Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.
A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…
Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele; Lerner, Tobias
Alcohol commits people to personally important goals even if expectations of reaching the goals are low. To illuminate this effect, we used alcohol myopia theory, stating that alcohol intoxicated people disproportionally attend to the most salient aspects of a situation and ignore peripheral aspects. When low expectations of reaching an important goal were activated students who consumed alcohol were less committed than students who consumed a placebo. We observed less commitment regardless of whether low expectations were explicitly activated in a questionnaire (Study 1) or implicitly activated through subliminal priming (Study 2). The results imply that, intoxicated people commit to goals according to what aspects of a goal are activated either explicitly or implicitly.
... by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Myopia by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age- ... U.S. Prevalent Cases of Myopia (in thousands) by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ...
Compo, Nadja Schreiber; Evans, Jacqueline R; Carol, Rolando N; Kemp, Daniel; Villalba, Daniella; Ham, Lindsay S; Rose, Stefan
Alcohol typically has a detrimental impact on memory across a variety of encoding and retrieval conditions (e.g., Mintzer, 2007; Ray & Bates, 2006). No research has addressed alcohol's effect on memory for lengthy and interactive events and little has tested alcohol's effect on free recall. In this study 94 participants were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control groups and consumed drinks in a bar-lab setting while interacting with a "bartender". Immediately afterwards all participants freely recalled the bar interaction. Consistent with alcohol myopia theory, intoxicated participants only differed from placebo and control groups when recalling peripheral information. Expanding on the original hypervigilance hypothesis, placebo participants showed more conservative reporting behaviour than the alcohol or control groups by providing more uncertain and "don't know" responses. Thus, alcohol intoxication had confined effects on memory for events, supporting and extending current theories.
Gable, Philip A; Mechin, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B
Exposure to alcohol cues reduces the breadth of attentional scope, called "virtual myopia." Past researchers have suggested approach motivation as a possible mechanism that underlies this myopia in response to alcohol cues. We expanded on these findings in the current study by identifying the neural underpinnings of the relationship between attentional narrowing, approach motivation, and exposure to alcohol cues. Participants completed 64 trials that consisted of neutral or alcohol-related stimuli followed by a measure of attentional narrowing (i.e., Navons letter task). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the experiment to assess greater left frontal hemispheric asymmetry, a measure of approach motivation. Results revealed that alcohol cues led to greater "virtual myopia" as measured by narrowed attentional scope. Greater left frontal activation to alcohol cues related to greater myopia, suggesting that approach motivation is associated with virtual myopia. Left frontal activation appears to be a neural correlate of cognitive narrowing related to approach motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record
Fleming, Kimberly A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sable, Jeffrey; Pearson, Melanie; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT) posits that alcohol restricts the focus of attention, such that behaviors are determined only by highly salient environmental cues. While AMT is most commonly understood in terms of spatial attention, the present study tested the effects of alcohol in the temporal domain of attention. Seventy-one participants consumed either a placebo beverage or one of two doses of alcohol (0.40 g/kg or 0.80 g/kg ETOH) before performing an auditory discrimination task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with typical sequential effects, placebo participants showed increased P300 amplitude and slowed behavioral responses when the current target differed from the two-back tone. In contrast, alcohol caused increased P300 and response slowing when the target tone differed from the one-back tone. These findings suggest that alcohol increases the salience of more recently-encountered information, consistent with the general tenets of AMT. PMID:22642855
Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal
The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs
Hung, George K; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J
Previous theories of myopia development involved subtle and complex processes such as the sensing and analyzing of chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, spatial gradient of blur, or spatial frequency content of the retinal image, but they have not been able to explain satisfactorily the diverse experimental results reported in the literature. On the other hand, our newly proposed incremental retinal-defocus theory (IRDT) has been able to explain all of these results. This theory is based on a relatively simple and direct mechanism for the regulation of ocular growth. It states that a time-averaged decrease in retinal-image defocus area decreases the rate of release of retinal neuromodulators, which decreases the rate of retinal proteoglycan synthesis with an associated decrease in scleral structural integrity. This increases the rate of scleral growth, and in turn the eye's axial length, which leads to myopia. Our schematic analysis has provided a clear explanation for the eye's ability to grow in the appropriate direction under a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, the theory has been able to explain how repeated cycles of nearwork-induced transient myopia leads to repeated periods of decreased retinal-image defocus, whose cumulative effect over an extended period of time results in an increase in axial growth that leads to permanent myopia. Thus, this unifying theory forms the basis for understanding the underlying retinal and scleral mechanisms of myopia development.
Staples, Jennifer M.; George, William H.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia
HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship (Steele et al., 1985). This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control) x 2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122) = 8.15, R2 = .14, p <.01. When there was high conflict, intoxicated CSA women were more likely to abdicate than sober CSA women, however, sober CSA women were less likely to abdicate than sober NSA women. When there was low conflict, CSA history and alcohol intoxication had no influence on abdication. These results may help explain the association between alcohol and risky sexual decision making among women with CSA. PMID:25310825
Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.
Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…
Belkin, M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Jackson, S.M.; Zwick, H.
A retrospective survey of 32 persons with myopia and 38 persons with emmetropia who had been operated on at two US Army hospitals on the California coast showed that the persons with myopia who had worn eyeglasses for at least 20 years underwent cataract extraction at a significantly (P less than .00005) older age than the persons with emmetropia (median age at the time of the operation was 70 years, compared with 64 years). These results support the theory that some protection against solar ultraviolet radiation is offered the eyes by eye wear worn continuously and that solar ultraviolet radiation may be a contributing factor in the formation of human senile cataracts.
Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Fung, Ying-Ki; Xing, Suxuan; Hagger, Martin S
There has been little research examining the psychological antecedents of safety-oriented behavior aimed at reducing myopia risk. This study utilizes self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the role of motivational and social-cognitive factors on individuals' near-work behavior. Adopting a prospective design, undergraduate students (n = 107) completed an initial questionnaire based on SDT in week 1, a second questionnaire containing measures of TPB variables in week 2, and objective measures of reading distance and visual acuity in week 6. The data were analyzed by variance-based structural equation modeling. The results showed that perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation from SDT significantly predicted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control from the TPB. These social-cognitive factors were significantly associated with intention and intention significantly predicted reading distance. The relationships in the model held when controlling for visual acuity. In conclusion, the integrated model of SDT and the TPB may help explain myopia-preventive behaviors.
Wu, Pei-Chang; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Yu, Hun-Ju; Fang, Po-Chiung; Chen, Chueh-Tan
Myopia is not a simple refractive error, but an eyesight-threatening disease. There is a high prevalence of myopia, 80% to 90%, in young adults in East Asia; myopia has become the leading cause of blindness in this area. As the myopic population increases globally, the severity of its impact is predicted. Approximately one fifth of the myopic population has high myopia (≥-6 diopters), which results in irreversible vision loss such as retinal detachment, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular atrophy. The increasing prevalence of school myopia in the past few decades may be a result of gene-environment interactions. However, earlier school myopia onset would accompany faster myopia progression and greater risk of high myopia later in life. Recently, there have been effective interventions to delay the onset of myopia, such as outdoor activity and decreasing the duration of near work. Hyperopia (≤0.5 diopters) is a predictor of myopia. Pharmacological agents and optic interventions such as low-concentration atropine and orthokeratology may slow progression in myopic children. Novel surgeries and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs could deal with some myopic complications. From available evidence, the prevention, control, and treatment of myopia seem to be promising. However, to reduce the impact of myopia in future decades, more work and effort are still needed, including that by governments and intercountry eye health organizations.
with the diverse nature of myopia and the multiple factors that presumably contribute to it. Indeed, myopia is itself best thought of as the final...slight shift toward hyperopia begins. Beyond age 65 a slight shift back toward myopia is evident, at least in part due to nuclear sclerosis of the...designed to answer the questions within our charge. Consequently, most of our conclusions are necessarily tentative and inferred from considering multiple
Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.
A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…
Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea
Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem. PMID:25922643
Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea
Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.
Garty, B Z; Laor, A; Danon, Y L
We studied the prevalence of myopia in 17-year-old Israeli military recruits with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Twenty-four percent of the youngsters with neurofibromatosis had myopia, compared to 19% of the controls; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.03). The recruits with NF1 had a slightly lower IQ, fewer years of education, and lower height and weight than the controls. Thus, these factors, which have been reported to be associated with myopia, did not significantly influence the high prevalence of myopia in the neurofibromatosis subjects. A high prevalence of myopia seems to be an additional feature of NF1.
Karlsson, J L
A school population has been screened to locate same-sexed twins with myopia and also to compare intelligence test performance of myopic and nonmyopic individuals. Augmentation of the twin data by a survey of the world literature has led to the identification of a total of 106 MZ twin pairs, 100 of them concordant for myopia, as well as 41 DZ pairs, 12 concordant. Myopic students score eight points higher on IQ tests than nonmyopes, the entire bell shaped distribution curve being shifted to a higher range. The intellectual gain precedes in time the development of nearsightedness.
Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol
Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.
Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu
Abstract High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard. In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory. The intervention program consisted of 1 educational session lasting 150 minutes by lecturing of high myopia complications, virtual reality experiencing, similarity modeling, and quibbling a film made on high myopia complications preventive concepts. Implementing the educational program showed immediate effect in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. While 6 weeks after the educational program, significant increases were observed in cues to action, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. This article provided that, after a single session, there was positive improvement in high myopia complication prevention behavior intention among participants. These positive effects confirmed the efficacy of the education program and will probably induce behavior change. PMID:27749586
Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele
According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.
Aller, T A
Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844
Verma, Ajai; Verma, Abhishek
The association between myopia and high intelligence has been the subject of much vexed debate in academic circles, particularly over the last two decades. This debate has risen from the observation that, over recent centuries, the prevalence of myopia amongst most populations has coincided with a marked increase in the average level of intelligence in these populations. The relationship between myopia and intelligence and theories surrounding this association is examined by the authors. Additionally, the various factors that confound the myopia and high intelligence debate, such as genetics, educational levels, ethnicity, and environmental factors were also explored by the authors. Whilst most studies found a positive correlation reaching statistical significance between myopia and high intelligence compared to emmetropes and hyperopes, further research is required to determine whether this association is causal.
Miller, E M
A pleiotropic relationship between intelligence and myopia has been shown to exist. Large eyes (as measured by axial length) have been shown to lead to myopia, and large brains have been shown to be more intelligent. I hypothesized that the myopia/intelligence relationship could arise because a single genetically controlled mechanism affects both brain size and eye size. This hypothesis has testable implications.
Saw, S M; Gazzard, G; Au Eong, K-G; Tan, D T H
Previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of several interventions to decrease the progression of myopia. These include devices that alter the perception of the visual environment and pharmacological treatments. There is no conclusive evidence thus far that alteration of the pattern of spectacle wear, bifocals, ocular hypotensives, or contact lenses retards the progression of myopia. Several randomised clinical trials have demonstrated that the rate of progression of myopia is lower in children given atropine eye drops than those given placebo. However, atropine is associated with short term side effects such as photophobia and possible long term adverse events including light induced retinal damage and cataract formation. Other more selective antimuscarinic agents such as pirenzipine are presently being evaluated. Further well conducted randomised clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow up designed to evaluate treatments to retard the progression of myopia should be conducted, since the identification of an effective intervention may have a greater public health impact on the burden and morbidity from myopia than the few treatments currently available. PMID:12386095
Cohn, S J; Cohn, C M; Jensen, A R
The well-established association between myopia and superior intelligence in the general population was investigated in a group of intellectually gifted children and their less gifted full siblings to determine whether the relationship of myopia to psychometric intelligence is consistent with the hypothesis of pleiotropy, i.e., both characteristics are affected by the same gene or set of genes. Failure to find a difference in degree of myopia, assessed as a metric variable, between intellectually gifted and nongifted siblings would contradict pleiotropy. A variety of possible causal pathways, both genetic and environmental, have been hypothesized in the literature to explain the relationship between intelligence and myopia, and these still cannot be ruled out. It is theoretically noteworthy, however, in view of the independent evidence for the considerable heritability of both intelligence and myopia, that the highly significant gifted-nongifted sibling difference in myopia found in the present study is consistent with the hypothesis that intelligence and myopia are related pleiotropically.
Ganesan, Prema; Wildsoet, Christine F
Myopia is the result of a mismatch between the optical power and the length of the eye, with the latter being too long. Driving the research in this field is the need to develop myopia treatments that can limit axial elongation. When axial elongation is excessive, as in high myopia, there is an increased risk of visual impairment and blindness due to ensuing pathologies such as retinal detachments. This article covers both clinical studies involving myopic children, and studies involving animal models for myopia. Atropine, a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, has been studied most extensively in both contexts. Because it remains the only drug used in a clinical setting, it is a major focus of the first part of this article, which also covers the many shortcomings of topical ophthalmic atropine. The second part of this article focuses on in vitro and animal-based drug studies, which encompass a range of drug targets including the retina, retinal pigment epithelium and sclera. While the latter studies have contributed to a better understanding of how eye growth is regulated, no new antimyopia drug treatments have reached the clinical setting. Less conservative approaches in research, and in particular, the exploration of new bioengineering approaches for drug delivery, are needed to advance this field. PMID:21258611
Greene, Peter R.; Grill, Zachary W.; Medina, Antonio
Experimental design phase of a pilot study at Annapolis is described, using reading glasses, +1.5 D. to +3.0 D. to alleviate college myopia. College students often become 1.0 to 2.0 diopters more myopic, so reading glasses were explored to partially cancel the effects of the study environment. N = 25 different sets of (+)Add lenses are evaluated, for required adjustment period and reading comfort. Three computer models are developed to predict refraction versus time. Basic control system equations predict exponential myopia shift of refractive state R(t) with time constant t0 = 100 days. Linear, exponential and Gompertz computer results are compared calculating refraction R(t) during the college years, showing correlation coefficients |r| = 0.96 to 0.97, accurate +/−0.31 D. over a 14 year interval. Typical college myopia rate is −0.3 to −0.4 D/yr. Reading glasses may be a simple, practical solution to stabilize college myopia. PMID:26709316
Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.
Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise
Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.
Alcohol expectancies and inhibition conflict as moderators of the alcohol-unprotected sex relationship: Event-level findings from a daily diary study among individuals living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa
Kiene, Susan M.; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise
Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals’ ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol. PMID:26280530
Lindinger, Nadine M.; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Dodge, Neil C.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.
Background Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to understand and make inferences about other people’s intentions, feelings, and beliefs. Although children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are known to have deficits in social-cognitive function, little is known about ToM in FASD. Methods ToM ability was assessed using a developmentally sensitive ToM battery, including the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) test, a measure of mental inferential ability that has been found to be impaired in other clinical populations. IQ and executive function (EF) were assessed as potential mediating variables. The battery was administered to 63 children (aged 9–11 years) from Cape Town, South Africa, whose mothers had been prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS; n=8) and partial FAS (PFAS; n=19), as well as nonsyndromal heavily exposed children (HE; n=17), were compared to children born to abstaining or light drinkers (n=19) from the same community. Results No FASD group differences were found on the less challenging ToM tasks. By contrast, children with FAS and PFAS performed more poorly than controls on a more challenging ToM task, the RME test. A continuous measure of prenatal alcohol exposure was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis in that it was related to four higher-order ToM measures, particularly the ability to attribute mental states assessed on RME. IQ only partially mediated the effect of exposure on RME performance, and these effects were not mediated by EF. Hence, the data suggest that these ToM measures tap into a specific alcohol-related social-cognitive deficit that does not merely reflect poorer EF. FASD diagnosis and prenatal alcohol exposure were each also related to RME after control for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in higher-order ToM function may play a significant role in the social-cognitive behavioural impairment in FASD. PMID
Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan
We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.
Rosner, M; Belkin, M
We conducted a nationwide study of the relationship among refractive error, intelligence scores, and years of schooling in 157,748 males aged 17 to 19 years. We found a strong association of myopia with both intelligence and years of school attendance. The prevalence of myopia was found to be significantly higher in the more intelligent and more educated groups. By fitting models of logistic regressions, we worked out a formula expressing the relationship among the rate of myopia, years of schooling, and intelligence level. We found that years of schooling and intelligence weigh equally in the relationship with myopia.
Tay, Su Ann; Farzavandi, Sonal; Tan, Donald
Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.
Dolezalová, V; Mottlová, D
The objective of the investigation to confirm the authors experience and data from the literature that refractory myopia is as a rule associated with a higher of intelligence. In the first part one of the authors evaluated a group of 14-year-old myopic children with hypermetropia children of the same age. For evaluation she used the intelligence quotient (IQ) and assessment by teachers before the children left elementary school. The results are clearly in flavour of the myopia children. In the second part the authors evaluated the intelligence of 15-18-year-old myopic secondary school pupils as compared with their classmates. Assuring that myopia is usually associated with higher intelligence and makes thus more profound education possible, they compared the students with apprentires trained to be cooks and waiters. The myopic students won again. Arong students there were 36.8% myopic, among appretices only 8%. The mean progress of students is 1.99, of apprentices only 2.68%. The myopic students have a general better progress and better marks in mathematics than their classmates without refractory defects (1.86:2.07 and 2.14:2.39). Based on the results of the investigation the authors assume that they were able to confirm data in the literature that myopic students are on average more intelligent that their poors of the same age.
Oei, T P; Burrow, T
Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.
Yu, Lei; Li, Zhi-Kui; Gao, Jin-Rong; Liu, Jian-Rong; Xu, Chang-Tai
Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence is increasing over time and genetic factors in disease development are important. The prevalence and incidence of myopia within sampled population often varies with age, country, sex, race, ethnicity, occupation, environment, and other factors. Myopia growth is under a combination of genes and their products in time and space to complete the coordination role of the guidance. Myopia-related genes include about 70 genetic loci to which primary myopias have been mapped, although the number is constantly increasing and depends to some extent on definition. Of these, several are associated with additional abnormalities, mostly as part of developmental syndromes. These tend to result from mutations in genes encoding transcriptional activators, and most of these have been identified by sequencing candidate genes in patients with developmental anomalies. Currently, COL1A1 (collagen alpha-1 chain of type I), COL2A1 (collagen alpha-1 chain of type II), ACTC1 (actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1), PAX6 (paired box gene 6) and NIPBL (nipped-B homolog), and so on have been mapped. Myopia is most commonly treated with spectacles or glasses. The most common surgical procedure performed to correct myopia is laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This review of the recent advances on epidemiology, genetic locations and treatments of myopia are summarized. PMID:22553740
Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J
Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side
Tan, Donald; Tay, Su Ann; Loh, Kai-Lyn; Chia, Audrey
Efforts to reduce myopia progression in childhood are driven by the increasing incidence of high myopia and its attendant health risks. Interventional approaches to reduce myopia progression in childhood have included the use of spectacles, contact lens, and pharmacological methods, of which the latter appear to be most promising. We review the use of topical atropine eye drops in the retardation of myopia progression in children and discuss the efficacy and safety profiles when used at different concentrations (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01%). Topical atropine reduces myopia progression and axial elongation in children in a dose-related manner, but a rebound phenomenon occurs with higher doses. Its use has been shown to be safe, but higher doses cause pupil dilation, loss of accommodation and near vision. Atropine 0.01% has the best therapeutic index, with clinically insignificant amounts of pupil dilation, near vision, and accommodation loss but remains as effective as higher doses.
Lange, James E
Identification of ambiguous behaviors may be affected by alcohol first by the activation of associated mental representations and second by an increase in the imbiber's motivation of need for closure (NFC; A. Kruglanski, 1989), because cognitive effort is increased for epistemic activities. Combined, these effects should increase correspondence between mental representations of alcohol and the identification of others' behaviors. Three studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results were consistent with this hypothesis: Participants who associated alcohol with amiable concepts perceived less aggressive intent when blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were high versus low. Alternatively, those who associated alcohol with aggressive concepts perceived the same or more aggressive intent when BACs were high versus low. Priming alcohol concepts and trait-level NFC were also sufficient to replicate these effects.
Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W
Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.
Ramos, Diana; Perkins, Daniel F.
The authors conducted an investigation of The Pennsylvania State University's Alcohol Intervention Program Level 2 (AIP2) to determine goodness of fit of the program components and its underpinning theories. They determined that the Health Belief Model, Social Norms Theory, Social Learning Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change…
Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.
The concept of adult children of alcoholics (ACoA) has received wide public recognition and acceptance. An ACoA is defined as any adult who, as a child, was reared by one or two alcoholic parents. To date research has not sufficiently addressed the many questions generated by the grass roots movement, such as whether or not adult children of…
Rose, Kathryn Ailsa; French, Amanda Nicole; Morgan, Ian George
The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of East Asia will take these children to the threshold for high myopia in 5 to 6 years. This high myopia seems to be acquired, having an association with educational parameters, whereas high myopia in previous generations tended to be genetic in origin. Increased time outdoors can counter the effects of increased nearwork and reduce the impact of parental myopia, reducing the onset of myopia, and this approach has been validated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Other proposed risk factors need further work to demonstrate that they are independent and can be modified to reduce the onset of myopia.
Lwin, May O; Saw, Seang-Mei
This research examined the predictive utility of the protection motivation theory (PMT) model for myopia prevention amongst children. An integrative model for myopia prevention behavior of parents was first developed in the context of theory and survey instruments then refined using information gathered from two focus groups. Empirical data then was collected from parents of primary school children in Singapore, a country with one of the highest rates of myopia in the world, and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Our findings revealed that coping appraisal variables were more significantly associated with protection motivation, relative to threat appraisal variables. In particular, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of parental intention to enforce good visual health behaviors, while perceived severity was relatively weak. Health marketing communications and public policy implications are discussed.
McMillan, Norman D.; Slade, Ivan
Darwin's seminal work 'Origin of Species' immediately attracted the 19th Century scholar John Tyndall. Darwin's book was, and is, a hypothetical and metaphysical treatise but it has great explanatory power. The cryptically named 'X Club'-9 members, including Tyndall-was formed to defend Darwin's outrageous ideas. Tyndall's responsibilities within this X-Club were to support Darwin's theory through experimental studies in solar physics and chemistry. Research was, of course, directed at understanding the physical basis of life on earth. The studies founded modern meteorological sciences, nephelometry and bacteriology (pace, Pasteur). This current essay details some of the historical background of Tyndall's work in natural philosophy; allowing the value of Tyndall's work to be assessed more objectively. Also it evaluates their respective contributions to the founding of this different way of looking at the world. The work of Tyndall at the 1868 Norwich 'British Association for the Advancement of Science' (BAAS) Meeting and the later internationally explosive 1874 Belfast BAAS meeting are examined in the light of his research. Some amplification of Tyndall's works both philosophically and historically is attempted.
... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Holden, B; Sankaridurg, P; Smith, E; Aller, T; Jong, M; He, M
Myopia is the most frequent cause of distance impairment in the world and is creating an alarming global epidemic with deleterious ramifications for the quality of life and economic health of individuals and nations as a whole. In addition to being immediately disadvantageous, myopia increases the risk of serious disorders such as myopic macular degeneration, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and cataract and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness across many countries. The reduction in age of onset of myopia is of great concern since the earlier the onset, the more myopic the individual will become, with all the attendant increased risks of accompanying debilitating eye conditions. The economic burden is great; both in consequences of uncorrected refractive error and also in the provision of devices for correcting visual acuity. Earlier onset of myopia increases the lifetime economic burden related to loss of productivity and independence, leading to a reduced quality of life. Recent data suggest addressing accommodation per se has little direct amelioration of myopia progression. Pharmacological interventions that effect changes in the sclera show promising efficacy, whereas optical interventions based on a myopic shift in the retinal image are proving to effect up to 55% reduction in the rate of progression of myopia. Early contact lens and spectacle interventions that reduce the rate of progression of myopia are able to significantly reduce the burden of myopia. These non-pharmacological interventions show profound promise in reducing the overall associated morbidity of myopia.
DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert
Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory.
Swinger, C A
Interest in the surgical correction of myopia is increasing. At the present time, two procedures are clinically employed: radial keratotomy and myopic keratomileusis. The two techniques are described, and a detailed clinical comparison is presented.
... Disorder KidsHealth: Your Child's Vision Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center MalaCards: deafness and myopia My Baby's ... 5 links) Alexander Graham Bell Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing March of Dimes: Hearing ...
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...
ZHANG, XIAOYU; QU, XINHUA; ZHOU, XINGTAO
The association between parental myopia and a child's risk of developing the condition is not well understood. Therefore, the present study conducted a meta-analysis of the results of observational studies in order to investigate the association between myopia in parents and their child's risk of developing the condition. The current study systematically examined the databases MEDLINE, Embase and Ovid for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently evaluated the data and extracted the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from the suitable studies. Heterogeneity, publication bias and subgroup analyses were performed. The present meta-analysis included 31,677 participants from 16 studies with 8,393 cases of myopia (six prospective cohort, eight cross-sectional and two case-control studies). The OR of giving birth to a child with myopia, according to the prospective cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.21–1.85), 1.96 (95% CI, 1.53–2.39), and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.79–2.46), respectively, when one parent had myopia, and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.42–2.77), 2.96 (95% CI, 2.21–3.71), and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.79–2.46), respectively, when two parents had myopia. The current study identified a significant positive association between parental myopia and a child's risk of developing myopia. Children of two parents with myopia had a higher risk of developing myopia compared to those with one myopic parent. PMID:26136998
Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia
Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p < .01). The study confirms that alcohol use and driving under the influence of alcohol are highly prevalent in Spanish young people, and some gender differences exist in these behaviors (p < .01). Furthermore, the study confirms the validity of theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.
... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...
With the development of information technology and urbanization, the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children is rising each year, meanwhile, there appears to be some cognitive and behavioral misunderstanding about the prevention and treatment of myopia now. To control the development of myopia, we should make efforts to focus on prevention of myopia, promote scientific ways of diagnosis and treatment, as well as implement integrated project.
Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.
This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…
AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS by Carlos S. Cabello December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRONING ON: AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS 5...the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which
Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Vasudevan, Balamurali
Myopia is a worldwide public health problem. However, its understanding is incomplete, and many of its preventative and therapeutic aspects remain controversial. Nearwork is a primary, environmentally based factor in the aetiology of permanent myopia (PM), with nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) being a possible contributory component. A relationship between PM and NITM has been suggested, but that connection has remained somewhat indirect and elusive. However, based on recent converging evidence from clinical, laboratory and modelling studies, a five-fold argument will be advanced for a possible link between PM and NITM.
Tsybul'ska, T Ie
A retrospective analysis of 70 patients with mild myopia to assess the impact of functional methods of treatment on the progression of myopia in children. Revealed that the maximum effect in the form of increase in non-corrected visual acuity by 1.5 times, reduce clinical refraction by 1.6 times, increase reserves of accommodation by 2.7 times and stock of relative accommodation by 2.1 times observed after the first course of functional treatment in patients with myopia, accompanied by spasm of accommodation. Repeated courses of functional treatment do not affect the clinical refraction and axial length of the eyeball and can be recommended mostly to improve the performance of the ciliary muscle.
