray; Diermeier, Daniel; Rietz, Thomas A.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Prediction markets, in which contract prices are used to forecast future events, are increasingly applied to various domains ranging from political contests to scientific breakthroughs. However, the dynamics of such markets are not well understood. Here, we study the return dynamics of the oldest, most data-rich prediction markets, the Iowa Electronic Presidential Election “winner-takes-all” markets. As with other financial markets, we find uncorrelated returns, power-law decaying volatility correlations, and, usually, power-law decaying distributions of returns. However, unlike other financial markets, we find conditional diverging volatilities as the contract settlement date approaches. We propose a dynamic binary option model that captures all features of the empirical data and can potentially provide a tool with which one may extract true information events from a price time series. PMID:19155442

  13. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  14. Effects of school, family and alcohol marketing communication on alcohol use and intentions to drink among Thai students.

    PubMed

    Kheokao, Jantima K; Kirkgulthorn, Tassanee; Yingrengreung, Siritorn; Singhprapai, Phuwasith

    2013-07-01

    This study explored effects of family, school, and marketing communications on alcohol use and intention to drink of Thai students. We conducted a survey in which 5,184 students participated. Respondents were selected randomly from school districts throughout Thailand. In this survey we measured the exposure to, reception of, and perceptions concerning alcohol marketing communication, school absenteeism and achievement, family alcohol use, students' alcohol use, and drinking intentions. Findings indicated students' low alcohol use, moderate intention to drink, and high prevalence of family drinking. The levels of exposure and also the information receptivity to alcohol media marketing of Thai students were low. The respondents had a high level of media literacy on alcohol marketing communication. Multiple regression and focus group discussions provided support for the contention that there were significant effects of school achievement, absenteeism and media marketing communication on alcohol use (R2 = 14%) and intention to drink (R2 = 11%). Therefore, consideration of relevant school and alcohol policies, including monitoring of media marketing communication, will be needed.

  15. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  16. Predicting trend reversals using market instantaneous state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bury, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Collective behaviors taking place in financial markets reveal strongly correlated states especially during a crisis period. A natural hypothesis is that trend reversals are also driven by mutual influences between the different stock exchanges. Using a maximum entropy approach, we find coordinated behavior during trend reversals dominated by the pairwise component. In particular, these events are predicted with high significant accuracy by the ensemble's instantaneous state.

  17. Genetic risk prediction and neurobiological understanding of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Levey, D F; Le-Niculescu, H; Frank, J; Ayalew, M; Jain, N; Kirlin, B; Learman, R; Winiger, E; Rodd, Z; Shekhar, A; Schork, N; Kiefer, F; Kiefe, F; Wodarz, N; Müller-Myhsok, B; Dahmen, N; Nöthen, M; Sherva, R; Farrer, L; Smith, A H; Kranzler, H R; Rietschel, M; Gelernter, J; Niculescu, A B

    2014-05-20

    We have used a translational Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to discover genes involved in alcoholism, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a German alcohol dependence cohort with other genetic and gene expression data, from human and animal model studies, similar to our previous work in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value SNPs in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG  (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) was used to generate a genetic  risk prediction score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0.053) in separating  alcohol dependent individuals from controls in an independent German test cohort. We then validated and prioritized our top findings from this discovery work, and subsequently tested them in three independent cohorts, from two continents. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value single-nucleotide length polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) were used to generate a Genetic Risk Prediction Score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0.053) in separating alcohol-dependent individuals from controls in an independent German test cohort. In order to validate and prioritize the key genes that drive behavior without some of the pleiotropic environmental confounds present in humans, we used a stress-reactive animal model of alcoholism developed by our group, the D-box binding protein (DBP) knockout mouse, consistent with the surfeit of stress theory of addiction proposed by Koob and colleagues. A much smaller panel (n=11 genes, 66 SNPs) of the top CFG-discovered genes for alcoholism, cross-validated and prioritized by this stress-reactive animal model showed better predictive ability in the independent German test cohort (P=0.041). The top CFG scoring gene for alcoholism from the initial discovery step, synuclein alpha (SNCA) remained the top gene after the stress

  18. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  19. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices. PMID:24284473

  20. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  1. Genetic risk prediction and neurobiological understanding of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Levey, D F; Le-Niculescu, H; Frank, J; Ayalew, M; Jain, N; Kirlin, B; Learman, R; Winiger, E; Rodd, Z; Shekhar, A; Schork, N; Kiefe, F; Wodarz, N; Müller-Myhsok, B; Dahmen, N; Nöthen, M; Sherva, R; Farrer, L; Smith, A H; Kranzler, H R; Rietschel, M; Gelernter, J; Niculescu, A B

    2014-01-01

    We have used a translational Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to discover genes involved in alcoholism, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a German alcohol dependence cohort with other genetic and gene expression data, from human and animal model studies, similar to our previous work in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value SNPs in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG  (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) was used to generate a genetic  risk prediction score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0.053) in separating  alcohol dependent individuals from controls in an independent German test cohort. We then validated and prioritized our top findings from this discovery work, and subsequently tested them in three independent cohorts, from two continents. In order to validate and prioritize the key genes that drive behavior without some of the pleiotropic environmental confounds present in humans, we used a stress-reactive animal model of alcoholism developed by our group, the D-box binding protein (DBP) knockout mouse, consistent with the surfeit of stress theory of addiction proposed by Koob and colleagues. A much smaller panel (n=11 genes, 66 SNPs) of the top CFG-discovered genes for alcoholism, cross-validated and prioritized by this stress-reactive animal model showed better predictive ability in the independent German test cohort (P=0.041). The top CFG scoring gene for alcoholism from the initial discovery step, synuclein alpha (SNCA) remained the top gene after the stress-reactive animal model cross-validation. We also tested this small panel of genes in two other independent test cohorts from the United States, one with alcohol dependence (P=0.00012) and one with alcohol abuse (a less severe form of alcoholism; P=0.0094). SNCA by itself was able to separate alcoholics from controls in the alcohol-dependent cohort (P=0.000013) and the alcohol abuse

  2. Using prediction markets to forecast research evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Munafo, Marcus R.; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Altmejd, Adam; Heikensten, Emma; Almenberg, Johan; Bird, Alexander; Chen, Yiling; Wilson, Brad; Johannesson, Magnus; Dreber, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF2014) was conducted to assess the quality of research carried out at higher education institutions in the UK over a 6 year period. However, the process was criticized for being expensive and bureaucratic, and it was argued that similar information could be obtained more simply from various existing metrics. We were interested in whether a prediction market on the outcome of REF2014 for 33 chemistry departments in the UK would provide information similar to that obtained during the REF2014 process. Prediction markets have become increasingly popular as a means of capturing what is colloquially known as the ‘wisdom of crowds’, and enable individuals to trade ‘bets’ on whether a specific outcome will occur or not. These have been shown to be successful at predicting various outcomes in a number of domains (e.g. sport, entertainment and politics), but have rarely been tested against outcomes based on expert judgements such as those that formed the basis of REF2014. PMID:26587243

  3. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  4. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action. PMID:10874398

  5. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action.

  6. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages. PMID:27128159

  7. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  8. Using Prediction Markets to Track Information Flows: Evidence from Google

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowgill, Bo; Wolfers, Justin; Zitzewitz, Eric

    Since 2005, Google has conducted the largest corporate experiment with prediction markets we are aware of. In this paper, we illustrate how markets can be used to study how an organization processes information. We show that market participants are not typical of Google’s workforce, and that market participation and success is skewed towards Google’s engineering and quantitatively oriented employees.

  9. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  10. Predicting Alcohol Misuse Among College Students in the US and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Ahn, Seokhoon; Lim, Tae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed. PMID:26161809

  11. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative.

  12. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative. PMID:21599504

  13. Predicting Heroin and Alcohol Usage Among Young Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ronald L.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    Using 1968 data collected from junior and senior high school students in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, substance usage patterns for heroin and alcohol were predicted for 1975-6. A sample of 1,000 of the initial 5,000 students were selected for re-interview; half were selected to be at high risk of substance abuse and half were selected randomly. Some 657…

  14. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  15. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  16. Use of the theory of reasoned action to predict drug and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Laflin, M T; Moore-Hirschl, S; Weis, D L; Hayes, B E

    1994-05-01

    The present study examines the role of self-esteem (SE) in the prediction of drug and alcohol use. Consistent with research on the theory of reasoned action, we suggest that alcohol and drug attitudes and subjective norms are more useful in the prediction of self-reported drug and alcohol consumption than SE. In the present study, measures of SE, drug attitudes, subjective norms, and drug use behaviors were collected from 2,074 high school and college students. Results indicate that drug attitudes and subjective norms do predict drug and alcohol use, but that SE does not add significantly to the prediction of the drug and alcohol behaviors.

  17. Learning Political Science with Prediction Markets: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cali Mortenson; Sami, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Prediction markets are designed to aggregate the information of many individuals to forecast future events. These markets provide participants with an incentive to seek information and a forum for interaction, making markets a promising tool to motivate student learning. We carried out a quasi-experiment in an introductory political science class…

  18. Creating intoxigenic environments: marketing alcohol to young people in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCreanor, Tim; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Kaiwai, Hector; Borell, Suaree; Gregory, Amanda

    2008-09-01

    Alcohol consumption among young people in New Zealand is on the rise. Given the broad array of acute and chronic harms that arise from this trend, it is a major cause for alarm and it is imperative that we improve our knowledge of key drivers of youth drinking. Changes wrought by the neoliberal political climate of deregulation that characterised the last two decades in many countries including Aotearoa (Aotearoa is a Maori name for New Zealand) New Zealand have transformed the availability of alcohol to young people. Commercial development of youth alcohol markets has seen the emergence of new environments, cultures and practices around drinking and intoxication but the ways in which these changes are interpreted and taken up are not well understood. This paper reports findings from a qualitative research project investigating the meaning-making practices of young people in New Zealand in response to alcohol marketing. Research data included group interviews with a range of Maori and Pakeha young people at three time periods. Thematic analyses of the youth data on usages of marketing materials indicate naturalisation of tropes of alcohol intoxication. We show how marketing is used and enjoyed in youth discourses creating and maintaining what we refer to as intoxigenic social environments. The implications are considered in light of the growing exposure of young people to alcohol marketing in a discussion of strategies to manage and mitigate its impacts on behaviour and consumption.

  19. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged <21 years each year during 2001-2005. Exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged <21 years. However, the National Research Council/Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) proposed in 2003 that "the industry standard should move toward a 15% threshold for television advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions.

  20. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged <21 years each year during 2001-2005. Exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged <21 years. However, the National Research Council/Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) proposed in 2003 that "the industry standard should move toward a 15% threshold for television advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions. PMID:24196664

  1. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990–2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second‐reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Results Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self‐regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non‐regulatory initiatives. Conclusions The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. PMID:26173765

  2. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring. PMID:11218354

  3. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  4. Scaling and Predictability in Stock Markets: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling. PMID:24632944

  5. Scaling and predictability in stock markets: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huishu; Wei, Jianrong; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Most people who invest in stock markets want to be rich, thus, many technical methods have been created to beat the market. If one knows the predictability of the price series in different markets, it would be easier for him/her to make the technical analysis, at least to some extent. Here we use one of the most basic sold-and-bought trading strategies to establish the profit landscape, and then calculate the parameters to characterize the strength of predictability. According to the analysis of scaling of the profit landscape, we find that the Chinese individual stocks are harder to predict than US ones, and the individual stocks are harder to predict than indexes in both Chinese stock market and US stock market. Since the Chinese (US) stock market is a representative of emerging (developed) markets, our comparative study on the markets of these two countries is of potential value not only for conducting technical analysis, but also for understanding physical mechanisms of different kinds of markets in terms of scaling. PMID:24632944

  6. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price. PMID:27391816

  7. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  8. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price. PMID:27391816

  9. Internet filters and entry pages do not protect children from online alcohol marketing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Thom, Jeffrey A; Davoren, Sondra; Barrie, Lance

    2014-02-01

    We review programs and policies to prevent children from accessing alcohol marketing online. To update the literature, we present our recent studies that assess (i) in-built barriers to underage access to alcohol brand websites and (ii) commercial internet filters. Alcohol websites typically had poor filter systems for preventing entry of underage persons; only half of the sites required the user to provide a date of birth, and none had any means of preventing users from trying again. Even the most effective commercial internet filters allowed access to one-third of the sites we examined.

  10. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary. PMID:20512745

  11. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research.

    PubMed

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants' individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a "statistically significant" finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications.

  12. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A.; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants’ individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a “statistically significant” finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  13. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  14. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  15. Family history of alcoholism does not predict neuropsychological performance in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Reed, R; Grant, I; Adams, K M

    1987-08-01

    We examined the relationship of history of alcoholism in first-degree relatives to neuropsychological performance of alcoholics abstinent from several weeks to several years. Eighty-four men were assigned to four groups based on "strength" of family history of alcoholism. The groups were: (1) "strong history," a parent plus another first-degree relative positive; (2) "moderate," parent only positive; (3) "weak," nonparent first-degree relative only positive; and (4) "negative," no first-degree relative positive. There were no significant between-group differences in NP performance. In other analyses there were no NP differences between alcoholics classified positive or negative purely on basis of paternal alcoholism, and no differences between subjects who had multigenerational versus unigenerational versus negative familial histories of alcoholism. It is concluded that genetic loading for alcoholism does not significantly affect the NP status of abstinent alcoholic groups equated for education, drinking history, and medical risk.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  17. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach

  18. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  19. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  20. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use. PMID:27562038

  1. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  2. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  3. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance. PMID:26926235

  4. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance. PMID:26926235

  5. Predictive models of alcohol use based on attitudes and individual values.

    PubMed

    García del Castillo Rodríguez, José A; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Quiles Soler, M Carmen; García del Castillo-López, Alvaro; Gázquez Pertusa, Mónica; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Inglés, Candido J

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people's attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The questionnaire used obtained information on participants' alcohol use, attitudes and personal values. The results show that the attitudes model correctly classifies 76.3% of cases. Likewise, the model for level of alcohol use correctly classifies 82% of cases. According to our results, we can conclude that there are a series of individual values that influence drinking and attitudes to alcohol use, which therefore provides us with a potentially powerful instrument for developing preventive intervention programs.

  6. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  9. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents' alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Margot; Janssen, Tim; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems). Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p=.01) and first binge drinking episode (p=.04) while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p=.01). These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge) drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies.

  10. Can Serotonin Transporter Genotype Predict Craving in Alcoholism?

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Roache, John D.; Dawes, Michael A.; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin-Qun; Javors, Martin A.; Seneviratne, Chamindi; Johnson, Bankole A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that functional control of the serotonergic system is regulated in part by differential expression of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT). Alcohol-dependent individuals with the LL/LS genotype (L-carriers), compared with those with the SS genotype, have a lower 5-HT neurotransmission, which we hypothesize would be associated with higher craving for alcohol among L-carriers. We hypothesize further that acute peripheral depletion of tryptophan (5-HT’s precursor), while further reducing 5-HT function, might decrease auto-inhibition of 5-HT neuronal firing, thereby increasing 5-HT neurotransmission transiently and lowering alcohol craving. Methods We tested these hypotheses by examining whether in 34 Hispanic alcohol-dependent individuals subjective and physiological cue craving for alcohol differed by genotype, age of problem drinking onset, and tryptophan availability. Results On subjective “urge to drink” and “crave for a drink”, we found a significant (p<0.05) main effect of genotype and cue, as well as an interaction among genotype, age of problem drinking onset, and tryptophan depletion. For the physiological measure of pulse, there was a main effect of genotype. L-carriers had higher craving than their SS counterparts, an effect that decreased under tryptophan depletion. While craving in L-carriers increased the earlier the age of problem drinking onset, the opposite effect was seen in those with the SS genotype. Conclusion These results not only provide support for the hypothesis that alcoholics who are L-carriers have greater alcohol craving and possibly greater propensity for drinking but also propose that there is an important 5-HTT gene-by-environment interaction that alters cue craving response for alcohol. PMID:19426172

  11. Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    George, Olivier; Sanders, Chelsea; Freiling, John; Grigoryan, Edward; Vu, Shayla; Allen, Camryn D; Crawford, Elena; Mandyam, Chitra D; Koob, George F

    2012-10-30

    Chronic intermittent access to alcohol leads to the escalation of alcohol intake, similar to binge drinking in humans. Converging lines of evidence suggest that impairment of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cognitive function and overactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are key factors that lead to excessive drinking in dependence. However, the role of the mPFC and CeA in the escalation of alcohol intake in rats with a history of binge drinking without dependence is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Fos) expression in the mPFC, CeA, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens and evaluated working memory and anxiety-like behavior in rats given continuous (24 h/d for 7 d/wk) or intermittent (3 d/wk) access to alcohol (20% vol/vol) using a two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that abstinence from alcohol in rats with a history of escalation of alcohol intake specifically recruited GABA and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the mPFC and produced working memory impairments associated with excessive alcohol drinking during acute (24-72 h) but not protracted (16 -68 d) abstinence. Moreover, abstinence from alcohol was associated with a functional disconnection of the mPFC and CeA but not mPFC and nucleus accumbens. These results show that recruitment of a subset of GABA and CRF neurons in the mPFC during withdrawal and disconnection of the PFC-CeA pathway may be critical for impaired executive control over motivated behavior, suggesting that dysregulation of mPFC interneurons may be an early index of neuroadaptation in alcohol dependence.

  12. Implicit identification with drug and alcohol use predicts retention in residential rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nathan; von Hippel, Courtney; Brener, Loren; von Hippel, William

    2015-03-01

    Research has identified numerous factors associated with successful treatment in alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs, yet treatment completion rates are often low and subsequent relapse rates very high. We propose that people's implicit identification with drugs and alcohol may be an additional factor that impacts their ability to complete abstinence-based rehabilitation programs. In the current research, we measured implicit identification with drugs and alcohol using the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) among 137 members of a residential rehabilitation program for drugs and alcohol (104 men; mean age = 35 years old, 47 of whom were court-ordered to attend). Implicit identification with drugs and alcohol was measured within 1 week of arrival and again 3 weeks later, prior to the onset of the treatment phase of the program. Duration in rehabilitation was assessed 1 year later. Consistent with predictions, implicit identification with drugs and alcohol predicted the duration that people remained in residential rehabilitation even though a self-report measure of identification with drugs and alcohol did not. These results suggest that implicit identification with drugs and alcohol might be an important predictor of treatment outcomes, even among those with serious problems with drug and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  14. PREDICTING PATTERNS OF ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most studies of adolescent alcohol use have focused primarily on the frequency and quantity of consumption, we know little about how adolescent drinking patterns change during the high school years. The purpose of this article is to provide such data, as well as to identify some of the indiv...

  15. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  16. Alcohol Use Predicts Number of Sexual Partners for Female but not Male STI Clinic Patients.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol-sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46 % female, 67 % African American) from a public sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction.

  17. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  18. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  19. Prediction of stock market characteristics using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Abhijit S.; Kondo, Tadashi; Shah, Trupti U.; Gandhi, Viraf R.

    1999-03-01

    International stocks trading, currency and derivative contracts play an increasingly important role for many investors. Neural network is playing a dominant role in predicting the trends in stock markets and in currency speculation. In most economic applications, the success rate using neural networks is limited to 70 - 80%. By means of the new approach of GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) neural network predictions can be improved further by 10 - 15%. It was observed in our study, that using GMDH for short, noisy or inaccurate data sample resulted in the best-simplified model. In the GMDH model accuracy of prediction is higher and the structure is simpler than that of the usual full physical model. As an example, prediction of the activity on the stock exchange in New York was considered. On the basis of observations in the period of Jan '95 to July '98, several variables of the stock market (S&P 500, Small Cap, Dow Jones, etc.) were predicted. A model portfolio using various stocks (Amgen, Merck, Office Depot, etc.) was built and its performance was evaluated based on neural network forecasting of the closing prices. Comparison of results was made with various neural network models such as Multilayer Perceptrons with Back Propagation, and the GMDH neural network. Variations of GMDH were studied and analysis of their performance is reported in the paper.

  20. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-06-19

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p < .01). The study confirms that alcohol use and driving under the influence of alcohol are highly prevalent in Spanish young people, and some gender differences exist in these behaviors (p < .01). Furthermore, the study confirms the validity of theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.

  1. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p < .01). The study confirms that alcohol use and driving under the influence of alcohol are highly prevalent in Spanish young people, and some gender differences exist in these behaviors (p < .01). Furthermore, the study confirms the validity of theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs. PMID:26087814

  2. [Prediction of histological liver damage in asymptomatic alcoholic patients by means of clinical and laboratory data].

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, H; Hirsch, S; Bunout, D; Díaz, M; Kelly, M; Silva, G; de la Maza, M P; Petermann, M; Ugarte, G

    1993-04-01

    Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics. PMID:7903815

  3. Alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear: startle response during unpredictable versus predictable threat.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Christine A; Curtin, John J

    2009-05-01

    Recent theory and empirical research have suggested that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, a laboratory procedure has been developed to manipulate fear versus anxiety independently via administration of predictable or unpredictable electric shock, respectively. Benzodiazepines appear to selectively reduce anxiety but not fear in this procedure. The primary aim of this experiment was to determine if alcohol produced a similar selective reduction in anxiety. Intoxicated (target blood alcohol concentration of .08%) and nonintoxicated participants viewed a series of colored squares separated by variable intertrial intervals (ITIs) in 3 conditions. In the predictable shock condition, shocks were administered contingently during every square. In the unpredictable shock condition, shocks were administered noncontingently during both squares and ITIs. In the no-shock condition, no shocks were administered at any time. Alcohol significantly reduced startle potentiation during cues signaling unpredictable but not predictable shock, consistent with the thesis that alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear. In addition, alcohol's effect on startle potentiation during unpredictable shock was mediated by vigilance. This anxiolytic effect may clarify the nature of alcohol's reinforcing effects in social and problem drinkers.