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)
Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz
Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017
Davis, Kelly Cue; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Morrison, Diane M.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.
Objective This study is a novel investigation of 1) the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict men’s condom use resistance (CUR; i.e., attempts to avoid condom use with a partner who wants to use one) and 2) the effects of alcohol on endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs. Methods Using an alcohol administration protocol, a between- and within-subjects experiment was conducted with a community sample of 312 young male non-problem drinkers who have sex with women. After assessing endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs (e.g., attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, control, and intentions) in a sober state, beverage condition was experimentally manipulated between subjects and endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs was reassessed. Results Analyses included repeated measures MANOVAs with beverage condition (no alcohol vs. alcohol) as the between-subjects factor and time (pre-beverage vs. post-beverage) as the within-subjects factor. Between-subjects, intoxicated participants reported significantly stronger CUR intentions, more favorable CUR attitudes and normative perceptions, and greater CUR self-efficacy than sober participants. There were significant within-subject changes for CUR intentions, attitudes, normative perceptions, and self-efficacy. Neither between- nor within-subjects effects were found for CUR control. An exploratory multi-group path analysis indicated that the relationships among the TPB-CUR constructs were similar for alcohol and no alcohol groups. Conclusions Findings indicated that alcohol intoxication increased men’s CUR intentions and self-efficacy and led to more positive CUR attitudes and norms, yet had no effect on CUR control. Future research should examine whether there are similar effects of intoxication on TPB constructs related to other sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26348499
Miyake, Masahiro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Suda, Kenji; Morooka, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Chen, Peng; Qiao, Fan; Nakata, Isao; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Meguro, Akira; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Polasek, Ozen; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Richardson, Andrea J; Schache, Maria; Takeuchi, Masaki; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Cuellar, Gabriel; Shi, Yi; Huang, Luling; Yang, Zhenglin; Leung, Kim Hung; Kao, Patrick Y P; Yap, Maurice K H; Yip, Shea Ping; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; MacGregor, Stuart; Vitart, Veronique; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Baird, Paul N; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
Myopia can cause severe visual impairment. Here, we report a two-stage genome-wide association study for three myopia-related traits in 9,804 Japanese individuals, which was extended with trans-ethnic replication in 2,674 Chinese and 2,690 Caucasian individuals. We identify WNT7B as a novel susceptibility gene for axial length (rs10453441, Pmeta=3.9 × 10(-13)) and corneal curvature (Pmeta=2.9 × 10(-40)) and confirm the previously reported association between GJD2 and myopia. WNT7B significantly associates with extreme myopia in a case-control study with 1,478 Asian patients and 4,689 controls (odds ratio (OR)meta=1.13, Pmeta=0.011). We also find in a mouse model of myopia downregulation of WNT7B expression in the cornea and upregulation in the retina, suggesting its possible role in the development of myopia.
Cassagne, M; Malecaze, F; Soler, V
Myopia is the most frequent refractive disorder in the world. It has become a real Public Health problem, due to its frequency and to high myopia-related blinding complications. Myopic progression depends on genetic and environmental factors. Genetic studies have identified more than forty candidate genes that take part in pathophysiological pathways, from retinal phototransduction to axial lengthening via scleral remodelling. Environmental factors also influence scleral remodelling by way of visual perception. In the case of predominant attention to near tasks, a physiological feedback loop leads to axial growth. This phenomenon, called active emmetropization, is particularly obvious in animal models and in some human populations. To date, research has failed to identify a molecule common to all the implicated metabolic pathways which could be a target for an effective preventive treatment against myopic progression.
Adenuga, Olukorede O.
High anisometropic myopia is a rare condition in twins. Genetic factors have been implicated in its development and there may be an association with vision-threatening complications. A pair of 11-year-old twins presented with poor distance vision in both eyes. Detailed ocular examination was performed including slit lamp examination, dilated funduscopy, cycloplegic refraction, keratometry and axial length measurement. The objective refraction was -6.50DS -2.00DC × 180 (right eye), -1.00DS (left eye) for the first twin; -13.75DS -2.25DC × 180 (right eye), -0.50DS -0.75DC × 04 (left eye) for the second twin. This case suggests an underlying genetic defect in the development of myopia. PMID:25100917
Ruiz, Michael J.
Most eyeglass prescriptions are given for patients with one of two common visual problems: myopia and hyperopia. Myopia is the condition where the eye cannot clearly focus on far objects; e.g., one can't easily see the blackboard from the back of the room. Hyperopia refers to problems seeing close up, e.g., difficulty reading the newspaper. Physics enables us to estimate the prescription of eyeglasses quickly from data anyone can gather. The beauty of the method derives from the fact that you do not need to know anything about the detailed structure of the eye's compound lens system and biological media. This is due to the fact that eyeglasses are corrective.
Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Dong Wook
Two studies are reported using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict and explain joining and not joining alcohol-related social gatherings among Korean undergraduates in various engineering majors. Specifically, considering that the attitudinal component of TPB is behavioral-outcome-based, the current study investigated whether the outcomes of engaging in a behavior and of not engaging in a behavior would similarly predict intentions to engage in a behavior and intentions to not engage in a behavior. The current study also examined whether intentions to engage and intentions to not engage would be significantly related to self-reported behavior a week later. Participants in Study 1 reported TPB components (attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions) concerning joining alcohol-related social gatherings. Participants in Study 2 reported TPB components concerning not joining alcohol-related social gatherings. Additionally, a week later, the participants in both studies reported their participation in alcohol-related social gatherings from the past week. Generally, the results showed that the TPB components were significantly associated with undergraduates' intentions to join and intentions to not join. Specifically, conversation-related attitudes and senior-junior relationship-related attitudes were significantly related to intentions to join, and only group-related attitudes were significantly related to intentions to not join. Intentions to join and intentions to not join were not significantly related to self-reported behavior of joining alcohol-related social gatherings a week later. The findings from the current research provide some evidence that joining or not joining alcohol-related social gatherings may not be mere behavioral opposites, predictable by the presence or absence of the same behavioral outcomes. These two aspects of the behavior may require assessment of different behavioral
Krumeich, J H; Swinger, C A
We developed a procedure for preparing epikeratophakia tissue lenses for the correction of myopia from unfrozen tissue using a newly developed artificial anterior chamber and the BKS-1000 (Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger) refractive set. The results of 23 clinical cases involving tissue that was not frozen or lyophilized demonstrate a correlation coefficient of 0.90 in terms of accuracy of correction and good visual acuity results.
Li, Honghui; Wu, Juan; Cui, Dongmei; Zeng, Junwen
The present study investigated the retinal and choroidal expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in myopia and in myopia recovery in a guinea pig model. For this investigation, two groups of guinea pigs, lens‑induced myopia and recovery from myopia, were used, and defocused myopia was induced the guinea pigs wearing ‑4.00 D lenses on the right eyes for 3 weeks, with the left eyes serving as the contralateral. In the following week, the lenses of the guinea pigs in the recovery group were removed, and the refractive power and axial length were measured. The expression of BMP‑2 in the eyeballs was observed using immunohistochemistry and analyzed using Western blot analysis. After 3 weeks, the eyes acquired relative myopia and longer axial lengths in the two groups of guinea pigs. After 1 week without lenses in the recovery group, the myopia and axial lengths regressed. Immunofluorescence staining showed that BMP‑2 was expressed in the posterior retina, RPE, choroid and sclera. The expression of BMP‑2 decreased in the myopic retina of the guinea pigs. Following the regression of myopia in the recovery group, no difference in the expression of BMP‑2 was observed between the recovered treated eyes and the contralateral eyes. The choroidal expression level of BMP‑2 in the treated eyes showed no significant changes in either group. Therefore, BMP‑2 may be involved in the development of myopia, however, it does not have a primary role in the retinal and choroidal signals regulating scleral remodeling.
Ayaki, Masahiko; Torii, Hidemasa; Tsubota, Kazuo; Negishi, Kazuno
The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality in myopic children and adults. This cross sectional study surveyed 486 participants aged from 10 to 59 years with refractive errors using a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Children (< 20 years) in the high myopia group exhibited the poorest PSQI scores (P < 0.01), while the adults showed no such correlations. Subscales of PSQI and HADS in children disclosed that the high myopia groups had the shortest sleep duration (P < 0.01), worst subjective sleep scores (P < 0.001), and latest bedtime (P < 0.05). Regression analyses in children significantly correlated myopic errors with PSQI (P < 0.05), sleep duration (P < 0.01), and bedtime (P < 0.01). Sleep efficacy (P < 0.05) and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05) were significantly better in contact-lens users compared to the respective non-user groups across all participants. In conclusion, sleep quality in children was significantly correlated with myopic error, with the high myopia group worst affected. PMID:27650408
This explorative study used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to develop a substantive theory regarding the life experience of the misuse of alcohol among midlife and older lesbians. The core category in this study is represented by the overarching process of "Disconnecting from their Authentic Selves." Professional health care providers may better be able to understand and assist midlife and older lesbians who misuse alcohol by being aware of their life experience with alcohol problems and the concepts they have described. A theoretical model is presented as a visual representation of the key concepts described in this paper and their interrelationships.
Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S
The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect. The stages of the drug involvement model form the basis for prevention programs providing early intervention directed at the so-called gateway drugs.Among the communications models, the health promotion concept advocates a comprehensive approach in developing health
Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Vingerling, Johannes R; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W
Myopia is a complex inherited ocular trait resulting from an interplay of genes and environmental factors, most of which are currently unknown. In two independent population-based cohorts consisting of 5,256 and 3,938 individuals from European descent, we tested for biological interaction between genetic predisposition and level of education on the risk of myopia. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 26 myopia-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms recently discovered by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia. Educational level was obtained by questionnaire and categorized into primary, intermediate, and higher education. Refractive error was measured during a standardized ophthalmological examination. Biological interaction was assessed by calculation of the synergy index. Individuals at high genetic risk in combination with university-level education had a remarkably high risk of myopia (OR 51.3; 95 % CI 18.5-142.6), while those at high genetic risk with only primary schooling were at a much lower increased risk of myopia (OR 7.2, 95 % CI 3.1-17.0). The combined effect of genetic predisposition and education on the risk of myopia was far higher than the sum of these two effects (synergy index 4.2, 95 % CI 1.9-9.5). This epidemiological study provides evidence of a gene-environment interaction in which an individual's genetic risk of myopia is significantly affected by his or her educational level.
Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S
The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950
Teasdale, T W; Fuchs, J; Goldschmidt, E
Intelligence test scores and educational levels were compared for 5943 myopic and 9891 non-myopic 18-year-old men being drafted for military service in Denmark. The former were grouped by degree of myopia, in the range -0.25 diopters (D) to -7.75 D, according to the power of correcting lenses required. Myopes of all degrees had significantly higher test scores and educational levels than non-myopes. However, the relation of these two variables to degree of myopia was not linear; for both variables there were no significant differences among myopia groups in the range -2.0 to -7.75 D. Whereas factors associated with intelligence and education seem to be important in triggering the onset of myopia, they seem to be much less important in determining the degree to which myopia progresses.
Jones, Lisa A.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, Gladys L.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla
PURPOSE To identify whether parental history of myopia and/or parent-reported children’s visual activity levels can predict juvenile-onset myopia. METHODS Survey-based data from Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia subjects from 1989 to 2001 were used to predict future myopia. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Differences among the areas under the ROC curves were compared using the method of multiple comparison with the best. RESULTS Of the 514 children eligible for this analysis, 111 (21.6%) became myopic. Differences in the third grade between eventual myopes and nonmyopes were seen for the number of myopic parents (P < 0.001) and for the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week (11.65 ± 6.97 hours for nonmyopes vs. 7.98 ± 6.54 hours for future myopes, P < 0.001). Analysis of the areas under the ROC curves showed three variables with a predictive value better than chance: the number of myopic parents, the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week, and the number of reading hours per week. After controlling for sports and outdoor hours per week and parental myopia history, reading hours per week was no longer a statistically significant factor. The area under the curve for the parental myopia history and sports and outdoor activities model was 0.73. A significant interaction in the logistic model showed a differential effect of sport and outdoor activity hours per week based on a child’s number of myopic parents. CONCLUSIONS Parental history of myopia was an important predictor in univariate and multivariate models, with a differential effect of sports and outdoor activity hours per week based on the number of myopic parents. Lower amounts of sports and outdoor activity increased the odds of becoming myopic in those children with two myopic parents more than in those children with either zero or one myopic parent. The chance of becoming
Montero, Javier A; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose M
High myopia affects approximately 2% of general population, and is a major cause of legal blindness in many developed countries. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the most common vision-threatening complication of high myopia. Different therapeutic approaches have been attempted such as thermal laser photocoagulation, surgery and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT). The visual outcome of these therapies has been reported to be better than the natural history of the condition. However, the limited visual acuity improvement after PDT monotherapy and the appearance of subretinal fibrosis and chorioretinal atrophy prompted the association of other therapies. In the past few years a tremendous advance in the knowledge of the mechanisms underling CNV secondary to high myopia and age related macular degeneration has been achieved, leading to new therapeutic targets and novel drugs and combined therapies. These new therapeutic weapons have been designed to achieve a selective shut down of choroidal new vessels. Recent reviews have been published on the natural history and therapies for myopic CNV. Ohno-Matsui reported on the natural history of the condition as well as the outcome of laser photocoagulation, surgical extraction of CNV, foveal translocation and photodynamic therapy on myopic CNV in the short-term. Soubrane et al reviewed the new advances on surgery, laser photocoagulation and PDT, considering some of the potential effects of triamcinolone, pegaptanib and ranibizumab in CNV secondary to age related macular degeneration (AMD). Novack et al reported on the pharmacological therapy of CNV in AMD. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent advances in myopic CNV pathophysiology and the new therapeutic targets and drugs that are changing the clinical management of myopic CNV.
Irish, G G
The acquisition and divestiture of organizational business units demonstrate management's strategy in response to an evolving marketplace. From a strategic perspective, the most significant danger to a corporation is not having the "right" portfolio of businesses or products to respond to the marketplace. This article describes a conceptual model that a multihospital system executive might use to determine the growth and diversification of the organization's portfolio of businesses. The model involves the application of market, financial, and microeconomic theories in a logical sequence to assist management in making business acquisition and divestiture decisions.
GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; PARRA, M. Margarita; MERAYO-LLOVES, Jesus; LARREA, Jaime; JULIAN RODRIGUEZ, Carlos; CAMACHO, Paul Anthony
Atropine has been used for more than a century to arrest myopia progression. Compelling evidence of its protective effect has been reported in well-designed clinical studies, mainly performed during the last two decades. However, its exact mechanism of action has not been determined. Experimental findings have shown that the mechanism is not related to accommodation, as was thought for decades. A review of the published literature revealed a significant amount of evidence supporting its safety and efficacy at a concentration of 1.0%, and at lower concentrations (as low as 0.01%). PMID:28293653
According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use.
Kloss, Bethany A.; Tompson, Stuart W.; Whisenhunt, Kristina N.; Quow, Krystina L.; Huang, Samuel J.; Pavelec, Derek M.; Rosenberg, Thomas; Young, Terri L.
Purpose To identify causal gene mutations in 14 families with autosomal dominant (AD) high myopia using exome sequencing. Methods Select individuals from 14 large Caucasian families with high myopia were exome sequenced. Gene variants were filtered to identify potential pathogenic changes. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm variants in original DNA, and to test for disease cosegregation in additional family members. Candidate genes and chromosomal loci previously associated with myopic refractive error and its endophenotypes were comprehensively screened. Results In 14 high myopia families, we identified 73 rare and 31 novel gene variants as candidates for pathogenicity. In seven of these families, two of the novel and eight of the rare variants were within known myopia loci. A total of 104 heterozygous nonsynonymous rare variants in 104 genes were identified in 10 out of 14 probands. Each variant cosegregated with affection status. No rare variants were identified in genes known to cause myopia or in genes closest to published genome-wide association study association signals for refractive error or its endophenotypes. Conclusions Whole exome sequencing was performed to determine gene variants implicated in the pathogenesis of AD high myopia. This study provides new genes for consideration in the pathogenesis of high myopia, and may aid in the development of genetic profiling of those at greatest risk for attendant ocular morbidities of this disorder. PMID:28384719
Wall, Anne-Marie; Thrussell, Christine; Lalonde, Richard N
According to social-learning theory, alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs) are important motivators of drinking behavior that are reinforced, in part, as a result of one's direct experience with alcohol's intoxicating effects. To date, limited research has been conducted in naturalistic bar settings to examine the congruency between AOEs held prior to drinking and individuals' subjective perceptions of post-drinking outcomes. The present study was designed to fill this void. Fifty regular bar patrons (30 males and 20 females) participated. Prior to the initiation of the drinking episode, expected alcohol effects and associated valences were assessed using the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (CEOA) questionnaire [Fromme, Stroot, and Kaplan, (1993) 19]. At the conclusion of the drinking episode, all individuals completed the CEOA that was modified in order to assess their subjective alcohol-related outcomes. Overall, while individuals' intoxicated outcomes generally mirrored their pre-drinking AOEs, a lack of congruency was observed with respect to alcohol-related risk and aggression, such that participants reported feeling less aggressive and more disinclined to engage in risky behavior than they had expected as a result of consuming alcohol. As well, two presumably negative (i.e., behavioral impairment and self-perception) and one positive (i.e., liquid courage) alcohol-related outcomes were rated more favorably at the end of the drinking episode. Finally, a main effect for gender was found for specific AOEs. The implications of these findings for social-learning explanations of drinking behavior are discussed.
Background Many efforts have been invested in slowing progression of myopia. Among the methods, atropine administration and orthokeratology (OK) are most widely used. This study analyzed the efficacy of atropine and OK lens in controlling myopia progression and elongation of axial length. Methods This retrospective study included 105 patients (210 eyes) who wore OK lenses and 105 patients (210 eyes) who applied 0.125% atropine every night during the 3 following period. Student t-test, linear regression analysis, repeated measure ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results The change in axial length per year was 0.28 ± 0.08 mm, 0.30 ± 0.09 mm, and 0.27 ± 0.10 mm in the OK lens group, and 0.38 ± 0.09 mm, 0.37 ± 0.12 mm, and 0.36 ± 0.08 mm in the atropine group for years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed an increase in myopia of 0.28 D and 0.34 D per year, and an increase in axial length of 0.28 mm and 0.37 mm per year in the OK lens and atropine groups, respectively. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences in myopia (p = 0.001) and axial length (p < 0.001) between the atropine and OK lens groups; in astigmatism, there was no significant difference in these parameters (p = 0.320). Comparison of increases in axial length in relation to baseline myopia showed significant correlations both in the OK lens group (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.259; p < 0.001) and atropine group (r = 0.169; p = 0.014). High myopia patients benefited more from both OK lenses and atropine than did low myopia patients. The correlation of baseline myopia and myopia progression was stronger in the OK lens group then in the atropine group. Conclusions OK lens is a useful method for controlling myopia progression even in high myopia patients. PMID:24685184
Stone, Richard A.; Cohen, Yuval; McGlinn, Alice M.; Davison, Sherrill; Casavant, Susan; Shaffer, James; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael
Purpose The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. Methods Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather. Control chicks were reared indoors with incandescent lighting. Besides ocular refraction and ultrasound, we determined dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content in retina and vitreous and measured mRNA expression levels of selected clock and circadian rhythm-related genes in the retina/RPE. Results Myopia developed in the goggled eyes of all cohorts. Whereas outdoor rearing lessened myopia by 44% at 4 days, a protective effect was no longer evident at 11 days. Outdoor rearing had no consistent effect on retinal or vitreous content of dopamine or DOPAC. Conforming to prior data on form-deprivation myopia, retina and vitreous levels of DOPAC were reduced in goggled eyes. Compared with contralateral eyes, the retinal expression of clock and circadian rhythm-related genes was modestly altered in myopic eyes of chicks reared indoors or outdoors. Conclusions Outdoor rearing of chicks induces only a partial decrease of goggle-induced myopia that is not maintained, without evidence that retinal dopamine metabolism accounts for the partial myopia inhibition under these outdoor conditions. Although modest, alterations in retinal gene expression suggest that studying circadian signals might be informative for understanding refractive mechanisms. PMID:27618415
Williams, Katie M.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Mahroo, Omar A.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.
Myopia, or near-sightedness, is our most common eye condition and the prevalence is increasing globally. Visual impairment will occur if uncorrected, whilst high myopia causes sight-threatening complications. Myopia is associated with higher intelligence. As both are heritable, we set out to examine whether there is a genetic correlation between myopia and intelligence in over 1,500 subjects (aged 14–18 years) from a twin birth cohort. The phenotypic correlation between refractive error and intelligence was −0.116 (p < 0.01) - the inverse correlation due to the fact that myopia is a negative refractive error. Bivariate twin modeling confirmed both traits were heritable (refractive error 85%, intelligence 47%) and the genetic correlation was −0.143 (95% CI −0.013 to −0.273). Of the small phenotypic correlation the majority (78%) was explained by genetic factors. Polygenic risk scores were constructed based on common genetic variants identified in previous genome-wide association studies of refractive error and intelligence. Genetic variants for intelligence and refractive error explain some of the reciprocal variance, suggesting genetic pleiotropy; in the best-fit model the polygenic score for intelligence explained 0.99% (p = 0.008) of refractive error variance. These novel findings indicate shared genetic factors contribute significantly to the covariance between myopia and intelligence. PMID:28383074
Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Atheeshwar, Shweta; Chandrasekar, Mathangi D.
Myopia is amongst the most common refractive errors in the world. Both environmental and genetic factors are attributed to its causation, however all factors contributing to the development of myopia is yet to be found. Recent studies show presence of sex hormone receptor in the eyes. This has been shown to have a role in the development of various ocular pathologies. The second to fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) has been hypothesised to be determined by exposure to sex steroids prenatally and thus considered a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure. Hence this study was initiated to assess the association between myopia and 2D:4D ratio (a proxy marker to prenatal sex steroid exposure) among 100 medical college students of either sex and explore the possibility of role of prenatal sex steroids in causation of myopia. This study showed significant negative associations between myopia and digit ratio favouring a probable causal role of sex steroids on eye growth and development of myopia. PMID:24587043
Kerber, Kristen L.; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.
Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5 ± 2.6 years) emmetropes (n = 17; group SE: +0.19 ± 0.32D) and myopes (n = 25; group SE: −3.74 ± 1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p < 0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028
Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David
In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…
Lewis, Melissa A.; Rees, Michiko; Logan, Diane E.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Kilmer, Jason R.
Alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor for sexual negative consequences, such as unprotected sexual intercourse. The present research was conducted to examine the relationship between drinking protective behavioral strategies and consensual sex-related alcohol negative consequences, and whether this relationship varied by gender. Additionally, typical number of drinks during sexual behavior was evaluated as a potential mediator of this association. Heavy drinking, sexually active college students (N = 297, 50.2% female) completed self-report measures of drinking protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and sex-related alcohol negative consequences. Findings indicated that women who used drinking protective behavioral strategies more frequently were less likely to experience sex-related alcohol negative consequences whereas this relationship was not significant for men. For women, this relationship was mediated by the typical number of drinks consumed during sexual behavior. The current research demonstrates that use of drinking protective behavioral strategies is related to a reduction in women's sex-related risks when drinking. Findings are discussed in terms of alcohol myopia theory. Implications for interventions aimed to reduce higher risk sexual behavior among college students are discussed. PMID:20565149
Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P
This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours.
Young, Lance Brendan
The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Armesto, Alejandro; Szwajkowska, Maria; Iribarren, Guillermo; Iribarren, Rafael
High myopia is a major cause of uncorrectable visual impairment. It imposes major challenges and costs for refractive correction, and for the treatment of associated pathological complications. In the last 60 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of high myopia in younger generations in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia, and there are signs of similar, but less pronounced increases in North America and Europe. In some parts of the world, 70-90% of children completing high schools are now myopic, and as many as 20% may be highly myopic. It is now clear that myopia results from excessive axial elongation of the eye, and this greater rate of axial elongation appears to be environmentally driven. Experimental studies have examined the biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of axial elongation; and, from these studies, some options have emerged for preventing the development of myopia or slowing myopia progression. Atropine eye drops have been quite extensively used in clinical practice in Asian countries. This long-lasting treatment could be beneficial, but has clear limitations and complications. Recent reports suggest that a low concentration of atropine, which has less severe side-effects, is also effective. But, a decision to use an invasive treatment such as atropine drops, even at low doses, requires careful consideration of the risk of myopia progression. A decision to use atropine in pre-myopic patients would require even more careful consideration of the risks. Here, we review the current literature relevant to the prevention of myopia progression with atropine drops.
Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M
Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record
Karlsson, J L
Evaluation of the performance of 17-18-year-old high school students on standard intelligence tests confirms previous reports that nearsighted persons consistently achieve scores approximately eight I.O. points higher than non-myopes. Comparison of tests administered to the same students 10 years earlier suggests that the intellectual gain precedes the development of nearsightedness. Since there is convincing evidence from genetic studies that myopia is an inherited condition, probably transmitted as a recessive characteristic, it is concluded that the myopia gene has a stimulant action on the brain in addition to its effect on the eye. The high frequency of myopia in urbanized societies is explained in terms of an evolutionary adjustment, myopes probably having a survival advantage under conditions of industrialization.
Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J
Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia.
We studied the developmental mechanism of low myopia and the possibility of its drug treatment. I. Prevalence of myopia. According to surveys by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, the frequency of myopia in school children has gradually increased. We examined office workers from 20 to 60 years of age over a 3-year period. Myopia progression was observed in the thirties and fourties. Late-onset myopia is an important problem around the world. II. Developmental mechanism of low myopia. 1. Reduction of refraction after cycloplegia was statistically significant in adults after their twenties. We measured accommodative hysteresis after a close visual task. Accommodative hysteresis persisted for a long time in late-onset and adult-onset myopia. Continuous ciliary contraction seems to be related to late-onset myopia. 2. Bovine ciliary muscle strips were suspended in a Magnus double tube. The changes in isometric tension of the strips, when chemicals were added, were measured with a force-displacement transducer. After the addition of the cholinergic agonist carbachol, the strips of ciliary muscle produced a tonic contraction. When the muscarinic receptor antagonist cyclopentolate was added, relaxation was produced. After the addition of ET-1, a dual response occurred which consisted of a moderate relaxation and a long-lasting contraction. The mean contraction caused by ET-1 was weak but continuous compared to carbachol. The contractile response was inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist. Also, when takusha, one component of gorei-san, a Chinese drug, was added to the ciliary muscle strips, contraction with ET-1 was attenuated. Contraction of the ciliary muscle with ET-1 was attenuated after addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor. This reaction suggests that NO causes relaxation of the bovine ciliary muscle through the activation of guanylyl cyclase and an increase in cyclic GMP. Currently, at least 5 muscarinic receptor subtypes
Greene, Peter R; Medina, Antonio
The objective herein is to provide refraction data, myopia progression rate, prevalence, and 1st and 2nd generation correlations, relevant to whether myopia is random or inherited. First- and second-generation ocular refraction data are assembled from N = 34 families, average of 2.8 children per family. From this group, data are available from N = 165 subjects. Inter-generation regressions are performed on all the data sets, including correlation coefficient r, and myopia prevalence [%]. Prevalence of myopia is [M] = 38.5 %. Prevalence of high myopes with |R| >6 D is [M-] = 20.5 %. Average refraction is
= -7.52 D ± 1.31 D (N = 33). Regression parameters are calculated for all the data sets, yielding correlation coefficients in the range r = 0.48-0.72 for some groups of myopes and high myopes, fathers to daughters, and mothers to sons. Also of interest, some categories show essentially no correlation, -0.20 < r < 0.20, indicating that the refractive errors occur randomly. Time series results show myopia diopter rates = -0.50 D/year.
Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Xingtao; Qu, Xinhua
Background: The potential association between IGF-1 polymorphisms and high myopia has been investigated in previous studies, but the actual relationship remains controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysisincludingcase-control and cohort studies to assess the existing relationship between high myopia and IGF-1 polymorphisms. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the studies obtained from the retrospective database search. Analyses of heterogeneity, sensitivity, and publication bias were also conducted. The findings from this meta-analysis were based on approximately 2,187 high myopia cases and 1,183 controls, and were used to assess the association between three IGF-1 genetic polymorphisms (rs6214, rs12423791, and rs5742632) and high myopia risks. We investigated the association of the IGF-1 gene SNP rs6214, but no statistical association was observed in the resulting odds ratios (OR) in the allelic (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89-1.25), dominant (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.90-1.27), or recessive models (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89-1.26), or in the homozygote (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.38) and heterozygote comparisons (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.88-1.27). Simultaneously, two other selected SNPs, rs12423791 and rs5742632, were also studied, but similarly, no statistical association existed between these polymorphisms and the risk of high myopia. In conclusions, no statistical association between IGF-1 polymorphisms (rs6214, rs12423791, and rs5742632) and the risk of high myopia was observed following the reported meta-analysis. PMID:26309715
Miki, Atsuya; Ikuno, Yasushi; Asai, Tomoko; Usui, Shinich; Nishida, Kohji
Purpose We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of the defects of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in high myopia and glaucoma, and compared them with control eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods One hundred fifty-nine eyes of 108 participants were divided into four subgroups; high myopia with glaucoma (MG, 67 eyes of 46 subjects), glaucoma without high myopia (G, 22 eyes of 13 subjects), high myopia without glaucoma (M, 35 eyes of 29 subjects), and a control group with neither glaucoma nor high myopia (C, 35 eyes of 20 subjects). The LC defects were identified and located using a standardized protocol in serial horizontal OCT scans. The prevalence rates of the defects were compared among the groups. Demographic and ocular factors were compared between eyes with and without defects. Results LC defects were observed in one eye (0.03%) in the C group, 8 eyes (22.9%) in the M group, 11 eyes (50%) in the G group, and 28 eyes (41.8%) in the MG group. The prevalence rates of the defects differed significantly among the groups (P = 0.0009). Most eyes with defects in the G and MG groups (79.5%) had damage in the corresponding visual hemifields. Other factors such as visual acuity, intraocular pressure, axial length, refractive error, disc ovality, or parapapillary atrophy area did not differ significantly between eyes with and without LC defects. Conclusions High myopia and glaucoma significantly increased the risk of LC damage. The LC damage in non-glaucomatous highly myopic eyes may at least partly explain the increased risk of developing glaucoma in myopic eyes. PMID:26366870
O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen
Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness, the adoption of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in routine primary care remains inconsistent. Financial incentive schemes were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage their delivery. We used Normalisation Process Theory-informed interviews to understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by 14 general practitioners (GPs) as they implemented ASBI during this period. We found multiple factors shaped provision. GPs were broadly cognisant and supportive of preventative alcohol interventions (coherence) but this did not necessarily translate into personal investment in their delivery (cognitive participation). This lack of investment shaped how GPs operationalised such "work" in day-to-day practice (collective action), with ASBI mostly delegated to nurses, and GPs reverting to "business as usual" in their management and treatment of problem drinking (reflexive monitoring). We conclude there has been limited progress towards the goal of an effectively embedded preventative alcohol care pathway in English primary care. Future policy should consider screening strategies that prioritise patients with conditions with a recognised link with excessive alcohol consumption, and which promote more efficient identification of the most problematic drinkers. Improved GP training to build skills and awareness of evidence-based ASBI tools could also help embed best practice over time.
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Russo, Andrea; Semeraro, Francesco; Romano, Mario R; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Costagliola, Ciro
Myopia is the commonest ocular abnormality and the high and growing prevalence of myopia, especially but not only in Asian populations, as well as its progressive nature in children, has contributed to a recent surge in interest. Such worldwide growing prevalence seems to be associated with increasing educational pressures, combined with life-style changes, which have reduced the time that children spend outdoors. Highly nearsighted people are at greater risk for several vision-threatening problems such as retinal detachments, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts and glaucoma, thus the potential benefits of interventions that can limit or prevent myopia progression would be of remarkable social impact. Our understanding of the regulatory processes that lead an eye to refractive errors is undoubtedly incomplete but has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the animal studies, observational clinical studies, and randomized clinical trials recently published. In this review we assess the effects of several types of life-style and interventions, including outdoor activities, eye drops, undercorrection of myopia, multifocal spectacles, contact lenses, and refractive surgery on the onset and progression of nearsightedness.
Peckham, C S; Gardiner, P A; Goldstein, H
Children who had acquired myopia by the age of 11 years were identified from a nationally representative sample. There were no overall sex differences in its occurrence but myopia was more common in children from non-manual families than in those from manual families. Short-sighted children were more likely to come from small families and to be of higher birth order than children with normal vision, and these associations held within each social class. At 11 years myopic children showed striking advantages in educational performance over their normal-sighted peers, as judged by tests of reading, arithmetic, and general ability. After adjustments had been made for social background, this age gain still amounted to over one year. Findings obtained at 7 years of age showed that superior educational attainments were already apparent before the onset of myopia. Children with myopia read in their leisure time more often than normally sighted children, but despite the visual impairment, they participated in outdoor sports as often as other children.
Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados
Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.
Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados
Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.
Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin; Lu, Yi; Jiang, Yongxiang
Purpose To evaluate the characteristics of the posterior corneal surface in patients with high myopia before cataract surgery. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Corneal astigmatism and axial length were measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam) and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) in a high-myopia study group of 167 eyes (axial length ≥ 26 mm) and a control group of 150 eyes (axial length > 20 mm and < 25 mm). Results Total corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism values were higher in the high-myopia group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in posterior corneal astigmatism between the high-myopia study group and the control group. In the study group, the mean posterior corneal astigmatism (range 0 – −0.9 diopters) was –0.29 diopters (D) ± 0.17 standard deviations (SD). The steep corneal meridian was aligned vertically (60°–120°) in 87.43% of eyes for the posterior corneal surface, and did not change with increasing age. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.235, p = 0.002) between posterior corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism, especially when the anterior corneal surface showed with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism (r = 0.452, p = 0.000). There was a weak negative correlation between posterior corneal astigmatism and age (r = –0.15, p = 0.053) in the high-myopia group. Compared with total corneal astigmatism values, the anterior corneal measurements alone overestimated WTR astigmatism by a mean of 0.27 ± 0.18 D in 68.75% of eyes, underestimated against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism by a mean of 0.41 ± 0.28 D in 88.89% of eyes, and underestimated oblique astigmatism by a mean of 0.24 ± 0.13 D in 63.64% of eyes. Conclusions Posterior corneal astigmatism decreased with age and remained as ATR astigmatism in most cases of high myopia. There was a significant correlation between posterior corneal
Myopia prevalence has steadily climbed worldwide in recent decades with the most dramatic impact in East Asian countries. Treatments such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser surgery for the refractive error are widely available, but none cures the underlying cause. In progressive high myopia, invasive surgical procedures using a scleral buckle for mechanical support are performed since the patient is at risk of becoming blind. The treatment outcome is highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the patient's myopia progression rate, with limited choices in buckling materials. This dissertation, in four main studies, represents efforts made to control high myopia progression through the exploration and development of biomaterials that influence scleral growth. First, mRNA expression levels of the chick scleral matrix metalloproteinases, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, and transforming growth factor-beta 2 were assessed for temporal and defocus power effects. The first study elucidated the roles that these factors play in scleral growth regulation and suggested potential motifs that can be incorporated in future biomaterials design. Second, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) as injectable gels and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as solid strips were implanted in chicks to demonstrate the concept of posterior pole scleral reinforcements. This second study found that placing appropriate biomaterials at the posterior pole of the eye could directly influence scleral remodeling by interacting with the host cells. Both studies advanced the idea that scleral tissue remodeling could be potentially controlled by well-designed biomaterials. These findings led to the exploration of biomimetic hydrogels comprising enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (edsIPNs) to determine their biocompatibility and effects on the chick posterior eye wall. This third study demonstrated the feasibility of stimulating scleral growth by applying biomimetic
Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro
Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10−6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of −0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors. PMID:22768343
Li, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Qiu-Ming; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yuan; Lyu, Xiao-Bei; Jia, Heng
AIM To investigate the effects of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) in the treatment of pathological myopia. METHODS The study included 52 eyes in 43 patients with pathological myopia who underwent PSR (PSR group), and 52 eyes in 36 age- and myopia-matched patients who did not undergo such treatment as control group. Axial length, refraction error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and macular scans by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were recorded at baseline, 6mo, 1, 3 and 5y after the surgery, and the complications were noted. RESULTS There were no statistical differences in axial length, refractive error, or BCVA between the PSR group and the control group at baseline. At the end of the follow-up, the mean axial length was 29.79±1.26 mm in the PSR group, which was significantly shorter than that in the control group (30.78±1.30 mm) (P<0.01), and the mean refractive error was -16.86±2.53 D in the PSR group, which was significantly lower than that in the control group (-19.18±2.12 D) (P<0.01). A statistically significant difference in BCVA was found between the PSR group (0.51±0.25 logMAR) and the control group (0.62±0.26 logMAR) at the postoperative 5-year follow-up (P<0.01). There were no serious complications during the 5-year follow-up period. CONCLUSION PSR can prevent axial elongation and myopia progression in eyes with pathological myopia. PMID:27162733
Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Yanwu; Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien Yin
Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The condition is particularly prevalent in Asia. Unlike myopia, pathological myopia is accompanied by degenerative changes in the retina, which if left untreated can lead to irrecoverable vision loss. The accurate diagnosis of pathological myopia will enable timely intervention and facilitate better disease management to slow down the progression of the disease. Current methods of assessment typically consider only one type of data, such as that from retinal imaging. However, different kinds of data, including that of genetic, demographic and clinical information, may contain different and independent information, which can provide different perspectives on the visually observable, genetic or environmental mechanisms for the disease. The combination of these potentially complementary pieces of information can enhance the understanding of the disease, providing a holistic appreciation of the multiple risks factors as well as improving the detection outcomes. In this study, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis framework for Pathological Myopia diagnosis through Biomedical and Image Informatics(PM-BMII). Through the use of multiple kernel learning (MKL) methods, PM-BMII intelligently fuses heterogeneous biomedical information to improve the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Data from 2,258 subjects of a population-based study, in which demographic and clinical information, retinal fundus imaging data and genotyping data were collected, are used to evaluate the proposed framework. The experimental results show that PM-BMII achieves an AUC of 0.888, outperforming the detection results from the use of demographic and clinical information 0.607 (increase 46.3%, p<0.005), genotyping data 0.774 (increase 14.7%, P<0.005) or imaging data 0.852 (increase 4.2%, p=0.19) alone. The accuracy of the results obtained demonstrates the feasibility of using heterogeneous data for improved disease diagnosis through
Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenzhao; Zhou, Xiangtian; An, Jianhong; Huang, Furong; Wang, Qiongsi; Reinach, Peter S.; Li, Wei; Chen, Wensheng; Liu, Zuguo
Myopia incidence in China is rapidly becoming a very serious sight compromising problem in a large segment of the general population. Therefore, delineating the underlying mechanisms leading to myopia will markedly lessen the likelihood of other sight compromising complications. In this regard, there is some evidence that patients afflicted with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), havean adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation and a higher incidence of myopia. To clarify this possible association, we determined whether the changes in pertinent biometric and biochemical parameters underlying postnatal refractive error development in APCMin mice are relevant for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of this disease in humans. The refraction and biometrics in APCMin mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days P28 and P84 were examined with eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR) and customized optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with WT littermates, the APCMin mutated mice developed myopia (average -4.64 D) on P84 which was associated with increased vitreous chamber depth (VCD). Furthermore, retinal and scleral changes appear in these mice along with: 1) axial length shortening; 2) increased retinal cell proliferation; 3) and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis. Scleral collagen fibril diameters became heterogeneous and irregularly organized in the APCMin mice. Western blot analysis showed that scleral alpha-1 type I collagen (col1α1) expression also decreased whereas MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was invariant. These results indicate that defective APC gene function promotes refractive error development. By characterizing in APCMin mice ocular developmental changes, this approach provides novel insight into underlying pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to human myopia development. PMID:26495845
Janowski, Miroslaw; Bulte, Jeff W M; Handa, James T; Rini, David; Walczak, Piotr
The prevalence of myopia has increased in modern society due to the educational load of children. This condition is growing rapidly, especially in Asian countries where it has already reached a pandemic level. Typically, the younger the child's age at the onset of myopia, the more rapidly the condition will progress and the greater the likelihood that it will develop the known sight-threatening complications of high myopia. This rise in incidence of severe myopia has contributed to an increased frequency of eye diseases in adulthood, which often complicate therapeutic procedures. Currently, no treatment is available to prevent myopia progression. Stem cell therapy can potentially address two components of myopia. Regardless of the exact etiology, myopia is always associated with scleral weakness. In this context, a strategy aimed at scleral reinforcement by transplanting connective tissue-supportive mesenchymal stem cells is an attractive approach that could yield effective and universal therapy. Sunlight exposure appears to have a protective effect against myopia. It is postulated that this effect is mediated via local ocular production of dopamine. With a variety of dopamine-producing cells already available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, stem cells engineered for dopamine production could be used for the treatment of myopia. In this review, we further explore these concepts and present evidence from the literature to support the use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of myopia.
Janowski, Miroslaw; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Handa, James T.; Rini, David; Walczak, Piotr
The prevalence of myopia has increased in modern society due to the educational load of children. This condition is growing rapidly, especially in Asian countries where it has already reached a pandemic level. Typically, the younger the child’s age at the onset of myopia, the more rapidly the condition will progress and the greater the likelihood that it will develop the known sight-threatening complications of high myopia. This rise in incidence of severe myopia has contributed to an increased frequency of eye diseases in adulthood, which often complicate therapeutic procedures. Currently, no treatment is available to prevent myopia progression. Stem cell therapy can potentially address two components of myopia. Regardless of the exact etiology, myopia is always associated with scleral weakness. In this context, a strategy aimed at scleral reinforcement by transplanting connective tissue-supportive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive approach that could yield effective and universal therapy. Sunlight exposure appears to have a protective effect against myopia. It is postulated that this effect is mediated via local ocular production of dopamine. With a variety of dopamine-producing cells already available for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, stem cells engineered for dopamine production could be utilized for the treatment of myopia. In this review, we further explore these concepts and present evidence from the literature to support the use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of myopia. PMID:25752937
Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Williams, Cathy
Importance Visual impairment due to myopia is an important public health issue. Recent analysis of population-based cohorts aged 15-22 years-old recruited from the UK and Israel, suggested myopia and high myopia were ~10% more common in first-born compared to later-born children. Objectives To examine whether myopia was associated with birth order in an earlier generation than studied previously, and if so, whether the association was attenuated after adjusting for education exposure, as predicted by the hypothesis that the education of children with later birth orders is less intense. Design, setting, and participants Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants recruited from 2006 to 2010. Analysis was restricted to participants 40-69 years-old who had a vision assessment, self-reported ethnicity ‘White’, and no history of eye disorders (N=89,120). Myopia and high myopia were defined as autorefraction <= −0.75D and <= −6.00D, respectively. Exposures Birth order and information on potential confounders including highest educational qualification ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratio (OR) for myopia and high myopia by birth order, using logistic regression adjusting for age and sex (Model 1), or age, sex, and highest educational qualification (Model 2). Results Model 1 (no adjustment for education): Birth order was associated with both myopia and high myopia, e.g. comparing first versus second born individuals, OR = 1.12 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.16, P=1.4E-11) and OR = 1.21 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.30, P=3.6E-6) for myopia and high myopia, respectively. The risk of myopia became progressively lower for later-birth orders suggesting a dose-response. Model 2 (after adjusting for education): The effect sizes were attenuated by approximately 25%: OR = 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.12, P=1.3E-6) and OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.25, P=4.6E-4) for myopia and high myopia, respectively, and the apparent dose-response was abolished. Conclusions
Dabhi, Shweta Jha, Prafulla K.
The first principles calculations have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic band structure density of states along with the projected density of states for poly(vinyl alcohol). Our structural calculation suggests that the poly(vinyl alcohol) exhibits monoclinic structure. The calculated structural lattice parameters are in excellent agreement with available experimental values. The band structure calculations reveal that the direct and indirect band gaps are 5.55 eV and 5.363 eV respectively in accordance with experimental values.
Thompson, Elaine Adams; And Others
Found that social control indicators (attachment to conventional institutions, commitment to conventional goals, involvement in conventional activities, and belief in conventional norms) predicted adolescent alcohol and drug use. However, peer relationships with drug users was the most significant predictor of drug involvement. (Author/MJL)
According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14–15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents’ work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents’ risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed—girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent’s heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655
Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions.
Gong, Juan-Fen; Xie, Hong-Li; Mao, Xin-Jie; Zhu, Xue-Bo; Xie, Zuo-Kai; Yang, Hai-Hong; Gao, Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Fen
Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD), and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days, 14th days, and 28th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001). The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042). The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P = 0.021). Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14th day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage. PMID:25698200
Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J
Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature.
Harvey, Alistair J
The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which alcohol intoxication restricts the scope of attention in the visual field. A group of intoxicated (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .08%) and placebo control (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .00%) participants were required to correctly identify visual probes while performing two verbal categorization tasks: one designed to widen the scope of visual attention on to each stimulus word, the other to narrow attention on to the central letter of each word. Response times to surprise probes interpolated between categorization trials were measured and these catch trials could appear in any of the stimulus word letter positions. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory (AMT), which assumes that the drug narrows focal attention, intoxicated participants made slower responses than the sober controls to probes displayed in non-central letter positions, although right-field probe reaction times (RTs) were slower than those for left-field targets. This response asymmetry and the wider theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Walline, Jeffrey J; Lindsley, Kristina; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Cotter, Susan A; Mutti, Donald O; Twelker, J. Daniel
Background Nearsightedness (myopia) causes blurry vision when looking at distant objects. Highly nearsighted people are at greater risk of several vision-threatening problems such as retinal detachments, choroidal atrophy, cataracts and glaucoma. Interventions that have been explored to slow the progression of myopia include bifocal spectacles, cycloplegic drops, intraocular pressure-lowering drugs, muscarinic receptor antagonists and contact lenses. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of strategies to control progression of myopia in children. Objectives To assess the effects of several types of interventions, including eye drops, undercorrection of nearsightedness, multifocal spectacles and contact lenses, on the progression of nearsightedness in myopic children younger than 18 years. We compared the interventions of interest with each other, to single vision lenses (SVLs) (spectacles), placebo or no treatment. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1950 to October 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 11 October 2011. We also searched the reference lists and Science Citation Index for additional, potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which participants were treated with spectacles, contact lenses or pharmaceutical agents for the purpose of controlling progression of myopia. We excluded trials where participants were older than 18 years at baseline or participants had less than −0
Torii, Hidemasa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Seko, Yuko; Negishi, Kazuno; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Takaaki; Kawashima, Motoko; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Kondo, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Maki; Miwa, Yukihiro; Katada, Yusaku; Mori, Kiwako; Kato, Keiichi; Tsubota, Kinya; Goto, Hiroshi; Oda, Mayumi; Hatori, Megumi; Tsubota, Kazuo
Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360-400nm wavelength) suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL) elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked) and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting). The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression.
Barathi, Veluchamy A; Kwan, Jia Lin; Tan, Queenie S W; Weon, Sung Rhan; Seet, Li Fong; Goh, Liang Kee; Vithana, Eranga N; Beuerman, Roger W
Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2) were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error.
Beals, Janette; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Freedenthal, Stacey; Kaufman, Carol; Mitchell, Christina; Whitesell, Nancy; Albright, Karen; Beauvais, Fred; Belcourt, Gordon; Duran, Bonnie; Fleming, Candace; Floersch, Natasha; Foley, Kevin; Jervis, Lori; Kipp, Billie Jo; Mail, Patricia; Manson, Spero; May, Philip; Mohatt, Gerald; Morse, Bradley; Novins, Douglas; O'Connell, Joan; Parker, Tassy; Quintero, Gilbert; Spicer, Paul; Stiffman, Arlene; Stone, Joseph; Trimble, Joseph; Venner, Kamilla; Walters, Karina
In their recent article, N. Spillane and G. Smith suggested that reservation-dwelling American Indians have higher rates of problem drinking than do either non-American Indians or those American Indians living in nonreservation settings. These authors further argued that problematic alcohol use patterns in reservation communities are due to the lack of contingencies between drinking and "standard life reinforcers" (SLRs), such as employment, housing, education, and health care. This comment presents evidence that these arguments were based on a partial review of the literature. Weaknesses in the application of SLR constructs to American Indian reservation communities are identified as is the need for culturally contextualized empirical evidence supporting this theory and its application. Cautionary notes are offered about the development of literature reviews, theoretical frameworks, and policy recommendations for American Indian communities.
Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth
Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…
Black, Nicola; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise
The current aim was to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change techniques (BCTs), theory and other characteristics in increasing the effectiveness of computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) to reduce alcohol consumption. Included were randomised studies with a primary aim of reducing alcohol consumption, which compared self-directed CDIs to assessment-only control groups. CDIs were coded for the use of 42 BCTs from an alcohol-specific taxonomy, the use of theory according to a theory coding scheme and general characteristics such as length of the CDI. Effectiveness of CDIs was assessed using random-effects meta-analysis and the association between the moderators and effect size was assessed using univariate and multivariate meta-regression. Ninety-three CDIs were included in at least one analysis and produced small, significant effects on five outcomes (d+ = 0.07-0.15). Larger effects occurred with some personal contact, provision of normative information or feedback on performance, prompting commitment or goal review, the social norms approach and in samples with more women. Smaller effects occurred when information on the consequences of alcohol consumption was provided. These findings can be used to inform both intervention- and theory-development. Intervention developers should focus on, including specific, effective techniques, rather than many techniques or more-elaborate approaches.
Tan, Roland Joseph D.; Demer, Joseph L.
Background Heavy eye syndrome (HES) presents with esotropia and limited abduction due to superotemporal globe shift relative to the extraocular muscles. Sagging eye syndrome (SES) was originally described in nonmyopic patients exhibiting distance esotropia and cyclovertical strabismus with limited supraduction due to lateral rectus muscle inferodisplacement caused by degeneration of the lateral rectus–superior rectus (LR-SR) band. We hypothesized that SES might also cause strabismus in high myopia. Methods Eleven strabismic subjects with high myopia underwent ophthalmological examination and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess quantitative orbital anatomy. Results Of 11 subjects, 5 had HES; 6, SES. Mean axial length in subjects with HES was 32 ± 5 mm; in subjects with SES, 32 ± 6 mm. Average distance esotropia in subjects with HES was 61Δ ± 39Δ; hypotropia was 26Δ ± 21Δ. Average distance esotropia in subjects with SES was 23Δ ± 57Δ; hypertropia was 2Δ ± 2Δ. All 5 subjects with HES had superotemporal globe prolapse; the LR-SR band was thinned in 6 orbits and ruptured in 2. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles in HES was 121° ± 7°. In SES the LR-SR band was thinned in 7 orbits and ruptured in 5, with superotemporal soft tissue prolapse. The mean angle between the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles was 104° ± 11°, significantly less than in HES (P < 0.001). Conclusions SES occurs in highly myopic patients who also exhibit less relative globe dislocation than in HES. Unlike HES, SES exhibits superotemporal soft tissue prolapse that may limit superotemporal globe shift. The distinction is important because surgery for HES uniquely requires creation of a surgical connection between the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles, whereas SES may be treated with conventional surgery. SES can cause strabismus in high axial myopia. Orbital MRI is useful in differentiating SES from HES. PMID
Nagaoka, Natsuko; Jonas, Jost B.; Morohoshi, Kei; Moriyama, Muka; Shimada, Noriaki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko
Purpose To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with high myopia defined as myopic refractive error of >-8 diopters or axial length ≥26.5 mm. Methods The hospital-based observational study included 172 patients (336 eyes) with a mean age of 61.9±12.3 years and mean axial length of 30.1±2.3 mm (range: 24.7–39.1mm). Glaucomatous-type optic discs were defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance and glaucomatous Goldmann visual field defects not corresponding with myopic macular changes. Results Larger disc area (mean: 3.18±1.94 mm2) was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient: 0.45). Glaucoma was detected in 94 (28%; 95% Confidence intervals: 23%, 33%) eyes. In multivariate analysis, glaucoma prevalence was 3.2 times higher (P<0.001) in megalodiscs (>3.79 mm2) than in normal-sized discs or small discs (<1.51 mm2) after adjusting for older age. Axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence in that model. Glaucoma prevalence increased by a factor of 1.39 for each increase in optic disc area by one mm2. Again, axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence when added to this multivariate model. Conclusion Within highly myopic individuals, glaucoma prevalence increased with larger optic disc size beyond a disc area of 3.8 mm2. Highly myopic megalodiscs as compared to normal sized discs or small discs had a 3.2 times higher risk for glaucomatous optic nerve neuropathy. The increased glaucoma prevalence in axial high myopia was primarily associated with axial myopia associated disc enlargement and not with axial elongation itself. PMID:26425846
Norton, Thomas T.; Amedo, Angela O.; Siegwart, John T.