  4. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Iglesias, María; de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, María; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario. Materials and Methods: The nutrition facts declared on the labels of non-alcoholic beverages by manufacturers in Spain were compiled and studied. Results: The database included 211 beverages classified in 7 groups with energy/carbohydrate content per 100 mL ranging from 0–55 kcal/0–13 g for soft drinks; 2–60 kcal/0–14.5 g for energy drinks; 24–31 kcal/5.8–7.5 g for sports drinks; 1–32 kcal/0–7.3 g for drinks containing mineral salts in their composition; 14–69 kcal/2.6–17 g for fruit juice, nectar, and grape musts; 43–78 kcal/6.1–14.4 g for vegetable drinks; and 33–88 kcal/3.6–14 g for dairy drinks. Conclusion: The current non-alcoholic beverage market is a dynamic, growing, and highly innovative one, allowing consumers to choose according to their preferences, needs, or level of physical activity at any moment of the day. PMID:27740599

  5. Can routine information from electronic patient records predict a future diagnosis of alcohol use disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Lid, Torgeir Gilje; Eide, Geir Egil; Dalen, Ingvild; Meland, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore whether information regarding potentially alcohol-related health incidents recorded in electronic patient records might aid in earlier identification of alcohol use disorders. Design We extracted potentially alcohol-related information in electronic patient records and tested if alcohol-related diagnoses, prescriptions of codeine, tramadol, ethylmorphine, and benzodiazepines; elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), and mean cell volume (MCV); and new sick leave certificates predicted specific alcohol use disorder. Setting Nine general practitioner surgeries with varying size and stability. Subjects Totally 20,764 patients with active electronic patient record until data gathering and with a history of at least four years without a specific alcohol use disorder after turning 18 years of age. Methods The Cox proportional hazard analysis with time-dependent covariates of potential accumulated risks over the previous four years. Main outcome measures Time from inclusion until the first specific alcohol use disorder, defined by either an alcohol specific diagnostic code or a text fragment documenting an alcohol problem. Results In the unadjusted and adjusted Cox-regression with time-dependent covariates all variables were highly significant with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.25 to 3.50. Addictive drugs, sick leaves, GGT, MCV and International Classification for Primary Care version 2 (ICPC-2), and International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) diagnoses were analyzed. Elevated GGT and MCV, ICD-10-diagnoses, and gender demonstrated the highest hazard ratios. Conclusions Many frequent health problems are potential predictors of an increased risk or vulnerability for alcohol use disorders. However, due to the modest hazard ratios, we were unable to establish a clinically useful tool. Key Points Alcohol is potentially relevant for many health problems, but current strategies for identification and intervention in

  6. Predicting the future relapse of alcohol-dependent patients from structural and functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sambu; Mohr, Johannes; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.

  7. Alcohol expectancies and adolescent drinking: differential prediction of frequency, quantity, and intoxication.

    PubMed

    Chen, M J; Grube, J W; Madden, P A

    1994-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancies have been shown to be consistently related to drinking and problematic drinking among underage youth, some studies suggest that they are more predictive of quantity than of frequency of drinking. However, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. This study examines the differential prediction hypothesis using a sample of 1,781 high school students from the San Francisco Bay Area. Measures included yearly and monthly frequency of drinking and intoxication and usual quantity consumed per drinking occasion. Alcohol expectancies were measured with 11 items asking about the likelihood that having 2 or 3 whole drinks of alcohol would lead to specific personal consequences. Structural equations analyses indicated that expectancies were better predictors of quantity than of frequency or intoxication. The results also show that positive and negative expectancy subscales were differentially associated with the drinking measures and the patterns were somewhat different for males and females.

  8. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  9. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  10. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  11. IMPULSIVE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS PREDICT POST-TREATMENT RELAPSE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Results Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, df=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95%C.I. = 1.13–6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% C.I. = 1.18–3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. Conclusions This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates. PMID:18556146

  12. A Case Study on Using Prediction Markets as a Rich Environment for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Patrick; Garvey, John; McGrath, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, prediction markets are presented as an innovative pedagogical tool which can be used to create a Rich Environment for Active Learning (REAL). Prediction markets are designed to make forecasts about specific future events by using a market mechanism to aggregate the information held by a large group of traders about that event into a…

  13. Prediction of treatment outcome in a clinical sample of problem drinkers: self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Ralf; Beck, Beate; Lammers, André

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive processes related to client motivation are important mediators of alcoholism treatment outcome. The present study aimed to expand previous research on client motivation and treatment outcome by establishing the predictive utility of self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change in a sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 83). Treatment outcome was assessed three months following discharge. According to self-reported alcohol use, 22 clients were classified as abstainers and 41 clients as relapsers. Twenty participants were lost to follow-up. Readiness to change and anticipated reinforcement from alcohol predicted abstinence at follow-up. Client motivation was unrelated to both frequency and quantity of alcohol use. In accordance with social learning theory, self-efficacy was inversely correlated with alcohol expectancies. The results of the present study suggest that once abstinence has been violated factors other than pretreatment motivation determine drinking behavior.

  14. Does the singular value decomposition entropy have predictive power for stock market? - Evidence from the Shenzhen stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rongbao; Xiong, Wei; Li, Xinjie

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the predictive ability of the singular value decomposition entropy for the Shenzhen Component Index based on different scales. It is found that, the predictive ability of the entropy for the index is affected by the width of moving time windows and the structural break in stock market. By moving time windows with one year, the predictive power of singular value decomposition entropy of Shenzhen stock market for its component index is found after the reform of non-tradable shares.

  15. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  16. Alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear: Startle response during unpredictable vs. predictable threat

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, Christine A.; Curtin, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent theory and empirical research has suggested that fear and anxiety are distinct processes with separable neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, a laboratory procedure has been developed to manipulate fear vs. anxiety independently via administration of predictable or unpredictable electric shock, respectively. Benzodiazepines appear to selectively reduce anxiety but not fear in this procedure. The primary aim of this experiment was to determine if alcohol produced a similar selective reduction in anxiety. Intoxicated (target blood alcohol concentration of 0.08%) and non-intoxicated participants viewed a series of colored squares separated by variable inter-trial intervals (ITI) in three conditions. In the predictable shock condition, shocks were administered contingently during every square. In the unpredictable shock condition, shocks were administered non-contingently during both squares and ITIs. In the no-shock condition, no shocks were administered at any time. Alcohol significantly reduced startle potentiation during cues signaling unpredictable but not predictable shock, consistent with the thesis that alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear. In addition, alcohol’s effect on startle potentiation during unpredictable shock was mediated by vigilance. This anxiolytic effect may clarify the nature of alcohol’s reinforcing effects in social and problem drinkers. PMID:19413408

  17. Participation in specific treatment components predicts alcohol-specific and general coping skills.

    PubMed

    Forys, Kelly; McKellar, John; Moos, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    This study identified which aspects of substance abuse treatment in community residential facilities (CRFs) were correlated with patients' post-treatment coping. A total of 2376 patients supplied demographic information and completed measures at baseline (coping and abstinence self-efficacy) and one year after treatment (coping, level of drug and alcohol use, and substance-related problems). Staff provided information about treatment orientation and patients' participation in treatment (e.g., life skills training, vocational counseling). The data were used to predict coping 1 year after treatment. As expected, higher levels of general approach coping and alcohol-specific coping and lower levels of general avoidance coping were associated with less 1-year alcohol and drug use and fewer drinking problems. Patients' greater level of participation in life skills counseling predicted more approach coping at 1 year. In addition, positive social relationships and participation in 12-step self-help groups predicted less general avoidance coping and more alcohol-specific coping at 1 year post-treatment. Life skills training, 12-step self-help groups, and enhancement of supportive relationships during CRF treatment for substance abuse are related to healthy coping. Future research should examine the effect of these components in less intensive programs and with women. PMID:17182195

  18. Neural Affective Mechanisms Predict Market-Level Microlending.

    PubMed

    Genevsky, Alexander; Knutson, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Humans sometimes share with others whom they may never meet or know, in violation of the dictates of pure self-interest. Research has not established which neuropsychological mechanisms support lending decisions, nor whether their influence extends to markets involving significant financial incentives. In two studies, we found that neural affective mechanisms influence the success of requests for microloans. In a large Internet database of microloan requests (N = 13,500), we found that positive affective features of photographs promoted the success of those requests. We then established that neural activity (i.e., in the nucleus accumbens) and self-reported positive arousal in a neuroimaging sample (N = 28) predicted the success of loan requests on the Internet, above and beyond the effects of the neuroimaging sample's own choices (i.e., to lend or not). These findings suggest that elicitation of positive arousal can promote the success of loan requests, both in the laboratory and on the Internet. They also highlight affective neuroscience's potential to probe neuropsychological mechanisms that drive microlending, enhance the effectiveness of loan requests, and forecast market-level behavior.

  19. Depictions of Alcohol Use in a UK Government Partnered Online Social Marketing Campaign: "Hollyoaks" "The Morning after the Night before"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Sumnall, Harry; Measham, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study analysed the depiction of alcohol in an online government partnered social marketing campaign: Hollyoaks "The Morning After the Night Before". This was a new initiative, providing Internet-delivered episodes of a popular terrestrial drama targeted at young people. Methods: All the 12 episodes were coded for "visual representations…

  20. Alcohol consumption by orientals in North America is predicted largely by a single gene.

    PubMed

    Tu, G C; Israel, Y

    1995-01-01

    Orientals consume significantly less alcohol, and show a lower prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence, than Caucasians. Sociological theories propose that this difference is due mainly to cultural factors. Physiological theories have suggested that the flushing reaction experienced by some Orientals serves as a deterrent to ethanol consumption. The flushing reaction is observed mainly in individuals who possess a mutation in the high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) which renders the enzyme inactive. However, the tendency to flush correlates poorly with alcohol consumption, thus casting doubt on the physiological interpretations. The present study investigates the influence of the ALDH2 allele and of acculturation in North America on alcohol consumption by Orientals born in Canada or the United States. Oriental males carrying the inactive ALDH2(-) allele drink two-thirds less alcohol (6.1 +/- 1.5 vs. 18.2 +/- 2.8 drinks/4 weeks; p < 0.001), show one-third the prevalence of binge drinking (15.2 vs. 42.2%; p < 0.01), and are three times more likely to be abstainers (39.4 vs. 13.3%; p < 0.01) than Oriental ALDH2(+) males carrying the gene for the active enzyme. There were no significant differences in binge drinking or abstinence rates between ALDH2(+) Orientals and Caucasian males. Acculturation in North American society accounted for only 7-11% of the variance in overall consumption (p < 0.02). It is concluded that a single mutation in the high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene predicts two-thirds of the alcohol consumption and excessive alcohol use by Oriental males born in North America. PMID:7755519

  1. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lesley A; Foxcroft, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies. Methods studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort studies that evaluated exposure to advertising or marketing or alcohol portrayals and drinking at baseline and assessed drinking behaviour at follow-up in young people were selected and reviewed. Results seven cohort studies that followed up more than 13,000 young people aged 10 to 26 years old were reviewed. The studies evaluated a range of different alcohol advertisement and marketing exposures including print and broadcast media. Two studies measured the hours of TV and music video viewing. All measured drinking behaviour using a variety of outcome measures. Two studies evaluated drinkers and non-drinkers separately. Baseline non-drinkers were significantly more likely to have become a drinker at follow-up with greater exposure to alcohol advertisements. There was little difference in drinking frequency at follow-up in baseline drinkers. In studies that included drinkers and non-drinkers, increased exposure at baseline led to significant increased risk of drinking at follow-up. The strength of the relationship varied between studies but effect sizes were generally modest. All studies controlled for age and gender, however potential confounding factors adjusted for in analyses varied from study to study. Important risk factors such as peer drinking and parental attitudes and behaviour were not adequately accounted for in some studies. Conclusion data from prospective cohort studies suggest there is an association between exposure to alcohol advertising

  2. Joe Camel in a Bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff Brand, and the Transformation of the Youth Alcohol Market

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    I have documented the shift in youth alcoholic beverage preference from beer to distilled spirits between 2001 and 2009. I have assessed the role of distilled spirits industry marketing strategies to promote this shift using the Smirnoff brand marketing campaign as a case example. I conclude with a discussion of the similarities in corporate tactics across consumer products with adverse public health impacts, the importance of studying corporate marketing and public relations practices, and the implications of those practices for public health. PMID:22095339

  3. Implicit prejudice toward injecting drug users predicts intentions to change jobs among drug and alcohol nurses.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; Brener, Loren; von Hippel, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The meaning and importance of implicit prejudice is a source of considerable debate. One way to advance this debate is to assess whether implicit prejudice can predict independent variance, beyond that predicted by explicit prejudice, in meaningful and unambiguous behaviors or behavioral intentions. In the current research, drug and alcohol nurses reported their level of stress working with injecting drug users, their job satisfaction, their explicit prejudice toward injecting drug users, and their intentions to leave drug and alcohol nursing. The nurses also completed the Single Category Implicit Association Test, which measured their implicit prejudice toward injecting drug users. Analyses revealed that implicit prejudice was a significant mediator, beyond explicit prejudice and job satisfaction, of the relation between job stress and intention to change jobs. PMID:18181783

  4. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  5. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  6. Estimating fatty alcohol contributions to the environment from laundry and personal care products using a market forensics approach.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen M; DeLeo, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Fatty alcohol-based surfactants are widely used in detergents and personal care products; they are typically disposed of down-the-drain and are degraded or removed during wastewater treatment. Analytical data had shown concentration and profile differences between regions of the United States. Market sales data were purchased relevant to the sampling dates. In combination with analysis of the fatty alcohol profiles in the top selling products, the influent profiles were reconstructed and compared to the whole U.S. sales data. The per capita usage rate for fatty alcohols through these 4000+ top selling products was 4.9 g per day, with 88% arising from liquid laundry detergents and hand dish detergents. This extrapolates to a national usage of 185,000 tonnes per year. There were significant differences in the purchasing habits of the inhabitants across the four regions sampled, although this had minimal impact on the fatty alcohol profile which was dominated by the C12 moiety. The U.S. market was also dominated by petrochemically-sourced chemicals. This market forensics approach using purchased sales data was able to extend our knowledge of the fate of these chemicals without a major (expensive) sampling and analytical campaign.

  7. Estimating fatty alcohol contributions to the environment from laundry and personal care products using a market forensics approach.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen M; DeLeo, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Fatty alcohol-based surfactants are widely used in detergents and personal care products; they are typically disposed of down-the-drain and are degraded or removed during wastewater treatment. Analytical data had shown concentration and profile differences between regions of the United States. Market sales data were purchased relevant to the sampling dates. In combination with analysis of the fatty alcohol profiles in the top selling products, the influent profiles were reconstructed and compared to the whole U.S. sales data. The per capita usage rate for fatty alcohols through these 4000+ top selling products was 4.9 g per day, with 88% arising from liquid laundry detergents and hand dish detergents. This extrapolates to a national usage of 185,000 tonnes per year. There were significant differences in the purchasing habits of the inhabitants across the four regions sampled, although this had minimal impact on the fatty alcohol profile which was dominated by the C12 moiety. The U.S. market was also dominated by petrochemically-sourced chemicals. This market forensics approach using purchased sales data was able to extend our knowledge of the fate of these chemicals without a major (expensive) sampling and analytical campaign. PMID:24220601

  8. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  9. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed. PMID:22054026

  10. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.

  11. Interpersonal Climate of 12-step Groups Predicts Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Kristina N.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Rice, Samara L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that increases in the size of abstinence-based social networks helps explain the association between 12-step attendance and increased abstinence. This study investigated whether the quality of social interaction in 12-step groups also predicts reduced substance use. Participants reported their perceptions of engagedness, avoidance, and conflict in their 12-step groups and their substance use in four assessments. Results showed that perceptions of group engagedness, but not avoidance or conflict, decreased over time. Despite this, engagedness predicted increased 12-step-related behavior and decreased alcohol use. Findings suggest that positive group interaction plays an important role in 12-step affiliates’ recovery efforts. PMID:24039338

  12. Using "Bud World Party" attendance to predict adolescent alcohol use and beliefs about drinking.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where the exhibit and related events were located. Data were collected via a questionnaire administered to 283 students 30 days after the closing ceremonies.. Logistic regression was used to predict recent alcohol consumption. Significant predictors were race (non-white) (OR = 3.9), religiosity (OR = .72), having a parent who drinks (OR = 4.8), the number of best friends who drink (OR = 2.5), and the interaction for "Bud World Party" attendance and gender (OR = 33.2). Post-hoc analysis of the interaction effect indicated that the relationship between "Bud World Party" attendance and recent alcohol consumption is moderated by gender. Girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely than the boys to have consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. In addition, the girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely to believe that drinking would increase their chances of popularity at school than the students who did not.

  13. The drunk utilitarian: blood alcohol concentration predicts utilitarian responses in moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Duke, Aaron A; Bègue, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The hypothetical moral dilemma known as the trolley problem has become a methodological cornerstone in the psychological study of moral reasoning and yet, there remains considerable debate as to the meaning of utilitarian responding in these scenarios. It is unclear whether utilitarian responding results primarily from increased deliberative reasoning capacity or from decreased aversion to harming others. In order to clarify this question, we conducted two field studies to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication on utilitarian responding. Alcohol holds promise in clarifying the above debate because it impairs both social cognition (i.e., empathy) and higher-order executive functioning. Hence, the direction of the association between alcohol and utilitarian vs. non-utilitarian responding should inform the relative importance of both deliberative and social processing systems in influencing utilitarian preference. In two field studies with a combined sample of 103 men and women recruited at two bars in Grenoble, France, participants were presented with a moral dilemma assessing their willingness to sacrifice one life to save five others. Participants' blood alcohol concentrations were found to positively correlate with utilitarian preferences (r=.31, p<.001) suggesting a stronger role for impaired social cognition than intact deliberative reasoning in predicting utilitarian responses in the trolley dilemma. Implications for Greene's dual-process model of moral reasoning are discussed.

  14. A clustered randomised trial examining the effect of social marketing and community mobilisation on the age of uptake and levels of alcohol consumption by Australian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674

  15. Handgrip dynamometry: a surrogate marker of malnutrition to predict the prognosis in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Nitin Rangrao; Gupta, Sudhir Jagdishprasad; Samarth, Amol Rajendra; Sankalecha, Tushar Hiralal

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the utility of handgrip dynamometry (HGD) in predicting short term mortality and complications in alcoholic liver disease. Methods Patients with alcoholic liver disease were included and nutritional assessment was done using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), HGD and other conventional parameters. Mortality rates and complications were compared to nutritional status. Results 80 patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 43.06±10.03 years. 69 patients survived and 11 patients died within the 3 month study duration. Handgrip strength (HGS) was higher in SGA A (28.76±5.48 kg) than SGA B (22.43±4.95 kg) and SGA C (16.78±3.83 kg) (P=<0.001). Number of complications including spontaneous bacterial Peritonitis, gastrointestinal bleeding and encephalopathy in SGA C group were 66.66%, in SGA B 20.75% and SGA A 10%. Mean HGS was significantly higher in the survivors (24.23±5.86) compared to non-survivors (18.04±4.82) (P=0.0011). There was a strong negative correlation between the HGS and Child-Pugh score (P=<0.0012). Multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors for death showed handgrip to be in the suggestive significance range (P=0.072). The sensitivity of HGS was 88.41% in predicting short term mortality. Conclusions HGS correlates with Child-Pugh score in predicting short term mortality. HGD is a simple, inexpensive and sensitive tool for assessing the nutritional status in alcoholic liver disease and can reliably predict its complications and survival.

  16. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  17. The evolution of U.S. temperance movements since repeal: a comparison of two campaigns to control alcoholic beverage marketing, 1950s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the politics of a failed religious movement to ban alcohol advertising in the 1950s with the politics of a more secular, and partially successful, movement to regulate alcohol marketing in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the contexts of the two marketing control movements were quite different, the continuities were equally striking. Both employed arguments about youth, social order, and the power of mass media.

  18. Predicting the In-Hospital Responsiveness to Treatment of Alcoholics. Social Factors as Predictors of Outcome. Brain Damage as a Factor in Treatment Outcome of Chronic Alcoholic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascia, George V.; And Others

    The authors attempt to locate predictor variables associated with the outcome of alcoholic treatment programs. Muscia's study focuses on the predictive potential of: (1) response to a GSR conditioning procedure; (2) several personality variables; and (3) age and IQ measures. Nine variables, reflecting diverse perspectives, were selected as a basis…

  19. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  20. Alcohol use predicts elevation in inflammatory marker soluble CD14 in men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Cioe, Patricia A; Tucker, Lynne; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Independently, HIV infection and heavy alcohol use increase microbial translocation (MT) of gut products into systemic circulation. MT and consequent immune response have been linked to chronic inflammation and a host of negative health outcomes in individuals living with HIV. However, previous research has not systematically investigated the immune correlates of heavy drinking specifically within the HIV-positive population. This pilot study investigated MT and immune activation as a function of alcohol use in 21 HIV-positive men who met NIAAA criteria for heavy drinking. Participants averaged 46.7 ± 8.5 (mean ± standard deviation) years of age, 12.2 ± 9.2 years since HIV diagnosis, 337 ± 158 CD4 nadir, and 643 ± 245 current CD4 count. All participants were virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. Data on alcohol use and immune function were collected at baseline and three-month follow-up. Plasma concentrations of markers of MT and immune activation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), endotoxin core antibody immunoglobulin M (EndoCAb)) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Generalized estimating equation models tested alcohol use variables as predictors of LPS, sCD14, and EndoCAb levels. Greater quantity and frequency of drinking significantly predicted higher sCD14 levels (p's < .01). Conversely, longer duration of abstinence from alcohol significantly predicted lower sCD14 levels (p < .001). These results remained significant after controlling for age, HIV duration, smoking status, current CD4 count, CD4 nadir, and antiretroviral drug type. In addition, participants with ≥50% relative reduction in drinks per week showed a significant decrease (p < .05) in sCD14 from baseline to three-month follow-up. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that heavy drinking may increase a key inflammatory marker in HIV-infected individuals with suppressed infection.

  1. Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults' Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals' drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m., and midnight. Multilevel growth curve models with time-invariant and time-varying covariates were estimated for men and women separately. Among women, enhancement motives were associated with an increase in the hourly alcohol consumption rate over the course of the evening (b = .025; p < .05). The impact of the number of friends present on the hourly consumption rate was stronger among those women who scored high on coping motives at baseline (b = .028; p < .05). Among men, drinking motives were found to have no moderating effects. Results highlight the role of drinking motives and their interactions with situational characteristics in determining event-level drinking, especially among women. Strategies to prevent risky weekend drinking should focus on both the social environment in which drinking takes place (e.g., the drinking group) and individual drinking motives. PMID:27165112

  2. Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Alicia; Jager, Justin; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine age-18 risk factors for alcohol use and heavy drinking during early (ages 22 and 26) and middle (age 35) adulthood, and for symptoms of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in middle adulthood. Design Nationally representative samples of U.S. adolescents in their senior year of secondary school (age 18) were followed into middle adulthood. Structural equation models estimated the associations between age-18 characteristics and current drinking and heavy drinking at ages 22, 26 and 35 and symptoms of AUDs at age 35. Participants The sample consisted of 21,137 respondents from 11 senior year cohorts (1976–1986) from the Monitoring the Future study. Findings Many predictor variables had stable associations with alcohol use over time, although their ability to explain variance in alcohol use declined with increasing time lags. Being White predicted alcohol use, but not symptoms of AUDs. Parental drinking, risk taking, and use of cigarettes and marijuana predicted heavy drinking through age 35. Planning to attend college predicted more heavy drinking at age 22 and less frequent heavy drinking by midlife. High school theft and property damage predicted later AUD symptoms. Most associations were invariant across gender, with variations typically taking the form of stronger associations between predictors and alcohol use for men. Invariance in findings across cohorts indicates that results reflect general developmental trends rather than specific historically bounded ones. Conclusions Many adolescent individual and contextual characteristics remain important predictors of adult alcohol use and abuse, and their predictive impact varies as a function of age and type of alcohol outcome. These associations are largely equivalent across gender and cohort, thus reflecting robust developmental linkages. PMID:18426542

  3. Can we predict the property cycle? A study of securitized property market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie Chi-Man; Wang, Ziyou

    2015-05-01

    Academia takes interest in cyclicality of real estate market. Compared to various findings on housing cycles, no literature takes insight into the cycles of securitized property markets. To address the issue, a nonlinear model is developed to probe into the characteristics of cycles in global markets (US, UK, Australia, Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong) over the last 23 years. The findings suggest that (a) cointegrating relationships influence the six markets in the long term and become stronger during bullish markets. (b) The short-term dynamics of each market is more likely to have a regime-switching structure. (c) The cyclical pattern shows differences between securitized property and housing markets, as well as between securitized property and general stock markets. Meanwhile, the cyclical pattern in developed markets is also different from that in developing markets. (d) The duration dependence shows a weak effect of the boom on predicting the occurrence of the upcoming bust. Instead, the magnitude of boom growth plays a significant role in predicting the duration of following bust. (e) The asymmetric analysis brings forward the "paralleling effect" which indicates that the asymmetry in returns is parallel with the movements of r. The methodology shall serve in providing detailed implications on the characters of cycle and duration forecast in securitized property markets for investors and governments.

  4. Changes in Sensation Seeking and Risk-taking Propensity Predict Increases in Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Laura; Magidson, Jessica F.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Conceptual models implicating disinhibitory traits often are applied to understanding emergent alcohol use, but, little is known of how inter-individual changes in these constructs relate to increases in alcohol use in early adolescence. The current study utilized behavioral and self-report instruments to capture the disinhibitory-based constructs of sensation seeking and risk taking propensity to examine if increases in these constructs over time related to increases in early adolescent alcohol use. Methods Participants included a community sample of 257 early adolescents (aged 9-12) who completed a self-report measure of sensation seeking, a behavioral task assessing risk taking propensity, and a self-report of past year alcohol use, at three annual assessment waves. Results Both sensation seeking and risk taking propensity demonstrated significant increases over time, with additional evidence that change in the behavioral measure of risk taking propensity was not due to practice effects. Greater sensation seeking and greater risk taking propensity demonstrated concurrent relationships with past year alcohol use at each assessment wave. Prospective analyses indicated that after accounting for initial levels of alcohol use, sensation seeking, and risk taking propensity at the first assessment wave, larger increases in both constructs predicted greater odds of alcohol use at subsequent assessment waves. Conclusions Results indicate the role of individual changes in disinhibitory traits in initial alcohol use in early adolescents. Specifically, findings suggest it is not simply initial levels of sensation seeking and risk taking propensity that contribute to subsequent alcohol use but in particular increases in each of these constructs that predict greater odds of use. Future work should continue to assess the development of sensation seeking and risk taking propensity in early adolescence and target these constructs in interventions as a potential means

  5. Initiating moderate to heavy alcohol use predicts changes in neuropsychological functioning for adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Spadoni, Andrea D; Infante, M Alejandra; Myers, Mark G; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-12-01

    This study prospectively examines the influence of alcohol on neuropsychological functioning in boys and girls characterized prior to initiating drinking (N = 76, ages 12-14). Adolescents who transitioned into heavy (n = 25; 11 girls, 14 boys) or moderate (n = 11; 2 girls, 9 boys) drinking were compared with matched controls who remained nonusers throughout the approximately 3-year follow-up period (N = 40; 16 girls, 24 boys). For girls, more past year drinking days predicted a greater reduction in visuospatial task performance from baseline to follow-up, above and beyond performance on equivalent measures at baseline (R2Delta = 10%, p < .05), particularly on tests of visuospatial memory (R2Delta = 8%, p < .05). For boys, a tendency was seen for more past year hangover symptoms to predict worsened sustained attention (R2Delta = 7%, p < .05). These preliminary longitudinal findings suggest that initiating moderately heavy alcohol use and incurring hangover during adolescence may adversely influence neurocognitive functioning. Neurocognitive deficits linked to heavy drinking during this critical developmental period may lead to direct and indirect changes in neuromaturational course, with effects that would extend into adulthood.

  6. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. PMID:26069295

  7. Use of marketing to disseminate brief alcohol intervention to general practitioners: promoting health care interventions to health promoters.

    PubMed

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F

    2000-11-01

    Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group. PMID:11133118

  8. Use of marketing to disseminate brief alcohol intervention to general practitioners: promoting health care interventions to health promoters.

    PubMed

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F

    2000-11-01

    Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.

  9. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS):Predictive invariance of Demographic Characteristics on Attitudes towards Alcohol across Hispanic National Groups.

    PubMed

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Bernstein, Ira H

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the demographic predictors of items assessing attitudes towards drinking across Hispanic national groups. Data were from the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS), which used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals randomly selected from the household population in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Predictive invariance of demographic predictors of alcohol attitudes over four Hispanic national groups (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and South/Central Americans) was examined using multiple-group seemingly unrelated probit regression. The analyses examined whether the influence of various demographic predictors varied across the Hispanic national groups in their regression coefficients, item intercepts, and error correlations. The hypothesis of predictive invariance was supported. Hispanic groups did not differ in how demographic predictors related to individual attitudinal items (regression slopes were invariant). In addition, the groups did not differ in attitudinal endorsement rates once demographic covariates were taken into account (item intercepts were invariant). Although Hispanic groups have different attitudes about alcohol, the influence of multiple demographic characteristics on alcohol attitudes operates similarly across Hispanic groups. Future models of drinking behavior in adult Hispanics need not posit moderating effects of group on the relation between these background characteristics and attitudes.

  10. The predictive power of Japanese candlestick charting in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Bao, Si; Zhou, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the predictive power of 4 popular pairs of two-day bullish and bearish Japanese candlestick patterns in Chinese stock market. Based on Morris' study, we give the quantitative details of definition of long candlestick, which is important in two-day candlestick pattern recognition but ignored by several previous researches, and we further give the quantitative definitions of these four pairs of two-day candlestick patterns. To test the predictive power of candlestick patterns on short-term price movement, we propose the definition of daily average return to alleviate the impact of correlation among stocks' overlap-time returns in statistical tests. To show the robustness of our result, two methods of trend definition are used for both the medium-market-value and large-market-value sample sets. We use Step-SPA test to correct for data snooping bias. Statistical results show that the predictive power differs from pattern to pattern, three of the eight patterns provide both short-term and relatively long-term prediction, another one pair only provide significant forecasting power within very short-term period, while the rest three patterns present contradictory results for different market value groups. For all the four pairs, the predictive power drops as predicting time increases, and forecasting power is stronger for stocks with medium market value than those with large market value.

  11. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders' expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day's price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately.

  12. Predicting the Direction of Stock Market Index Movement Using an Optimized Artificial Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the business sector, it has always been a difficult task to predict the exact daily price of the stock market index; hence, there is a great deal of research being conducted regarding the prediction of the direction of stock price index movement. Many factors such as political events, general economic conditions, and traders’ expectations may have an influence on the stock market index. There are numerous research studies that use similar indicators to forecast the direction of the stock market index. In this study, we compare two basic types of input variables to predict the direction of the daily stock market index. The main contribution of this study is the ability to predict the direction of the next day’s price of the Japanese stock market index by using an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) model. To improve the prediction accuracy of the trend of the stock market index in the future, we optimize the ANN model using genetic algorithms (GA). We demonstrate and verify the predictability of stock price direction by using the hybrid GA-ANN model and then compare the performance with prior studies. Empirical results show that the Type 2 input variables can generate a higher forecast accuracy and that it is possible to enhance the performance of the optimized ANN model by selecting input variables appropriately. PMID:27196055

  13. The predictive power of zero intelligence in financial markets

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Patelli, Paolo; Zovko, Ilija I.

    2005-01-01

    Standard models in economics stress the role of intelligent agents who maximize utility. However, there may be situations where constraints imposed by market institutions dominate strategic agent behavior. We use data from the London Stock Exchange to test a simple model in which minimally intelligent agents place orders to trade at random. The model treats the statistical mechanics of order placement, price formation, and the accumulation of revealed supply and demand within the context of the continuous double auction and yields simple laws relating order-arrival rates to statistical properties of the market. We test the validity of these laws in explaining cross-sectional variation for 11 stocks. The model explains 96% of the variance of the gap between the best buying and selling prices (the spread) and 76% of the variance of the price diffusion rate, with only one free parameter. We also study the market impact function, describing the response of quoted prices to the arrival of new orders. The nondimensional coordinates dictated by the model approximately collapse data from different stocks onto a single curve. This work is important from a practical point of view, because it demonstrates the existence of simple laws relating prices to order flows and, in a broader context, suggests there are circumstances where the strategic behavior of agents may be dominated by other considerations. PMID:15687505

  14. Antibubble and prediction of China's stock market and real-estate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2004-06-01

    We show that the Chinese stock markets are quite different and decoupled from Western markets (which include Tokyo). We document a well-developed log-periodic power-law antibubble in China's stock market, which started in August 2001. We argue that the current stock market antibubble is sustained by a contemporary active unsustainable real-estate bubble in China. The characteristic parameters of the antibubble have exhibited remarkable stability over one year (October 2002-October 2003). Many tests, including predictability over different horizons and time periods, confirm the high significance of the antibubble detection. Based on an analysis including data up to 2003/10/28, we have predicted that the Chinese stock market will stop its negative trend around the end of 2003 and start going up, appreciating by at least 25% in the following 6 months. We present a partial assessment of this prediction at the time of revision of this manuscript (early January 2004). Notwithstanding the immature nature of the Chinese equity market and the strong influence of government policy, we have found maybe even stronger imprints of herding than in other mature markets. This is maybe due indeed to the immaturity of the Chinese market which seems to attract short-term investors more interested in fast gains than in long-term investments, thus promoting speculative herding.

  15. Defining and predicting short-term alcohol use changes during a smoking cessation attempt

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kristin M.; Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol and nicotine are commonly used substances in the U.S., with significant impacts on health. Using both substances concurrently impacts quit attempts. While studies have sought to examine changes in alcohol use co-occurring with tobacco cessation, results have not been consistent. Understanding these changes has clinical implications. The objective of this study is to identify changes in alcohol consumption that occur following tobacco cessation, as well as predictors of alcohol use patterns following a smoking cessation attempt. Methods A secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of five tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies. Participants (N = 1301) reported their smoking and alcohol consumption daily for two weeks prior to, and two weeks after, the target quit date (TQD). Results Generally, alcohol use decreased post-TQD. Smokers who reported less pre-quit alcohol use, as well as smokers who were female, non-white, and had a history of alcohol dependence tended to use less alcohol post-quit. Pre- and post-quit alcohol use were more strongly related among men and among those without a history of alcohol dependence. Conclusions For most smokers alcohol use decreased following smoking cessation. These results suggest that the expectation should be of decreased alcohol use post cessation. However, attention may be warranted for those who drink higher amounts of alcohol pre-cessation because they may be more likely to drink more in the post-quit period which may influence smoking cessation success. PMID:25997014

  16. Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE): Predictive utility and reliability across interview and self-report administrations.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Hart, Eliza J; Chin, Pauline F

    2011-03-01

    The Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) is a widely used and well-established measure of the level of response to alcohol. Although the SRE has been successfully used in studies of alcoholism etiology, including genetics, studies to date have not compared the self-report and interview formats. The objectives of this study are to: (a) test the predictive utility of the subscales of the SRE in relation to alcohol problems; and (b) test the reliability of the SRE in interview versus self-report formats. A sample of college drinkers (n=446) completed the SRE in a self-report format along with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A subset of participants (n=34) returned to the laboratory and completed the SRE in a face-to-face interview format. All subscales of the SRE were robust predictors of alcohol problems accounting for as much as 25% of the variance in AUDIT scores. In addition, scores obtained via self-report and interview-based SRE were highly correlated (r=.70 to .80). Results support the predictive utility of the SRE and provide initial evidence that the self-report and interview formats produce reliable results and may be combined and/or used interchangeably. PMID:21095629

  17. Psychopathy and the Prediction of Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression: The Roles of Impulsive Antisociality and Fearless Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Giancola, Peter R.; Lance, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Methods Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Results Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Conclusions Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. PMID:22959485

  18. Examining a social reaction model in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM; Gerrard et al., 2008) is a modified dual-processing model designed to improve the predictive value of existing health risk behavior by suggesting that there are two pathways to health risk behaviors: a reasoned path that is mediated by behavioral intention and a social reaction path that is mediated by behavioral willingness. Although there is evidence supporting the social reaction path to risk behavior among adolescents, most of this work has focused on specific components of the pathway such as prototypes or willingness rather than looking at the entire social reaction pathway as a whole. As such, the primary goal of the present study was to determine whether the social reaction pathway has acceptable fit for a sample of adolescents using a longitudinal design. Results from 835 adolescents support the social reaction pathway of the PWM model when applied to adolescent alcohol use. Specifically, prototypes, perceived vulnerability, and norms predicted willingness to drink, which in turn predicted drinking behavior (drinks per week and peak number of drinks) over a period of 12months. As such, these findings suggest that the social reaction pathway of the PWM is applicable to adolescent drinkers, meaning that adolescent drinking behavior is based on a less planned and socially based decision process. PMID:27155242

  19. Network of listed companies based on common shareholders and the prediction of market volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Ren, Da; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Yongjie

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we build a network of listed companies in the Chinese stock market based on common shareholding data from 2003 to 2013. We analyze the evolution of topological characteristics of the network (e.g., average degree, diameter, average path length and clustering coefficient) with respect to the time sequence. Additionally, we consider the economic implications of topological characteristic changes on market volatility and use them to make future predictions. Our study finds that the network diameter significantly predicts volatility. After adding control variables used in traditional financial studies (volume, turnover and previous volatility), network topology still significantly influences volatility and improves the predictive ability of the model.

  20. Prediction markets and their potential role in biomedical research--a review.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Predictions markets are marketplaces for trading contracts with payoffs that depend on the outcome of future events. Popular examples are markets on the outcome of presidential elections, where contracts pay $1 if a specific candidate wins the election and $0 if someone else wins. Contract prices on prediction markets can be interpreted as forecasts regarding the outcome of future events. Further attractive properties include the potential to aggregate private information, to generate and disseminate a consensus among the market participants, and to offer incentives for the acquisition of information. It has been argued that these properties might be valuable in the context of scientific research. In this review, we give an overview of key properties of prediction markets and discuss potential benefits for science. To illustrate these benefits for biomedical research, we discuss an example application in the context of decision making in research on the genetics of diseases. Moreover, some potential practical problems of prediction market application in science are discussed, and solutions are outlined. PMID:20837097

  1. Prediction Markets and Beliefs about Climate: Results from Agent-Based Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; John, N. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate scientists have long been frustrated by persistent doubts a large portion of the public expresses toward the scientific consensus about anthropogenic global warming. The political and ideological polarization of this doubt led Vandenbergh, Raimi, and Gilligan [1] to propose that prediction markets for climate change might influence the opinions of those who mistrust the scientific community but do trust the power of markets.We have developed an agent-based simulation of a climate prediction market in which traders buy and sell future contracts that will pay off at some future year with a value that depends on the global average temperature at that time. The traders form a heterogeneous population with different ideological positions, different beliefs about anthropogenic global warming, and different degrees of risk aversion. We also vary characteristics of the market, including the topology of social networks among the traders, the number of traders, and the completeness of the market. Traders adjust their beliefs about climate according to the gains and losses they and other traders in their social network experience. This model predicts that if global temperature is predominantly driven by greenhouse gas concentrations, prediction markets will cause traders' beliefs to converge toward correctly accepting anthropogenic warming as real. This convergence is largely independent of the structure of the market and the characteristics of the population of traders. However, it may take considerable time for beliefs to converge. Conversely, if temperature does not depend on greenhouse gases, the model predicts that traders' beliefs will not converge. We will discuss the policy-relevance of these results and more generally, the use of agent-based market simulations for policy analysis regarding climate change, seasonal agricultural weather forecasts, and other applications.[1] MP Vandenbergh, KT Raimi, & JM Gilligan. UCLA Law Rev. 61, 1962 (2014).

  2. Web Search Queries Can Predict Stock Market Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people’s actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www. PMID:22829871

  3. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.

    PubMed

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.

  4. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  5. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours.

  6. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r + = .62), followed by subjective norms (r + = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r + = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r + = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r + = −.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r + = .54), followed by SE (r + = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r + = −.05 and −.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude–intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude–intention and SE–intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  7. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  8. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  9. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    PubMed

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual. PMID:26973900

  10. Alcohol-Related Incident Guardianship and Undergraduate College Parties: Enhancing the Social Norms Marketing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Troy A.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized experiment examines the effects of contextual information on undergraduate college student's levels of alcohol-related incident guardianship at college parties. The research is conceptualized using routine activities theory and the theory of planned behavior. The experiment examines attitudinal variations about heavy drinking…

  11. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  12. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  13. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project.