PURPOSE To examine the effect of a period of continuous darkness on the refractive state and vitreous chamber depth of normal light-reared juvenile tree shrew eyes, and to learn whether eyes that developed myopia in response to monocular minus-lens wear will recover in darkness. METHODS Starting at 16 days of visual experience (VE), the refractive state of five dark-treatment tree shrews was measured daily to confirm that it was stable and nearly emmetropic. After corneal and ocular component dimension measures, the animals were placed into continuous darkness for 10 days. On removal of the animals from darkness, corneal and ocular component measures were repeated, and daily refractive measures were resumed. The refractive state of the dark-treatment group was compared with that of a normal-lighting group (n = 5) that received standard colony lighting throughout the measurement period. Five dark-recovery animals wore a monocular -5-D lens for 11 days to induce myopia before they were placed into continuous darkness for 10 days. RESULTS The animals in the normal-lighting group completed the emmetropization process, stabilizing at approximately (mean ± SEM) 0.7 ± 0.3 D of hyperopia (noncycloplegic refraction, corrected for the small eye artifact) at 60 days of VE. Dark-treatment group eyes shifted toward myopia (mean ± SEM, -4.3 ± 0.5 D) in the dark. The vitreous chamber became elongated by 0.09 ± 0.02 mm relative to normal eyes. Corneal power showed a small, near-normal decrease (1.4 ± 0.3 D). Four of five myopic eyes in the dark-recovery group became more myopic (-2.2 ± 0.9D) in darkness, and all the fellow control eyes shifted toward myopia (-2.8 ± 0.5 D). CONCLUSIONS Maintaining emmetropia is an active process. After eyes have achieved emmetropia or have compensated for a minus lens, continued visual guidance is necessary to maintain a match between the axial length and the focal plane or for recovery to occur. Absence of light is myopiagenic in tree
Croff, Julie M.; Clapp, John D.
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a model program in the medical context, but it may be missing a large portion of the population with low access to healthcare services. Young adults have the lowest rates of insurance, low healthcare service utilization, and high rates of substance use. Theory driven Screening and…
Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret
Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…
Tay, M T; Au Eong, K G; Ng, C Y; Lim, M K
Data of 421,116 Singaporean males aged 15 to 25 (mean 17.75) years who underwent compulsory medical examination in 1974-84 and 1987-91 were used to estimate the prevalence of myopia and to study the correlation between the prevalence and severity of myopia and educational attainment. The estimated myopia prevalence rate was 26.3% in 1974-84 and 43.3% in 1987-91. This rise in the rate was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of males who achieved higher levels of education over the same period. The overall myopia prevalence rate was 30.4%. Both the prevalence and severity of myopia were higher as the level of education attained increased. The myopia prevalence rate was 15.4% in males with no formal education and increased steadily through groups with intermediate education to 65.2% among those with GCE 'A' level education, 57.5% among diploma holders and 65.1% among university graduates in 1987-91. Seventy out of 173 (40%) myopes with no formal education compared to 1035 out of 1612 (64%) myopes with university degrees had unaided visual acuity worse than 6/60 in 1987-91. Our findings confirm indications from other sources that the association between the prevalence and severity of myopia and education attainment is real. A combination of genetic and environmental factors may be the cause of this association.
Gu, Yangshun; Xu, Baisheng; Feng, Chunfei; Ni, Yang; Wu, Qin; Du, Chixin; Hong, Nan; Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua; Jiang, Bo
The mouse model has been widely employed to explore the mysteries of myopia. For now, existing techniques for induction of experimental myopia in mice can be classified into three types: (1) devices directly glued to the fur; (2) devices attached using a combination of glue and sutures; (3) devices attached using a skull-mounted apparatus. These techniques each have its advantages, disadvantages when considering the devices stability, safety, complexity, effectiveness, and so forth. Thus, techniques for myopia induction in mice have yet to be further refined to popularize the applications. In this pilot study, we introduce a new head fixation device named the head-mounted spectacle frame apparatus for the study of mouse lens-induced myopia. Surgical procedures for device attachment were relatively simple and easy to learn in our study. Effective myopia induction was validated by retinoscopy refraction and axial length measurement using optical coherence tomography. In addition, it showed improved compliance and reliable safety when compared to the published methods. The head-mounted spectacle frame apparatus provides a new choice for the study of lens-induced myopia in mouse. It also allows for the use of form deprivation, making it attractive for future experimental mouse myopia trials. PMID:26904275
Scholten, Elke; Linden, Erik van der; This, Herve
The well-known alcoholic beverage Pastis becomes turbid when mixed with water due to the poor solubility of trans-anethol, the anise-flavored component of Pastis in the water solution formed. This destabilization appears as the formation of micrometer-sized droplets that only very slowly grow in size, thus expanding the life of the anise-flavored beverage. The slow growth has been attributed to an extremely low interfacial tension of the droplets. Fitting experimental droplet growth rates to an Ostwald ripening model, interfacial tensions were deduced in the past. Direct determination of the interfacial tensions was not yet reported on these systems. We have measured the interfacial tensions and used these data to predict droplet growth rates using an Ostwald ripening model and a model for creaming of the droplets. The interfacial tension was measured to be about 11 mN/m for a 30/70 w/w % ethanol/water mixture, and it decreases slightly to a value of 1.4 mN/m in the case of a 70/30 w/w % ethanol/water mixture. These values are not as low as those deduced in the past. The theoretical predictions for both the Ostwald ripening rates and the creaming rates, using the directly measured interfacial tensions, are found to contradict with the experimental results on Ostwald ripening and creaming. While the experiments on Ostwald ripening show an increase in stability with increasing ethanol concentration, the results based on our interfacial tension measurements in combination with the same Ostwald ripening model show a decrease in stability with an increase in ethanol concentration. Further research is needed to understand fully which parameters play a role in both droplet growth and the stability of these three-component emulsions to elucidate the current discrepancy between model and experiment. This could be useful for a better control of "spontaneous emulsification" processes.
Cowden, J W; Bores, L D
The surgical correction of myopia using the method of Fyodorov known as radial keratotomy consists of 16 partial thickness, radial incisions in the cornea, which result in central flattening and peripheral bulging, reducing the degree of myopia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine: (1) the amount of myopia correctable; (2) the time required for stabilization of corneal curvature changes; (3) the degree to which the variables affect the results; (4) the surgical and postoperative complications; and (5) patient motivation and satisfaction. Preliminary results revealed a significant reduction of the myopia. The keratometry readings and refractive correction required appeared to stabilize by the third month. Fluctuating vision and increased glare were the most frequent complications encountered. The preliminary results of 20 cases followed for six months postradial keratotomy are reported.
Shah, Rupal L.; Huang, Yu; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Williams, Cathy
Purpose Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years. Parentally reported time outdoors and time spent reading were assessed longitudinally in early childhood (ages 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 years). Noncycloplegic autorefraction was carried out longitudinally in later childhood (ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years). Information was available for 2833 participants. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between time outdoors and incident myopia. Results From 3 years of age onward, greater time outdoors was associated with a reduced risk of incident myopia. The hazard ratio for myopia changed progressively from 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.98, P = 0.012) at age 3 years, to 0.86 (95% CI 0.78–0.93, P = 0.001) at age 9 years, for each additional SD of time spent outdoors per day. These associations were independent of two major risk factors for myopia: time reading and number of myopic parents. Conclusions Additional time spent outdoors across the 3 to 9 years age range was associated with a reduced incidence of myopia between ages 10 and 15 years. There was a trend for the association to increase toward the older end of the 3 to 9 years range. PMID:28245296
Prepas, Stephen B
As the prevalence of myopia steadily increases, reaching as high as 90% in some populations, investigators continue to look for causative factors other than family history. Most current research suggests an association of axial myopia with reading or either the presence or absence of light. Even though these studies are frequently inconsistent, non-reproducible or contradictory, many clinicians utilize them in recommending treatments for children, such as bifocals or atropine. By reviewing the biologic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields, we may gain insight into these discrepancies as well as unify the combined role of literacy and light in the pathogenesis of myopia. These biologic effects are wavelength specific. The wavelength of artificial (either incandescent or fluorescent) light is primarily 700-400 nm, while the wavelength of natural light is 700-200 nm, inclusive of the ultraviolet spectrum. So the opposite findings of myopia resulting from either accommodation under continuous light or under darkness (form deprivation) can be reconciled by restating it: Close focusing in the absence of UV light may provoke axial myopia. Experimental evidence exhibiting both scleral remodeling under accommodation as well as the inhibition of scleral remodeling by the hardening of collagen under ultraviolet exposure may support this concept. Perhaps new research can look into the role of the presence or absence of UV light in animal models of myopia.
Hedge, Shruti Prabhat; Sriram
Introduction Handwriting is a visuo-motor skill highly dependent on visual skills. Any defect in the visual inputs could affect a change in the handwriting. Understanding the variation in handwriting characters caused by visual acuity change can help in identifying learning disabilities in children and also assess the disability in elderly. In our study we try to analyse and catalogue these changes in the handwriting of a person. Materials and Methods The study was conducted among 100 subjects having normal visual acuity. They were asked to perform a set of writing tasks, after which the same tasks were repeated after inducing different grades of myopia. Changes in the handwriting class characters were analysed and compared in all grades of myopia. Results In the study it was found that the letter size, pastiosity, word omissions, inability to stay on line all increase with changes in visual acuity. However these finding are not proportional to the grade of myopia. Conclusion From the findings of the study it can be concluded that myopia significantly influences the handwriting and any change in visual acuity would induce corresponding changes in handwriting. There is increase in letter size, pastiosity where as the ability to stay on line and space between the lines decrease in different grades of myopia. The changes are not linear and cannot be used to predict the grade of myopia but can be used as parameters suggestive of refractive error. PMID:26816917
Jin, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Ai-Ming; Chen, Yong-Xing; Li, Qin
AIM To investigate the association between collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene and high myopia. METHODS In this Meta-analysis, we examined 5 published case-control studies that involved 1942 high myopia cases and 2929 healthy controls to assess the association between the COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism and high myopia risk. We calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism in high myopia cases vs healthy controls to evaluate the strength of the association. RESULTS Overall, there was no significant difference both in the genotype and allele distributions of COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism between high myopia cases and healthy controls: CC vs AA OR=1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76-1.58; AC vs AA OR=0.98, 95%CI 0.80-1.20; CC/AC vs AA/OR=1.01, 95%CI 0.84-1.22; CC vs AC/AA OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.93-1.20; C vs A OR=1.06, 95%CI 0.91-1.23). In addition, in the stratified analyses by ethnicity, no significant associations were found in any genetic model both in European and Asia cohorts. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that the COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism may not affect susceptibility to high myopia. PMID:27162737
Kubĕna, T; Kubĕna, K; Kubĕna, K
The incidence of myopia is increasing worldwide. At the last VIIIth international conference on myopia held in June 2000 in Boston attention was aroused by the work of Quin et al. on the influence of noctural illumination in rooms where children slept on their subsequent development of myopia. Our working hypothesis presented in Hakone in 1996 presumes also a negative effect of light and heat which initiate the development of myopia but on eyes with an inborn disposition. We considered as a solution wearing spectacles with glass which allow to penetrate only visible light and absorb the other wavelengths. These glasses were supplied by Karel Kubĕna-TL Technologies. The authors followed up for four years two groups of children with progressive myopia. The progression of myopia during the first two years of the follow up was almost identical in the two groups: in the group with the absorption glasses 0.75 D/year and in the control group 0.77 D/year. After two years of wearing the absorption glasses the progression in the group with the absorption glasses was 0.34 D/year and in the control group 0.59 D/year.
Ortho-K was indicated for sixty eyes of thirty aviators, twenty-one pilots and nine flight attendants, with age of 34.5 on the average. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was originally 20/30 or worse in all cases. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -3.69 Diopters (D). The same ophthalmologist designed full costumed reverse geometry Advanced Orthokeratology lenses for each patient. All the patients were followed at least two years wearing of Advanced Ortho-K lenses. The follow up examinations on auto-refraction, auto-keratometry, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness and curve, and corneal shape were performed in the morning, 10am to 12am. 94% of the patients improved in UCVA up to 20/20 or better, 87% of them improved up to 20/15 or better, and 67% of them improved up to 20/10. The mean SEs improved to -1.90+/-1.00D during six months, -1.49+/-1.03D during one year, and -0.73+/-0.94D during two years. Astigmatism slightly increased by 0.38D on the average, however, it did not cause any serious problems for aviation tasks even during night. Intraocular pressure did not increase and corneal endothelial cells did not decrease. Other ophthalmologic examinations showed normal conditions and any complications were not observed throughout the period. Advanced Ortho-K was evaluated to be safe and effective enough for also aviators with myopia. It can be recommended one of the options of reduction of myopia for aviators. Evaluations on night vision and night glare are planned for further studies.
Blacker, Adam; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Bullimore, Mark. A.; Long, Bill; Dillehay, Sally M.; Bergenske, Peter; Donshik, Peter; Secor, Glenda; Yoakum, John; Chalmers, Robin L
Purpose To analyze the effect of lens material alone on myopia progression in a multi-center non-randomized prospective study of daily wear hydrogel and continuous wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Methods Refractive error data from completing subjects was collected during a 3-year study of 54 subjects wearing low Dk/t hydrogel contact lenses for daily wear and 230 wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses for up to 30 nights continuous wear. Univariate analysis of refractive error changes was first conducted on factors of lens type, age at baseline, and baseline refractive error. Multivariate analysis was then performed to control for potential confounders of age (categorical by decade and continuous), and baseline refractive error. Results Multivariate analysis showed that refractive error changes were significantly affected by lens type (F = 78.2, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.218) and subject age (F = 13.1.2, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.319), but not baseline refractive error (F = 2.56, p = 0.11, R2 = 0.009). The model’s overall R2 value is 0.376; the age-adjusted refractive error changes are +0.02 D for the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers and 0.41 D for the hydrogel contact lenses for the 3-year follow-up period. Conclusions Subject age and lens type significantly influenced the degree of myopic progression, with younger subjects and low Dk/t hydrogel contact lens wearers increasing more during the study. The Lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lens material may contribute to less myopia progression in adult contact lens wearers. PMID:19741563
Young, Terri L
ABSTRACT Purpose Despite the plethora of experimental myopia animal studies that demonstrate biochemical factor changes in various eye tissues, and limited human studies utilizing pharmacologic agents to thwart axial elongation, we have little knowledge of the basic physiology that drives myopic development. Identifying the implicated genes for myopia susceptibility will provide a fundamental molecular understanding of how myopia occurs and may lead to directed physiologic (ie, pharmacologic, gene therapy) interventions. The purpose of this proposal is to describe the results of positional candidate gene screening of selected genes within the autosomal dominant high-grade myopia-2 locus (MYP2) on chromosome 18p11.31. Methods A physical map of a contracted MYP2 interval was compiled, and gene expression studies in ocular tissues using complementary DNA library screens, microarray matches, and reverse-transcription techniques aided in prioritizing gene selection for screening. The TGIF, EMLIN-2, MLCB, and CLUL1 genes were screened in DNA samples from unrelated controls and in high-myopia affected and unaffected family members from the original seven MYP2 pedigrees. All candidate genes were screened by direct base pair sequence analysis. Results Consistent segregation of a gene sequence alteration (polymorphism) with myopia was not demonstrated in any of the seven families. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. Conclusion The positional candidate genes TGIF, EMLIN-2, MLCB, and CLUL1 are not associated with MYP2-linked high-grade myopia. Base change polymorphisms discovered with base sequence screening of these genes were submitted to an Internet database. Other genes that also map within the interval are currently undergoing mutation screening. PMID:15747770
Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.
Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)
Chakraborty, Ranjay; Park, Han na; Hanif, Adam M.; Sidhu, Curran; Iuvone, P. Michael; Pardue, Machelle T.
The ON pathway mutation in nob mice is associated with altered refractive development, and an increased susceptibility to form-deprivation (FD) myopia. In this study, we used mGluR6−/− mice, another ON pathway mutant, to determine whether the nob phenotype was due to the Nyx mutation or abnormal ON pathway transmission. Refractive development under a normal visual environment for mGluR6−/− and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice was measured every 2 weeks from 4 to 16 weeks of age. The response to monocular FD from 4 weeks of age was measured weekly in a separate cohort of mice. Refraction and ocular biometry were obtained using a photorefractor and optical coherence tomography. Retinas were harvested at 16 weeks, and analyzed for dopamine (DA) and DOPAC using high-performance liquid chromatography. Under normal conditions, mGluR6−/− mice were significantly more myopic than their WT controls (refraction at 12 weeks; WT: 9.40 ± 0.16 D, mGluR6−/−: 6.91 ± 0.38 D). Similar to nob mice, two weeks of FD resulted in a significant myopic shift of −5.57 ± 0.72 D in mGluR6−/− mice compared to −1.66 ± 0.19 D in WT animals. No significant axial length changes were observed with either normal or FD visual conditions. At 16 weeks, mGluR6−/− retinas showed significantly lower DOPAC levels (111.2 ± 33.0 pg/mg) compared to their WT counterparts (197.5 ± 11.2 pg/mg). Retinal DA levels were similar between the different genotypes. Our results indicate that reduced retinal DA metabolism/turnover may be associated with increased susceptibility to myopia in mice with ON pathway defect mutations. PMID:26072023
Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan
The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from −3.25 ± 0.77D to −0.62 ± 0.47D, P < 0.001) and partially raised retinal dopamine levels (from 0.55 ± 0.21 ng to 0.81 ± 0.24 ng, P < 0.01) in the form-deprived eyes. After 24 h of culturing retinal explants with citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that an intraperitoneal injection of citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720
Williams, Katie M.; Bertelsen, Geir; Cumberland, Phillippa; Wolfram, Christian; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H.S.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Erke, Maja Gran; Hogg, Ruth; Höhn, René; Hysi, Pirro; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Ried, Janina; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Bron, Alain; Dartigues, Jean-François; Fletcher, Astrid; Hofman, Albert; Kuijpers, Robert W.A.M.; Luben, Robert N.; Oxele, Konrad; Topouzis, Fotis; von Hanno, Therese; Mirshahi, Alireza; Foster, Paul J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Rahi, Jugnoo; Hammond, Christopher J.
Purpose To investigate whether myopia is becoming more common across Europe and explore whether increasing education levels, an important environmental risk factor for myopia, might explain any temporal trend. Design Meta-analysis of population-based, cross-sectional studies from the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium. Participants The E3 Consortium is a collaborative network of epidemiological studies of common eye diseases in adults across Europe. Refractive data were available for 61 946 participants from 15 population-based studies performed between 1990 and 2013; participants had a range of median ages from 44 to 78 years. Methods Noncycloplegic refraction, year of birth, and highest educational level achieved were obtained for all participants. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent ≤−0.75 diopters. A random-effects meta-analysis of age-specific myopia prevalence was performed, with sequential analyses stratified by year of birth and highest level of educational attainment. Main Outcome Measures Variation in age-specific myopia prevalence for differing years of birth and educational level. Results There was a significant cohort effect for increasing myopia prevalence across more recent birth decades; age-standardized myopia prevalence increased from 17.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.6–18.1) to 23.5% (95% CI, 23.2–23.7) in those born between 1910 and 1939 compared with 1940 and 1979 (P = 0.03). Education was significantly associated with myopia; for those completing primary, secondary, and higher education, the age-standardized prevalences were 25.4% (CI, 25.0–25.8), 29.1% (CI, 28.8–29.5), and 36.6% (CI, 36.1–37.2), respectively. Although more recent birth cohorts were more educated, this did not fully explain the cohort effect. Compared with the reference risk of participants born in the 1920s with only primary education, higher education or being born in the 1960s doubled the myopia prevalence ratio–2.43 (CI, 1.26–4
Khor, Chiea Chuen; Miyake, Masahiro; Chen, Li Jia; Shi, Yi; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Qiao, Fan; Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Zhou, Xin; Tam, Pancy O S; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Tai, E Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Manabu; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yong, Rita Y Y; Yap, Eric P H; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Saw, Seang-Mei; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
Severe myopia (defined as spherical equivalent < -6.0 D) is a predominant problem in Asian countries, resulting in substantial morbidity. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS), all of East Asian descent totaling 1603 cases and 3427 controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs13382811 from ZFHX1B [encoding for ZEB2] and rs6469937 from SNTB1) showed highly suggestive evidence of association with disease (P < 1 × 10(-7)) and were brought forward for replication analysis in a further 1241 severe myopia cases and 3559 controls from a further three independent sample collections. Significant evidence of replication was observed, and both SNP markers surpassed the formal threshold for genome-wide significance upon meta-analysis of both discovery and replication stages (P = 5.79 × 10(-10), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.26 for rs13382811 and P = 2.01 × 10(-9), per-allele OR = 0.79 for rs6469937). The observation at SNTB1 is confirmatory of a very recent GWAS on severe myopia. Both genes were expressed in the human retina, sclera, as well as the retinal pigmented epithelium. In an experimental mouse model for myopia, we observed significant alterations to gene and protein expression in the retina and sclera of the unilateral induced myopic eyes for Zfhx1b and Sntb1. These new data advance our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of severe myopia.
Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Kho, Pik Fang; Hewitt, Alex W.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Yazar, Seyhan; Stambolian, Dwight; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Mackey, David A.; MacGregor, Stuart
Myopia is the largest cause of uncorrected visual impairments globally and its recent dramatic increase in the population has made it a major public health problem. In observational studies, educational attainment has been consistently reported to be correlated to myopia. Nonetheless, correlation does not imply causation. Observational studies do not tell us if education causes myopia or if instead there are confounding factors underlying the association. In this work, we use a two-step least squares instrumental-variable (IV) approach to estimate the causal effect of education on refractive error, specifically myopia. We used the results from the educational attainment GWAS from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium to define a polygenic risk score (PGRS) in three cohorts of late middle age and elderly Caucasian individuals (N=5,649). In a meta-analysis of the three cohorts, using the PGRS as an IV, we estimated that each z-score increase in education (approximately 2 years of education) results in a reduction of 0.92 ± 0.29 diopters (P=1.04×10−3). Our estimate of the effect of education on myopia was higher (P=0.01) than the observed estimate (0.25 ± 0.03 diopters reduction per education z-score [~2 years] increase). This suggests that observational studies may actually underestimate the true effect. Our Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis provides new evidence for a causal role of educational attainment on refractive error. PMID:26497973
Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Kho, Pik Fang; Hewitt, Alex W; Wichmann, H-Erich; Yazar, Seyhan; Stambolian, Dwight; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Wojciechowski, Robert; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Mackey, David A; MacGregor, Stuart
Myopia is the largest cause of uncorrected visual impairments globally and its recent dramatic increase in the population has made it a major public health problem. In observational studies, educational attainment has been consistently reported to be correlated to myopia. Nonetheless, correlation does not imply causation. Observational studies do not tell us if education causes myopia or if instead there are confounding factors underlying the association. In this work, we use a two-step least squares instrumental-variable (IV) approach to estimate the causal effect of education on refractive error, specifically myopia. We used the results from the educational attainment GWAS from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium to define a polygenic risk score (PGRS) in three cohorts of late middle age and elderly Caucasian individuals (N = 5,649). In a meta-analysis of the three cohorts, using the PGRS as an IV, we estimated that each z-score increase in education (approximately 2 years of education) results in a reduction of 0.92 ± 0.29 diopters (P = 1.04 × 10(-3) ). Our estimate of the effect of education on myopia was higher (P = 0.01) than the observed estimate (0.25 ± 0.03 diopters reduction per education z-score [∼2 years] increase). This suggests that observational studies may actually underestimate the true effect. Our Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis provides new evidence for a causal role of educational attainment on refractive error.
Malinin, I D; Ovechkin, I G
The authors have analyzed the patents developed in various countries of the world for improving the methods for myopia correction. Methods for surgical correction predominated in the USSR in the last 8 years, whereas abroad contact correction was the main trend of late. Major trends in the development of myopia correction methods in the world have been defined.
Bayes, Joseph; Zheng, Hui; Rosow, Carl E
Patients with long axial length (AL) eyes (> 25 mm) are at increased risk of globe perforation during performance of intraconal (retrobulbar) eye block. These patients often require glasses or contact lenses for myopia (nearsightedness) as children or young adults. A history of early correction for myopia might, therefore, be a predictor of long AL eyes. One hundred one patients undergoing cataract surgery had AL measured and answered questions about their use of corrective lenses. We found that a history of correction for myopia as a child or young adult was 82% sensitive and 84% specific for having a measured AL > or = 25 mm. Patients with this history may be at increased risk for globe perforation during intraconal block.
Samuel, Nancy Elizabeth
Purpose: To evaluate the foveal and macular thickness in various degrees of myopia and its association with axial length in low, moderate and high degrees of myopia. Design: A cross-sectional study was done in the Department of Ophthalmology, MGMCRI, Pondicherry, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five eyes eyes of 64 myopic subjects between the age group of 20-40 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and complete ophthalmic examination was done. Cycloplegic refraction was done and the subjects were categorized into low (n=43 eyes), moderate (n=43 eyes) and high (n=36) degrees of myopia. The foveal and macular thickness was assessed using spectral OCT- SLO and axial length was measured by A-scan biometry. Results: The foveae minimum of high myopia (178 ± 26.4 microns) was significantly thicker compared to moderate myopia (p= 0.028). There was no significant intergroup difference in the thickness significance of the outer and inner macular between mild, moderate and high degree of myopia. The mean axial length of high myopia (26.7±0.97mm) was significantly higher compared to moderate (24.6±0.81mm) and low myopia (23.5±0.81mm) with a p-value of p = 0.001. There was a positive correlation of axial length with foveae minimum, fovea and superior inner macula in respect to myopia (p<0.05). Conclusion: The foveal and macular thickness in myopia is influenced by the axial length. Early detection of such changes in macular thickness by using OCT is helpful in understanding the mechanism and factors affecting the structural changes of myopic eyes. Also it implicates the importance of refractive error induced retinal macular changes while interpreting OCT. PMID:25954643
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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that spending time outdoors during your childhood is protective against the development of myopia. It has been hypothesized that this protective effect is associated with light-induced increases in retinal dopamine levels, a critical neuromodulator that has long been postulated to be involved in the regulation of ocular growth. This paper, along with the paper entitled "What do animal studies tell us about the mechanism of myopia-protection by light?" discusses the evidence provided by animal models for this hypothesis.
Reckdenwald, Amy; Ford, Jason A.; Murray, Brittany N.