  14. Alcohol use longitudinally predicts adjustment and impairment in college students with ADHD: The role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Kipperman, Kristen L; Molitor, Stephen J; Eddy, Laura D

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol consumption longitudinally predicts the adjustment, overall functioning, and grade point average (GPA) of college students with ADHD and to determine whether self-report of executive functioning (EF) mediates these relationships. Sixty-two college students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD completed ratings at the beginning and end of the school year. Regression analyses revealed that alcohol consumption rated at the beginning of the year significantly predicted self-report of adjustment and overall impairment at the end of the year, above and beyond ADHD symptoms and baseline levels of adjustment/impairment but did not predict GPA. Exploratory multiple mediator analyses suggest that alcohol use impacts impairment primarily through EF deficits in self-motivation. EF deficits in the motivation to refrain from pursuing immediately rewarding behaviors in order to work toward long-term goals appear to be particularly important in understanding why college students with ADHD who consume alcohol have a higher likelihood of experiencing significant negative outcomes. The implications of these findings for the prevention of the negative functional outcomes often experienced by college students with ADHD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  16. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  17. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS) is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low positive alcohol expectancies

  18. Neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition predict relapse in detoxified alcoholic patients: some preliminary evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine; Cimochowska, Agnieszka; Kornreich, Charles; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disease. The impairment of response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity are the main cognitive mechanisms that trigger relapse. Despite the interaction suggested between the two processes, they have long been investigated as two different lines of research. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity and their potential link with relapse. Materials and methods Event-related potentials were recorded during a variant of a “go/no-go” task. Frequent and rare stimuli (to be inhibited) were superimposed on neutral, nonalcohol-related, and alcohol-related contexts. The task was administered following a 3-week detoxification course. Relapse outcome was measured after 3 months, using self-reported abstinence. There were 27 controls (seven females) and 27 patients (seven females), among whom 13 relapsed during the 3-month follow-up period. The no-go N2, no-go P3, and the “difference” wave (P3d) were examined with the aim of linking neural correlates of response inhibition on alcohol-related contexts to the observed relapse rate. Results Results showed that 1) at the behavioral level, alcohol-dependent patients made significantly more commission errors than controls (P<0.001), independently of context; 2) through the subtraction no-go P3 minus go P3, this inhibition deficit was neurophysiologically indexed in patients with greater P3d amplitudes (P=0.034); and 3) within the patient group, increased P3d amplitude enabled us to differentiate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers (P=0.026). Conclusion Our findings suggest that recently detoxified alcoholics are characterized by poorer response-inhibition skills that demand greater neural resources. We propose that event-related potentials can be used in conjunction with behavioral data to predict relapse; this would identify patients that need a higher level of neural resources when suppressing a

  19. Comorbidities, Alcohol Use Disorder, and Age Predict Outcomes after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Graf, Solomon A; Vaughn, Jennifer E; Chauncey, Thomas R; Storer, Barry E; Gopal, Ajay K; Holmberg, Leona A; McCune, Jeannine S; Bensinger, William I; Maloney, David G; Press, Oliver W; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2016-09-01

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment option for many patients diagnosed with lymphoma. The effects of patient-specific factors on outcomes after autologous HCT are not well characterized. Here, we studied a sequential cohort of 754 patients with lymphoma treated with autologous HCT between 2000 and 2010. In multivariate analysis, patient-specific factors that were statistically significantly associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) included HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) scores  ≥ 3 (HR, 1.94; P = .05), a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) (HR, 2.17; P = .004), and older age stratified by decade (HR, 1.29; P = .02). HCT-CI ≥ 3, a history of AUD, and age > 50 were combined into a composite risk model: NRM and overall mortality rates at 5 years increased from 6% to 30% and 32% to 58%, respectively, in patients with 0 versus all 3 risk factors. The HCT-CI is a valid tool in predicting mortality risks after autologous HCT for lymphoma. AUD and older age exert independent prognostic impact on outcomes. Whether AUD indicates additional organ dysfunction or sociobehavioral abnormality warrants further investigation. The composite model may improve risk stratification before autologous HCT. PMID:27311969

  20. The Role of Personality in Predicting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Oost, Kathryn M.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. Methods A sample of 704 sexual minority adults were recruited nationally from LGBTQQ community organizations and social networking websites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Results Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of Five-Factor personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Conclusion Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. PMID:25347022

  1. Predicting Drinking Behavior and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Fraternity and Sorority Members: Examining the Role of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Mary E.; Turner, Aaron P.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Geisner, Irene Markman

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between Greek students’ perceptions of alcohol consumption in their pledge classes (descriptive norms) and acceptability of drinking (injunctive norms) and the ability of these normative influences to predict drinking behavior, alcohol-related negative consequences, and symptoms of alcohol dependence concurrently and prospectively over 1 year. Participants were 279 men and 303 women recruited from incoming pledge classes of 12 fraternities and 6 sororities, who completed measures of descriptive and injunctive norms, alcohol use, and consequences. Results revealed that descriptive norms significantly predicted concurrent drinking. After controlling for baseline drinking, injunctive norms significantly predicted drinking 1 year later and predicted alcohol-related consequences and dependency symptoms at baseline and follow-up. The potential to incorporate injunctive norms into preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:15482075

  2. The Demographics of Alcohol Use among Young Americans: Results from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Joan E.

    This document gives results of research on alcohol use by young Americans from the 1983 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth, a survey of a large, nationally representative sample supplemented by samples of blacks, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged non-black, non-Hispanic youth and covering the entire range of…

  3. If You Feed Them, Will They Come? The Use of Social Marketing to Increase Interest in Attending a College Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used social marketing to design and test advertisement components aimed at increasing students' interest in attending an alcohol program focused on reaching students who drink heavily, although the authors offered no such program. Participants were undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses (N = 551). Questionnaires…

  4. The Role of Feedback in the Assimilation of Information in Prediction Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Richard Donald

    2011-01-01

    Leveraging the knowledge of an organization is an ongoing challenge that has given rise to the field of knowledge management. Yet, despite spending enormous sums of organizational resources on Information Technology (IT) systems, executives recognize there is much more knowledge to harvest. Prediction markets are emerging as one tool to help…

  5. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Behaviors in Predicting Underage Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brechting, Emily H.; Brown, Tamara L.; Salsman, John M.; Sauer, Shannon E.; Holeman, Virginia T.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Religious beliefs have consistently emerged as significantly and inversely related to alcohol use. This article seeks further understanding of this relationship by exploring the role of religious behaviors in this relationship in three ways. First, we aim to determine whether the relationship between religious beliefs and alcohol use differs with…

  6. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  7. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  8. Using Prediction Markets to Generate Probability Density Functions for Climate Change Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate-related uncertainty is traditionally presented as an error bar, but it is becoming increasingly common to express it in terms of a probability density function (PDF). PDFs are a necessary component of probabilistic risk assessments, for which simple "best estimate" values are insufficient. Many groups have generated PDFs for climate sensitivity using a variety of methods. These PDFs are broadly consistent, but vary significantly in their details. One axiom of the verification and validation community is, "codes don't make predictions, people make predictions." This is a statement of the fact that subject domain experts generate results using assumptions within a range of epistemic uncertainty and interpret them according to their expert opinion. Different experts with different methods will arrive at different PDFs. For effective decision support, a single consensus PDF would be useful. We suggest that market methods can be used to aggregate an ensemble of opinions into a single distribution that expresses the consensus. Prediction markets have been shown to be highly successful at forecasting the outcome of events ranging from elections to box office returns. In prediction markets, traders can take a position on whether some future event will or will not occur. These positions are expressed as contracts that are traded in a double-action market that aggregates price, which can be interpreted as a consensus probability that the event will take place. Since climate sensitivity cannot directly be measured, it cannot be predicted. However, the changes in global mean surface temperature are a direct consequence of climate sensitivity, changes in forcing, and internal variability. Viable prediction markets require an undisputed event outcome on a specific date. Climate-related markets exist on Intrade.com, an online trading exchange. One such contract is titled "Global Temperature Anomaly for Dec 2011 to be greater than 0.65 Degrees C." Settlement is based

  9. Gender differences in the prediction of parental servings of alcohol to adolescents and youth drunkenness.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Anna K; Bodin, Maria C; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-12-01

    This longitudinal study, funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health, explored gender differences in predictors of parental servings of alcohol to youth and youth drunkenness. Data were collected from 1,752 Swedish 7th-grade youth and their parents, at three occasions between 2007 and 2010. Measurements included youth alcohol use, parental warmth, and parental control. Two-level logistic regressions showed that 15-year-old girls are more likely to be served alcohol at home compared to boys, and that there are some gender differences in predictors of drunkenness. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed and areas for future research identified.

  10. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  11. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    PubMed

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  12. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    PubMed Central

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  13. Southpoint: A Search for Predictive Variables for Determination of Success in Alcoholism Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, John Paul

    1973-01-01

    Southpoint is a retrospective study of variables (age, marital status, education, work history, client's use of public assistance or compensation) involved in attempting to relate successful rehabilitation of alcoholics. (EA)

  14. Patterns of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Predict Sexual Risk Taking Among Non-Problem Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina; Jaczques-Tiura, Angela J.; Abdallah, Devon Alizsa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although alcohol consumption and sexual risk taking are associated, not everyone who drinks alcohol engages in risky sexual behavior. The purposes of the present study were to identify patterns of alcohol use behaviors and alcohol expectancies among women who are non–problem drinkers and to examine how these patterns are associated with indices of sexual risk. Method: Data from 758 non–problem drinking women who have sex with men and were not in committed relationships were analyzed using latent profile analysis to determine patterns of alcohol use and alcohol-related expectancies. Results: Of the four patterns observed, three classes had similar alcohol-related expectancies but differed with respect to drinking behavior (moderate drinking, regular heavy episodes, and frequent heavy episodes), and the fourth class consisted of moderate drinkers with low expectancies (low expectancies). Results revealed that those in the frequent heavy episodes class had the greatest number of sexual partners in the past year and drank the most alcohol before having sex compared with the other women. Both the regular and frequent heavy episodes classes reported greater likelihood of having unprotected sex in the future, more positive beliefs about casual sex, and greater subjective intoxication before having sex than women in the moderate drinking or low expectancies classes. Women in the low expectancies class reported less positive beliefs about condoms than those in the moderate drinking and regular heavy episodes classes. Conclusions: Results suggest that different patterns of expectancies and drinking behaviors are associated with different indices of sexual risk taking and highlight the importance of individually tailored programs for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23384370

  15. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  16. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  17. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  18. Foreign exchange market data analysis reveals statistical features that predict price movement acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro

    2012-05-01

    Increasingly accessible financial data allow researchers to infer market-dynamics-based laws and to propose models that are able to reproduce them. In recent years, several stylized facts have been uncovered. Here we perform an extensive analysis of foreign exchange data that leads to the unveiling of a statistical financial law. First, our findings show that, on average, volatility increases more when the price exceeds the highest (or lowest) value, i.e., breaks the resistance line. We call this the breaking-acceleration effect. Second, our results show that the probability P(T) to break the resistance line in the past time T follows power law in both real data and theoretically simulated data. However, the probability calculated using real data is rather lower than the one obtained using a traditional Black-Scholes (BS) model. Taken together, the present analysis characterizes a different stylized fact of financial markets and shows that the market exceeds a past (historical) extreme price fewer times than expected by the BS model (the resistance effect). However, when the market does, we predict that the average volatility at that time point will be much higher. These findings indicate that any Markovian model does not faithfully capture the market dynamics.

  19. An Ecologically Based Model of Alcohol-Consumption Decision Making: Evidence for the Discriminative and Predictive Role of Contextual Reward and Punishment Information*

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Using insights from Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the current study assessed the utility of a series of hypothetical role-based alcohol-consumption scenarios that varied in their presentation of rewarding and punishing information. Method: The scenarios, along with measures of impulsive sensation seeking and a self-report of weekly alcohol consumption, were administered to a sample of alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent college-age individuals (N = 170). Results: The results showed scenario attendance decisions were largely unaffected by alcohol-dependence status and variations in contextual reward and punishment information. In contrast to the attendance findings, the results for the alcohol-consumption decisions showed alcohol-dependent individuals reported a greater frequency of deciding to drink, as well as indicating greater alcohol consumption in the contexts of complementary rewarding or nonpunishing information. Regression results provided evidence for the criterion-related validity of scenario outcomes in an account of diagnostic alcohol problems. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the conceptual and predictive gains associated with an assessment approach to alcohol-consumption decision making that combines situational information organized and balanced through the frameworks of Ecological Systems Theory and Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. PMID:19371496

  20. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  1. Using "Bud World Party" Attendance to Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Beliefs about Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…

  2. Alcohol drinking in young adults: the predictive value of personality when peers come around.

    PubMed

    van Schoor, Guido; Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether personality traits and peer drinking affect alcohol consumption in young adults. Data were analyzed from a study that was conducted in a 'bar laboratory' in which ad-lib drinking of peer groups was observed. The findings indicate that extroversion is moderately associated with self-reported daily drinking, while low emotional stability is modestly associated with alcohol-related problems. With regard to drinking in the observational drinking setting, personality is not associated with young adults' actual alcohol consumption. Further, peer drinking levels were strongly related to young adults' drinking. Besides, agreeableness interacted with the effects of peer drinking on young adults' drinking in such a way that agreeable individuals adapted their actual alcohol consumption more easily than others when socializing in a high- or a low-drinking peer group. We concluded that drinking in a peer context, irrespective of personality, played a major role in forming young adults' drinking. However, personality (i.e. agreeableness) definitely played a role to the extent of the individuals' adaptation to peer drinking norms.

  3. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  4. Relational Aggression, Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency: Predicting Alcohol Use and Consequences among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g. acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions. PMID:25134025

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Gene-Environment Interactions, Predictive Biomarkers, and the Relationship Between Structural Alterations in the Brain and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James N.; Weinberg, Joanne; Clarren, Sterling; Beaulieu, Christian; Rasmussen, Carmen; Kobor, Michael; Dube, Marie-Pierre; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is a major, preventable cause of behavioral and cognitive deficits in children. Despite extensive research, a unique neurobehavioral profile for children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure remains elusive. A fundamental question that must be addressed is how genetic and environmental factors interact with gestational alcohol exposure to produce neurobehavioral and neurobiological deficits in children. The core objectives of the NeuroDevNet team in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is to create an integrated research program of basic and clinical investigations that will (1) identify genetic and epigenetic modifications that may be predictive of the neurobehavioral and neurobiological dysfunctions in offspring induced by gestational alcohol exposure and (2) determine the relationship between structural alterations in the brain induced by gestational alcohol exposure and functional outcomes in offspring. The overarching hypothesis to be tested is that neurobehavioral and neurobiological dysfunctions induced by gestational alcohol exposure are correlated with the genetic background of the affected child and/or epigenetic modifications in gene expression. The identification of genetic and/or epigenetic markers that are predictive of the severity of behavioral and cognitive deficits in children affected by gestational alcohol exposure will have a profound impact on our ability to identify children at risk. PMID:21575841

  6. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods.

  7. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines.

  8. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  9. Flashpoint prediction for ternary mixtures of alcohols with water for CFD simulation of unsteady flame propagation during explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Ševčíková, Silvie Petránková

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures of alcohols are of considerable interest for a wide range of scientists and technologists. Simple dimensionless experimental formulae based on rational reciprocal and polynomial functions are proposed for correlation of the flashpoint data of binary mixtures of two components. The formulae are based on data obtained from flashpoint experiments and predictions. The main results are the derived experimental flashpoint values for ternary mixtures of two aqueous-organic solutions and the model prediction of maximum explosion pressure values for the studied mixtures. Potential application for the results concerns the assessment of fire and explosion hazards, and the development of inherently safer designs for chemical processes containing binary and ternary partially miscible mixtures of an aqueous-organic system. The goal of this article is to present the results of modelling using these standard models and to demonstrate its importance in the area of CFD simulation.

  10. Using genetic information from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies in risk prediction for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Aliev, Fazil; Webb, Bradley T; Kendler, Kenneth S; Williamson, Vernell S; Edenberg, Howard J; Agrawal, Arpana; Kos, Mark Z; Almasy, Laura; Nurnberger, John I; Schuckit, Marc A; Kramer, John R; Rice, John P; Kuperman, Samuel; Goate, Alison M; Tischfield, Jay A; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M

    2013-01-01

    Family-based and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reported numerous associated variants. The clinical validity of these variants for predicting AD compared to family history information has not been reported. Using the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) and the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) GWAS samples, we examined the aggregate impact of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on risk prediction. We created genetic sum scores by adding risk alleles associated in discovery samples, and then tested the scores for their ability to discriminate between cases and controls in validation samples. Genetic sum scores were assessed separately for SNPs associated with AD in candidate gene studies and SNPs from GWAS analyses that met varying p-value thresholds. Candidate gene sum scores did not exhibit significant predictive accuracy. Family history was a better classifier of case-control status, with a significant area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.686 in COGA and 0.614 in SAGE. SNPs that met less stringent p-value thresholds of 0.01 to 0.50 in GWAS analyses yielded significant AUC estimates, ranging from mean estimates of 0.549 for SNPs with p < 0.01 to 0.565 for SNPs with p < 0.50. This study suggests that SNPs currently have limited clinical utility, but there is potential for enhanced predictive ability with better understanding of the large number of variants that might contribute to risk. PMID:23362995

  11. Can we predict crashes? The case of the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Werneck, Filipe K.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we analyze Brazilian stock prices to detect the development of bubbles and crashes in individual stocks using a log-periodic equation. We implement a genetic algorithm to calibrate the parameters of the model and we test the methodology for the most liquid stocks traded on the Brazilian Stock Market (Bovespa). In order to evaluate whether this approach is useful we employ nonparametric statistics and test whether returns after the predicted crash are negative and lower than returns before the crash. Empirical results are consistent with the prediction hypothesis, e.g., the method applied can be used to forecast the end of asset bubbles or large corrections in stock prices.

  12. Predictive Capacity of Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R) in alcohol use disorder outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ávila Escribano, José Juan; Sánchez Barba, Mercedes; Álvarez Pedrero, Aida; López Villarreal, Ana; Recio Pérez, Joaquina; Rodríguez Rodilla, Manuela; Fraile García, Eulalia

    2016-06-14

    Objetivo: se pretende investigar la capacidad de predicción del inventario de temperamento y carácter de Cloninger (TCI-R) en la evolución de los trastornos por uso de alcohol. Metodología: Es un estudio longitudinal de 237 pacientes con trastornos por uso de alcohol, en tratamiento ambulatorio y seguimiento durante seis meses, cuya personalidad fue estudiada mediante el inventario TCI-R. Se analizó la puntuación de cada una de las dimensiones del inventario TCI-R en función de su situación (retención o abandono) al final del estudio. Resultados: La muestra presentaba puntuaciones  elevadas en búsqueda de novedad (BN) y evitación del daño (ED) y baja en autodirección (AD), definidas, estas últimas, como prominentes. El grupo que abandonó presentaba una puntuación significativamente (p= .004) más elevada en búsqueda de novedad (BN) que el grupo en seguimiento; además cuando la puntuación era superior al percentil 67 la probabilidad de abandonar era 1,07 veces superior. Conclusiones: El inventario de temperamento y carácter de Cloninger (TCI-R) es un buen instrumento para predecir la evolución de los pacientes con trastorno por uso de alcohol y la dimensión búsqueda de novedad (BN) está fuertemente relacionada con el abandono terapéutico.

  13. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  14. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick- listed Danes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long-term sick leave. Methods We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to 2010 for 189,279 Danes who experienced a period of long-term sickness absence (4+ weeks). In a learning data set, statistical prediction methods were built using logistic regression and a discrete event simulation approach for a one year prediction horizon. Personalized risk profiles were obtained for five outcomes: employment, unemployment, recurrent sickness absence, continuous long-term sickness absence, and early retirement from the labour market. Predictor variables included gender, age, socio-economic position, job type, chronic disease status, history of sickness absence, and prior history of unemployment. Separate models were built for times of economic growth (2005–2007) and times of recession (2008–2010). The accuracy of the prediction models was assessed with analyses of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the Brier score in an independent validation data set. Results In comparison with a null model which ignored the predictor variables, logistic regression achieved only moderate prediction accuracy for the five outcome states. Results obtained with discrete event simulation were comparable with logistic regression. Conclusions Only moderate prediction accuracy could be achieved using the selected information from the Danish register RSS. Other variables need to be included in order to establish a prediction method which provides more accurate risk profiles for long-term sick-listed persons. PMID:24885866

  15. Reduced processing of alcohol cues predicts abstinence in recently detoxified alcoholic patients in a three-month follow up period: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Petit, Géraldine; Cimochowska, Agnieszka; Cevallos, Carlos; Cheron, Guy; Kornreich, Charles; Hanak, Catherine; Schroder, Elisa; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    One of the major challenges in alcohol dependence is relapse prevention, as rates of relapse following detoxification are high. Drug-related motivational processes may represent key mechanisms in alcoholic relapse. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a visual oddball task administered to 29 controls (11 females) and 39 patients (9 females). Deviant stimuli were related or unrelated to alcohol. For patients, the task was administered following a 3-week detoxification course. Of these, 19 relapsed during the three months follow-up period. The P3, an ERP component associated with activation of arousal systems in the brain and motivational engagement, was examined with the aim to link the fluctuation of its amplitude in response to alcohol versus non-alcohol cues to the observed relapse rate. Results showed that compared to relapsers, abstainers presented with a decreased P3 amplitude for alcohol related compared to non-alcohol related pictures (p=.009). Microstate analysis and sLORETA topography showed that activation for both types of deviant cues in abstainers originated from the inferior and medial temporal gyrus and the uncus, regions implicated in detection of target stimuli in oddball tasks and of biologically relevant stimuli. Through hierarchical regression, it was found that the P3 amplitude difference between alcohol and non-alcohol related cues was the best predictor of relapse vulnerability (p=.013). Therefore, it seems that a devaluation of the motivational significance of stimuli related to alcohol, measurable through electrophysiology, could protect from a relapse within three months following detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients.

  16. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0

  17. The string prediction models as invariants of time series in the forex market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincak, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we apply a new approach of string theory to the real financial market. The models are constructed with an idea of prediction models based on the string invariants (PMBSI). The performance of PMBSI is compared to support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) on an artificial and a financial time series. A brief overview of the results and analysis is given. The first model is based on the correlation function as invariant and the second one is an application based on the deviations from the closed string/pattern form (PMBCS). We found the difference between these two approaches. The first model cannot predict the behavior of the forex market with good efficiency in comparison with the second one which is, in addition, able to make relevant profit per year. The presented string models could be useful for portfolio creation and financial risk management in the banking sector as well as for a nonlinear statistical approach to data optimization.

  18. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  19. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-06-22

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales.

  20. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-01-01

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales. PMID:10902685

  1. Predicted decline of protected whales based on molecular genetic monitoring of Japanese and Korean markets.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Lento, G M; Cipriano, F; Palumbi, S R

    2000-06-22

    the International Whaling Commission. For the range of exploitation consistent with the market sample, this protected stock was predicted to decline towards extinction over the next few decades. These results confirmed the power of molecular methods in monitoring retail markets and pointed to the inadequacy of the current moratorium for ensuring the recovery of protected species. More importantly, the integration of genetic evidence with a model of population dynamics identified an urgent need for actions to limit undocumented exploitation of a 'protected' stock of whales. PMID:10902685

  2. Prediction-Market-Based Quantification of Climate Change Consensus and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intrade is an online trading exchange that includes climate prediction markets. One such family of contracts can be described as "Global temperature anomaly for 2012 to be greater than x °C or more," where the figure x ranges in increments of .05 from .30 to 1.10 (relative to the 1951-1980 base period), based on data published by NASA GISS. Each market will settle at 10.00 if the published global temperature anomaly for 2012 is equal to or greater than x, and will otherwise settle at 0.00. Similar contracts will be available for 2013. Global warming hypotheses can be cast as probabilistic predictions for future temperatures. The first modern such climate prediction is that of Broecker (1975), whose temperatures are easily separable from his CO2 growth scenario—which he overestimated—by interpolating his table of temperature as a function of CO2 concentration and projecting the current trend into the near future. For the current concentration of 395 ppm, Broecker's equilibrium temperature anomaly prediction relative to pre-industrial is 1.05 °C, or about 0.75 °C relative to the GISS base period. His neglect of lag in response to the changes in radiative forcing was partially compensated by his low sensitivity of 2.4 °C, leading to a slight overestimate. Simple linear extrapolation of the current trend since 1975 yields an estimate of .65 ± .09 °C (net warming of .95 °C) for anthropogenic global warming with a normal distribution of random natural variability. To evaluate an extreme case, we can estimate the prediction Broecker would have made if he had used the Lindzen & Choi (2009) climate sensitivity of 0.5 °C. The net post-industrial warming by 2012 would have been 0.21 °C, for an expected change of -0.09 from the GISS base period. This is the temperature to which the Earth would be expected to revert if the observed warming since the 19th century was merely due to random natural variability that coincidentally mimicked Broecker's anthropogenic

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  4. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  5. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  6. Predicting the Initial Lapse Using a Mobile Health Application after Alcohol Detoxification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chih, Ming-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The prediction and prevention of the initial lapse--which is defined as the first lapse after a period of abstinence--is important because the initial lapse often leads to subsequent lapses (within the same lapse episode) or relapse. The prediction of the initial lapse may allow preemptive intervention to be possible. This dissertation reports on…

  7. Evaluation of human pharmacokinetics, therapeutic dose and exposure predictions using marketed oral drugs.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, D F; Collington, J; Austin, R P; Riley, R J

    2007-06-01

    In this article approaches to predict human pharmacokinetics (PK) are discussed and the capability of the exemplified methodologies to estimate individual PK parameters and therapeutic dose for a set of marketed oral drugs has been assessed. For a set of 63 drugs where the minimum efficacious concentration (MEC) and human PK were known, the clinical dose was shown to be well predicted or in some cases over-estimated using a simple one-compartment oral PK model. For a subset of these drugs, in vitro potency against the primary human targets was gathered, and compared to the observed MEC. When corrected for plasma protein binding, the MEC of the majority of compounds was < or=3 fold over the respective in vitro target potency value. A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to predict the human PK parameters. Metabolic clearance was generally predicted well from human hepatocytes. Interestingly, for this compound set, allometry or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ratio methods appeared to be applicable for renal CL even where CL(renal) > GFR. For approximately 90% of compounds studied, the predicted CL using in vitro-in vivo (IVIV) extrapolation together with a CL(renal) estimate, where appropriate, was within 2-fold of that observed clinically. Encouragingly volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) estimated in preclinical species (rat and dog) when corrected for plasma protein binding, predicted human V(ss) successfully on the majority of occasions--73% of compounds within 2-fold. In this laboratory, absorption estimated from oral rat PK studies was lower than the observed human absorption for most drugs, even when solubility and permeability appeared not to be limiting. Preliminary data indicate absorption in the dog may be more representative of human for compounds absorbed via the transcellular pathway. Using predicted PK and MEC values estimated from in vitro potency assays there was a good correlation between predicted and observed dose

  8. Evaluation of functional relationships for predicting mainstream smoke constituent machine yields for conventional cigarettes from the Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, T; Maruta, Y; Itaya, H; Mikita, A; Kodera, T; Meger, M

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to predict mainstream smoke constituent yields for conventional filter cigarette brands on sale in Japan between 2004 and 2005. Mainstream smoke was generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. Developed functional relationships indicate the validity of benchmarking even for a market which is characterized by a diversity of tobacco blend types. Smoke yields were in general well predicted by linear regression with "tar" (R2>or=0.7). Blend-type-sensitive analytes like tobacco-specific nitrosamines showed improved prediction relationships after blend stratification or regressing against nitric oxide (NO, R(2)>0.7). Relationships calculated from 83 exploratory brands were validated with a subset of 23 validation brands. Seventy-five to one-hundred percent of the validation brand yields were inside the 95% prediction intervals. The mean-relative prediction error over all analytes was 24% after stratification. Smoke constituents yields analyzed in 2002 from 96 Japanese market products were well predicted and indicate the model validity over time. Similar relationships were observed when comparing American blended filter cigarette yields from Japan and worldwide markets. Consistent with reported results from previous benchmark studies and market surveys mainstream smoke constituent yields are well predictable when "tar" (and NO) yields are known.

  9. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. PMID:24837965

  10. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality.

  11. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  12. Alcohol Use Predicts Sexual Decision-Making: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Literature.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d +s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689

  13. Alcohol Use Predicts Sexual Decision-Making: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Literature.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d +s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions.

  14. Limbic activation to novel versus familiar food cues predicts food preference and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Subrize, Mike; Kim, Ronald; Robison, Lisa; Hurd, Yasmin L; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2013-05-28

    Expectation of salient rewards and novelty seeking are processes implicated in substance use disorders but the neurobiological substrates underlying these associations are not well understood. To better understand the regional circuitry of novelty and reward preference, rats were conditioned to pair unique cues with bacon, an initially novel food, or chow, a familiar food. In the same animals, after training, cue-induced brain activity was measured, and the relationships between activity and preference for three rewards, the conditioned foods and ethanol (EtOH), were separately determined. Activity in response to the food paired cues was measured using brain glucose metabolism (BGluM). Rats favoring bacon-paired (BAP) cues had increased BGluM in mesocorticolimbic brain regions after exposure to these cues, while rats favoring chow-paired (CHP) cues showed relative deactivation in these regions. Rats exhibiting BAP cue-induced activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) also consumed more EtOH while rats with cortical activation in response to CHP cues showed lower EtOH consumption. Additionally, long-term stable expression levels of PFC Grin2a, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, correlated with individual differences in EtOH preference insomuch that rats with high EtOH preference had enduringly low PFC Grin2a mRNA expression. No other glutamatergic, dopaminergic or endocannabinoid genes studied showed this relationship. Overall, these results suggest that natural variation in mesocorticolimbic sensitivity to reward-paired cues underlies behavioral preferences for and vulnerability to alcohol abuse, and support the notion of common neuronal circuits involved in food- and drug-seeking behavior. The findings also provide evidence that PFC NMDA-mediated glutamate signaling may modulate these associations.

  15. Influence of Ethnicity on the Accuracy of Non-Invasive Scores Predicting Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ming-Feng; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Bian, Hua; Lin, Huan-Dong; Yan, Hong-Mei; Chang, Xin-Xia; Zhou, You; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can predict risks for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and advanced liver disease in the general population. We aimed to establish a non-invasive score for prediction of NAFLD in Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in the world, and detect whether ethnicity influences the accuracy of such a score. Methods Liver fat content (LFAT) was measured by quantitative ultrasound in 3548 subjects in the Shanghai Changfeng Community and a Chinese score was created using multivariate logistic regression analyses. This new score was internally validated in Chinese and externally in Finns. Its diagnostic performance was compared to the NAFLD liver fat score, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) developed in Finns, Italians and Koreans. We also analyzed how obesity related to LFAT measured by 1H-MRS in 79 Finns and 118 Chinese with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Results The metabolic syndrome and T2D, fasting serum insulin, body mass index (BMI) and AST/ALT ratio were independent predictors of NAFLD in Chinese. The AUROC in the Chinese validation cohort was 0.76 (0.73–0.78) and in Finns 0.73 (0.68–0.78) (p<0.0001). 43%, 27%, 32% and 42% of Chinese had NAFLD when determined by the Chinese score, NAFLD liver fat score (p<0.001 vs. Chinese score), FLI (p<0.001) and HSI (NS). For any given BMI and waist circumference, the Chinese had a markedly higher LFAT than the Finns. Conclusion The predictors of NAFLD in Han Chinese are as in Europids but the Chinese have more LFAT for any given degree of obesity than Europids. Ethnicity needs to be considered when NAFLD is predicted using risk scores. PMID:27579785

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    PubMed

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood.

  17. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    PubMed

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood. PMID:25971592

  18. Students-as-Customers' Satisfaction, Predictive Retention with Marketing Implications: The Case of Malaysian Higher Education Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephen; Yeo, Amy Chu-May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate two areas of interest: first, to determine business student customer satisfiers that could be contributors to students' current and predicted retention in a higher educational institution (HEI) and second, to use these satisfiers to inform HEI marketing planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  19. Predicting project environmental performance under market uncertainties: case study of oil sands coke.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Jennifer M; Bergerson, Joule A; Kettunen, Janne; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is likely to be financially preferred initially, but eventually hydrogen production in Alberta is likely to be preferred. Compared to the results of a previous study that used life cycle costing to identify the financially preferred alternative, the inclusion of real options analysis adds value as it accounts for flexibility in decision-making (e.g., to delay investment), increasing the project's expected net present value by 25% and decreasing the expected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 11%. Different formulations of the carbon pricing policy or changes to the natural gas price forecast alter these findings. The combined LCA/real options method provides researchers and decision-makers with more comprehensive information than can be provided by either technique alone. PMID:23675646

  20. Predicting project environmental performance under market uncertainties: case study of oil sands coke.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Jennifer M; Bergerson, Joule A; Kettunen, Janne; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is likely to be financially preferred initially, but eventually hydrogen production in Alberta is likely to be preferred. Compared to the results of a previous study that used life cycle costing to identify the financially preferred alternative, the inclusion of real options analysis adds value as it accounts for flexibility in decision-making (e.g., to delay investment), increasing the project's expected net present value by 25% and decreasing the expected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 11%. Different formulations of the carbon pricing policy or changes to the natural gas price forecast alter these findings. The combined LCA/real options method provides researchers and decision-makers with more comprehensive information than can be provided by either technique alone.

  1. Genome Sequence Variability Predicts Drug Precautions and Withdrawals from the Market

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Su Youn; Lee, Soo Youn; Park, Chan Hee; Park, Paul J.; Kim, Ju Han

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial premarket efforts, a significant portion of approved drugs has been withdrawn from the market for safety reasons. The deleterious impact of nonsynonymous substitutions predicted by the SIFT algorithm on structure and function of drug-related proteins was evaluated for 2504 personal genomes. Both withdrawn (n = 154) and precautionary (Beers criteria (n = 90), and US FDA pharmacogenomic biomarkers (n = 96)) drugs showed significantly lower genomic deleteriousness scores (P < 0.001) compared to others (n = 752). Furthermore, the rates of drug withdrawals and precautions correlated significantly with the deleteriousness scores of the drugs (P < 0.01); this trend was confirmed for all drugs included in the withdrawal and precaution lists by the United Nations, European Medicines Agency, DrugBank, Beers criteria, and US FDA. Our findings suggest that the person-to-person genome sequence variability is a strong independent predictor of drug withdrawals and precautions. We propose novel measures of drug safety based on personal genome sequence analysis. PMID:27690231

  2. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

  3. How long the singular value decomposed entropy predicts the stock market? - Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rongbao; Shao, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new concept of multi-scales singular value decomposition entropy based on DCCA cross correlation analysis is proposed and its predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index is studied. Using Granger causality analysis with different time scales, it is found that, the singular value decomposition entropy has predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index for period less than one month, but not for more than one month. This shows how long the singular value decomposition entropy predicts the stock market that extends Caraiani's result obtained in Caraiani (2014). On the other hand, the result also shows an essential characteristic of stock market as a chaotic dynamic system.

  4. Latino Immigrants’ Biological Parents’ Histories Of Substance Use Problems In Their Country Of Origin Predict Their Pre- And Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Blackson, Timothy C.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Li, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed whether recent young adult (ages 18–34) Latino immigrants’ biological parents’ histories of substance use problems (BPHSUP) in their country of origin predict their alcohol use problems at pre- and post-immigration to the United States (U.S.). Methods BPHSUP in their country of origin was assessed via interviews conducted by bilingual Latino researchers with recent Latino immigrants primarily from Cuba, Central and South America recruited through respondent driven sampling at the time of their immigration to southeastern U.S. Three-waves of data were collected to document Latino immigrants’ severity of alcohol use problems at pre-immigration and two annual post-immigration follow-up assessments. BPHSUP +/− status was used as a predictor of Latinos’ (N=452; 45.8% female, 54.2% male) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores at pre- and post-immigration with age, education and income as covariates as wells as odds ratios for AUDIT classifications of hazardous use, harmful use and dependence. Results BPHSUP+ status predicted Latino immigrants’ higher AUDIT scores pre- and post-immigration by gender (p<.01) compared to Latino immigrants of BPHSUP− status controlling for age, education and income. BPHSUP+ status predicted odds ratios of 3.45 and 2.91 for alcohol dependence AUDIT classification for men and women respectively (T3). Conclusions This study documents that BPHSUP +/− status in their country of origin predict their young adult Latino offspring’s severity of alcohol use problems pre-and post-immigration. These results may inform (1) community-based health care providers to screen recent young adult Latino immigrants for their BPHSUP+/− status and severity of alcohol use problems to redirect trajectories away from alcohol use disorders toward more normative post-immigration outcomes through culturally relevant prevention services and (2) future research advantages of differential

  5. PER1 rs3027172 Genotype Interacts with Early Life Stress to Predict Problematic Alcohol Use, but Not Reward-Related Ventral Striatum Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baranger, David A. A.; Ifrah, Chloé; Prather, Aric A.; Carey, Caitlin E.; Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Drabant Conley, Emily; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the circadian and stress regulatory systems contribute to alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk, which may partially arise through effects on reward-related neural function. The C allele of the PER1 rs3027172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reduces PER1 expression in cells incubated with cortisol and has been associated with increased risk for adult AUD and problematic drinking among adolescents exposed to high levels of familial psychosocial adversity. Using data from undergraduate students who completed the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (n = 665), we tested whether exposure to early life stress (ELS; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) moderates the association between rs3027172 genotype and later problematic alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) as well as ventral striatum (VS) reactivity to reward (card-guessing task while functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired). Initial analyses found that PER1 rs3027172 genotype interacted with ELS to predict both problematic drinking and VS reactivity; minor C allele carriers, who were also exposed to elevated ELS reported greater problematic drinking and exhibited greater ventral striatum reactivity to reward-related stimuli. When gene × covariate and environment × covariate interactions were controlled for, the interaction predicting problematic alcohol use remained significant (p < 0.05, corrected) while the interaction predicting VS reactivity was no longer significant. These results extend our understanding of relationships between PER1 genotype, ELS, and problematic alcohol use, and serve as a cautionary tale on the importance of controlling for potential confounders in studies of moderation including gene × environment interactions. PMID:27065929

  6. PER1 rs3027172 Genotype Interacts with Early Life Stress to Predict Problematic Alcohol Use, but Not Reward-Related Ventral Striatum Activity.

    PubMed

    Baranger, David A A; Ifrah, Chloé; Prather, Aric A; Carey, Caitlin E; Corral-Frías, Nadia S; Drabant Conley, Emily; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the circadian and stress regulatory systems contribute to alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk, which may partially arise through effects on reward-related neural function. The C allele of the PER1 rs3027172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reduces PER1 expression in cells incubated with cortisol and has been associated with increased risk for adult AUD and problematic drinking among adolescents exposed to high levels of familial psychosocial adversity. Using data from undergraduate students who completed the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) (n = 665), we tested whether exposure to early life stress (ELS; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) moderates the association between rs3027172 genotype and later problematic alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) as well as ventral striatum (VS) reactivity to reward (card-guessing task while functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired). Initial analyses found that PER1 rs3027172 genotype interacted with ELS to predict both problematic drinking and VS reactivity; minor C allele carriers, who were also exposed to elevated ELS reported greater problematic drinking and exhibited greater ventral striatum reactivity to reward-related stimuli. When gene × covariate and environment × covariate interactions were controlled for, the interaction predicting problematic alcohol use remained significant (p < 0.05, corrected) while the interaction predicting VS reactivity was no longer significant. These results extend our understanding of relationships between PER1 genotype, ELS, and problematic alcohol use, and serve as a cautionary tale on the importance of controlling for potential confounders in studies of moderation including gene × environment interactions. PMID:27065929

  7. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  8. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  9. Confronting the Impact of Alcohol Labeling and Marketing on Native American Health and Culture. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    A congressional hearing examined the effects of alcohol labeling and marketing on Native American health and culture. The focus of the hearing was on "Crazy Horse" malt liquor, a product named for the spiritual and political leader of the Native American Sioux. Following opening remarks by presiding committee chairwoman, Patricia Schroeder, the…

  10. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Zhao, Da-Peng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Kang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers) directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers) and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  11. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane; Jensen, Jan H; Monard, Gerald

    2014-08-25

    In a first step toward the development of an efficient and accurate protocol to estimate amino acids' pKa's in proteins, we present in this work how to reproduce the pKa's of alcohol and thiol based residues (namely tyrosine, serine, and cysteine) in aqueous solution from the knowledge of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively. The applicability of the suggested protocol is tested with tyrosine and cysteine amino acids, and precise pKa predictions are obtained. The stability of the amino acid pKa's with respect to geometrical changes is also tested by MM-MD and DFT-MD calculations. Considering its strong accuracy and its high computational efficiency, these pKa prediction calculations using atomic charges indicate a promising method for predicting amino acids' pKa in a protein environment.

  12. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane; Jensen, Jan H; Monard, Gerald

    2014-08-25

    In a first step toward the development of an efficient and accurate protocol to estimate amino acids' pKa's in proteins, we present in this work how to reproduce the pKa's of alcohol and thiol based residues (namely tyrosine, serine, and cysteine) in aqueous solution from the knowledge of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively. The applicability of the suggested protocol is tested with tyrosine and cysteine amino acids, and precise pKa predictions are obtained. The stability of the amino acid pKa's with respect to geometrical changes is also tested by MM-MD and DFT-MD calculations. Considering its strong accuracy and its high computational efficiency, these pKa prediction calculations using atomic charges indicate a promising method for predicting amino acids' pKa in a protein environment. PMID:25089727

  13. Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among youth of Mexican heritage.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the applicability of extending the theory of planned behavior to explain the normative processes in substance use among Mexican-heritage youth. The theory identifies norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions, which in turn, predict behaviors. To date, the theory had a limited conceptualization of norms and had not been extended to youth of Mexican descent, one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population and one at particular risk for alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Based on norm focus theory, it was hypothesized that norms are multidimensional, consisting of parental injunctive, peer injunctive, descriptive, and personal substance use norms. Second, it was hypothesized that parental injunctive, peer injunctive, and descriptive norms indirectly affect substance use intentions through attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control. The third hypothesis postulated that the model would operate differently based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin. Mexican-heritage youth (N = 1,499) from 30 elementary schools in Phoenix, AZ completed questionnaires in three waves over 18 months as part of a larger study. The findings supported the first hypothesis, showing the multidimensionality of norms. The second hypothesis was partially supported by findings from a multi-group multilevel path analysis using Mplus. Descriptive norms' association with intentions was partially mediated by attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control, while parental and peer injunctive norms were fully mediated, partially supporting the second hypothesis. Contrary to the third hypothesis, the mediation model did not differ based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin.

  14. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-06-17

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease.

  15. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  16. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G. R. William; Robinson, Timothy P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P.; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hay, Simon I.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  17. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  18. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  19. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol) and Guatemala (Cuxa): Market Survey and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico. PMID:19440288

  20. Using Rényi parameter to improve the predictive power of singular value decomposition entropy on stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiaqi; Gu, Rongbao

    2016-04-01

    This paper generalizes the method of traditional singular value decomposition entropy by incorporating orders q of Rényi entropy. We analyze the predictive power of the entropy based on trajectory matrix using Shanghai Composite Index and Dow Jones Index data in both static test and dynamic test. In the static test on SCI, results of global granger causality tests all turn out to be significant regardless of orders selected. But this entropy fails to show much predictability in American stock market. In the dynamic test, we find that the predictive power can be significantly improved in SCI by our generalized method but not in DJI. This suggests that noises and errors affect SCI more frequently than DJI. In the end, results obtained using different length of sliding window also corroborate this finding.

  1. Ethanol production utilizing waste heat. Submission of initial information. Task 2. Market study for fuel alcohol and by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.