It is well-known that college students are at an increased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking compared to their same-age peers who are not in college. We use Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, specifically, her discussion of adolescence-limited offending, to contextualize this finding regarding this minor form of deviance. We also incorporate…
Beals, Janette; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Freedenthal, Stacey; Kaufman, Carol; Mitchell, Christina; Whitesell, Nancy; Albright, Karen; Beauvais, Fred; Belcourt, Gordon; Duran, Bonnie; Fleming, Candace; Floersch, Natasha; Foley, Kevin; Jervis, Lori; Kipp, Billie Jo; Mail, Patricia; Manson, Spero; May, Philip; Mohatt, Gerald; Morse, Bradley; Novins, Douglas; O'Connell, Joan; Parker, Tassy; Quintero, Gilbert; Spicer, Paul; Stiffman, Arlene; Stone, Joseph; Trimble, Joseph; Venner, Kamilla; Walters, Karina
In their recent article, N. Spillane and G. Smith suggested that reservation-dwelling American Indians have higher rates of problem drinking than do either non-American Indians or those American Indians living in nonreservation settings. These authors further argued that problematic alcohol use patterns in reservation communities are due to the…
... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...
Duan, Jia Li; Luo, Yan Xia; Liu, Li Juan; Li, Xia; Gao, Qi; Zhu, Hui Ping; He, Yan; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiu Hua
Purpose To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing. Methods Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview. Results Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4%) students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16–18 years) participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was −2.78±2.29 diopters and −2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤ −1.00 diopters in the worse eye) was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 79.6–81.8%). Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4%) wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 1.31;95%CI:1.11–1.55), Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28–2.11), attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77), higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09–1.71), longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06–1.93), shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55–2.26), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16–1.70), and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80–2.87). The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03) significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (≤-6.0 diopters) was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81), lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79), and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40). Conclusions A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of
Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chang, Dolly Shuo-Teh; Wu, Pei-Chang
Myopia has a multifactorial etiology, although environmental factors are predominant in determining its current patterns. Currently, associations between near work activities and myopia have not been consistently observed. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to quantify the effect of near work activities on myopia in children. Relevant articles published between 1989 and 2014 were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the citation lists were reviewed. Twelve cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies were included (25,025 children aged between 6 and 18 years). The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Study-level data were pooled using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model (when less than 5 studies were included). We found that more time spent on near work activities was associated with higher odds of myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.20) and that the odds of myopia increased by 2% (OR:1.02; 95% CI = 1.01-1.03) for every one diopter-hour (hr) more of near work per week. Therefore, the development of a strategy to reduce the impact of near work on myopia would be important for preventing myopia in children.
Myopia has a multifactorial etiology, although environmental factors are predominant in determining its current patterns. Currently, associations between near work activities and myopia have not been consistently observed. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to quantify the effect of near work activities on myopia in children. Relevant articles published between 1989 and 2014 were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the citation lists were reviewed. Twelve cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies were included (25,025 children aged between 6 and 18 years). The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Study-level data were pooled using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model (when less than 5 studies were included). We found that more time spent on near work activities was associated with higher odds of myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–1.20) and that the odds of myopia increased by 2% (OR:1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.03) for every one diopter-hour (hr) more of near work per week. Therefore, the development of a strategy to reduce the impact of near work on myopia would be important for preventing myopia in children. PMID:26485393
Gong, Bo; Qu, Chao; Huang, Xiao-Fang; Ye, Zi-Meng; Zhang, Ding-Ding; Shi, Yi; Chen, Rong; Liu, Yu-Ping; Shuai, Ping
AIM To comprehensively evaluate the potential association of COL1A1 polymorphisms with high myopia by a systematic review and Meta-analysis. METHODS All association studies on COL1A1 and high myopia reported up to June 10, 2014 in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Chinese Biomedical Database were retrieved. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were analyzed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using fixed- and random- effects models according to between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias analyses were conducted by Egger's test. RESULTS A total of four studies from reported papers were included in this analysis. The Meta-analyses for COL1A1 rs2075555, composed of 2304 high myopia patients and 2272 controls, failed to detect any significant association with high myopia. A total of 971 cases and 649 controls were tested for COL1A1 rs2269336. The association of COL1A1 rs2269336 with high myopia was observed in recessive model (CC vs CG+GG, P=0.03) and in heterozygous model (CG vs GG, P=0.04), but not in other models. CONCLUSION This Meta-analysis shows that COL1A1 rs2269336 (CC vs CG+GG) affects individual susceptibility to high myopia, whereas there is no association detected between SNPs rs2075555 and high myopia. Given the limited sample size, further investigations including more ethnic groups are required to validate the association. PMID:27588274
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T.; Carey, Michael P.
Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d+s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689
Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval
This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.
Guggenheim, J A; Williams, C
Purpose Historical reports suggest febrile illness during childhood is a risk factor for myopia. The establishment of the UK Biobank provided a unique opportunity to investigate this relationship. Patients and methods We studied a sample of UK Biobank participants of White ethnicity aged 40–69 years old who underwent autorefraction (N=91 592) and were classified as myopic (≤−0.75 Dioptres (D)), highly myopic (≤−6.00 D), or non-myopic (>−0.75 D). Self-reported age at diagnosis of past medical conditions was ascertained during an interview with a nurse at a Biobank assessment centre. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for myopia or high myopia associated with a diagnosis before age 17 years of each of nine febrile illnesses, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, highest educational qualification, and birth order). Results Rubella, mumps, and pertussis were associated with myopia: rubella, OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.03–1.85, P=0.030; mumps, OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07–1.64, P=0.010; and pertussis, OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.03–1.87, P=0.029. Measles, rubella, and pertussis were associated with high myopia: measles, OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.07–2.07, P=0.019; rubella, OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.12–3.35, P=0.017; and pertussis, OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.24–3.71, P=0.006. The evidence did not support an interaction between education and febrile illness in explaining the above risks. Conclusion A history of childhood measles, rubella, or pertussis was associated with high myopia, whereas a history of childhood rubella, mumps, or pertussis was associated with any myopia. The reasons for these associations are unclear. PMID:26846593
Lewis, Jacob A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Rani, Lakshmisahithi; Wildsoet, Christine F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of myopia-inducing and myopia recovery conditions on the scleral biomechanics of enucleated eyes of young chicks. Enucleated eyes from 5-day old chicks, with fiducial markers attached at 5 locations on the external sclera, were placed in a custom-built chamber filled with phosphate-buffered saline, and subjected to controlled increments in intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP was initially ramped from 15 to 100 mmHg and then maintained at 100 mmHg for one hour, with eyes photographed at a rate of 0.1 Hz over the same period. There were two experimental groups, one in which chicks were monocularly form deprived for four days to induce myopia, and the other in which chicks were allowed two days of recovery from myopia induced by two days of form deprivation. For all chicks, the contralateral (fellow) eyes served as controls. Myopic eyes showed less initial deformation relative to their fellows, while no difference was recorded between recovering eyes and their fellows over the same time frame. With exposure to sustained elevated pressure, eyes in all groups displayed time-dependent changes in creep behavior, which included a linear region of secondary, steady creep. The creep deformation of myopic eyes was significantly higher than that of their fellows, consistent with results of previous studies using uniaxial loading of scleral strips. When allowed only 2 days to recover from induced myopia, previously myopic eyes continued to show increased creep deformation. Compared to results reported in studies involving scleral strips, our whole globe testing yielded higher values for creep rate. Whole globe inflation testing provides a viable, less anatomically disruptive and readily adaptable method for investigating scleral biomechanics than uniaxial tensile strip testing. Furthermore, our results suggest that elastic stretching does not contribute to the increased axial elongation underlying myopia in young chick eyes. They
Hufford, M R
Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.
Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Villa-Collar, César; Gilmartin, Bernard; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Ramón
Purpose Although previous studies suggest that orthokeratology contact lens wear slows eye growth in children with progressing myopia, some limitations in the methodology employed have become evident. Furthermore, the safety of this modality of visual correction has not been assessed. The study “Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain” (MCOS) is being conducted to compare axial length growth between white European myopic children wearing orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) and wearing distance single-vision spectacles (SV). Additionally, the incidence of adverse events and discontinuations is also recorded. We outline the methodology and baseline data adopted. Methods Subjects aged 6 to 12, with myopia ranging from 0.75 to 4.00 D and astigmatism ≤1.00 D were prospectively allocated OK or SV correction. Measurements of axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal topography, cycloplegic autorefraction, visual acuity and corneal staining are performed at 6-month intervals. The incidence of adverse events and discontinuations are also recorded. Results Thirty one children were fitted with OK and 31 with SV correction. Eight subjects did not meet the refraction-related inclusion criteria for enrollment. No significant differences were found in baseline mean age and refractive and biometric data betwseen the two groups (P>0.05). No adverse events were found in any of the two groups at baseline. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, MCOS is the first prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology contact lens wear to slow myopia progression vs. single-vision spectacle wear. The MCOS offers a number of notable features: prospective design; well-matched samples and high-resolution ocular biometry measures, which should collectively elucidate whether orthokeratology contact lens wear is a feasible and safe method for myopia-progression control.
Wang, Xiaolei; Kong, Xiangmei; Jiang, Chunhui; Li, Mengwei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripapillary and parafoveal perfusion of young, healthy myopic subjects with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. Setting Participants recruited from a population-based study performed by the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Participants A total of 78 Chinese normal subjects (78 eyes) with different refraction were included. Myopia was divided into 4 groups on the basis of the refractive status: 20 eyes with emmetropia (mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 20 eyes with mild myopia (MSE −0.75D to −2.75D), 20 eyes with moderate myopia (MSE −3.00D to −5.75D), and 18 eyes with high myopia (MSE≤−6.00D). Main outcome measures Peripapillary and parafoveal retinal and choroidal perfusion parameters and their relationships with axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were analysed. Results Significant differences were found for the retinal flow index and vessel density in the peripapillary area among the 4 groups, but not in the parafoveal area. The high myopia group had the lowest peripapillary retinal flow index and vessel density. In addition, there was a negative correlation (β=−0.002, p=0.047) between the AL and peripapillary retinal flow index and a positive correlation between RNFL thickness and the peripapillary retinal perfusion parameters (flow index: β=0.001, p=0.006; vessel density: β=0.350, p=0.002) even after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes have a decreased peripapillary retinal perfusion compared with emmetropic eyes. Such vascular features might increase the susceptibility to vascular-related eye diseases. PMID:26969645
Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon W. K.; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Lu, Shijian; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Tong, Louis; Wong, Tien Yin
Pathological myopia is the seventh leading cause of blindness. We introduce a framework based on PAMELA (PAthological Myopia dEtection through peripapilLary Atrophy) for the detection of pathological myopia from fundus images. The framework consists of a pre-processing stage which extracts a region of interest centered on the optic disc. Subsequently, three analysis modules focus on detecting specific visual indicators. The optic disc tilt ratio module gives a measure of the axial elongation of the eye through inference from the deformation of the optic disc. In the texturebased ROI assessment module, contextual knowledge is used to demarcate the ROI into four distinct, clinically-relevant zones in which information from an entropy transform of the ROI is analyzed and metrics generated. In particular, the preferential appearance of peripapillary atrophy (PPA) in the temporal zone compared to the nasal zone is utilized by calculating ratios of the metrics. The PPA detection module obtains an outer boundary through a level-set method, and subtracts this region against the optic disc boundary. Temporal and nasal zones are obtained from the remnants to generate associated hue and color values. The outputs of the three modules are used as in a SVM model to determine the presence of pathological myopia in a retinal fundus image. Using images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the proposed framework reported an optimized accuracy of 90% and a sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.95 respectively, indicating promise for the use of the proposed system as a screening tool for pathological myopia.
Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Zadnik, Karla
Purpose To investigate the ratio of accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodative response (AC/A ratio) before, during, and after myopia onset. Methods Subjects were 698 children aged 6 to 14 years who became myopic and 430 emmetropic children participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error. Refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction, near work by parent survey, and the AC/A ratio by simultaneously monitoring convergence and accommodative response. The response AC/A ratios of children who became myopic were compared with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched model estimates for emmetropic children from 5 years before through 5 years after the onset of myopia. Results The response AC/A ratio was not significantly different between the two groups 5 years before onset, then increased monotonically in children who became myopic until reaching a plateau at myopia onset of about 7 Δ/D compared to about 4 Δ/D for children who remained emmetropic (differences between groups significant at P < 0.01 from 4 years before onset through 5 years after onset). A higher AC/A ratio was associated with greater accommodative lag but not with the rate of myopia progression regardless of the level of near work. Conclusions An increasing AC/A ratio is an early sign of becoming myopic, is related to greater accommodative lag, but does not affect the rate of myopia progression. The association with accommodative lag suggests that the AC/A ratio increase is from greater neural effort needed per diopter of accommodation rather than change in the accommodative convergence crosslink gain relationship. PMID:28291868
Cakmak, Ayse Idil; Basmak, Hikmet; Gursoy, Huseyin; Ozkurt, Mete; Yildirim, Nilgun; Erkasap, Nilufer; Bilgec, Mustafa Deger; Tuncel, Nese; Colak, Ertugrul
AIM To investigate the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in form-deprivation myopia (FDM). METHODS FDM was created in three groups of eight chicks by placing a translucent diffuser on their right eyes. Intravitreal injections of saline and VIP were applied once a day into the occluded eyes of groups 2 and 3, respectively. Retinoscopy and axial length (AL) measurements were performed on the first and 8th days of diffuser wear. The retina mRNA levels of the VIP receptors and the ZENK protein in right eyes of the three groups and left eyes of the first group on day 8 were determined using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS The median final refraction (D) in right eyes were -13.75 (-16.00, -12.00), -11.50 (-12.50, -7.50), and -1.50 (-4.75, -0.75) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.001). The median AL (mm) in right eyes were 10.65 (10.00, 11.10), 9.90 (9.70, 10.00), and 9.20 (9.15, 9.25) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.001). The median delta-delta cycle threshold (CT) values for the VIP2 receptors were 1.07 (0.82, 1.43), 1.22 (0.98, 1.65), 0.29 (0.22, 0.45) in right eyes of groups 1, 2, and 3, and 1.18 (0.90, 1.37) in left eyes of group 1, respectively (P=0.001). The median delta-delta CT values for the ZENK protein were 1.07 (0.63, 5.03), 3.55 (2.20, 5.55), undetectable in right eyes of groups 1, 2, and 3 and 1.89 (0.21, 4.73) in left eyes of group 1, respectively (P=0.001). CONCLUSION VIP has potential inhibitory effects in the development of FDM. PMID:28251078
Markand, Shanu; Baskin, Natecia L.; Chakraborty, Ranjay; Landis, Erica; Wetzstein, Sara A.; Donaldson, Kevin J.; Priyadarshani, Priyanka; Alderson, Shannon E.; Sidhu, Curran S.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Pardue, Machelle T.
Purpose Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is abundant in the subretinal space and binds retinoids and lipophilic molecules. The expression of IRBP begins precociously early in mouse eye development. IRBP-deficient (KO) mice show less cell death in the inner retinal layers of the retina before eyelid opening compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) controls and eventually develop profound myopia. Thus, IRBP may play a role in eye development before visually-driven phenomena. We report comparative observations during the course of the natural development of eyes in WT and congenic IRBP KO mice that suggest IRBP is necessary at the early stages of mouse eye development for correct function and development to exist in later stages. Methods We observed the natural development of congenic WT and IRBP KO mice, monitoring several markers of eye size and development, including haze and clarity of optical components in the eye, eye size, axial length, immunohistological markers of differentiation and eye development, visually guided behavior, and levels of a putative eye growth stop signal, dopamine. We conducted these measurements at several ages. Slit-lamp examinations were conducted at post-natal day (P)21. Fundus and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images were compared at P15, P30, P45, and P80. Enucleated eyes from P5 to P10 were measured for weight, and ocular dimensions were measured with a noncontact light-emitting diode (LED) micrometer. We counted the cells that expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive cells) at P23–P36 using immunohistochemistry on retinal flatmounts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the amounts of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) at P7–P60. Monocular form deprivation in the right eye was induced using head-mounted goggles from P28 to P56. Results Eye elongation and eye size in the IRBP KO mice began to increase at P7 compared to the WT mice. This
Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang
Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599
Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R.; Freitag, S.K.
We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.
Verhaegen, M J
The Aquatic Ape Theory claims that human ancestors once lived in a semi-aquatic habitat. Some human diseases might be explained by our aquatic past. Such problems include hyperventilation, periodic breathing, laryngo- and bronchospasm, vasomotor rhinopathy, seborrhea, dandruff, male pattern alopecia, rhinophyma, osteoarthritis, inguinal hernias, varicose veins, common obesity, myopia, and ear-wax.
Vaz, Candida; Tanavde, Vivek M.; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Zauscher, Stefan; Gonzalez, Pedro; Young, Terri L.
Development of myopia is associated with large-scale changes in ocular tissue gene expression. Although differential expression of coding genes underlying development of myopia has been a subject of intense investigation, the role of non-coding genes such as microRNAs in the development of myopia is largely unknown. In this study, we explored myopia-associated miRNA expression profiles in the retina and sclera of C57Bl/6J mice with experimentally induced myopia using microarray technology. We found a total of 53 differentially expressed miRNAs in the retina and no differences in miRNA expression in the sclera of C57BL/6J mice after 10 days of visual form deprivation, which induced -6.93 ± 2.44 D (p < 0.000001, n = 12) of myopia. We also identified their putative mRNA targets among mRNAs found to be differentially expressed in myopic retina and potential signaling pathways involved in the development of form-deprivation myopia using miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Analysis of myopia-associated signaling pathways revealed that myopic response to visual form deprivation in the retina is regulated by a small number of highly integrated signaling pathways. Our findings highlighted that changes in microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of refractive eye development and predicted how they may be involved in the development of myopia by regulating retinal gene expression. PMID:27622715
Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Oexle, Konrad; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Li, Xiaohui; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Vitart, Veronique; Schache, Maria; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Hysi, Pirro G.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Chew, Emily; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Yin; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang Mei; Fossarello, Maurizio; Wang, Jie Jin; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Döring, Angela; Bettecken, Thomas; Bencic, Goran; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Venturini, Cristina; Fleck, Brian; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Chris J.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Baird, Paul N.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Pirastu, Mario; Meitinger, Thomas; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Stambolian, Dwight
Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10−8), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10−11) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10−11) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. “Replication-level” association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of
Simpson, Claire L; Wojciechowski, Robert; Oexle, Konrad; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Li, Xiaohui; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Vitart, Veronique; Schache, Maria; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Hysi, Pirro G; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary Frances; Chew, Emily; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Yin; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang Mei; Fossarello, Maurizio; Wang, Jie Jin; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C; Vingerling, Johannes R; Döring, Angela; Bettecken, Thomas; Bencic, Goran; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Venturini, Cristina; Fleck, Brian; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Hammond, Chris J; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Paterson, Andrew D; Baird, Paul N; Klaver, Caroline C W; Rotter, Jerome I; Pirastu, Mario; Meitinger, Thomas; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight
Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10(-8)), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10(-11)) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10(-11)) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. "Replication-level" association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of refractive
Shpak, A A; Medvedev, I V; Karamian, A A; Milova, S V
Spatial contrast sensitivity (SCS) is one of the most important visual functions. SCS was examined in 23 patients (38 eyes) with high myopia before and after refraction lamellar keratoplasty (RLK) and in 21 healthy controls. Before surgery an appreciable (p < 0.01) reduction of SCS was observed in patients with high myopia in the entire range of spatial frequencies in comparison with the controls. After the operation the maximally corrected vision acuity was virtually unchanged, whereas the parameters of SCS somewhat increased for all frequencies, the increase being statistically reliable at frequencies of 0.23 to 3.75 and 15 cycles/degree. Hence, the studies demonstrated that changes in the topography of the cornea after refraction lamellar keratoplasty do not deteriorate the visual function.
Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Young; Lee, Jong Soo
A 27-year-old woman developed bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) and transient myopia after taking oseltamivir for four days. On the fourth day, she received systemic and topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering agents, and IOP decreased in both eyes. However, her visual acuity was unchanged. A myopic shift of -5.25 D OD and -5.0 D OS was estimated to have occurred in the acute phase. A-scan ultrasonography and Pentacam showed markedly shallow anterior chambers and increased lens thickness. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an annular ciliochoroidal effusion with forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm. Ciliochoroidal effusion and transient myopia were resolved after discontinuation of oseltamivir. PMID:23571265
Ovechkin, I G; Rosliakov, V A; Aleksandrova, L A
The development of effective methods for preventing and correcting myopia in pilots is one of the most important problems of aeronautic ophthalmology. The majority of Russian and foreign aeronautic ophthalmologists agree that contact correction is the principal method for repair of occupational vision of myopic pilots. Experiments with soft contact lenses with 38 and 70% humor content were carried out. The methodology was based on comprehensive examinations of the vision status and status of the organ of vision under common conditions on the Earth and during simulation of unfavorable flight factors. The results indicate that contact lenses are a safe means for correcting myopia in pilots. This is confirmed by the absence of unfavorable changes in the main visual functions and in the status of the anterior segment of the eye, by a constant level of visual working capacity, and by the absence of negative subjective sensations.
Öner, Veysi; Taş, Mehmet; Özkaya, Erdal; Oruç, Yavuz
AIM To evaluate the ocular response analyzer (ORA) measurements of patients with pathological myopia in comparison with those of emmetropic control subjects, and to investigate the correlation between these ORA measurements and spherical equivalent (SE). METHODS Measurements of 53 eyes of 53 subjects with pathological myopia (SE>-6.00 D) were compared with those of 60 eyes of 60 emmetropic controls. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), noncontact tonometer intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were obtained for each subject. The refractive error value was determined as SE via a cycloplegic refraction test. RESULTS The mean age was 54.1±18.9y (ranging from 5 to 88) in the pathological myopic group and 56.2±19.0y (ranging from 6 to 89) in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning age and sex. CH and CRF were significantly lower in the pathological myopic group than in the control group (P<0.001, P=0.005, respectively). IOPcc and IOPg were significantly higher in the pathological myopic group than in the control group (P<0.001, P=0.009, respectively). There were significantly positive correlations between CH and SE (r=0.565, P<0.001) and between CRF and SE (r=0.364, P=0.007). There were significantly negative correlations between IOPcc and SE (r=-0.432, P=0.001) and between IOPg and SE (r=-0.401, P=0.003). CONCLUSION The present study displayed that pathological myopia affected biomechanical properties measured by ORA. The results of corneal biomechanical properties measured by ORA may need to be appreciated by taking refraction into account. Further, pathological myopia might be related with the increased IOP. PMID:25938057
Abbott, Carla J; Grünert, Ulrike; Pianta, Michael J; McBrien, Neville A
This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (-15.9 ± 2.3D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p=0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.
Garcia, Mariana B.; Jha, Amit K.; Healy, Kevin E.; Wildsoet, Christine F.
Purpose To investigate the biocompatibility of an injectable hydrogel and its ability to control myopia progression in guinea pigs. Methods The study used a hydrogel synthesized from acrylated hyaluronic acid with a conjugated cell-binding peptide and enzymatically degradable crosslinker. Seven-day-old guinea pigs were first form deprived (FD) with diffusers for 1 week. One group was kept as an FD-only control; two groups received a sub-Tenon's capsule injection of either hydrogel or buffer (sham surgery) at the posterior pole of the eye. Form deprivation treatments were then continued for 3 additional weeks. Treatment effects were evaluated in terms of ocular axial length and refractive error. Safety was evaluated via intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, flash electroretinograms (ERG), and histology. Results Both hydrogel and sham surgery groups showed significantly reduced axial elongation and myopia progression compared to the FD-only group. For axial lengths, net changes in interocular difference (treated minus control) were 0.04 ± 0.06, 0.02 ± 0.09, and 0.24 ± 0.08 mm for hydrogel, sham, and FD-only groups, respectively (P = 0.0006). Intraocular pressures, visual acuities, and ERGs of treated eyes were not significantly different from contralateral controls. Extensive cell migration into the implants was evident. Both surgery groups showed noticeable Tenon's capsule thickening. Conclusions Sub-Tenon's capsule injections of both hydrogel and buffer inhibited myopia progression, with no adverse effects on ocular health. The latter unexpected effect warrants further investigation as a potential novel myopia control therapy. That the hydrogel implant supported significant cell infiltration offers further proof of its biocompatibility, with potential application as a tool for drug and cell delivery. PMID:28358959
Atchison, David A; Pritchard, Nicola; Schmid, Katrina L
Peripheral refractions were measured to 35 degrees eccentricity using a free-space autorefractor in young adult emmetropic and myopic subjects. Refractions were measured along horizontal and vertical visual fields for 116 subjects and a 43 subject subset, respectively. Along the horizontal visual field, peripheral myopic shifts in spherical equivalent M of emmetropes changed to relative hypermetropic shifts in the myopes, there were temporal-nasal asymmetries of 90 degrees to 180 degrees astigmatism J(180) which decreased as myopia increased, and 45 degrees to 135 degrees astigmatism J(45) was linearly related to field angle. Along the vertical visual field, both peripheral myopic shifts in peripheral M and J(180) asymmetry were unaffected by magnitude of myopia, and J(45) changed at three times the rate as for the horizontal visual field. Myopia has more effect on peripheral refraction of adult eyes along the horizontal than along the vertical visual field. The peripheral variations in refraction match well what is known about the shapes of emmetropic and myopic eyes.
Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.
Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331
Rudnicka, Alicja R; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Wathern, Andrea K; Gilmartin, Bernard; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G
The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1–18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention. PMID:26802174
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Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Hong, Kyung Euy; Park, Chan Kee
Myopia is rapidly increasing in young populations and patients with glaucoma associated with myopia are reported to be young aged in East Asia. These young patients have a longer life expectancy, which increases their risk of end-of-life visual disabilities. There is a need to understand the clinical course of myopic glaucoma patients, which may be important for the care of these myopic populations. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the age at presentation and the rate of glaucoma progression in the visual field (VF) according to the presence of myopia. The study was conducted as a prospective observational study including 179 patients with open-angle glaucoma who had undergone at least 5 VF examinations with a follow-up of at least 5 years. The progression rate of the mean deviation (MD) and the pattern standard deviation (PSD) are expressed as change in decibels (dB) per year. The slopes of the MD and PSD were calculated by linear regression analyses. Factors related to the slope of VF MD changes were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. The slope of the linear fit line plotted against age at presentation and the rate of change in the VF MD was -0.026 (P < 0.001) in the myopic group and -0.008 (P = 0.167) in the nonmyopic group; the relationship was more prominent in the myopic group than the nonmyopic group. In the myopic group, age (β = -0.417; 95% confidence intervals (CI), -0.651 to -0.200; P = 0.050) and baseline untreated intraocular pressure (β = -0.179; 95% CI, -0.331 to -0.028; P = 0.022) were significantly related to the rate of change in the MD, which was only the presence of disc hemorrhage (β = -0.335; 95% CI, -0.568 to -0.018; P = 0.022) in the nonmyopic group. Age at presentation was significantly related to the rate of change in the VF in glaucomatous eyes with myopia compared to eyes without myopia. Older age was significantly related to the rate of change in the VF only in
Chen, Yanxian; Zhang, Jian; Morgan, Ian G.; He, Mingguang
Purpose To construct reference centile curves of refraction based on population-based data as an age-specific severity scale to evaluate their efficacy as a tool for identifying children at risk of developing high myopia in a longitudinal study. Methods Data of 4218 children aged 5–15 years from the Guangzhou Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) study, and 354 first-born twins from the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES) with annual visit were included in the analysis. Reference centile curves for refraction were constructed using a quantile regression model based on the cycloplegic refraction data from the RESC. The risk of developing high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6 diopters [D]) was evaluated as a diagnostic test using the twin follow-up data. Results The centile curves suggested that the 3rd, 5th, and 10th percentile decreased from -0.25 D, 0.00 D and 0.25 D in 5 year-olds to -6.00 D, -5.65D and -4.63 D in 15 year-olds in the population-based data from RESC. In the GTES cohort, the 5th centile showed the most effective diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 97.9% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 65.0% in predicting high myopia onset (≤-6.00D) before the age of 15 years. The PPV was highest (87.5%) in 3rd centile but with only 50.0% sensitivity. The Mathew’s correlation coefficient of 5th centile in predicting myopia of -6.0D/-5.0D/-4.0D by age of 15 was 0.77/0.51/0.30 respectively. Conclusions Reference centile curves provide an age-specific estimation on a severity scale of refractive error in school-aged children. Children located under lower percentiles at young age were more likely to have high myopia at 15 years or probably in adulthood. PMID:28030593
Mo, Jing; Duan, Anli; Chan, Szyyann; Wang, Xuefei; Wei, Wenbin
Objectives To investigate vascular flow density in pathological myopia with optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. Setting Participants were recruited in Beijing Tongren Hospital. Participants A total of 131 eyes were enrolled, which were divided into three groups: 45 eyes with emmetropia (EM; mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 41 eyes with high myopia (HM; MSE ≤−6.00D, without pathological changes), and 45 eyes with pathological myopia (PM; MSE ≤−6.00D and axial length (AL) ≥26.5 mm, and with pathological changes). Main outcome measures Macular, choriocapillaris and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) flow densities were measured and compared between groups, and their relationships with AL and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were analysed. Results Significant differences were found in macular, choriocapillaris and RPC flow densities among the three groups (p<0.05). Multiple comparisons revealed that, compared with the EM and HM groups, macular and RPC flow densities of the PM group were significantly decreased (p<0.05), but no significant difference in choriocapillaris flow density was found between the PM and HM groups (p=0.731). Compared with the EM group, retinal flow density in the macular and arcuate fibre region was not decreased in the HM group. In addition, there was a negative correlation between AL and superficial macular flow density (β=−0.542, p<0.001), deep macular flow density (β=−0.282, p=0.002) and RPC flow density (β=−0.522, p<0.001); and a positive correlation between BCVA and superficial macular flow density (β=0.194, p=0.021), deep macular flow density (β=0.373, p<0.001), and choriocapillaris flow density (β=0.291, p=0.001). Conclusions Macular and RPC flow densities decreased in pathological myopia compared with high myopia and emmetropia. No significant decrease of retinal flow density in the macular
Mo, Jing; Duan, An-Li; Chan, Szy-Yann; Wang, Xue-Fei; Wei, Wen-Bin
AIM To investigate the effect of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) on circulation of pathologic myopia eyes with posterior staphyloma by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS The study included 30 pathologic myopia eyes with posterior staphyloma which underwent PSR (PSR group) for 6 to 18mo ago, and 30 age and myopia matched eyes without PSR surgery as control group. Macular, choriocapillaris and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) flow density were measured by OCTA, and the measurements were compared between groups. RESULTS OCTA found no significant differences in macular flow density between PSR and control groups. For the superficial flow, whole enface flow density (WED), fovea density (FD), and parafoveal density (PD) were 46.55%±5.19% vs 47.29%±4.12% (P=0.542), 31.45%±6.35% vs 31.17%±4.48% (P=0.841), and 48.82%±5.66% vs 49.21%±4.15% (P=0.756) in PSR and control groups, respectively. For the deep flow, WED, FD, and PD were 52.07%±5.78% vs 53.95%±4.62% (P=0.168), 29.62%±6.55% vs 29.50%±6.38% (P=0.940), and 56.93%±6.17% vs 58.15%±5.13% (P=0.407) in PSR and control groups, respectively. The choriocapillary flow density was 61.18±3.25% in PSR group vs 60.88%±2.56% in control group (P=0.692). Also, OCTA found no significant differences in RPCs flow density between PSR and control groups. The optic disc WED, inside disc flow density and peripapillary flow density were 48.47%±4.77% vs 48.11%±4.57% (P=0.813), 45.47%±11.44% vs 46.68%±9.02% (P=0.709), 54.32%±5.29% vs 52.47%±6.62% (P=0.349) in PSR and control groups, respectively. CONCLUSION OCTA provides a non-invasive and quantitative approach for monitoring macular and papillary blood flow in pathologic myopia. PSR can not improve but may maintain the circulation of pathologic myopia eyes with posterior staphyloma. PMID:28003976
Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Thinakaran, Gopal; Williams, Cathy
Myopia is the most common vision disorder and the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. However, gene variants identified to date explain less than 10% of the variance in refractive error, leaving the majority of heritability unexplained (“missing heritability”). Previously, we reported that expression of APLP2 was strongly associated with myopia in a primate model. Here, we found that low-frequency variants near the 5’-end of APLP2 were associated with refractive error in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 3,819 children; top SNP rs188663068, p = 5.0 × 10−4) and a CREAM consortium panel (n = 45,756 adults; top SNP rs7127037, p = 6.6 × 10−3). These variants showed evidence of differential effect on childhood longitudinal refractive error trajectories depending on time spent reading (gene x time spent reading x age interaction, p = 4.0 × 10−3). Furthermore, Aplp2 knockout mice developed high degrees of hyperopia (+11.5 ± 2.2 D, p < 1.0 × 10−4) compared to both heterozygous (-0.8 ± 2.0 D, p < 1.0 × 10−4) and wild-type (+0.3 ± 2.2 D, p < 1.0 × 10−4) littermates and exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in susceptibility to environmentally induced myopia (F(2, 33) = 191.0, p < 1.0 × 10−4). This phenotype was associated with reduced contrast sensitivity (F(12, 120) = 3.6, p = 1.5 × 10−4) and changes in the electrophysiological properties of retinal amacrine cells, which expressed Aplp2. This work identifies APLP2 as one of the “missing” myopia genes, demonstrating the importance of a low-frequency gene variant in the development of human myopia. It also demonstrates an important role for APLP2 in refractive development in mice and humans, suggesting a high level of evolutionary conservation of the signaling pathways underlying refractive eye development. PMID:26313004
Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T
lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid
Xiong, Shuyu; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Naduvilath, Thomas; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lv, Minzhi; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xun
Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis. Twenty-three of the 25 articles involved children. Risk ratio (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables were conducted. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool the data for meta-analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test with I(2) ≥ 50% considered to indicate high heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses (based on participant's age, prevalence of myopia and study type) and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A significant protective effect of outdoor time was found for incident myopia (clinical trials: risk ratio (RR) = 0.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.338 to 0.850; longitudinal cohort studies: RR = 0.574, 95% CI = 0.395 to 0.834) and prevalent myopia (cross-sectional studies: OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.945 to 0.982). With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group (WMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.41) after 3 years of follow-up. However, when only myopes were considered, dose-response analysis did not find a relationship between time outdoors and myopic
Maldonado, Alexis; Rosas, Felix; Mora, Jose R.; Brusco, Yannely; Córdova-Sintjago, Tania C.; Chuchani, Gabriel
The gas-phase thermal dehydration mechanism of tert-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 2-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol by homogeneous catalysis of hydrogen bromide was examined by density functional theory calculations with the hybrid functionals: M062X, CAMB3LYP and WB97XD. Reasonable agreements were found between theoretical and experimental enthalpy values at the WB97XD/6-311++G(d,p) level. The dehydration mechanism of tert-butanol with and without catalysis was evaluated in order to examine the catalyst effect on the mechanism. The elimination reaction without catalysis involves a four-membered transition state (TS), while the reaction with catalysis involves a six-membered TS. The mechanism without catalysis has enthalpy activation over 150 kJ mol-1 greater than the catalysed reaction. In all these reactions, the elongation of the C-O bond is significant in the TS. The un-catalysed reaction is controlled by breaking of C-O bond, and it was found to be more synchronous (Sy ≈ 0.91) than the hydrogen bromide catalysed reactions (Sy ≈ 0.75-0.78); the latter reactions are dominated by the three reaction coordinates associated with water formation. No significant effect on the enthalpies of activation was observed when the size of the alkyl chain was increased.
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Johansen, Ayna; Nesvåg, Sverre; Kok, Gerjo; Duckert, Fanny
Background Due to limited reporting of intervention rationale, little is known about what distinguishes a good intervention from a poor one. To support improved design, there is a need for comprehensive reports on novel and complex theory-based interventions. Specifically, the emerging trend of just-in-time tailoring of content in response to change in target behavior or emotional state is promising. Objective The objective of this study was to give a systematic and comprehensive description of the treatment rationale of an online alcohol intervention called Balance. Methods We used the intervention mapping protocol to describe the treatment rationale of Balance. The intervention targets at-risk drinking, and it is delivered by email, mobile phone text messaging, and tailored interactive webpages combining text, pictures, and prerecorded audio. Results The rationale of the current treatment was derived from a self-regulation perspective, and the overarching idea was to support continued self-regulation throughout the behavior change process. Maintaining the change efforts over time and coping adaptively during critical moments (eg, immediately before and after a lapse) are key factors to successful behavior change. Important elements of the treatment rationale to achieving these elements were: (1) emotion regulation as an inoculation strategy against self-regulation failure, (2) avoiding lapses by adaptive coping, and (3) avoiding relapse by resuming the change efforts after a lapse. Two distinct and complementary delivery strategies were used, including a day-to-day tunnel approach in combination with just-in-time therapy. The tunnel strategy was in accordance with the need for continuous self-regulation and it functions as a platform from which just-in-time therapy was launched. Just-in-time therapy was used to support coping during critical moments, and started when the client reports either low self-efficacy or that they were drinking above target levels
Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.
A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables
Kwon, Jin-woo; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon
Abstract The aim of this article was to assess the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and daily sun exposure time with myopia in Korean adults. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) of Korean adults in 2010–2012; multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels and daily sun exposure time with myopia, defined as spherical equivalent ≤–0.5D, after adjustment for age, sex, household income, body mass index (BMI), exercise, intraocular pressure (IOP), and education level. Also, multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels with spherical equivalent after adjustment for daily sun exposure time in addition to the confounding factors above. Between the nonmyopic and myopic groups, spherical equivalent, age, IOP, BMI, waist circumference, education level, household income, and area of residence differed significantly (all P < 0.05). Compared with subjects with daily sun exposure time <2 hour, subjects with sun exposure time ≥2 to <5 hour, and those with sun exposure time ≥5 hour had significantly less myopia (P < 0.001). In addition, compared with subjects were categorized into quartiles of serum 25(OH)D, the higher quartiles had gradually lower prevalences of myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analyses, spherical equivalent was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.002). Low serum 25(OH)D levels and shorter daily sun exposure time may be independently associated with a high prevalence of myopia in Korean adults. These data suggest a direct role for vitamin D in the development of myopia. PMID:27861336
Shi, Yi; Qu, Jia; Zhang, Dingding; Zhao, Peiquan; Zhang, Qingjiong; Tam, Pancy Oi Sin; Sun, Liangdan; Zuo, Xianbo; Zhou, Xiangtian; Xiao, Xueshan; Hu, Jianbin; Li, Yuanfeng; Cai, Li; Liu, Xiaoqi; Lu, Fang; Liao, Shihuang; Chen, Bin; He, Fei; Gong, Bo; Lin, He; Ma, Shi; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yiye; Zhao, Fuxin; Yang, Xian; Chen, Yuhong; Yang, Charles; Lam, Dennis Shun Chiu; Li, Xi; Shi, Fanjun; Wu, Zhengzheng; Lin, Ying; Yang, Jiyun; Li, Shiqiang; Ren, Yunqing; Xue, Anquan; Fan, Yingchuan; Li, Dean; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Zhenglin
High myopia, which is extremely prevalent in the Chinese population, is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Genetic factors play a critical role in the development of the condition. To identify the genetic variants associated with high myopia in the Han Chinese, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 493,947 SNPs in 1088 individuals (419 cases and 669 controls) from a Han Chinese cohort and followed up on signals that were associated with p < 1.0 × 10−4 in three independent cohorts (combined, 2803 cases and 5642 controls). We identified a significant association between high myopia and a variant at 13q12.12 (rs9318086, combined p = 1.91 × 10−16, heterozygous odds ratio = 1.32, and homozygous odds ratio = 1.64). Furthermore, five additional SNPs (rs9510902, rs3794338, rs1886970, rs7325450, and rs7331047) in the same linkage disequilibrium (LD) block with rs9318086 also proved to be significantly associated with high myopia in the Han Chinese population; p values ranged from 5.46 × 10−11 to 6.16 × 10−16. This associated locus contains three genes—MIPEP, C1QTNF9B-AS1, and C1QTNF9B. MIPEP and C1QTNF9B were found to be expressed in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and are more likely than C1QTNF9B-AS1 to be associated with high myopia given the evidence of retinal signaling that controls eye growth. Our results suggest that the variants at 13q12.12 are associated with high myopia. PMID:21640322
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong
Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives—specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation—and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. Method: One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Results: Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students’ alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use. PMID:22051210
Ağca, Alper; Demirok, Ahmet; Yıldırım, Yusuf; Demircan, Ali; Yaşa, Dilek; Yeşilkaya, Ceren; Perente, İrfan; Taşkapılı, Muhittin
Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is an alternative to laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE can be performed for the treatment of myopia ≤−12 D and astigmatism ≤5 D. The technology is currently only available in the VisuMax femtosecond laser platform. It offers several advantages over LASIK and PRK; however, hyperopia treatment, topography-guided treatment, and cyclotorsion control are not available in the current platform. The working principles, potential advantages, and disadvantages are discussed in this review. PMID:27757010
Fouda, Sameh M.
Purpose. To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and predictability of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on the corneal flap for correction of residual myopia following myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Patients and Methods. A retrospective study on eyes retreated by PRK on the corneal flap for residual myopia after LASIK. All eyes had no enough stroma after LASIK sufficient for LASIK enhancement. Data included spherical equivalent (SE), uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity (UCVA and BCVA), central pachymetry, corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs), corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and corneal haze. Results. The study included 64 eyes. Before PRK, the mean central pachymetry was 400.21 ± 7.8 μm, the mean SE was −1.74 ± 0.51 D, and the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.35 ± 0.18 and 0.91 ± 0.07, respectively. 12 months postoperatively, the mean central corneal thickness was 382.41 ± 2.61 μm, the mean SE was −0.18 ± 0.32 D (P < 0.01), and the mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.78 ± 0.14 (P = 0.01) and 0.92 ± 0.13 (P > 0.5), respectively. The safety index was 1.01 and the efficacy index was 0.86. No significant change was observed in corneal HOAs. Conclusions. Residual myopia less than 3 D after LASIK could be safely and effectively treated by PRK and mitomycin C with a high predictability. This prevents postoperative ectasia and avoids the flap related complications but has no significant effect on HOAs. PMID:28168049
Hull, S; Kalhoro, A; Marr, J; Thompson, D A; Holder, G E; Robson, A G; Moore, A T
Aims To report the clinical phenotype in a series of four children from three families with the rare association of high myopia, central macular atrophy, and normal full-field electroretinography (ERG). Methods Four male patients were ascertained with reduced vision, nystagmus, and atrophy of the macula from early childhood. Patients underwent full ophthalmic examination, electrophysiological testing, and retinal imaging. Results Minimum duration of follow-up was 8 years. At last review, visual acuity ranged from 0.22 to 1.20 logMAR (6/9.5–6/95 Snellen) at a mean age of 10.5 years (median 9.5 years, range 9–14 years). Refractive error ranged from a spherical equivalent of −7.40 D to −24.00 D. Three had convergent squint. Fundus examination and imaging demonstrated bilateral macular atrophy in all patients that varied from mild atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to well-demarcated, punched-out atrophic lesions of retina, RPE, and choroid. Flash ERG was normal under photopic and scotopic conditions in all patients. Pattern ERG, performed in three patients, was consistent with mild to severe macular dysfunction. Progression of the area of atrophy was evident in one patient and of the myopia in two patients but all patients had stable visual acuity. Conclusions Patients with congenital high myopia and macular atrophy present in infancy with reduced visual acuity and nystagmus. The macular atrophic lesions vary in size and severity but electrophysiological testing is consistent with dysfunction confined to the macula. There was no deterioration in visual acuity over 8–10 years of monitoring. PMID:25998941
JADIDI, Khosrow; NEJAT, Farhad; MOSAVI, Seyedali Asghar; NADERI, Mostafa; KATIRAEE, Ali; JANANI, Leila; AGHAMOLLAEI, Hossein
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the mechanical implantation of a MyoRing in patients with severe keratoconus and high myopia. The study involved 32 eyes of 32 patients (14 men and 18 women; mean age: 29.6 ± 6.7; age range: 20 – 44). The patients underwent MyoRing implantation with mechanical dissection using a Pocket Maker microkeratome, and outcomes were assessedat3 months after surgery. The main outcome measures were uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA, both in Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution [logMAR] units), manifest refraction, and keratometry readings. There was a significant improvement in the UDVA, from 1.14 ± 0.32 to 0.35 ± 0.24 (P ˂ 0.001), and in the CDVA, from 0.47 ± 0.20 to 0.22 ± 0.15 (P ˂ 0.001). There was also a significant improvement in the spherical equivalent refractive error (-10.51 ± 2.81 D to -1.32 ± 2.29 D) (P ˂ 0.001). There was a significant decrease of manifest refraction in the mean sphere and cylinder of 7.70 and 2.6 D, respectively (P < 0.001). Furthermore, with regard to corneal topography, there was a significant reduction of 3.55 D (P ˂ 0.001) in the mean keratometry reading. The results show that the mechanical implantation of a MyoRing is effective for the correction of myopia in patients with keratoconus and high myopia. PMID:28293654
Naderi, Mostafa; Jadidi, Khosrow; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar; Daneshi, Seyed Aref
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness, safety and stability of the results of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) with conventional photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for low to moderate myopia. Methods: In this prospective non-randomized case-control study, patients with low to moderate myopia were assigned to the tPRK group (cases) or the PRK group (controls). In the tPRK group, eyes were treated using the Amaris excimer laser (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Germany). Outcome measures included postoperative pain using McGill Pain Questionnaire, epithelial healing time, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), manifest refraction, and safety and efficacy indexes which were compared between the study groups. Results: Three hundred forty eyes of 170 patients were enrolled in this study. Each study group comprised of 170 eyes of 85 patients. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the postoperative pain scores in favor of the tPRK group (P = 0.04). The tPRK group had a shorter epithelial healing time than the conventional PRK group postoperatively (P = 0.01). Mean UCVA was significantly better in the case group than in the control group at the postoperative month 2 (P = 0.01). Regarding the safety and efficacy indexes, the tPRK group had better results than the conventional PRK group (P < 0.01 for both comparisons). Conclusion: Transepithelial PRK seems to be superior to conventional PRK for treatment of low to moderate myopia in terms of postoperative pain, epithelial healing time, visual recovery and safety and efficacy indexes. PMID:27994803
Tideman, J Willem L; Fan, Qiao; Polling, Jan Roelof; Guo, Xiaobo; Yazar, Seyhan; Khawaja, Anthony; Höhn, René; Lu, Yi; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Yamashiro, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Nickels, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; He, Mingguang; Boutin, Thibaud; Bencic, Goran; Vitart, Veronique; Mackey, David A; Foster, Paul J; MacGregor, Stuart; Williams, Cathy; Saw, Seang Mei; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Klaver, Caroline C W
Previous studies have identified many genetic loci for refractive error and myopia. We aimed to investigate the effect of these loci on ocular biometry as a function of age in children, adolescents, and adults. The study population consisted of three age groups identified from the international CREAM consortium: 5,490 individuals aged <10 years; 5,000 aged 10-25 years; and 16,274 aged >25 years. All participants had undergone standard ophthalmic examination including measurements of axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR). We examined the lead SNP at all 39 currently known genetic loci for refractive error identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), as well as a combined genetic risk score (GRS). The beta coefficient for association between SNP genotype or GRS versus AL/CR was compared across the three age groups, adjusting for age, sex, and principal components. Analyses were Bonferroni-corrected. In the age group <10 years, three loci (GJD2, CHRNG, ZIC2) were associated with AL/CR. In the age group 10-25 years, four loci (BMP2, KCNQ5, A2BP1, CACNA1D) were associated; and in adults 20 loci were associated. Association with GRS increased with age; β = 0.0016 per risk allele (P = 2 × 10(-8) ) in <10 years, 0.0033 (P = 5 × 10(-15) ) in 10- to 25-year-olds, and 0.0048 (P = 1 × 10(-72) ) in adults. Genes with strongest effects (LAMA2, GJD2) had an early effect that increased with age. Our results provide insights on the age span during which myopia genes exert their effect. These insights form the basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying high and pathological myopia.
Lyu, Byul; Hwang, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Su Young
Purpose The purpose of this multi-institute, single-group clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of toric orthokeratology lenses for the treatment of patients with combined myopia and astigmatism. Methods A total of 44 patients were included in this clinical trial. The patients ranged in age from 7 to 49 years, with myopia of -0.75 to -6.0 diopters (D) and astigmatism of 1.25 to 4.0 D. After excluding 21 subjects, 23 subjects (39 eyes) were analyzed after toric orthokeratology lens use. The subjects underwent ophthalmologic examination after 1 day and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of wearing overnight toric orthokeratology lenses. Results A total of 19 subjects (31 eyes) completed the trial after five subjects (eight eyes) dropped out. In the patients who completed the study by wearing lenses for 4 weeks, the myopic refractive error decreased significantly by 2.60 ± 2.21 D (p < 0.001), from -3.65 ± 1.62 to -1.05 ± 1.64 D. The astigmatic refractive error were also significantly decreased by 0.63 ± 0.98 D (p = 0.001), from 2.07 ± 0.83 to 1.44 ± 0.99 D. The mean uncorrected and corrected visual acuities before wearing the lenses were 2.14 ± 0.80 logarithm of the logMAR (logMAR) and 0.05 ± 0.13 logMAR, respectively, which changed to 0.12 ± 0.30 logarithm of the logMAR (p < 0.001) and 0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR (p = 0.156) after 4 weeks. No serious adverse reactions were reported during the clinical trial. Conclusions Our results suggest that toric orthokeratology is an effective and safe treatment for correcting visual acuity in patients with combined myopia and astigmatism. PMID:27980362
... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...
The first two parts of this monograph document that areas of the human neocortex heavily used to cope with a complex, language-driven society have been expanding rapidly and suggest strongly that this is linked with the huge upsurge that's occurred in myopia, and with the large gradual 20th-century increase in measured intelligence. Part III proposes mechanisms capable of supporting such rapid changes, without violating the basic precepts of Darwin's thinking. Part IV discusses the social and evolutionary ramifications of our apparent proclivity for rapid, progressive, adaptive neocortical change, and suggests areas for productive research.
McFadden, Sally A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Bowrey, Hannah E.; Leotta, Amelia J.; Lam, Carly S.; Wildsoet, Christine F.; To, Chi-Ho
Purpose. Eye growth compensates in opposite directions to single vision (SV) negative and positive lenses. We evaluated the response of the guinea pig eye to Fresnel-type lenses incorporating two different powers. Methods. A total of 114 guinea pigs (10 groups with 9–14 in each) wore a lens over one eye and interocular differences in refractive error and ocular dimensions were measured in each of three experiments. First, the effects of three Fresnel designs with various diopter (D) combinations (−5D/0D; +5D/0D or −5D/+5D dual power) were compared to three SV lenses (−5D, +5D, or 0D). Second, the ratio of −5D and +5D power in a Fresnel lens was varied (50:50 compared with 60:40). Third, myopia was induced by 4 days of exposure to a SV −5D lens, which was then exchanged for a Fresnel lens (−5D/+5D) or one of two SV lenses (+5D or −5D) and ocular parameters tracked for a further 3 weeks. Results. Dual power lenses induced an intermediate response between that to the two constituent powers (lenses +5D, +5D/0D, 0D, −5D/+5D, −5D/0D and −5D induced +2.1 D, +0.7 D, +0.1 D, −0.3 D, −1.6 D and −5.1 D in mean intraocular differences in refractive error, respectively), and changing the ratio of powers induced responses equal to their weighted average. In already myopic animals, continued treatment with SV negative lenses increased their myopia (from −3.3 D to −4.2 D), while switching to SV positive lenses or −5D/+5D Fresnel lenses reduced their myopia (by 2.9 D and 2.3 D, respectively). Conclusions. The mammalian eye integrates competing defocus to guide its refractive development and eye growth. Fresnel lenses, incorporating positive or plano power with negative power, can slow ocular growth, suggesting that such designs may control myopia progression in humans. PMID:24398103
Moshirfar, Majid; Grégoire, François J; Mirzaian, Garen; Whitehead, George F; Kang, Paul C
We report 2 patients with stable keratoconus and high myopia who benefited from implantation of an iris-supported phakic intraocular lens (Verisyse, AMO) for correction of their refractive error. Both patients had a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40. Endothelial cell density showed at most a 4% decrease, and no evidence of keratoconus progression was witnessed. The use of the Verisyse lens may be beneficial for certain keratoconic patients as an alternative step between rigid gas-permeable lenses and penetrating keratoplasty.