    1982-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to provide initial information on the markets for the ethanol and by-products from the Paducah ethanol plant, and to provide initial unit revenue estimates for project feasibility calculations. The body of the report provides information related to the former purpose. This section provides the initial estimates on unit product revenues. Several applications are feasible for each of the products; ethanol and the by-products of distillers' grains and CO/sub 2/. The most studied application of the ethanol is as a gasoline blend. That for the distillers' grains is for a bulk animal feed. Projections for 25 years of unit revenues for these two applications are provided. For initial product estimates, these serve as the unit revenues. These are initial, incomplete estimates only. Further refinement requires more detailed study of the conditions in the Paducah area and the specifics of plant output. In addition, no product revenue estimates are provided for the CO/sub 2/. Some studies indicate that these revenues can make a contribution to plant income. However, the market and revenue potential are very site-specific. Further analysis, of conditions in the Paducah area, is needed to assess the revenue potential from the CO/sub 2/. 5 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  2. The CC genotype in the T102C HTR2A polymorphism predicts relapse in individuals after alcohol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Matsumoto, Halina; Burmeister, Margit; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin system is hypothesized to contribute to predisposition and course of alcohol dependence. However, the potential association between the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) in the type 2A serotonin receptor (HTR2A) gene and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of this genetic polymorphism as a predictor of relapse in relation to other previously identified predictors. A sample of 254 alcohol dependent subjects, were recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland and prospectively assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. At baseline, information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms and alcohol problems was obtained. The stop-signal task was performed and blood samples for genetic analysis of HTR2A T102C (rs6313) were collected. Relapse was defined as any drinking during the follow-up period. The statistical analysis showed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with increased relapse. Other significant factors were baseline depressive symptoms, number of drinking days during the 3 months prior to the baseline assessment, severity of alcohol-related problems, and a lifetime history of impulsive suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis with and without the genetic factor revealed that adding the genetic factor increased the R square value by about 4%, with the CC genotype in the T102C polymorphism being the strongest predictor of relapse (OR=2.32). The significant influence on relapse of the CC genotype, which is associated with fewer 5-HT2A receptors in the central nervous system, suggests the possibility that this genetic polymorphism could influence response to serotonergic medications. PMID:23321485

  3. The CC genotype in the T102C HTR2A polymorphism predicts relapse in individuals after alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Matsumoto, Halina; Burmeister, Margit; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    The serotonin system is hypothesized to contribute to predisposition and course of alcohol dependence. However, the potential association between the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) in the type 2A serotonin receptor (HTR2A) gene and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of this genetic polymorphism as a predictor of relapse in relation to other previously identified predictors. A sample of 254 alcohol dependent subjects, were recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland and prospectively assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. At baseline, information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms and alcohol problems was obtained. The stop-signal task was performed and blood samples for genetic analysis of HTR2A T102C (rs6313) were collected. Relapse was defined as any drinking during the follow-up period. The statistical analysis showed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with increased relapse. Other significant factors were baseline depressive symptoms, number of drinking days during the 3 months prior to the baseline assessment, severity of alcohol-related problems, and a lifetime history of impulsive suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis with and without the genetic factor revealed that adding the genetic factor increased the R square value by about 4%, with the CC genotype in the T102C polymorphism being the strongest predictor of relapse (OR = 2.32). The significant influence on relapse of the CC genotype, which is associated with fewer 5-HT2A receptors in the central nervous system, suggests the possibility that this genetic polymorphism could influence response to serotonergic medications.

  4. Increased mesolimbic cue-reactivity in carriers of the mu-opioid-receptor gene OPRM1 A118G polymorphism predicts drinking outcome: a functional imaging study in alcohol dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Bach, Patrick; Vollsta Dt-Klein, Sabine; Kirsch, Martina; Hoffmann, Sabine; Jorde, Anne; Frank, Josef; Charlet, Katrin; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Kiefer, Falk

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol-use disorders. Genetic variants of the opioid system alter neural and behavioral responses to alcohol. In particular, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799971 (A118G) in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is suggested to modulate alcohol-related phenotypes and neural response in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. Little is known about the clinical implications of these changes. The current study investigated the relationship of genotype effects on subjective and neural responses to alcohol cues and relapse in a sample of abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate alcohol cue-reactivity and drinking outcome of 81 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. G-allele carriers displayed increased fMRI cue-reactivity in the left dorsal striatum and bilateral insulae. Neural responses to alcohol cues in these brain regions correlated positively with subjective craving for alcohol and positive expectations of alcohol׳s effects. Moreover, alcohol cue-reactivity in the left dorsal striatum predicted time to first severe relapse. Current results show that alcohol-dependent G-allele carriers׳ increased cue-reactivity is associated with an increased relapse risk. This suggests that genotype effects on cue-reactivity might link the OPRM1 A118G risk allele with an increased relapse risk that was reported in earlier studies. From a clinical perspective, risk-allele carriers might benefit from treatments, such as neuro-feedback or extinction-based therapy that are suggested to reduce mesolimbic reactivity.

  5. Comparing media and family predictors of alcohol use: a cohort study of US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A; McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare media/marketing exposures and family factors in predicting adolescent alcohol use. Design Cohort study. Setting Confidential telephone survey of adolescents in their homes. Participants Representative sample of 6522 US adolescents, aged 10–14 years at baseline and surveyed four times over 2 years. Primary outcome measure Time to alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking were assessed with two survival models. Predictors were movie alcohol exposure (MAE), ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise and characteristics of the family (parental alcohol use, home availability of alcohol and parenting). Covariates included sociodemographics, peer drinking and personality factors. Results Over the study period, the prevalence of adolescent ever use and binge drinking increased from 11% to 25% and from 4% to 13%, respectively. At baseline, the median estimated MAE from a population of 532 movies was 4.5 h and 11% owned alcohol-branded merchandise at time 2. Parental alcohol use (greater than or equal to weekly) was reported by 23% and 29% of adolescents could obtain alcohol from home. Peer drinking, MAE, alcohol-branded merchandise, age and rebelliousness were associated with both alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking. The adjusted hazard ratios for alcohol onset and binge drinking transition for high versus low MAE exposure were 2.13 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.57) and 1.63 (1.20 to 2.21), respectively, and MAE accounted for 28% and 20% of these transitions, respectively. Characteristics of the family were associated with alcohol onset but not with progression. Conclusion The results suggest that family focused interventions would have a larger impact on alcohol onset while limiting media and marketing exposure could help prevent both onset and progression. PMID:22349939

  6. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  9. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  11. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  12. Dispelling the myth of “smart drugs”: Cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students’ substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories with NPS for studying was then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines. PMID:23254212

  13. Comparison of Predicted Energy Expenditure in Japanese Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease to Establish a Suitable Nutrition Intervention.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Oikawa, Kanta; Endo, Ryujin; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in Western and Asian countries, including Japan. NAFLD includes the condition of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to end-stage liver disease. Weight reduction based on basal energy expenditure (BEE) is considered to be the only established treatment for patients with NAFLD. However, a formula that is suitable for predicting BEE in Japanese patients with NAFLD remains to be determined. We enrolled 77 Japanese patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD according to histological findings. Their BEE was measured (mBEE) by indirect calorimetry. Physical findings, laboratory data and their predicted BEE (pBEE) values were compared with the mBEE values. All pBEE values were evaluated as a root mean squared error (RMSE) and an accurate estimation. The mBEE values correlated with the patient's weight, skeletal muscle mass, and age. Most of predictive formulae overestimated BEE in NAFLD patients in the present study. In contrast, the Kyoto equation provided an accurate prediction. Most prediction formulae included body weight as a reference of the skeletal muscle mass and were established using data from a healthy study population. However, differences in muscle mass exist among different races, and body composition differs between healthy individuals and those with high BMIs. The improved accuracy of the Kyoto equation is likely due to the similar backgrounds of the patients in the present study. The Kyoto equation is the most suitable formula for estimating BEE in Japanese patients with NAFLD. PMID:27264095

  14. Diagnostic value of biochemical markers (NashTest) for the prediction of non alcoholo steato hepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Poynard, Thierry; Ratziu, Vlad; Charlotte, Frederic; Messous, Djamila; Munteanu, Mona; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Massard, Julien; Bonyhay, Luninita; Tahiri, Mohamed; Thabut, Dominique; Cadranel, Jean François; Le Bail, Brigitte; de Ledinghen, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for assessing histologic lesions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim was to develop and validate a new biomarker of non alcoholic steato hepatitis (NASH) the NashTest (NT) in patients with NAFLD. Methods 160 patients with NAFLD were prospectively included in a training group, 97 were included in a multicenter validation group and 383 controls. Histological diagnoses used Kleiner et al's scoring system, with 3 classes for NASH: "Not NASH", "Borderline", "NASH"). The area under the ROC curves (AUROC), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were assessed. Results NT was developed using patented algorithms combining 13 parameters: age, sex, height, weight, and serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, alpha2macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, haptoglobin, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, transaminases ALT, AST, and total bilirubin. AUROCs of NT for the diagnosis of NASH in the training and validation groups were, respectively, 0.79 (95%CI 0.69–0.86) and 0.79 (95%CI 0.67–0.87; P = 0.94); for the diagnosis of borderline NASH they were: 0.69 (95%CI 0.60–0.77) and 0.69 (95%CI 0.57–0.78; P = 0.98) and for the diagnosis of no NASH, 0.77 (95%CI 0.68–0.84) and 0.83 (95%CI 0.67–0.90; P = 0.34). When the two groups were pooled together the NashTest Sp for NASH = 94% (PPV = 66%), and Se = 33% (NPV = 81%); for borderline NASH or NASH Sp = 50% (PPV = 74%) and Se = 88% (NPV = 72%). Conclusion In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NashTest, a simple and non-invasive biomarker reliably predicts the presence or absence of NASH. PMID:17096854

  15. Predicting inter-season price jumps in the market for temporary water allocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Jonathan; Schreider, Sergei

    2015-06-01

    The market for temporary water allocations in the Northern Victoria Regulated river system has matured to the point where new instruments to manage risk can be of benefit to water users. One of these instruments could be a series of option contracts issued by the Water Authority. However a serious impediment to the introduction of options is the variation in prices across seasons. Prices jump between the end of one season and the beginning of the next mean that appropriate option strike prices cannot be determined until a period of trading in the new season allows price discovery to take place. This prevents an options market being available at the beginning of the season when it is most useful to irrigators. In this paper we look at winter rainfall for the town of Jamieson, upstream of Lake Eildon and the volume of water in Lake Eildon as predictors of the price of temporary water allocations at the beginning of the irrigation season. We develop a climate driven regression model which allows us to link the inter-seasonal jumps with the biophysical parameters of the system. By better understanding the factors dictating the size of the price jumps between seasons options can be developed that are not restricted to the current season. We also consider the implications of the infrastructure upgrades currently underway and recent policy changes on the market for temporary water allocations. The carryover policy which allows water to be kept for use in subsequent seasons, and the reserve policy, which is designed to allow the delivery of initial allocations and water carried over at the start of the irrigation season each year, are two recent policy innovations. These policies should smooth prices and reduce the jump in prices that have been seen between irrigation seasons.

  16. New Era for Usage of Serum Liver Enzymes as A Promising Horizon for the Prediction of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Ahmed Abd Allah; Aboelfadl, Soheir Abd Elfattah; Heagzy, Mona Abd Elmenem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver histology remains the gold standard for assessing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Noninvasive serological markers and radiological methods have been developed to evaluate steatosis to avoid biopsy. AIM: To put cutoff value for liver enzymes that could predict non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 54 patients (with NAFLD diagnosed by the US). Patients were subjected to history, physical, anthropometric measurements, investigations including liver enzymes, abdominal US, and liver biopsy. According to biopsy results, patients were subdivided according to NASH development. Also, biopsy results were correlated to the levels of liver enzymes. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients who were suspected to have NAFLD by sonar were confirmed by biopsy. There was a significant correlation between steatosis degree in biopsy and sonar. Correlation study between steatosis in biopsy and ALT level showed highly significant positive correlation. Correlation study between steatosis in biopsy on one side & AST and GGT on the other side showed significant positive correlation. Cutoff value for detection of NASH using ALT & AST & and GGT were 50.5, 56, 60.5 respectively with sensitivity = 95.5, 90.5, 86.4 % and specificity = 93.8, 100, 87.5%. CONCLUSION: Cut off values of liver enzymes can be combined with abdominal sonar to predict NASH. PMID:27703554

  17. Quantifying reflexivity in financial markets: Toward a prediction of flash crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Vladimir; Sornette, Didier

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a measure of activity of financial markets that provides a direct access to their level of endogeneity. This measure quantifies how much of price changes is due to endogenous feedback processes, as opposed to exogenous news. For this, we calibrate the self-excited conditional Poisson Hawkes model, which combines in a natural and parsimonious way exogenous influences with self-excited dynamics, to the E-mini S&P 500 futures contracts traded in the Chicago Mercantile Exchange from 1998 to 2010. We find that the level of endogeneity has increased significantly from 1998 to 2010, with only 70% in 1998 to less than 30% since 2007 of the price changes resulting from some revealed exogenous information. Analogous to nuclear plant safety measures concerned with avoiding “criticality,” our measure provides a direct quantification of the distance of the financial market from a critical state defined precisely as the limit of diverging trading activity in the absence of any external driving.

  18. The Geography of Violence, Alcohol Outlets, and Drug Arrests in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowen; A. Braga, Anthony; Goldstick, Jason; Newton, Manya; Rura, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between alcohol outlets, drug markets (approximated by arrests for possession and trafficking), and violence in Boston, Massachusetts, in 2006. We analyzed geographic and environmental versus individual factors related to violence and identified areas high in violent crime. Methods. We used data from the Boston Police Department, US Census, and Massachusetts State Alcohol Beverage Control Commission. Spatial modeling was employed at the block group level, and violent crime, alcohol outlets, and drug markets were mapped. Results. Relative to other block groups, block groups in the highest decile of violent crime (n = 55) were found to be poorer (e.g., lower incomes, higher percentages of vacant homes), and they had greater numbers of alcohol outlets and higher drug arrest rates. Alcohol outlets and drug possession and trafficking arrests were predictive of violent crime. Also, spatial effects resulting from neighboring block groups were related to violent crime. Both alcohol outlet density and type were associated with violent crime in a differentiated and complex way. Conclusions. With drug possession and trafficking arrests as a proxy for drug markets, spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and violence were found in addition to typical sociodemographic predictors. PMID:23409885

  19. Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention in clinic settings: Higher alcohol use and more sex partners predict decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kristina; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Understanding barriers to accepting HIV-prevention counseling among vulnerable populations is of critical importance, as prevention efforts can only have a public health impact if high-risk populations are willing to enroll. A correlational field study was conducted in a health care setting with a high-risk community sample (N = 350) to determine if number of sex partners and alcohol consumption predict acceptance of an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. Findings indicated that participants engaging in the least risky behavior (i.e. individuals reporting no alcohol consumption and few sex partners) were more likely to accept an offer to receive HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, heavy drinking was associated with decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling, regardless of the number of sex partners reported (b = .12, p > .05). Given associations between heavy drinking and sexual risk taking, finding ways to increase exposure to HIV-prevention counseling programs among heavy drinkers could serve a vital public health function. PMID:24684497

  20. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  1. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  2. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  3. Analysis of the real estate market in Las Vegas: Bubble, seasonal patterns, and prediction of the CSW indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We analyze 27 house price indices of Las Vegas from June 1983 to March 2005, corresponding to 27 different zip codes. These analyses confirm the existence of a real estate bubble, defined as a price acceleration faster than exponential, which is found, however, to be confined to a rather limited time interval in the recent past from approximately 2003 to mid-2004 and has progressively transformed into a more normal growth rate comparable to pre-bubble levels in 2005. There has been no bubble till 2002 except for a medium-sized surge in 1990. In addition, we have identified a strong yearly periodicity which provides a good potential for fine-tuned prediction from month to month. A monthly monitoring using a model that we have developed could confirm, by testing the intra-year structure, if indeed the market has returned to “normal” or if more turbulence is expected ahead. We predict the evolution of the indices one year ahead, which is validated with new data up to September 2006. The present analysis demonstrates the existence of very significant variations at the local scale, in the sense that the bubble in Las Vegas seems to have preceded the more global USA bubble and has ended approximately two years earlier (mid-2004 for Las Vegas compared with mid-2006 for the whole of the USA).

  4. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  5. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  6. Building a Better Applicant Pool--A Case Study of the Use of Predictive Modeling and Market Segmentation to Build and Enroll Better Pools of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herridge, Bart; Heil, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Predictive modeling has been a popular topic in higher education for the last few years. This case study shows an example of an effective use of modeling combined with market segmentation to strategically divide large, unmanageable prospect and inquiry pools and convert them into applicants, and eventually, enrolled students. (Contains 6 tables.)

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  8. Efficacy of the Omega-3 Index in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight and obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Helen M; O'Connor, Helen T; Keating, Shelley E; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Garg, Manohar L; Caterson, Ian D; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals. Low n-3 PUFA intake has been associated with the presence of NAFLD; however, the relationship between a biomarker of n-3 status - the Omega-3 Index - and liver fat is yet to be elucidated. A total of eighty overweight adults (fifty-six men) completed the anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including the Omega-3 Index, and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of liver fat. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were performed with reference to prediction of liver fat percentage. The mean Omega-3 Index was high in both NAFLD (intrahepatic lipid concentration≥5·5 %) and non-NAFLD groups. The Omega-3 Index, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, TAG, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively correlated, and HDL and erythrocyte n-6:n-3 ratio negatively correlated with liver fat concentration. Regression analysis found that simple anthropometric and demographic variables (waist, age) accounted for 31 % of the variance in liver fat and the addition of traditional cardiometabolic blood markers (TAG, HDL, hsCRP and ALT) increased the predictive power to 43 %. The addition of the novel erythrocyte fatty acid variable (Omega-3 Index) to the model only accounted for a further 3 % of the variance (P=0·049). In conclusion, the Omega-3 Index was associated with liver fat concentration but did not improve the overall capacity of demographic, anthropometric and blood markers to predict NAFLD.

  9. A Comparison between Locus of Control in Inpatient Alcoholics and Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon K.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Internal-External Control Scale to 22 male alcoholics in residential treatment and 8 adult male children of alcoholics (COAs) in outpatient counseling. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics demonstrated external control orientation. COAs also exhibited external locus of control. Alcoholics in first residential treatment demonstrated more…

  10. Over-expression of the miRNA cluster at chromosome 14q32 in the alcoholic brain correlates with suppression of predicted target mRNA required for oligodendrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, A M; Gunewardena, S; Butler, M G

    2013-09-10

    We examined miRNA expression from RNA isolated from the frontal cortex (Broadman area 9) of 9 alcoholics (6 males, 3 females, mean age 48 years) and 9 matched controls using both the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 2.0 and Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays to further characterize genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on predicted target mRNA expression. A total of 12 human miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in alcohol dependent subjects (fold change≥1.5, false discovery rate (FDR)≤0.3; p<0.05) compared with controls including a cluster of 4 miRNAs (e.g., miR-377, miR-379) from the maternally expressed 14q32 chromosome region. The status of the up-regulated miRNAs was supported using the high-throughput method of exon microarrays showing decreased predicted mRNA gene target expression as anticipated from the same RNA aliquot. Predicted mRNA targets were involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., THBS2), tissue differentiation (e.g., CHN2), neuronal migration (e.g., NDE1), myelination (e.g., UGT8, CNP) and oligodendrocyte proliferation (e.g., ENPP2, SEMA4D1). Our data support an association of alcoholism with up-regulation of a cluster of miRNAs located in the genomic imprinted domain on chromosome 14q32 with their predicted gene targets involved with oligodendrocyte growth, differentiation and signaling. PMID:23747354

  11. Thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and Addiction-Stroop predict affect-modulated cue-reactivity among alcohol dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention towards alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attentional bias as measured by the Addiction-Stroop would have significant effects on the HRV responsivity of 58 adults in residential treatment for alcohol dependence (mean age=39.6 ± 9.4, 81% female) who participated in an affect-modulated cue-reactivity protocol. Regression analyses controlling for age, level of pre-treatment alcohol consumption, and baseline HRV indicated that higher levels of trait thought suppression, impaired regulation of alcohol urges, and attentional fixation on alcohol cues were associated with lower HRV responsivity during stress-primed alcohol cue-exposure. Moreover, there was a significant state × trait suppression interaction on HRV cue-responsivity, such that alcohol dependent persons reporting high levels of state and trait suppression exhibited less HRV during cue-exposure than persons reporting low levels of state and trait suppression. Results suggest that chronic thought suppression taxes regulatory resources reflected in reduced HRV responsivity, an effect that is particularly evident when high trait suppressors engage in intensive suppression of drinking-related thoughts under conditions of stress. Treatment approaches that offer effective alternatives to the maladaptive strategy of suppressing alcohol urges may be crucial for relapse prevention.

  12. Heterogeneity in Growth and Desistance of Alcohol Use for Men in Their 20s: Prediction from Early Risk Factors and Association with Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan; Kim, Hyoun K.; Yoerger, Karen; Washburn, Isaac J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The course of men’s alcohol use from ages 18–19 to 28–29 years was examined using growth mixture modeling (GMM) to determine alcohol trajectories for 3 conceptualizations of alcohol use: volume of use, heavy-episodic drinking (HED), and drinking-related problems. Trajectory classes were validated against the young men’s alcohol treatment history, and childhood/adolescent predictors of trajectory membership were examined. Method Participants were 205 men from the Oregon Youth Study, an ongoing longitudinal study of predominantly White men recruited from higher crime neighborhoods who were assessed annually during their 20s. The multivariate association between 3 prospectively assessed risk factors — parental alcohol use, child antisocial behavior, and age at first drunken experience — and the latent classes extracted from the GMM was examined for each alcohol indicator. Results A 3-class-solution model best fit the data for each alcohol indicator. The classes for both HED and problematic drinking for the men were significantly associated with history of treatment for alcohol use. Overall, the findings indicated a relatively large class with persistently high volume of alcohol use across the 20s and a greater prevalence of desistance for HED and alcohol problems. Age at first intoxication was the best predictor of latent class membership, and men in the initially-high-then-desisting alcohol classes had a high level of early risk. Concordance of trajectory class membership across alcohol indicators was moderate overall but particularly strong for higher problem groups, as almost all men in the increasing HED trajectory were also in the highest volume and alcohol problems trajectory classes. Levels of treatment were high for the higher and desisting HED and alcohol problems classes. Conclusions Many of the men showed chronic alcohol use across the decade of the 20s and had problems resulting from their high usage. Whereas most of the men showed

  13. Interactions Between Internalizing Symptoms and Urgency in the Prediction of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Among Low-Income, Minority Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether urgency, a disposition to rash action under conditions of strong emotion, moderates associations between internalizing symptoms and alcohol use and related expectancies. Data from the Camden Youth Development Study, a longitudinal, community-based study of early adolescents (N = 144, mean age at intake = 11.9 years; 65% Hispanic, 30% African-American; 50% male), were used. Self-report questionnaire measures of depressive symptoms, social and generalized anxiety symptoms, urgency, alcohol use, and alcohol expectancies were used. Mixed models were used to examine the effects of internalizing symptoms, urgency, and their interaction on alcohol use and expectancy trajectories over time. Depressive symptoms interacted with urgency such that youth with high levels of both tended to have elevated levels of global positive alcohol expectancies. Social anxiety symptoms interacted with urgency to be associated with increasing levels of social behavior alcohol expectancies such that youth with high levels of both tended to experience particular increases in these expectancies over time. Generalized anxiety was not found to be associated with alcohol-related constructs. Therefore, high levels of urgency combine with depressive and social anxiety symptoms to be associated with particularly increased risk for alcohol expectancies that are associated with later alcohol use and problems, indicating particular risk for youth with these combinations of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms. PMID:27512337

  14. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Outlets in Rural Towns

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) lower income, and (iii) are adjacent to towns with higher income. Method Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,326.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town’s total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns (spatial interaction)), and income for the local and adjacent towns. Results Lower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors, and negatively related to spatial interaction. Conclusions The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from non-residents. In rural areas these processes appear

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  18. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol. PMID:27188823

  19. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  20. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  1. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  2. FT3/FT4 ratio predicts non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of metabolic parameters in patients with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Fatma Yahyaoğlu; Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Türker, Betül Çavuşoğlu; Çetin, Faik; Türker, Fatih; Mamaç, Rabia Yahyaoğlu; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of metabolic parameters and thyroid dysfunction on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The current study evaluated a total of 115 patients, 75 female and 40 male. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were applied to all participants. Hypothyroidism was considered at a thyroid stimulating hormone level ≥ 4.1 mIU/L. Patients with euthyroidism and patients with hypothyroidism were compared. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were further compared with regard to the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Logistic regression modeling was performed to identify the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and independent variables, such as metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was identified in 69 patients. The mean waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and FT3/FT4 ratio (p=0.01) values were significantly higher in the patients with NAFLD compared to those without it. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that FT3/FT4 ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance were independent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance, enlarged waist circumference, elevated body mass index, higher FT3/FT4 ratio and hypertriglyceridemia are independent risk factors for NADLF, whereas hypothyroidism is not directly related to the condition. PMID:27166773

  3. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  4. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  5. Alcohol advertising and youth: a measured approach.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig

    2005-09-01

    Where alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising, independent, systematic monitoring of youth exposure can promote public awareness of and greater accountability in the industry's practices. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate youth (aged 12-20 years) and adult (above the United States legal drinking age of 21 years) exposure to alcohol advertising on television and radio, in magazines and on the Internet. This research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely per capita to be exposed to it than adults. Further analyses by the Center have demonstrated that much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of 15% (roughly the proportion of 12-20-years-old in the population 12 and above) as the maximum youth audience composition for their advertising. Although adoption of such a threshold would still leave much youth exposure to alcohol marketing in such "unmeasured" activities as sponsorships, on-premise promotions and campus marketing, it would assist alcohol companies in reaching their intended audiences more efficiently while reducing overall youth exposure to their advertising. PMID:16167559

  6. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  7. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  8. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  9. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  10. Alcohol fuels in Illinois: prospects and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.; Walzer, N.

    1981-10-01

    Because of the importance of corn to the Illinois economy, the use of corn in the production of fuel alcohol offered major economic benefits for the state. One of the advantages to Illinois resulting from the use of corn to produce ethanol was increased employment. Expansion of the alcohol fuels industry meant greater employment in the alcohol industry directly as well as increased employment in the industries indirectly involved in alcohol production. Finally, the increased income generated by the greater employment would create additional jobs throughout the economy. The increased employment which could result from an expansion of the alcohol fuels industry was estimated. The employment is estimated by first estimating the demand for gasoline and gasoline-alcohols fuels based on population and income trends. After the demand for gasoline-alcohol fuels has been estimated, the direct, indirect, and induced employment resulting from various market shares are determined.

  11. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law. PMID:19435114

  12. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  13. Predictors of Alcohol Drinking among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine; And Others

    This study sought to investigate the factors that predict alcohol drinking among African-American children of alcoholics (COA). The instruments used were: (1) the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (J. Jones, 1981); (2) the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (J. Mayer and W. Filstead, 1979); and (3) the New York Self-Esteem Scale (M.…

  14. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  15. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  16. Radio Daze: Alcohol Ads Tune in Underage Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Through the years and every passing fad, radio has continued to be a basic fact of life for youth in the United States. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth commissioned Virtual Media Resources (VMR) to audit alcohol radio advertising in 2001 and 2002 and to conduct a case study of alcohol radio advertising in December 2002 and January 2003…

  17. State Alcohol Advertising Laws: Current Status and Model Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The concern about alcohol marketing and underage drinking has been heightened by recent findings in the scientific research community. Studies have established that alcohol advertising exposure influences a young person's beliefs about alcohol and his/her intention to drink. They also suggest that advertising may have a direct impact on youth…

  18. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  19. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  20. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.

  1. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  2. Salience of Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Finetta L.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated whether the prediction of drinking might be enhanced by considering salience of alcohol expectancies rather than mere endorsement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that expectancy salience significantly improved the prediction of total alcohol consumption above and beyond the effects of expectancy endorsement. Expectancy…

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  5. A Comparison of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Measures of Readiness to Change Alcohol Use in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Krenek, Marketa; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Clark, Duncan; Cornelius, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared 3 measures of readiness to change alcohol use commonly used in clinical research and practice with adolescents: the Readiness Ruler, the SOCRATES (subscales of Recognition and Taking Steps), and a Staging Algorithm. The analysis sample consisted of 161 male and female adolescents presenting for intensive outpatient…

  6. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action.

  7. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action. PMID:19560606

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REASONS FOR DRINKING ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: AN INTERACTIONAL APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SMITH, MARY JO; SCOTT, RICHARD O.

    2015-01-01

    Two motives for alcohol consumption have been emphasized in the etiological and the reasons-for-drinking literature: (a) people drink alcohol to cope with stress, and (b) people drink alcohol because of social influences. There is support for both of these hypotheses, but the results are usually modest and most authors agree that more complex theories of alcohol consumption are needed. This study examined the interactional effects of reasons for drinking alcohol and situational factors on alcohol consumption. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 781 randomly selected Michigan drinkers. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, friends’ alcohol consumption, coping, and social motives for drinking were significant predictors of study participants’ alcohol consumption. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between drinking to cope with stress and perceived stress, and there was also a significant interaction between drinking for social reasons and friends’ alcohol consumption. Similarities and differences in the results for women, men, Blacks, and Whites are described. PMID:8178704

  9. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

    2010-11-01

    Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community.

  10. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

    2010-11-01

    Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community. PMID:20864236

  11. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  12. Content Themes of Alcohol Advertising in US Television — Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Schoeppe, Franziska; Campbell, Julie; Braam, Marloes W.G.; Stoolmiller, Michael; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little alcohol research that reports on the thematic contents of contemporary alcohol advertisements in US television. Studies of alcohol ads from two decades ago did not identify “partying” as a social theme. Aim of the present study was to describe and classify alcohol advertisements aired in national television in terms of contents, airing times, and channel placements and to identify different marketing strategies of alcohol brands. Methods Content analysis of all ads from the top 20 US beer and spirit brands aired between July 2009 and June 2011. These were 581 unique alcohol ads accounting for 272,828 (78%) national television airings. Ads were coded according to predefined definitions of 13 content areas. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to define content cluster themes and determine alcoholic brands that were more likely to exploit these themes. Results About half of the advertisements (46%) were aired between 3am and 8pm, and the majority were placed either in Entertainment (40%) and Sports (38%) channels. Beer ads comprised 64% of the sample, with significant variation in airing times and channels between types of products and brands. LCA revealed five content classes that exploited the “Partying”, “Quality”, “Sports”, “Manly”, and “Relax” themes. The partying class, indicative of ad messages surrounding partying, love and sex, was the dominant theme, comprising 42% of all advertisements. Ads for alcopops, flavored spirits, and liqueur were more likely to belong to the party class, but there were also some beer brands (Corona, Heineken) where more than 67% of ads exploited this theme. Conclusions This is the first analysis to identify a partying theme to contemporary alcohol advertising. Future analyses can now determine whether exposure to that or other themes predicts alcohol misuse among youth audiences. PMID:26207317

  13. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  14. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  15. Paternal Alcoholism and Toddler Noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina Das; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Morrisey, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of fathers’ alcoholism and associated risk factors on toddler compliance with parental directives at 18 and 24 months of age. Methods Participants were 215 families with 12-month-old children, recruited through birth records, who completed assessments of parental substance use, family functioning, and parent-child interactions at 12, 18, and 24 months of child age. Of these families, 96 were in the control group, 89 families were in the father-alcoholic-only group, and 30 families were in the group with two alcohol-problem parents. Child compliance with parents during cleanup situations after free play was measured at 18 and 24 months. The focus of this paper is on four measures of compliance: committed compliance, passive noncompliance, overt resistance, and defiance. Results Sons of alcohol-problem parents exhibited higher rates of noncompliance compared with sons of nonalcoholic parents. Sons in the two-alcohol-problem parent group seemed to be following a trajectory toward increasing rates of noncompliance. Daughters in the two-alcohol-problem parent group followed an opposite pattern. Other risk factors associated with parental alcohol problems also predicted compliance, but in unexpected ways. Conclusions Results indicate that early risk for behavioral undercontrol is present in the toddler period among sons of alcoholic fathers, but not among daughters. PMID:11707637

  16. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  17. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  19. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  20. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  2. College Students' Drinking and Posting About Alcohol: Forwarding a Model of Motivations, Behaviors, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-06-01

    College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health.

  3. Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Swahn, Monica H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states’ alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Methods We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0–100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization. Results Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84–0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions. Conclusions Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship. PMID:26469950

  4. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  7. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Methods Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. Results A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Conclusions Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384 PMID:23594918

  8. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  9. How pre-marketing data can be used for predicting the weight of drug interactions in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvio; Pasina, Luca; Nobili, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Unexpected drug interactions have led to the withdrawal of many drugs, raising concern about the gap between what is known at the time of approval and the risk of serious effects in the longer term, particularly in high-risk populations generally excluded from drug development. This is because the majority of drug interaction studies are done using in vitro methods, or in healthy young volunteers who may not reflect the complexity of patients, and the settings in which the drug will be used in clinical practice. Pre-marketing interaction studies should therefore be designed to make information easily accessible and clinically transferable. They should be adequate in terms of sample size, population, comorbidity, phenotyping and/or genotyping, end-points and outcome measures, and conducted in conditions of dose, route and timing of co-administration that reproduce the proposed therapeutic indications of the new drug. Although young volunteers have the advantage of minimizing some confounding effects introduced by diseases or polypharmacy, patients drawn from populations for whom the drug is intended would be more relevant and accurate, providing the studies are feasible and safe.

  10. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  14. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  15. Alcohol use: from childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Travis Pete; Hession, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol use is often overlooked and more importantly unsuspected in young children 3-11 years of age. Alcohol use in preteens is commonly overlooked when there is growing evidence to suggest that the age at which one begins drinking can be predictive of future problem drinking and other substance abuse. There is a need for health care professionals and elementary school educators to be aware of the real and growing problem of alcohol use from childhood through adolescence. It is sometimes difficult to recognize because many of the effects of alcohol mimic routine presentations seen in children. This article focuses on the significance, contributing factors, effects on the body, comorbidities, and social and psychological effects of alcohol use on children through adolescence. It also examines diagnostic screening for alcohol use in adolescence and the detrimental role of the nurse in assisting with identifying and preventing the problem of alcohol use in childhood through adolescence.

  16. Alcohol use: from childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Travis Pete; Hession, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol use is often overlooked and more importantly unsuspected in young children 3-11 years of age. Alcohol use in preteens is commonly overlooked when there is growing evidence to suggest that the age at which one begins drinking can be predictive of future problem drinking and other substance abuse. There is a need for health care professionals and elementary school educators to be aware of the real and growing problem of alcohol use from childhood through adolescence. It is sometimes difficult to recognize because many of the effects of alcohol mimic routine presentations seen in children. This article focuses on the significance, contributing factors, effects on the body, comorbidities, and social and psychological effects of alcohol use on children through adolescence. It also examines diagnostic screening for alcohol use in adolescence and the detrimental role of the nurse in assisting with identifying and preventing the problem of alcohol use in childhood through adolescence. PMID:22326714

  17. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  18. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  19. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  20. Gasoline marketing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    In 1978 Congress passed the Petroleum Marketing Practices Act. This legislation requires uniform posting of accurate octane ratings on gas pumps to let consumers know the octane rating of the gasoline they are buying. However, because the Federal Trade Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not carried out their octane testing and enforcement responsibilities under the Act, there are no federal controls to ensure that gasoline octane postings are accurate. This report discussed how octane mislabeling is a problem in some states, and GAO believes consumer may be paying millions of dollars each year for gasoline with lower octane rating than what is posted on the pump. GAO is also concerned that the Act lacks provisions for posting octane ratings for gasoline-alcohol blends and has other provisions that may interfere with state octane enforcement efforts.

  1. Sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages mediate alcohol intake in of-age undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Sarah A; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2005-01-17

    Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking. Participants used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate PROP bitterness and tastes from and preference for Pilsner beer, blended scotch whiskey, instant espresso and unsweetened grapefruit juice. Alcohol intake was reported over a typical week. Regression analysis tested the hypothesis that PROP bitterness influenced alcohol bitterness and sweetness, which in turn predicted alcohol intake. Those who tasted less PROP bitterness tasted all beverages as less bitter and more preferred. Sweetness of scotch was significantly greater in those who tasted PROP as least bitter. For scotch, greater sweetness and less bitterness from sampled scotch were direct predictors of greater alcohol intake. For beer, preference ratings were better predictors of alcohol intake than the bitter or sweet tastes of the sampled beer. These findings support that PROP bitterness predicts both positive and negative tastes from alcoholic beverages and that those tastes may predict alcohol intake. The college environment may attenuate direct effects of PROP bitterness and intake. Here, PROP bitterness does not predict alcohol intake directly, but acts instead through sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15639168

  2. Density Functional Theory-Derived Group Additivity and Linear Scaling Methods for Prediction of Oxygenate Stability on Metal Catalysts. Adsorption of Open-Ring Alcohol and Polyol Dehydrogenation Intermediates on Pt-Based Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Salciccioli, Michael; Chen, Ying; Vlachos, Dion G.

    2010-11-09

    Semiempirical methods for prediction of thermochemical properties of adsorbed oxygenates are developed. Periodic density functional theory calculations are used to study the relative stability of ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol dehydrogenation intermediates on Pt(111). For ethylene glycol dehydrogenation intermediates, it is found that the thermodynamically favored intermediates at each level of dehydrogenation are as follows: HOCH2CHOH, HOCHCHOH, HOCHCOH, HOCCOH ≈ HOCHCO, HOCCO, OCCO. Structural and energetic patterns emerge from these C2HxO2 adsorption calculations that lead to the formation of group additive properties for thermochemical property prediction of oxygenates on Pt(111). Finally, linear scaling relationships of atomic binding energy are used to predict the binding energy of the C2HxO2 species on the Ni(111) surface and Ni-Pt-Pt(111) bimetallic surface. It is shown that the linear scaling relationships can accurately predict the binding energy of larger oxygenates as well as of oxygenates on bimetallic catalysts. Corrections for ring strain and weak oxygen-metal and hydrogen-bonding interactions are added to increase the accuracy of group additivity and linear scaling relationships.

  3. Social anxiety and alcohol consumption: the role of alcohol expectancies and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Hasking, Penelope

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been the subject of extensive exploration, previous studies have failed to draw consistent conclusions about the nature of this relationship. Gray [Gray, J.A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] suggested that individuals who are sensitive to reward are likely to place themselves in potentially rewarding environments (e.g. pubs and clubs). As such these individuals will have a greater chance to experience and vicariously observe the effects of alcohol in these environments, leading to the formation and modification of alcohol expectancies. Consequently, reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol expectancies are inherently related, yet have remained disparate areas of research. In this study, a total of 454 young adults responded to a questionnaire assessing social anxiety, alcohol consumption, reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity, expectations of tension reduction and increased confidence, and alcohol consumption. Expectations of tension reduction were observed to moderate the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. In addition, three-way relationships between reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies and social anxiety were observed to predict alcohol consumption. Overall, these results suggest that both reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies play a role in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption, and that inclusion of these constructs in further research may aid in further clarifying the mechanisms underlying comorbid social anxiety and alcohol abuse.

  4. Heavy Drinking Relates to Positive Valence Ratings of Alcohol Cues

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g., parents, peers), and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. Objective We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. Method College students (N=227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH, and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Results Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (β = .17, p < .01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (β= −.53, p < .001). Conclusions Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e., repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802

  5. Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-01-01

    A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (beta = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (beta = -0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning.

  6. High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed. PMID:26180984

  7. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  8. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  9. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  10. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: Possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work suggests there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and one associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using BOLD fMRI in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: 1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or 2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of a DSM-IV diagnosed AUD at the time of neuroimaging, but also subsequent problem drinking reported three months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  11. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  12. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  13. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22177615

  14. Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8% of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25% of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm. PMID:24863376

  15. Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8% of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25% of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm.

  16. Alcohol Outlet Densities and Alcohol Price: The British Columbia Experiment in the Partial Privatization of Alcohol Sales Off-Premise

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Ponicki, William R.; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Methods This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply–demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Results Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Conclusions Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. PMID:23316802

  17. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  18. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  19. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  20. Can Energy Drinks Increase the Desire for More Alcohol?1234

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  1. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence.

  2. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  3. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  4. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge. PMID:16026837

  5. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  6. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  7. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R.J.; Edwards, M.C.; Curran, P.J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of two independent, longitudinal studies, we showed that children with either antisocial alcoholic parents or two alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother-, father- and adolescent-reports of symptoms, child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17), and the two independent studies examined. Multi-alcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it. PMID:17696709

  8. Drinking buddies and their prospective influence on alcohol outcomes: alcohol expectancies as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Padilla, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    The process by which peers or the social network influence individual alcohol use, particularly among adults, remains a necessary area of research. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal influence of "drinking buddies" on alcohol outcomes (i.e., alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related problems) as mediated by alcohol expectancies of social facilitation. Participants were 1347 (men = 660, women = 687) newly married individuals recruited from the community. They were assessed at the time of marriage and through the fourth wedding anniversary. Longitudinal mediation across time was evaluated using latent growth modeling. Overall, the prospective association between the number of drinking buddies in the social network and all three alcohol outcomes was mediated by alcohol expectancies. In testing group invariance across gender, findings suggest that social-facilitation expectancies may be more relevant to men than women in predicting typical alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Given that the social network may impact alcohol use at least in part through social expectancies, tailoring alcohol interventions to modify these specific beliefs may be particularly beneficial. In addition, strategies that target drinkers' social networks or their drinking buddies specifically may be useful. PMID:22732054

  9. Alcohol and drug use, family situation and school performance in adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Hyphantis, T; Koutras, V; Liakos, A; Marselos, M

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted in a population of about 8000 Greek high school students (grades 9 and 12) in order to investigate factors possibly contributing to alcohol consumption. A self-rating multiple choice questionnaire was used. The present report focuses on students with alcoholic parents. Parameters studied include students' alcohol and drug use, school performance, family relationships, socioeconomic factors and parental control. In 3.3% of the sample parental alcoholism was reported. The results indicated that parental alcoholism is a strong predictor variable for the student's alcohol and drug use. Furthermore, predictability of the student's alcohol and drug use is increased when relatives' and friends' alcoholism are taken into account. Thus, family and/or peer actual alcohol use patterns appear to be a strong influence on adolescent alcohol and drug use. School performance is worse in children of alcoholics, and family situations (eg. divorces) as well as family dynamics (relationships with the family) are disturbed, in comparison with families of students with nonalcoholic parents. These results are discussed in terms of 'modelling' for drinking and drug behaviour and the socialisation process within the family.

  10. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  11. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  12. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  13. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  14. Alcohol, diabetes, and public health in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas; Rehm, Jurgen; Jernigan, David; Vaeth, Patrice; Monteiro, Maristela; Lehman, Hallie

    2012-08-01

    This article describes epidemiological evidence on the association between alcohol use and diabetes, and the implications for clinical management and public health policies in the Americas. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for both diabetes and poor treatment adherence, despite evidence that moderate drinking can protect against type 2 diabetes under some circumstances. The burden of disease from diabetes associated with excessive alcohol consumption warrants both clinical and public health measures. On the clinical level, research on early interventions to prevent hazardous drinking shows that new screening, brief intervention, and referral techniques are effective ways to manage hazardous drinking in primary care settings. On the population level, restrictions on alcohol marketing and other alcohol control policies reduce the frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption in at-risk populations. These policy actions are recommended within the context of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  15. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  16. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  17. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  18. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  19. Is it possible to predict long-term success with k-NN? Case study of four market indices (FTSE100, DAX, HANGSENG, NASDAQ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Gorban, A. N.; Y Yang, T.

    2014-03-01

    This case study tests the possibility of prediction for 'success' (or 'winner') components of four stock & shares market indices in a time period of three years from 02-Jul-2009 to 29-Jun-2012.We compare their performance ain two time frames: initial frame three months at the beginning (02/06/2009-30/09/2009) and the final three month frame (02/04/2012-29/06/2012).To label the components, average price ratio between two time frames in descending order is computed. The average price ratio is defined as the ratio between the mean prices of the beginning and final time period. The 'winner' components are referred to the top one third of total components in the same order as average price ratio it means the mean price of final time period is relatively higher than the beginning time period. The 'loser' components are referred to the last one third of total components in the same order as they have higher mean prices of beginning time period. We analyse, is there any information about the winner-looser separation in the initial fragments of the daily closing prices log-returns time series.The Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation with k-NN algorithm is applied on the daily log-return of components using a distance and proximity in the experiment. By looking at the error analysis, it shows that for HANGSENG and DAX index, there are clear signs of possibility to evaluate the probability of long-term success. The correlation distance matrix histograms and 2-D/3-D elastic maps generated from ViDaExpert show that the 'winner' components are closer to each other and 'winner'/'loser' components are separable on elastic maps for HANGSENG and DAX index while for the negative possibility indices, there is no sign of separation.

  20. Drops in the Bucket: Alcohol Industry "Responsibility" Advertising on Television in 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Following on its recent reports on alcohol advertising in national magazines and on television, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) commissioned Virtual Media Resources (VMR), a media planning and research firm in Natick, Massachusetts, to analyze the alcohol industry's televised "responsibility" ads in 2001, using the same standard…

  1. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  2. Underage college students’ alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Young, Henry N.; Haaland, Wren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose College is often a time of alcohol use initiation as well as displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students’ self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking and excessive drinking. Methods First-year students from two US public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these “New Alcohol Displayers” were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated TimeLine FollowBack method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. Results A total of 338 participants were enrolled, 56.1% were female, 74.8% were Caucasian and 58.8% were from the Midwestern university. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became New Alcohol Displayers during the first two years of college. Among New Alcohol Displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among New Alcohol Displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (RR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.54–3.58). Conclusions Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking, and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. PMID:26003580

  3. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  4. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  5. Negative Evaluations of Negative Alcohol Consequences Lead to Subsequent Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  6. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol.

  7. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  8. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  9. A Developmental Perspective on Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Ann S.; Faden, Vivian B.; Zucker, Robert A.; Spear, Linda P.

    2009-01-01

    Underage alcohol use can be viewed as a developmental phenomenon because many kinds of developmental changes and expectations appear to influence this behavior and also because it has consequences for development. Data on alcohol use, abuse, and dependence show clear age-related patterns. Moreover, many of the effects that alcohol use has on the drinker, in both the short and long term, depend on the developmental timing of alcohol use or exposure. Finally, many developmental connections have been observed in the risk and protective factors that predict the likelihood of problem alcohol use in young people. Therefore, efforts to understand and address underage drinking would benefit from a developmental perspective, and the general principles of developmental psychopathology offer a useful conceptual framework for research and prevention concerned with underage drinking. PMID:23104443

  10. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  11. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  12. Targeted marketing and public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  13. Targeted marketing and public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies. PMID:20070196

  14. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  15. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  16. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  17. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  18. Influence of Family Factors and Supervised Alcohol Use on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Harms: Similarities Between Youth in Different Alcohol Policy Contexts*

    PubMed Central

    McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Kim, Min Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Harm-minimization policies suggest that alcohol use is a part of normal adolescent development and that parents should supervise their children's use to encourage responsible drinking. Zero-tolerance policies suggest that all underage alcohol use should be discouraged. This article compared hypotheses derived from harm-minimization and zero-tolerance policies regarding the influence of family context and supervised drinking on adolescent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia, two states that have respectively adopted zero-tolerance and harm-minimization policies. Method: Representative samples of seventh-grade students (N = 1,945; 989 females) were recruited from schools in each state. Students completed comprehensive questionnaires on alcohol use, related problem behaviors, and risk and protective factors annually from 2002 to 2004 when they were in ninth grade. Results: Relationships between family context and alcohol use and harmful use were very similar in both states. Adult-supervised settings for alcohol use were associated with higher levels of harmful alcohol consequences. Adult-supervised alcohol use mediated the links between favorable parental attitudes to alcohol use and ninth-grade alcohol use for students in both states. Conclusions: Despite policy differences in the two states, relationships between family context variables and alcohol use and harmful use are remarkably similar. Adult-supervised settings for alcohol use resulted in higher levels of harmful alcohol consequences, contrary to predictions derived from harm-minimization policy. Findings challenge the harm-minimization position that supervised alcohol use or early-age alcohol use will reduce the development of adolescent alcohol problems. PMID:21513678

  19. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  20. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue. PMID:16943763

  1. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  2. Evolution of microbial markets

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Engelmoer, Daniel J. P.; Verbruggen, Erik; Queller, David C.; Noë, Ronald; Johnson, Nancy Collins; Hammerstein, Peter; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, we extend the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. We consider six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. We argue that an economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions. PMID:24474743

  3. Stability/instability in the alcoholic marriage: the interrelationships between course of alcoholism, family process, and marital outcome.

    PubMed

    Steinglass, P; Tislenko, L; Reiss, D

    1985-09-01

    Thirty-one alcoholic families who were originally studied in home, multiple-family group, and laboratory settings were reassessed two years later to determine course of alcoholism and degree of marital stability. This paper presents data comparing baseline alcohol consumption and family interactional behavior at home with subsequent alcoholism and marital stability outcomes. Findings suggest that the relative degree of stability/instability in these marriages is best understood as a function of the "goodness-of-fit" between the relative predictability of drinking on the part of the identified alcoholic and the family's characteristic pattern of interactional behavior at home.

  4. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  7. Are alcohol expectancies associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009).

    PubMed

    Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.

  8. Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-01-01

    A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (beta = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (beta = -0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  11. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  12. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  13. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  14. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  15. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  16. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  17. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  18. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  19. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions.

  20. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  1. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  2. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  3. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  4. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  5. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  6. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  7. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  8. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  9. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  11. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  12. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  13. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  14. The Dow is Killing Me: Risky Health Behaviors and the Stock Market.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate how risky health behaviors and self-reported health vary with the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and during stock market crashes. Because stock market indices are leading indicators of economic performance, this research contributes to our understanding of the macroeconomic determinants of health. Existing studies typically rely on the unemployment rate to proxy for economic performance, but this measure captures only one of many channels through which the economic environment may influence individual health decisions. We find that large, negative monthly DJIA returns, decreases in the level of the DJIA, and stock market crashes are widely associated with worsening self-reported mental health and more cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and fatal car accidents involving alcohol. These results are consistent with predictions from rational addiction models and have implications for research on the association between consumption and stock prices.

  15. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  16. The P300 as an Electrophysiological Probe of Alcohol Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Inna; Goldman, Mark S.; Donchin, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Language-based measures indicate that alcohol expectancies influence alcohol consumption. To relate these measures to brain actions that precede verbal output, the P300 component of the Event-related potentials (ERPs) was used to detect violations of individually held alcohol expectancies. As predicted, P300 amplitude elicited by negative alcohol expectancy stimuli was positively correlated with endorsement of positive/arousing alcohol expectancies on the language-based measure, such that the higher an individual's positive/arousing expectancies, the larger was the P300 elicited by negative alcohol expectancy stimuli. These results demonstrated concordance between language-based measures of alcohol expectancies and electrophysiological probes of expectancy. Although whether these expectancy processes are integral to decision pathways that influence consumption is unknown, these findings suggest that such processing can occur very quickly outside of conscious deliberation. PMID:18729689

  17. College student employment and drinking: a daily study of work stressors, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B; Dodge, Kama D; Faurote, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by sex. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.

  18. Conditions influencing the marketing efforts of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Myrtle, R C; Martinez, C F

    1990-01-01

    This research assesses the degree to which environmental change, competitive conditions and position, hospital characteristics, and organizational performance influence the extensiveness of a hospital's marketing activities. Changes in occupancy, revenue, and patient mix did not predict the level of marketing activities. Instead, the perceptions of marketing decision makers about changing environmental conditions were found to predict these activities.

  19. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  20. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  1. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  2. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  3. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  4. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  5. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  6. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  7. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  8. Cued Recall of Alcohol Advertising on Television and Underage Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of

  9. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  10. Subjective response as a consideration in the pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel Jo; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Currently available pharmacological treatments for alcoholism have modest efficacy and high individual variability in treatment outcomes, both of which have been partially attributed to genetic factors. One path to reducing the variability and improving the efficacy associated with these pharmacotherapies may be to identify overlapping genetic contributions to individual differences in both subjective responses to alcohol and alcoholism pharmacotherapy outcomes. As acute subjective response to alcohol is highly predictive of future alcohol related problems, identifying such shared genetic mechanisms may inform the development of personalized treatments that can effectively target converging pathophysiological mechanisms that convey risk for alcoholism. The focus of this review is to revisit the association between subjective response to alcohol and the etiology of alcoholism while also describing genetic contributions to this relationship, discuss potential pharmacogenetic approaches to target subjective response to alcohol in order to improve the treatment of alcoholism and examine conceptual and methodological issues associated with these topics, and outline future approaches to overcome these challenges.

  11. Genetic influences on response to alcohol and response to pharmacotherapies for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-08-01

    Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5' and 3' functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs/ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage.

  12. Late-Stage Deoxyfluorination of Alcohols with PhenoFluor™

    PubMed Central

    Sladojevich, Filippo; Arlow, Sophie I.; Tang, Pingping; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    An operationally simple protocol for the selective deoxyfluorination of structurally complex alcohols is presented. Several fluorinated derivatives of natural products and pharmaceuticals have been prepared to showcase the potential of the method for late-stage diversification and its functional group compatibility. A series of simple guidelines for predicting selectivity in substrates with multiple alcohols is given. PMID:23397884

  13. Late-stage deoxyfluorination of alcohols with PhenoFluor.

    PubMed

    Sladojevich, Filippo; Arlow, Sophie I; Tang, Pingping; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-02-20

    An operationally simple protocol for the selective deoxyfluorination of structurally complex alcohols is presented. Several fluorinated derivatives of natural products and pharmaceuticals have been prepared to showcase the potential of the method for late-stage diversification and its functional group compatibility. A series of simple guidelines for predicting the selectivity in substrates with multiple alcohols is given.

  14. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Conflict Monitoring and Error Detection as Predictors of Alcohol Use in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of substance use and related problems. Understanding how exposure to drugs influences the adolescent brain could reveal mechanisms underlying risk for addiction later in life. In the current study, 87 adolescents (16–20-year olds; the local legal drinking age was16, allowing the inclusion of younger subjects than usually possible) underwent EEG measurements during a Go/No-Go task with and without alcohol cues; after placebo and a low dose of alcohol (0.45 g/kg). Conflict monitoring and error detection processes were investigated with the N2 and the error-related negativity (ERN) ERP components. Participants were followed-up after 6 months to assess changes in alcohol use. The NoGo-N2 was larger for alcohol cues and acute alcohol decreased the amplitude of the NoGo-N2 for alcohol cues. ERN amplitude was blunted for alcohol cues. Acute alcohol decreased the amplitude of the ERN, specifically for control cues. Furthermore, the differences in ERN for alcohol cues between the placebo and alcohol conditions predicted alcohol use 6 months later: subjects who showed stronger blunting of the ERN after acute alcohol were more likely to return to more moderate drinking patterns. These results suggest that cues signalling reward opportunities might activate a go-response mode and larger N2 (detection of increased conflict) for these cues might be necessary for inhibition. The ERN results suggest a deficiency in the monitoring system for alcohol cues. Finally, a lack of alcohol-induced deterioration of error monitoring for cues with high salience might be a vulnerability factor for alcohol abuse in adolescents. PMID:25189856

  15. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  16. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  17. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol. PMID:25111186

  18. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  19. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  20. Physical, Social, and Perceived Availabilities of Alcohol and Last Month Alcohol Use in Rural and Small Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Linda R.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly…

  1. Attributional style and life events: a diathesis-stress theory of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B I; Abela, J R; Buchanan, G M; Seligman, M E

    2000-12-01

    The role of a cognitive diathesis-stress model in predicting changes in alcohol consumption was examined. This study evaluated the interaction of attributional style with negative life events in predicting changes in beer, wine, spirits, and overall alcohol consumption. 93 undergraduate participants completed the Khavari Alcohol Test, Negative Life Events Questionnaire, and Attributional Style Questionnaire. The interaction of attributional style with negative life events predicted increases in spirits consumption between Time 1 and Time 2.

  2. Why has alcohol consumption declined in countries of southern Europe?

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Colom, J

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol consumption seems to be decreasing in the traditional wine countries of southern Europe. This paper describes the evolution of alcohol consumption over the last 30 years in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. For this purpose, data on alcohol production and per capita alcohol consumption in southern Europe are examined, and their reliability discussed. To analyse alcohol-related mortality, liver cirrhosis death rates are also reviewed. Since 1980 overall alcohol production has increased by 10%, while wine production has decreased by 13%. The consumption of pure alcohol equivalent per capita has continually decreased, from a peak of 14 litres per year in 1974 to 10.4 litres in 1992. The reduction is dramatic for wine (42.3%) and slight for spirits (4.7%), while beer consumption has grown by 36.6%. These data seem to confirm a European trend towards the homogenization of drinking patterns. Marketing factors, public health policies, the evolution of prices and taxation, European Union agricultural policies, a growing awareness of public opinion about the toxicity of alcohol and competition from non-alcoholic drinks are all factors that may partially explain these observed changes. PMID:9167284

  3. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  4. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  5. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  6. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  7. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  8. Alcohol fuels in Illinois: prospects and implications. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.; Walzer, N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of corn to produce fuel alcohol offered major economic benefits for Illinois in the early 1970s. One of the advantages was increased employment in the alcohol-fuels industry and in the industries indirectly involved in alcohol production. The increased income generated by higher employment creates additional jobs throughout the economy. This report evaluates the employment increase by estimating the demand for gasoline and gasoline-alcohol fuels based on population and income trends - then determines the direct, indirect, and induced employment resulting from various market shares. Three appendices include an annotated bibliography of 21 references, a report on Brazilian experiences with alcohol fuels production, and a general bibliography. 128 references, 15 figures, 35 tables.

  9. The morning after: alcohol misuse and employment problems.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Sindelar, Jody L; Fang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich, recent, and nationally representative longitudinal survey specifically designed to examine alcohol use and associated problems, we investigate the effects of alcohol misuse on a series of understudied and perhaps less common employment problems. Such problems include being fired or laid off from a job, sustained unemployment, and conflicts with a supervisor and/or co-worker. After controlling for time-invariant omitted variables via fixed effects estimation, we find evidence that three measures of alcohol misuse are significantly related to employment problems. The results offer new information on the potential adverse labor market effects of alcohol misuse and shed light on potential mechanisms through which alcohol misuse may impact intensive labor supply and/or wages. PMID:22162875

  10. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  11. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  13. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  14. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  15. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  16. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  17. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  18. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  19. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  20. Cognitive Dysfunction, Locus of Control and Treatment Outcome among Chronic Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max W.

    While alcoholism is no longer regarded as a unitary disorder, conventional measures of congition and personality have yet to be shown capable of consistently predicting clinical outcomes. To investigate cognitive dysfunction and locus of control as predictors of post treatment outcome in a large sample of alcoholics, 106 alcoholics (74 men, 32…

  1. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  2. Evaluating employee assistance policy in an HMO-based alcoholism project.

    PubMed

    Putnam, S L; Stout, R L

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of successful employee assistance program (EAP) implementation is the adoption of a formal, written policy, reflecting company commitment to EAP guidelines and goals. This study of criteria predictive of such policy adoption was conducted at the occupational alcoholism project of a New England health maintenance organization (HMO). Data on nearly 400 organizations contacted by occupational program consultants (OPCs) over a 20-month period were collected by questionnaire and interview. One third of these organizations adopted employee assistance policies and set about establishing formal programs. Stepwise multiple regression is the principal method used to pinpoint the correlates of policy adoption. Two of the most important of these are the attitudes of contact persons within the organization toward alcoholism and employee assistance programs, particularly their admission of alcohol problems within their social networks; and the consultants' persistence and marketing skills. The adopting organizations also had reputations for being progressive, and actively concerned about employee welfare; they tended to be large, their executives autonomous, and their union membership rates high. Inhibiting policy acceptance were fears that a written policy would jeopardize the reputation and image of the organization, and that an employee assistance program would remove internal control of personal procedures. The adequacy of the evaluative data and methods are discussed, and recommendations are offered in the interests of streamlining the efforts of OPCs and of achieving greater penetration of targeted organizations.

  3. Emotional Distress, Alcohol Use, and Bidirectional Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874

  4. WEAKENING OF ONE MORE ALCOHOL CONTROL PILLAR: A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF THE ALCOHOL TAX CUTS IN FINLAND IN 2004

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Pia; Österberg, Esa

    2010-01-01

    Aims To review the consequences of the changes in Finnish alcohol policy in 2004, when quotas for travellers’ tax free imports of alcoholic beverages from other European Union (EU) countries were abolished, Estonia joined the EU, and excise duties on alcoholic beverages were reduced by one-third, on the average. Design A review of published research and routinely available data. Setting Finland. Measurements Prices of alcoholic beverages, recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption, data on criminality and other police statistics, alcohol-related deaths and hospitalizations, service use. Findings Alcohol consumption increased 10% in 2004, clearly more than in the early 2000’s. With few exceptions, alcohol-related harms increased. Alcohol-induced liver disease deaths increased the most, by 46% in 2004–2006 compared to 2001–2003, which indicates a strong effect on pre-2004 heavy drinkers. Consumption and harms increased most among middle-aged and older segments of the population, and in the worst-off parts of the population in particular. Conclusions Alcohol taxation and alcohol prices affect consumption and related harms, and heavy drinkers are responsive to price. In Finland in 2004, the worst-off parts of the population paid the highest price in terms of health for cuts in alcohol prices. The removal of travellers’ import quotas, which was an inherent part of creating the single European market, had serious public health consequences in Finland. PMID:19335654

  5. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  7. Characterizing Subjective Responses to Alcohol among Adolescent Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164

  8. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  9. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  10. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers’ reported alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. Objectives We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. Methods We recruited a sample of 1,031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13–20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Results Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p<.001). The two major predictors of the difference between the two measures were being a heavy episodic drinker (p<.001, 95% CI = 4.1 to 12.0) and the total number of brands consumed (p<.001, 95% CI = 2.0 to 2.8). Conclusion This study contributes to the field of alcohol and adolescent research first by investigating a potentially more accurate alcohol surveillance method, and secondly by promoting the assessment of alcohol use among adolescents vulnerable to risky alcohol use. Finally, our survey addresses the potential impact of alcohol marketing on youth and their subsequent alcohol brand preferences and consumption. PMID:25062357

  11. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  12. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  13. Theory of Mind Among Young Adult Children From Alcoholic Families

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Glass, Jennifer M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Wojnar, Marcin; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the evidence that several cognitive and emotional functions are impaired in adult alcohol-dependent patients and the possibility that some of these deficits are transmitted to their children, the objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the perception of complex mental states would be reduced in young adults from families with a positive family history of alcohol dependence. It was also anticipated that social-perceptual deficits would confer unique predictive ability beyond that shared with other cognitive risk factors for alcohol dependence and/or substance use risk. Method: Data from 301 youth ages 18–21 years, recruited from an ongoing community longitudinal study of alcoholic and matched control families, were analyzed. Family history of alcohol dependence as well as alcohol-dependence diagnosis in the youth was based on diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. A substance use risk factor measured early problem alcohol/other drug use. The perception of mental states was measured with the computerized version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results: Children of alcohol-dependent parents did not show impairment in the mental states perception task, nor did social perception skills predict alcohol dependence in the youth. Correlational analysis performed between RMET and the substance use risk factor showed no significant association between the variables. Conclusions: The study results do not confirm the hypothesis that behaviorally measured social perception impairment is more prevalent in the children of alcohol-dependent parents. In addition, social-perceptual deficits were not a unique marker of either alcohol dependence or high risk for alcohol dependence in this young adult sample. PMID:25208207

  14. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  15. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  16. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  20. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)