NADERI, Mostafa; GHADAMGAHI, Saeed; JADIDI, Khosrow
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for patients with myopia and thin corneas. In this retrospective case series, we included 74 eyes of 38 patients with myopia and central corneal thickness (CCT) < 550 µm who underwent PRK and had a mean postoperative follow-up period of four years. The following factors were evaluated: CCT, refraction, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ablation depth, safety and efficacy indices (i.e., the ratio of the mean postoperative BCVA to the mean preoperative BCVA, and the ratio of the mean postoperative UCVA to mean preoperative the BCVA, respectively), and evidence of corneal ectasia (based on Orbscan topography images).The patients were aged 20 – 46 years (mean ±SD age, 28.18± 6.82 years). The mean ± SD pre- and postoperative CCTwas485.92 ± 9.27 µm and 434.84 ± 20.48 µm, respectively. The mean ± SD pre- and postoperative myopia was -2.77 D ± 1.51 and -0.24 ± 0.39 D, respectively, and the mean ± SD pre- and postoperative astigmatism was -0.82 D ± 0.99 and -0.37 ± 0.37 D, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative BCVA and postoperative UCVA was 0.011 ± 0.03 Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (log MAR), 0.003 ± 0.01 log MAR, and 0.054 ± 0.09 log MAR, respectively. The mean ± SD ablation depth, safety index and efficacy index was 54.34 ± 16.28 µm, 0.02 ± 0.12, and 0.11 ± 0.50, respectively. Regarding the postoperative corneal clarity, 72 eyes (97.3%) had a clear cornea (grade 0) and the remaining two eyes of one patient (2.70%) had a trace haze (grade 1). There was no evidence of corneal ectasia on any of the Orbscan topography images. Thus, among patients with myopia and thin corneas (<500 µm), PRK seems to be acceptable in terms of both safety and efficacy 4 years after surgery, based on the stability of postoperative refraction, visual acuity, and topographic outcomes, and outcomes based on
Mak, W; Kwan, M W M; Cheng, T S; Chan, K H; Cheung, R T F; Ho, S L
Myopia has become an almost pandemic problem in many populations. There are compelling evidence to suggest that myopia is a hereditary condition. However, myopia would constitute a definite selection disadvantage during most stages of human evolution, which is incompatible with its moderate to high prevalence in most modern populations. The rapid upsurge of myopia over just a few decades also implies that its inheritance does not follow any of the usual patterns, and environmental factors may have an important role in precipitating its occurrence in those who are genetically predisposed. Previous studies showed that myopes were, on average, more intelligent than non-myopes, and this association had been attributed to a biological link between eye growth and brain development. We propose a pleiotropic genetic model to explain the atypical epidemiologic and inheritance pattern of myopia and its relationship with neurocognitive development. This pleiotropic gene was positively selected for its facilitation of human intelligence. The myopic component is a latent phenotype; myopia will not be expressed unless some novel external factors are encountered (i.e. a "quirk" phenomenon). Therefore, the myopic component was selectively neutral in our ancestral environment. The net gain in Darwinian fitness enables the pleiotropic gene to attain a high frequency in the human population, as reflected by our current prevalence of myopia.
Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert
A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…
Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky
Alcohol studies, like most psychological studies, have traditionally focused on males. Several psychosocial theories have been used to explain male alcoholism, including dependency, the power drive, and sex role theory. This latter stance may provide a theoretical framework for the etiology of drinking which will apply to both sexes; however,…
Watson, Charles G.; And Others
Performed factor analyses of 100 alcoholics' reports of the effects that they experience after alcohol consumption. Five factors emerged: Hangover, Euphoria, Flushing, Seizures, and Sleepiness. These factors may be helpful in assessing theories on the etiology of alcoholism and in studies of ethanol's effects on subsets of alcohol abusers. (BH)
McClements, Michelle; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Michaelides, Michel; Young, Terri; Neitz, Maureen; MacLaren, Robert E.; Moore, Anthony T.; Hunt, David M.
Purpose. To determine the role of variant L opsin haplotypes in seven families with Bornholm Eye Disease (BED), a cone dysfunction syndrome with dichromacy and myopia. Methods. Analysis of the opsin genes within the L/M opsin array at Xq28 included cloning and sequencing of an exon 3-5 gene fragment, long range PCR to establish gene order, and quantitative PCR to establish gene copy number. In vitro expression of normal and variant opsins was performed to examine cellular trafficking and spectral sensitivity of pigments. Results. All except one of the BED families possessed L opsin genes that contained a rare exon 3 haplotype. The exception was a family with the deleterious Cys203Arg substitution. Two rare exon 3 haplotypes were found and, where determined, these variant opsin genes were in the first position in the array. In vitro expression in transfected cultured neuronal cells showed that the variant opsins formed functional pigments, which trafficked to the cell membranes. The variant opsins were, however, less stable than wild type. Conclusions. It is concluded that the variant L opsin haplotypes underlie BED. The reduction in the amount of variant opsin produced in vitro compared with wild type indicates a possible disease mechanism. Alternatively, the recently identified defective splicing of exon 3 of the variant opsin transcript may be involved. Both mechanisms explain the presence of dichromacy and cone dystrophy. Abnormal pigment may also underlie the myopia that is invariably present in BED subjects. PMID:23322568
Yıldırım, Yusuf; Alagöz, Cengiz; Demir, Abdülvahit; Ölçücü, Onur; Özveren, Mehmet; Ağca, Alper; Özgürhan, Engin Bilge; Demirok, Ahmet
Objectives: To evaluate two-year results of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for correction of high myopia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five eyes of 35 patients with mean spherical equivalent (SE) of -7.10±0.95 D who underwent routine SMILE by a single surgeon and were followed for at least 2 years were analyzed by retrospective chart review. SMILE was performed with a Visumax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). Follow-up intervals were at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Uncorrected and best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal wavefront measurements, and all complications were recorded. Results: After 2 years, 86% of eyes with plano target had an uncorrected distant visual acuity (VA) of 20/20 or better. Two percent of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, while 32% gained 1 line. The mean SE after 2 years was -0.30±0.50 D. Corneal total high-order aberrations (HOA) increased from 0.43 to 0.92 μm at postoperative 12 months. There were metallic foreign bodies at the corneal interface in 1 eye of 1 patient which caused no decrease in VA. Conclusion: SMILE for high myopia seems safe and effective in light of two-year follow-up results. The procedure caused a moderate increase in HOA. PMID:28058160
Riddell, Nina; Giummarra, Loretta; Hall, Nathan E.; Crewther, Sheila G.
Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and genetic mechanisms underpinning the retina's local control of these growth patterns remain unclear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the retina/RPE/choroid across 3 days of optically-induced myopia and hyperopia induction in chick. Data were analyzed for differential expression of single genes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. Like previous studies, we found few single genes that were differentially-expressed in a sign-of-defocus dependent manner (only BMP2 at 1 day). Using GSEA, however, we are the first to show that more subtle shifts in structural, metabolic, and immune pathway expression are correlated with the eye size and refractive changes induced by lens defocus. Our findings link gene expression with the morphological characteristics of refractive error, and suggest that physiological stress arising from metabolic and inflammatory pathway activation could increase the vulnerability of myopic eyes to secondary pathologies. PMID:27625591
Smith, Earl L.
It is well established that refractive development is regulated by visual feedback. However, most optical treatment strategies designed to reduce myopia progression have not produced the desired results, primarily because some of our assumptions concerning the operating characteristics of the vision-dependent mechanisms that regulate refractive development have been incorrect. In particular, because of the prominence of central vision in primates, it has generally been assumed that signals from the fovea determine the effects of vision on refractive development. However, experiments in laboratory animals demonstrate that ocular growth and emmetropization are mediated by local retinal mechanisms and that foveal vision is not essential for many vision-dependent aspects of refractive development. On the other hand, the peripheral retina, in isolation, can effectively regulate emmetropization and mediate many of the effects of vision on the eye’s refractive status. Moreover, when there are conflicting visual signals between the fovea and the periphery, peripheral vision can dominate refractive development. The overall pattern of results suggests that optical treatment strategies for myopia that take into account the effects of peripheral vision are likely to be more successful than strategies that effectively manipulate only central vision. PMID:21747306
Song, Zongming; Li, Mei; Liu, Junjie; Hu, Xuting; Hu, Zhixiang
Purpose. To investigate the surgical outcomes of Viscoat® assisted inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular holes (MHs) associated with high myopia. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. The main outcome measures were MH closure evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Result. MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the preoperative baseline, the mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) improved significantly at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (P = 0.025, 0.019, resp.). The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It may increase the success rate of the initial surgery and enhance the anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27047686
Okui, Shintaro; Meguro, Akira; Takeuchi, Masaki; Yamane, Takahiro; Okada, Eiichi; Iijima, Yasuhito; Mizuki, Nobuhisa
Purpose Many studies have investigated the relationship of the lumican gene (LUM) rs3759223 variant with the risk of high myopia, but the results have been inconsistent and inconclusive. In this study, we investigated whether LUM rs3759223 is associated with high myopia in a Japanese population. Methods We recruited 1,585 Japanese patients with high myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] <−9.00 diopters [D]) and 1,011 Japanese healthy controls (SE ≥−1.00 D). The rs3759223 variant was genotyped using the TaqMan assay, and the allelic and genotypic diversity among cases and controls was analyzed according to the SE level. Results In the allelic tests, the odds ratio (OR) for the T allele of rs3759223 tended to increase with the progression of SE, and the highest OR (1.56) was found in patients with SE <−15 D in both eyes. The OR of the T allele tended to increase with the progression of SE in the additive, dominant, and recessive inheritance models. However, we found no significant associations for any of the alleles or genotype models. Conclusion These data support the possibility that the LUM rs3759223 T allele accelerates the progression of SE in the Japanese population, although no significant associations were observed in this study. Additional genetic studies with larger samples that take into account the degree of SE are needed to clarify the contribution of rs3759223 to the risk of high myopia. PMID:27826181
Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L
Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.
The paper discusses the relationship between the images of alcohol and society, on one hand, and the reality of drinking and drinking problems on the other hand, from the point of view of policy-relevant research. Images of alcohol influence policy but they also depend on the social and cultural environment of policy-making. The epidemiological total consumption theory of alcohol-related problems is used as an example. The theory is embedded in the modern welfare state's ideals and its policy relevance presupposes that these ideals--universalism, consequentialism and public planning--are respected. If the approach today receives less attention by policy-makers than its empirical validity merits, it may be due to an erosion of these ideals, not of the epidemiological model itself. Images of alcohol influence behaviour and drinking problems but they also articulate the social context in which the images are constructed. This paper demonstrates the point, applying Lévi-Straussian cultural theory to an analysis of a recent beer advertisement addressed to young people. The advertisement not only reflects the images associated with youthful drinking but also the ambiguous status of youth as non-adults in contemporary society. The author stresses that for social and cultural research alcohol is a two-way window, to look at society through alcohol and to look at alcohol through society. Both directions are necessary for policy-relevant research.
It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.
... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...
One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.
Fang, Y-T; Chou, Y-J; Pu, C; Lin, P-J; Liu, T-L; Huang, N; Chou, P
Purpose This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops. Design This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This study was conducted using a national representative sample from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. All school children between 4 and 18 years of age who had visited an ophthalmologist and were diagnosed with myopia between 2000 and 2007 were included herein. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were prescribed atropine eye drops in each year. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with atropine eye drops being prescribed. Results The prescription of atropine eye drops for children diagnosed with myopia increased significantly from the school years 2000 (36.9%) to 2007 (49.5%). There was also a shift from prescribing high concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of atropine eye drops to lower concentration ones (0.3, 0.25, and 0.1%) within this period. Atropine eye drops were more frequently prescribed to 9–12-year-old children (OR=1.26–1.42, compared with those 7–8 years old), and to children from families with a high socioeconomic status (OR=1.19–1.25); however, they were less prescribed to those living in mid to low urbanized areas (OR=0.65–0.84). Conclusions This study revealed an increasing trend of atropine eye drop prescription for children with myopia in Taiwan. Our study provides eye-care professionals worldwide a reference for the potential integration of atropine eye drops into their clinical practice toward children with myopia. PMID:23288141
Li, Shi-Ming; Zhan, Siyan; Li, Si-Yuan; Peng, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Jing; Law, Hua Andrew; Wang, Ning-Li
Background Myopia (near-sightedness or short-sightedness) is a condition in which the refractive power of the eye is greater than required. The most frequent complaint of people with myopia is blurred distance vision, which can be eliminated by conventional optical aids such as spectacles or contact lenses, or by refractive surgery procedures such as photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). PRK uses laser to remove the corneal stroma. Similar to PRK, LASEK first creates an epithelial flap and then replaces it after ablating the corneal stroma. The relative benefits and harms of LASEK and PRK, as shown in different trials, warrant a systematic review. Objectives The objective of this review is to compare LASEK versus PRK for correction of myopia by evaluating their efficacy and safety in terms of postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, residual refractive error, and associated complications. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 December 2015. We used the Science Citation Index and searched the reference lists of the included trials to identify relevant trials for this review. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LASEK versus PRK for correction of myopia. Trial participants
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Stone, Richard A; Pardue, Machelle T; Iuvone, P Michael; Khurana, Tejvir S
Despite the high prevalence and public health impact of refractive errors, the mechanisms responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. Much evidence now supports the concept that the retina is central to the mechanism(s) regulating emmetropization and underlying refractive errors. Using a variety of pharmacologic methods and well-defined experimental eye growth models in laboratory animals, many retinal neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been implicated in this process. Nonetheless, an accepted framework for understanding the molecular and/or cellular pathways that govern postnatal eye development is lacking. Here, we review two extensively studied signaling pathways whose general roles in refractive development are supported by both experimental and clinical data: acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and retinal dopamine pharmacology. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine was first studied as an anti-myopia drug some two centuries ago, and much subsequent work has continued to connect muscarinic receptors to eye growth regulation. Recent research implicates a potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; and the refractive effects in population surveys of passive exposure to cigarette smoke, of which nicotine is a constituent, support clinical relevance. Reviewed here, many puzzling results inhibit formulating a mechanistic framework that explains acetylcholine's role in refractive development. How cholinergic receptor mechanisms might be used to develop acceptable approaches to normalize refractive development remains a challenge. Retinal dopamine signaling not only has a putative role in refractive development, its upregulation by light comprises an important component of the retinal clock network and contributes to the regulation of retinal circadian physiology. During postnatal development, the ocular dimensions undergo circadian and/or diurnal fluctuations in magnitude
Giuliani, Matteo; Herman, Jonathan D.; Castelletti, Andrea; Reed, Patrick M.
Current water reservoir operating policies are facing growing water demands as well as increasing uncertainties associated with a changing climate. However, policy inertia and myopia strongly limit the possibility of adapting current water reservoir operations to the undergoing change. Historical agreements and regulatory constraints limit the rate that reservoir operations are innovated and creates policy inertia, where water institutions are unlikely to change their current practices in absence of dramatic failures. Yet, no guarantee exists that historical management policies will not fail in coming years. In reference to policy myopia, although it has long been recognized that water reservoir systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, the broader understanding of the multi-objective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome both policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. The proposed framework initially uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the current but unknown operating policy of Conowingo Dam. The quality of the identified baseline
Stone, Richard A.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Khurana, Tejvir S.
Despite the high prevalence and public health impact of refractive errors, the mechanisms responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. Much evidence now supports the concept that the retina is central to the mechanism(s) regulating emmetropization and underlying refractive errors. Using a variety of pharmacologic methods and well-defined experimental eye growth models in laboratory animals, many retinal neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been implicated in this process. Nonetheless, an accepted framework for understanding the molecular and/or cellular pathways that govern postnatal eye development is lacking. Here, we review two extensively studied signaling pathways whose general roles in refractive development are supported by both experimental and clinical data: acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and retinal dopamine pharmacology. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine was first studied as an anti-myopia drug some two centuries ago, and much subsequent work has continued to connect muscarinic receptors to eye growth regulation. Recent research implicates a potential role of nicotinic acetycholine receptors; and the refractive effects in population surveys of passive exposure to cigarette smoke, of which nicotine is a constituent, support clinical relevance. Reviewed here, many puzzling results inhibit formulating a mechanistic framework that explains acetylcholine’s role in refractive development. How cholinergic receptor mechanisms might be used to develop acceptable approaches to normalize refractive development remains a challenge. Retinal dopamine signaling not only has a putative role in refractive development, its upregulation by light comprises an important component of the retinal clock network and contributes to the regulation of retinal circadian physiology. During postnatal development, the ocular dimensions undergo circadian and/or diurnal fluctuations in magnitude
Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping
Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.
Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Cox, W Miles
Prior studies aimed at explaining cognitive-motivational reasons for drinking have focused on either cognitive or motivational factors, but not on both. This study examined the ability of both alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure to predict alcohol consumption. Participants were university students (N=87) who completed a battery of tests, including the Personal Concerns Inventory (a measure of adaptive and maladaptive motivation), an alcohol Stroop test (a measure of alcohol-attentional bias), and an alcohol-use inventory. Regression, moderation, and mediation analyses showed that (a) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias were positive predictors of alcohol consumption after participants' age, gender, and executive cognitive functioning had been controlled, and (b) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias independently predicted alcohol consumption. The implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed.
Moshirfar, Majid; Meyer, Jay J; Schliesser, Joshua A; Espandar, Ladan; Chang, Joann C
We report the refractive correction of high myopia in a 23-year-old patient with idiopathic microspherophakia using iris-fixated phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs) (Verisyse/Artisan). Four years after bilateral implantation, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a correction of 20/20(-1) in both eyes. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Iris-fixated pIOLs are not recommended for every patient with microspherophakia. However, this procedure may be an option in microspherophakic patients with appropriate anterior chamber depth and no history of lens dislocation who are likely to comply with annual eye examinations. Follow-up should include monitoring the endothelial cell count and biomicroscopy for adequate space between the pIOL, the natural crystalline lens, and the corneal endothelium. Scheimpflug photography can be a valuable tool in such cases.
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Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.
Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived…
Adib-Moghaddam, Soheil; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Hoorshad, Niloofar; Tofighi, Salar
AIM To investigate quantitative and qualitative optical outcomes of single-step transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) in high myopia. METHODS In a prospective interventional case-series, 30 eyes with high myopia (-6.00 to -8.75 D) with (up to -3.00 D) or without astigmatism were enrolled from Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. One-step TransPRK was performed with aberration-free aspherical optimized profile and SCHWIND AMARIS 500 laser. One-year follow-up results for refraction, visual acuities, vector analysis, ocular wave-front (OWF) and corneal wave-front (CWF) higher order aberrations (HOA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and post-operative haze were assessed. RESULTS After the surgery, both photopic and mesopic CSs significantly improved (both P<0.001). We detected significant induction of OWF coma and trefoil (P<0.001 for both) HOAs; CWF coma (P=0.002), spherical (P<0.001), and tetrafoil (P=0.003) HOAs in 6 mm analysis diameter; and CWF trefoil (P=0.04) HOA in 4 mm analysis diameter. The range of mean induction observed for various HOAs was 0.005-0.11 µm. The 86.7% of eyes reached an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better; 96.7% of eyes were within ±0.5 D of targeted spherical refraction. In vector analysis, mean correction index value was 1.03 and mean index of success was 0.22. By 12mo after the operation, no eye lost any number of corrected distance visual acuity lines. We detected no corneal haze greater than 1+ throughout the follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings show promising effects of single-step TransPRK on quality of vision in high myopic eyes. It also improves refraction and visual acuity. PMID:28393038
Purpose. To evaluate the changes in epithelial thickness profile following transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) for myopia and to investigate the effect of epithelial remodeling on corneal asphericity. Methods. Forty-four patients (44 right eyes) who underwent T-PRK were retrospectively evaluated. Epithelial thickness was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at different corneal zones (central, 2 mm; paracentral, 2–5 mm; and mid-peripheral, 5-6 mm) preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The correlation between the changes in corneal epithelial thickness (ΔCET) and postoperative Q-value changes (ΔQ) was analyzed 6 months postoperatively. Results. Epithelial thickness at 6 months showed a negative meniscus-like lenticular pattern with less central thickening, which increased progressively toward the mid-periphery (3.69 ± 4.2, 5.19 ± 3.8, and 6.23 ± 3.9 μm at the center, paracenter, and mid-periphery, resp., P < 0.01). A significant positive relationship was observed between epithelial thickening and ΔQ 6 months postoperatively (r = 0.438, 0.580, and 0.504, resp., P < 0.01). Conclusions. Significant epithelial thickening was observed after T-PRK and showed a lenticular change with more thickening mid-peripherally, resulting in increased oblateness postoperatively. Epithelial remodeling may modify the epithelial thickness profile after surface ablation refractive surgery for myopia. PMID:27672447
Korol, Andrii R; Zadorozhnyy, Oleg S; Naumenko, Volodymyr O; Kustryn, Taras B; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya V
Purpose To determine the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injections for the treatment of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with pathologic myopia. Methods In this uncontrolled, prospective cohort study, 31 eyes of 30 consecutive patients affected by CNV associated with pathologic myopia were treated with intravitreal aflibercept (2 mg) as needed following two initial monthly doses and observed over a 12-month follow-up period. The primary endpoint was change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at month 12, while central retinal thickness (CRT) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), neovascularization activity on fluorescein angiography, the number of aflibercept injections administered, and safety were examined as secondary endpoints. Results Patients received a mean of 2.6 intravitreal aflibercept injections over the 12-month study period. Compared with baseline, BCVA improved significantly at all time points (P<0.05). Mean (standard deviation [SD]) decimal BCVA was 0.2 (0.1) at baseline and 0.35 (0.16) at month 12. The greatest improvement in BCVA was seen within the first 2 months (P=0.01). Mean (SD) CRT on OCT decreased from 285 (62) µm at baseline to 227 (42) µm (P=0.01) at month 12. There was a continuous decrease in mean CRT on OCT over time. No cases of endophthalmitis, uveitis, stroke, or retinal detachment were noted. No patient demonstrated an intraocular pressure >20 mmHg during any study visit. Conclusion The 12-month results of intravitreal aflibercept for myopic CNV using an as-needed regimen were positive, showing benefits in visual and anatomic outcomes and an acceptable tolerability profile. PMID:27853350
Gelhorn, Heather; Hartman, Christie; Sakai, Joseph; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan; Rhee, So Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John; Hopger, Christian; Crowley, Thomas D.
Clinical interviews of approximately 5,587 adolescents revealed that DSM-IV diagnostic categories were found to be different in terms of the severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, a substantial inconsistency and overlap was found in severity of AUDs across categories. The need for an alternative diagnostic algorithm which considers all…
... or contact lenses. Your eye surgeon uses a laser beam to reshape the cornea. This type of ... the 20s. Refractive surgical procedures for nearsightedness include: Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). With this procedure, ...
... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...
Dotan, Assaf; Kremer, Israel; Gal-Or, Orly; Livnat, Tami; Zigler, Arie; Bourla, Dan; Weinberger, Dov
Myopic individuals, especially those with severe myopia, are at higher-than-normal risk of cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment and chorioretinal abnormalities. In addition, pathological myopia is a common irreversible cause of visual impairment and blindness. Our study demonstrates the effect of scleral crosslinking using riboflavin and ultraviolet-A radiation on the development of axial myopia in a rabbit model. The axial length of the eyeball was measured by A-scan ultrasound in New Zealand white rabbits aged 13 days (male and female). The eye then underwent 360° conjunctival peritomy with scleral crosslinking, followed by tarsorrhaphy. Axial elongation was induced in 13 day-old New Zealand rabbits by suturing their right eye eyelids (tarsorrhaphy). The eyes were divided into quadrants, and every quadrant had two scleral irradiation zones, each with an area of 0.2 cm² and a radius of 4 mm. Crosslinking was performed by dropping 0.1% dextran-free riboflavin-5-phosphate onto the irradiation zones 20 sec before ultraviolet-A irradiation and every 20 sec during the 200 sec irradiation time. UVA radiation (370 nm) was applied perpendicular to the sclera at 57 mW/cm² (total UVA light dose, 57 J/cm²). Tarsorrhaphies were removed on day 55, followed by repeated axial length measurements. This study demonstrates that scleral crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A radiation effectively prevents occlusion-induced axial elongation in a rabbit model.
Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Hysi, Pirro G; Wojciechowski, Robert; Fan, Qiao; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; MacGregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W; Nag, Abhishek; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; McMahon, George; Kemp, John P; Pourcain, Beate St; Simpson, Claire L; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Paterson, Andrew D; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Wong, Hoi Suen; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W H; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Haller, Toomas; Metspalu, Andres; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Tai, E-Shyong; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga; Tay, Wan-Ting; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Liao, Jiemin; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ong, Rick T; Döring, Angela; Evans, David M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Verkerk, Annemieke J M H; Meitinger, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli; Hawthorne, Felicia; Spector, Tim D; Karssen, Lennart C; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Ang, Wei; Mishra, Aniket; Montgomery, Grant W; Pennell, Craig E; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Schache, Maria; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Igo, Robert P; Lass, Jonathan H; Chew, Emily; Iyengar, Sudha K; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Polasek, Ozren; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Fleck, Brian; Zeller, Tanja; Mirshahi, Alireza; Müller, Christian; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Vingerling, Johannes R; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Amin, Najaf; Bergen, Arthur A B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Vitart, Veronique; Williams, Cathy; Baird, Paul N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mackey, David A; Young, Terri L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight; Klaver, Caroline C; Hammond, Christopher J
Refractive error is the most common eye disorder worldwide and is a prominent cause of blindness. Myopia affects over 30% of Western populations and up to 80% of Asians. The CREAM consortium conducted genome-wide meta-analyses, including 37,382 individuals from 27 studies of European ancestry and 8,376 from 5 Asian cohorts. We identified 16 new loci for refractive error in individuals of European ancestry, of which 8 were shared with Asians. Combined analysis identified 8 additional associated loci. The new loci include candidate genes with functions in neurotransmission (GRIA4), ion transport (KCNQ5), retinoic acid metabolism (RDH5), extracellular matrix remodeling (LAMA2 and BMP2) and eye development (SIX6 and PRSS56). We also confirmed previously reported associations with GJD2 and RASGRF1. Risk score analysis using associated SNPs showed a tenfold increased risk of myopia for individuals carrying the highest genetic load. Our results, based on a large meta-analysis across independent multiancestry studies, considerably advance understanding of the mechanisms involved in refractive error and myopia.
Wu, Ying; Wang, Li-qiang
This was a prospective controlled clinical trial. 48 myopia patients (96 eyes) were included in this study. After LASIK, accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (ACXL) was used for myopia treatment. During 6-month follow-up, the results of LASIK-ACXL treatment were studied and compared to the LASIK-only procedure. The results showed that no statistically significant differences in UDVA, CDVA, MRSE, K mean, pachymetry, or ECD were found between the two groups at the visit after 6 months of follow-up (all P > 0.05). At 6 months postoperatively, 2 eyes lost one or more lines of visual acuity in the LASIK-ACXL group, whereas all LASIK-only treated eyes had a stable CDVA. In vivo confocal microscopy showed a decrease of keratocyte density and appearance of honeycomb-like structures in the anterior residual stroma bed; the changes were similar but more pronounced following LASIK-only. None of the cases in both groups developed signs of significant keratitis, regression, or ectasia during the 6-month follow-up. LASIK-ACXL can effectively correct refractive error in patients with myopia, with no significant complications during 6-month follow-up, indicating stability and morphologic change similar to those with LASIK-only treatment. PMID:27689082
Fan, Hua; Ma, Hongjie; Gao, Rulong; Ng, Danny Siu-Chun; Cheung, Carol Y.; Li, Shuangnong; Wu, Dezheng; Tang, Shibo
Subarachnoid space (SAS) around optic nerve can be visible with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). However, the relevant factors for its visibility and width have not been reported. In this prospective study, 193 eyes with high myopia were evaluated by SS-OCT. The relationship between age, gender, axial length, optic disc area, parapapillary atrophy (PPA) area, peripapillary choroidal thickness with the visibility and width of SAS were assessed. The results showed that SAS was observed in 125 (64.8%) and not observed in 68 (35.2%) eyes. Visibility of SAS is associated with long axial length, high myopia, thin choroid, large PPA and large optic disc areas. Among these associations, PPA area was the only independent factor (b = 0.177, p < 0.001). The width of SAS was associated with thin choroid, long axial length, large optic disc area and large PPA area. Multivariant analysis showed that optic disc area and PPA area were independent factors for the width of SAS (b = 30.8, p = 0.016 and 16.2, p < 0.001 respectively). These results suggested that SAS was extended into the peripapillary region possibly due to extension of posterior sclera in high myopia. PMID:27827444
Kastin, B; Mandel, L
Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...
... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...
... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...
Wolfe, Joseph D.
Two theoretical perspectives, role incompatibility and stress proliferation, suggest that age at first birth is associated with alcohol use, but each theory offers distinct predictions about the effect of relatively early parenthood on alcohol use. This study examines the applicability of these perspectives using data spanning over twenty years…
Incumbent upon those faculty who teach substance abuse courses is the need to integrate elderly alcoholism-related course content to encourage and adequately prepare university students to serve this "hidden" population. Course content would ideally include theories specific to loss-grief, aging, and alcoholism. In addition, field placement…
Amedo, Angela O.; Norton, Thomas T.
Purpose To examine, in tree shrews, the visual guidance of recovery from negative lens-induced myopia by measuring the effect of wearing low-power negative or positive lenses during recovery. To learn if removing a negative lens for two hours per day, after compensation has occurred, is sufficient to produce recovery. Methods Starting 16 days after natural eye opening (days of visual experience), juvenile tree shrews wore a monocular –5 D lens for 11 days to produce compensation (age-appropriate refraction while wearing the lens). Recovery in four groups was started by discontinuing −5 D lens wear, which caused the treated eyes to be refractively myopic, and substituting: no lens (n = 7), a plano lens (n = 8), a −2 D lens (n = 6) or a +2 D lens (n = 10). In a fifth group (n = 6), the −5 D lens was removed for 2 hours each day but worn the remainder of the time. Non-cycloplegic refractive measurements were made daily for the first 10 days and then less frequently. After 31 to 35 days, the lens-guided recovery period was ended for most animals; periodic measures were continued to assess post-lens recovery changes. Results All the eyes responded to the −5 D lens and were myopic (-4.8±0.1 D, mean ± SEM) compared to the untreated fellow control eye. In all groups except the −2 D Lens group, some animals exhibited slow or incomplete recovery. During recovery, the treated eye of most animals recovered until its refraction, measured with the recovery-lens in place, was near to that of the control eye. Measured without the lens, the −2 D group was myopic and the +2 D group was hyperopic. With the lens in place, the plano-lens, −2 D lens, and +2 D lens groups remained slightly myopic (−1.0±0.3 D, −0.6±0.2 D and −1.3±0.1 D, respectively). The rate of recovery during the first four days was unrelated to the amount of myopia initially experienced by the recovering eyes. Removal of the −5 D lens for two hours each day produced recovery. Conclusions
Fedor, Monika; Socha, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Matyskiela, Monika; Borawska, Maria H; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina
The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated. The average serum concentration of zinc in myopic patients was significantly lower (0.865 ± 0.221 mg L(-1)) in comparison to the control group (1.054 ± 0.174 mg L(-1)). There was significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio in myopic patients (1.196 ± 0.452) in comparison to that in the control group (0.992 ± 0.203). The average serum concentration of selenium in the study group was significantly lower (40.23 ± 12.07 μg L(-1)) compared with that in the control group (46.00 ± 12.25 μg L(-1)). There were no essential differences between serum concentration of copper and manganese in the study group and the control group. Low serum concentration of zinc and selenium in myopic children may imply an association between insufficiency of these antioxidant microelements and the development of the myopia and could be the indication for zinc and selenium supplementation in the prevention of myopia. Significantly, higher Cu/Zn ratio in the study group can suggest the relationship between myopia and oxidative stress.
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.
Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)
Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic
Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff
Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E
Keir, Nancy; Simpson, Trefford; Fonn, Desmond
Purpose To compare the short-term visual and optical performance of silicone hydrogel contact lenses for myopia ≥ −3.00D. Methods This was a short-term, non-dispense, double-masked, randomized study investigating Night&Day (ND), PureVision (PV), O2 Optix (O2), Biofinity (BF), Acuvue Advance (AA) and Acuvue OASYS for myopia ≥ −3.00D. Testing was conducted under scotopic conditions. Measures (one eye only) included: high- and low-contrast visual acuity (HCVA/LCVA), contrast sensitivity, subjective clarity of vision ratings (0-100 scale using reference images, with test image representing grade 50) and ocular aberrations (up to the 4th order, analyzed across individual scotopic pupil sizes). Results Three males and 27 females participated, with a mean (± SD) age of 24.9 ± 7.7 yrs (range 19 to 53 yrs), sphere of −5.30 ± 1.73D (range −3.00 to −10.75D) and cylinder −0.36 ± 0.23D (range 0 to −0.75D). Mean (± SEM) logMAR HCVA ranged from 0.06 (PV) to 0.10 (AA) (± 0.02), LCVA from 0.33 (BF) to 0.40 (AA) (± 0.02) and contrast sensitivity from 2.33 (BF) to 2.53 (ND) (± 0.15) (differences not statistically significant; all p > 0.05). Subjective ratings for the test image ranged from 59 (PV) to 64 (ND) (± 4) and 56 (AA) to 65 (ND) (± 4), for monochromatic and polychromatic reference images, respectively (all p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant impact on ocular aberrations with all study lenses compared to no lens. Between-lens differences were statistically significant for defocus (Z02), horizontal coma (Z 13) and spherical aberration (Z04). Conclusions Despite some differences in ocular aberrations, there were no significant differences in HCVA, LCVA, contrast sensitivity or subjective ratings across lenses.
Metlapally, Ravikanth; Park, Han Na; Chakraborty, Ranjay; Wang, Kevin K.; Tan, Christopher C.; Light, Jacob G.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Wildsoet, Christine F.
Purpose MicroRNA (miRNAs) have been previously implicated in scleral remodeling in normal eye growth. They have the potential to be therapeutic targets for prevention/retardation of exaggerated eye growth in myopia by modulating scleral matrix remodeling. To explore this potential, genome-wide miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) scleral profiles in myopic and control eyes from mice were studied. Methods C57BL/6J mice (n = 7; P28) reared under a 12L:12D cycle were form-deprived (FD) unilaterally for 2 weeks. Refractive error and axial length changes were measured using photorefraction and 1310-nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, respectively. Scleral RNA samples from FD and fellow control eyes were processed for microarray assay. Statistical analyses were performed using National Institute of Aging array analysis tool; group comparisons were made using ANOVA, and gene ontologies were identified using software available on the Web. Findings were confirmed using quantitative PCR in a separate group of mice (n = 7). Results Form-deprived eyes showed myopic shifts in refractive error (−2.02 ± 0.47 D; P < 0.01). Comparison of the scleral RNA profiles of test eyes with those of control eyes revealed 54 differentially expressed miRNAs and 261 mRNAs fold-change >1.25 (maximum fold change = 1.63 and 2.7 for miRNAs and mRNAs, respectively) (P < 0.05; minimum, P = 0.0001). Significant ontologies showing gene over-representation (P < 0.05) included intermediate filament organization, scaffold protein binding, detection of stimuli, calcium ion, G protein, and phototransduction. Significant differential expression of Let-7a and miR-16-2, and Smok4a, Prph2, and Gnat1 were confirmed. Conclusions Scleral mi- and mRNAs showed differential expression linked to myopia, supporting the involvement of miRNAs in eye growth regulation. The observed general trend of relatively small fold-changes suggests a tightly controlled, regulatory mechanism for scleral gene expression. PMID
McKenzie, Tammy; Cherman, Taryn; Bird, Leanne R; Naqshbandi, Mariam; Roberts, William A
In seven experiments, 2 squirrel monkeys were given choices between arrays of food that varied in the quantity offered. In Experiments 1-5, the monkeys were offered choices between quantities of the same food that varied in a 2:1 ratio. The squirrel monkeys failed to show the temporal myopia effect or a decrease in preference for the larger quantity as the absolute number of food items offered increased. Even when given choices of 8 versus 16 peanuts and 10 versus 20 peanuts, both monkeys significantly preferred the larger quantity. An examination of the monkeys' rates of consumption indicated that 20 peanuts were consumed over a 1- to 2-h period, with eating bouts separated by periods of nonconsumption. In Experiments 6A, 6B, and 7, food was either pilfered or replenished 15 min after an initial choice, so that choice of the smaller quantity led to more total food in the long run. These manipulations caused both monkeys to reduce choice of the larger quantity, relative to baseline choice. The results suggest that squirrel monkeys anticipated the future consequences of their choices.
Hagman, Brett T; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Heidinger, Bram E
The Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) is a 15-item measure that assesses concurrently negative consequences associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. Current psychometric evaluation has been limited to classical test theory (CTT) statistics, and it has not been validated among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods from Item Response Theory (IRT) can improve upon CTT by providing an in-depth analysis of how each item performs across the underlying latent trait that it is purported to measure. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP-AD using methods from both IRT and CTT among a non-treatment seeking MSM sample (N=469). Participants were recruited from the New York City area and were asked to participate in a series of studies examining club drug use. Results indicated that five items on the SIP-AD demonstrated poor item misfit or significant differential item functioning (DIF) across race/ethnicity and HIV status. These five items were dropped and two-parameter IRT analyses were conducted on the remaining 10 items, which indicated a restricted range of item location parameters (-.15 to -.99) plotted at the lower end of the latent negative consequences severity continuum, and reasonably high discrimination parameters (1.30 to 2.22). Additional CTT statistics were compared between the original 15-item SIP-AD and the refined 10-item SIP-AD and suggest that the differences were negligible with the refined 10-item SIP-AD indicating a high degree of reliability and validity. Findings suggest the SIP-AD can be shortened to 10 items and appears to be a non-biased reliable and valid measure among non-treatment seeking MSM.
Hagman, Brett T.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Morgenstern, Jon; Bux, Donald A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Heidinger, Bram E.
The Short Inventory of Problems-Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD) is a 15-item measure that assesses concurrently negative consequences associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. Current psychometric evaluation has been limited to classical test theory (CTT) statistics, and it has not been validated among non-treatment seeking men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Methods from Item Response Theory (IRT) can improve upon CTT by providing an in-depth analysis of how each item performs across the underlying latent trait that it is purported to measure. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the SIP-AD using methods from both IRT and CTT among a non-treatment seeking MSM sample (N = 469). Participants were recruited from the New York City area and were asked to participate in a series of studies examining club drug use. Results indicated that five items on the SIP-AD demonstrated poor item misfit or significant differential item functioning (DIF) across race/ethnicity and HIV status. These five items were dropped and two-parameter IRT analyses were conducted on the remaining 10 items, which indicated a restricted range of item location parameters (−.15 to −.99) plotted at the lower end of the latent negative consequences severity continuum, and reasonably high discrimination parameters (1.30 to 2.22). Additional CTT statistics were compared between the original 15-item SIP-AD and the refined 10-item SIP-AD and suggest that the differences were negligible with the refined 10-item SIP-AD indicating a high degree of reliability and validity. Findings suggest the SIP-AD can be shortened to 10 items and appears to be a non-biased reliable and valid measure among non-treatment seeking MSM. PMID:19564078
... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...
Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.
We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.
Brabant, Christian; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Quertemont, Etienne
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increases motor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism. Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism.
Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong
Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017
Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M
Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.
Wells, Gayle M.
Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…
Fahim, Alireza; Rezvan, Bijan; Hashemi, Hassan
This study aimed to assess changes in contrast sensitivity and aberrations in cases of myopia greater than 5.0 diopter (D) who had photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). In this semi-experimental study, 20 eyes of ten patients were studied. Inclusion criteria were at least 5.0 D of myopia, stable refraction in the past year, no history of refractive surgery, a minimum corneal thickness of 480 μm, and having surgery in both eyes. Exclusion criteria were the presence of any corneal condition. In addition to the routine tests, aberrometry and assessment of contrast sensitivity was done using the WaveLight Allegro Analyzer and the VectorVision CSV-1000. After PRK using the Concerto Excimer Laser (WaveLight, Alcon), patients were scheduled to have follow-up visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. Contrast sensitivity with glare showed an increasing trend only at the spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd) (P=0.013). Contrast sensitivity without glared increased postoperatively at special frequencies of 3, 6, and 18 cpd (P<0.05). The preoperative level of higher order aberrations root mean square (HOA RMS) of 0.24±0.08 reached 0.71±0.25 at 12 months after surgery. Assessment of comma and trefoil showed no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values, but the amount of spherical aberration changed from a mean preoperative value of 0.0±0.09 to 0.27±0.15 at 12 months after surgery. In the treatment of myopia greater than 5.0 D, PRK with the Concerto Excimer Laser can improve contrast sensitivity in certain spatial frequencies. This is while HOA RMS and spherical aberration increase.
Mori, Yosai; Miyata, Kazunori; Ono, Takashi; Yagi, Yusuke; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Amano, Shiro
Purpose To compare the results of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia using a mixed-effects model. Methods This comparative retrospective study was conducted in 1,127 eyes of 579 patients after LASIK and 270 eyes of 144 patients after PRK who had two or more postoperative follow-ups after 3 months. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), percentage of eyes within ± 0.5 diopters (D) and ± 1.0 D of targeted refraction, and central corneal thickness were compared between PRK and LASIK groups using a mixed-effects model. Results Compared with the LASIK group, UCVA in the PRK group was significantly worse in the initial year but was significantly better after 4 years. The average BSCVA was not significantly different between the LASIK and PRK groups after 4 years. The average gain of BSCVA in the PRK group was significantly larger than that of the LASIK group after 2 years. MRSE in the LASIK and PRK groups showed a gradual myopic shift until 6 years after surgery. After 6 years, MRSE in the PRK group remained stable whereas MRSE in the LASIK group continued a myopic shift. The percentages of eyes within ± 0.5 D or ± 1.0 D in the LASIK group were significantly higher than those in the PRK group at 3 months but were significantly lower than those in the PRK group at 10 years. Conclusions PRK for myopia shows better efficacy than LASIK for myopia after 4 years. PMID:28362808
Steffenhagen, R. A.
Reviews the history and theory of alcoholism and hypnosis and proposes a theoretical model of alcholism based on self-esteem. Suggets that hypnosis may be an effective tool in the treatment of alcoholism with cure as the goal, and calls for more consistency in theory and practice. (JAC)
Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele
Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.
Hamamy, Hanan A; Teebi, Ahmad S; Oudjhane, Kamaldine; Shegem, N N; Ajlouni, K M
We report on two brothers, born to double first cousin Jordanian Arab parents, with a syndrome comprising severe hypertelorism with upslanted palpebral fissures, brachycephaly, abnormal ears, sloping shoulders, enamel hypoplasia, and osteopenia with repeated fractures. Both have severe myopia, mild to moderate sensori-neural hearing loss and borderline intelligence. Results of chromosome analysis were normal as was a FISH assay for subtelomeric rearrangements. The father has mild hypertelorism but the family history is otherwise unremarkable. We think that this represents a previously unrecognized autosomal or X-linked recessive syndrome.
Rowsey, J J; Morley, W A
This set of "Viewpoints" articles examines the relative merits of radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Drs. Rowsey and Morley review advances in RK techniques, long-term results, and complications, and explain why RK will remain a viable method for correction of moderate myopia, notably its minimal cost. Drs. Steinert and Bafna review both PRK and LASIK, discussing techniques and results and comparing their advantages and disadvantages with each other and with RK. Dr. Dutton, as "Viewpoints" section editor, summarizes clinical, technologic, and economic aspects of all three techniques, concluding that all will find a place among refractive surgeons for some time to come.
Nickla, Debora L.; Yusupova, Yekaterina; Totonelly, Kristen
Purpose The muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist MT3 (muscarinic toxin 3) is effective at inhibiting the development of myopia in response to form deprivation, and prevents the deprivation-induced choroidal thinning. We asked if it was equally effective in eyes wearing negative lenses. Methods Chicks wore monocular diffusers or –15 D lenses for 7 days. Intravitreal injections of MT3 (90 nmoles) were given on days 2, 4 and 6 (diffusers: n = 13; lenses: n = 12); saline was used as injection controls (diffusers: n = 11; lenses: n = 13). Ocular dimensions were measured with A-scan ultrasound on days 1 and 7. Refractions were measured using a Hartinger's refractometer. A third group of “normal” chicks received monocular injections of drug (n = 7) or saline (n = 7), and eyes were measured 3 and 72 h later. Results MT3 inhibited the myopia in response to form deprivation, but did not affect the compensation to negative lenses (drug versus saline: FD: –3.2 versus –7.4 D; p < 0.001; Lenses: –4.5 versus –4.9 D). The myopia inhibition in deprived eyes was due to inhibition of axial growth (610 μm versus 827 μm; p < 0.005); lens-wearing eyes grew similar to saline controls (747 μm versus 743 μm). There was no effect of the drug on the choroidal thinning in either condition. Unexpectedly, MT3 produced choroidal thinning in normal eyes (drug versus saline: –45 versus 16 μm/3 h; p < 0.05), but had no effect on refractions or ocular growth. Conclusions MT3 does not inhibit the development of myopia in response to hyperopic defocus. It also causes choroidal thinning, an anomalous effect for a muscarinic receptor antagonist. These results support the existence of different muscarinic mechanisms in the excessive eye growth resulting from the open-loop condition of form deprivation, versus that of hyperopic defocus, a closed-loop condition. PMID:25310574
Ohno-Matsui, K.; Futagami, S.; Yamashita, S.; Tokoro, T.
AIMS—To delineate the entire Zinn-Haller arterial ring angiographically in vivo. METHODS—382 highly myopic eyes (210 patients) with refractive errors greater than −8.25 D were examined using indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. A control group of 80 eyes (40 patients) had refractive errors within plano +/− 3 D. RESULTS—The Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 206 of 382 highly myopic eyes (53.9%) by ICG angiography. Although only a part of the Zinn-Haller ring was visible in 162 of 206 eyes, in the remaining 44 eyes it was observed almost completely around the optic nerve head. No anastomotic channels between lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries were filled by ICG angiography. In 22 of the 44 eyes (50.0%) the Zinn-Haller ring was supplied by branches of the lateral and medial short posterior ciliary arteries; in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the lateral short posterior ciliary artery; and in seven eyes, it was supplied only by the medial short posterior ciliary artery. In none of the control subjects was the Zinn-Haller ring visible by ICG angiography. CONCLUSIONS—The Zinn-Haller ring observed by ICG angiography was not a complete collateral circle between lateral and medial posterior ciliary arteries. Also, the patterns in supply vessels to the Zinn-Haller ring varied. ICG angiography made possible the detailed observation of the Zinn-Haller ring in human eyes in vivo. Keywords: Zinn-Haller circle; blood flow; optic nerve head; myopia PMID:9930263
AlArfaj, Khalid; Hantera, Mohamed M.
Purpose We conducted a prospective study to determine the best treatment option for patients with low-to-moderate spherical myopia or myopic astigmatism who are considered equally eligible for LASEK with mitomycin-C (MMC) and LASIK with either mechanical microkeratome or femtosecond laser flap creation. Methods Forty-six adult patients (86 eyes) who underwent LASEK with MMC (16 patients, 31 eyes), and mechanical microkeratome LASIK (13 patients, 23 eyes) or Femtosecond LASIK (17 patients, 32 eyes) were assessed for clinical outcomes 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively. Results Six months after surgery, all eyes in all three groups were within 1 D of the intended refractive change. UCVA 20/20 or better was achieved in 96% of eyes undergoing LASEK with MMC 88% of eyes in the mechanical microkeratome LASIK and 72% of eyes in the Femtosecond LASIK group at 6 months. Mean spherical equivalent was −0.12 ± 0.22 D, −0.09 ± 0.28 D and −0.25 ± 0.28 D in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.077). Patients in the LASEK with MMC group had less high order aberrations at 3 and 6 months compared to the two LASIK groups. None of the three procedures were associated with early- or late-onset complications or loss of 2 or more lines after surgery. Conclusions After an initially slower visual improvement, LASEK with MMC, and to lesser extent, LASIK with mechanical microkeratome, produced better visual acuity and less corneal aberrations compared to Femtosecond LASIK at 3 and 6 months after surgery. These observations deserve further investigation in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:25278800
Harper, Angelica R.; Wang, Xiang; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Ma, Jian-Xing; Summers, Jody A.
Purpose Increases in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) transcript in the chick choroid suggest that RALDH2 may be responsible for increases observed in all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) synthesis during recovery from myopic defocus. The purpose of the present study was to examine RALDH2 protein expression, RALDH activity, and distribution of RALDH2 cells in control and recovering chick ocular tissues. Methods Myopia was induced in White Leghorn chicks for 10 days, followed by up to 15 days of unrestricted vision (recovery). Expression of RALDH isoforms in chick ocular tissues was evaluated by Western blot. Catalytic activity of RALDH was measured in choroidal cytosol fractions using an in vitro atRA synthesis assay together with HPLC quantification of synthesized atRA. Distribution of RALDH2 cells throughout the choroid was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results RALDH2 was expressed predominately in the chick choroid (P < 0.001) and increased after 24 hours and 4 days of recovery (76%, 74%, and 165%, respectively; P < 0.05). Activity of RALDH was detected solely in the choroid and was elevated at 3 and 7 days of recovery compared to controls (70% and 48%, respectively; P < 0.05). The number of RALDH2 immunopositive cells in recovering choroids was increased at 24 hours and 4 to 15 days of recovery (P < 0.05) and were concentrated toward the RPE side compared to controls. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that RALDH2 is the major RALDH isoform in the chick choroid and is responsible for the increased RALDH activity seen during recovery. PMID:27654415
Chan, Tommy C Y; Yu, Marco C Y; Ng, Alex; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, George P M; Jhanji, Vishal
We prospectively compared visual and refractive outcomes in patients with high myopia and myopic astigmatism after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and photorefractive keratetctomy (PRK) with mitomycin C. Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients (mean age, 29.7 ± 5.6 years) were included (SMILE: 34 eyes, PRK 32 eyes). Preoperatively, no significant difference was noted in manifest spherical equivalent (p = 0.326), manifest sphere (p = 0.277), and manifest cylinder (p = 0.625) between both groups. At 1 month, there were significant differences in logMAR uncorrected distance visual acuity, efficacy index and manifest refraction spherical equivalent between SMILE and PRK (p ≤ 0.029). At 6 months, the logMAR corrected distance visual acuity (p = 0.594), logMAR uncorrected visual acuity (p = 0.452), efficacy index (p = 0.215) and safety index was (p = 0.537) was comparable between SMILE and PRK. Significant differences were observed in postoperative manifest spherical equivalent (p = 0.044) and manifest cylinder (p = 0.014) between both groups. At the end of 6 months, 100% of the eyes in SMILE group and 69% of the eyes in PRK group were within ±0.50 D of the attempted cylindrical correction. The postoperative difference vector, magnitude of error and absolute angle of error were significantly smaller after SMILE compared to PRK (p ≤ 0.040) implying a trend towards overcorrection of cylindrical correction following PRK.
Seven, Ibrahim; Vahdati, Ali; De Stefano, Vinicius Silbiger; Krueger, Ronald R.; Dupps, William J.
Purpose To assess the predictive accuracy of simulation-based LASIK outcomes. Methods Preoperative and 3-month post-LASIK tomographic data from 20 eyes of 12 patients who underwent wavefront-optimized LASIK for myopia were obtained retrospectively. Patient-specific finite element models were created and case-specific treatment settings were simulated. Simulated keratometry (SimK) values and the mean tangential curvature of the central 3 mm (Kmean) were obtained from the anterior surfaces of the clinical tomographies, and computational models were compared. Correlations between Kmean prediction error and patient age, preoperative corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were assessed. Results The mean difference for Kmean between simulated and actual post-LASIK cases was not statistically significant (−0.13 ± 0.36 diopters [D], P = 0.1). The mean difference between the surgically induced clinical change in Kmean and the model-predicted change was −0.11 ± 0.34 D (P = 0.2). Kmean prediction error was correlated to CH, CRF, and patient age (r = 0.63, 0.53, and 0.5, respectively, P < 0.02), and incorporation of CH values into predictions as a linear offset increased their accuracy. Simulated changes in Kmean accounted for 97% of the variance in actual spherical equivalent refractive change. Conclusions Clinically feasible computational simulations predicted corneal curvature and manifest refraction outcomes with a level of accuracy in myopic LASIK cases that approached the limits of measurement error. Readily available preoperative biomechanical measures enhanced simulation accuracy. Patient-specific simulation may be a useful tool for clinical guidance in de novo LASIK cases. PMID:27893094
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... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...
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Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...
Lu, Fan; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhao, Hailan; Wang, Ruiqing; Jia, Ding; Jiang, Liqin; Xie, Ruozhong; Qu, Jia
This study evaluated the efficacy of a facemask, a non-invasive and potentially more reliable method, in inducing axial myopia in guinea pigs. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups: MDF (monocularly-deprived facemask, n=6), lid-suture (eyelids sutured monocularly, n=24) and normal control (free of form deprivation, n=6). All the groups underwent biometric measurement (refraction, corneal curvature and axial length) prior to the experiment. All animals in the MDF group underwent biometric measurement at each of the 4 timepoints (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of form deprivation). In the lid-sutured group, the animals were randomly assigned to 4 subgroups (n=6 each) and each subgroup underwent biometric measurement at one of the timepoints matching those of the MDF group. In the normal control group, all animals underwent biometric measurement at each of the timepoints matching those of the 2 experimental groups. Placement of a facemask on an animal took approximately 10 sec and all the facemasks remained in place at all timepoints. The procedure of lid-suture took at least 20 min for an animal and rupture of the sutures occurred in 50% of the animals after 4 weeks. The MDF eyes developed myopia from -2.21+/-2.11D (Mean+/-s.d.) at 2 weeks to -4.38+/-2.14 at 8 weeks (p<0.05 at all timepoints, compared to the contralateral eyes) with a lengthening of the vitreous chamber from 0.17+/-0.05 mm at 2 weeks to 0.29+/-0.12 mm at 8 weeks (p<0.01 at all timepoints, compared to the contralateral eyes). The lid-sutured eyes developed myopia from -2.38+/-1.21D at 2 weeks to -4.75+/-1.39D at 8 weeks (p<0.05 at all timepoints, compared to the contralateral eyes) with a lengthening of the vitreous chamber from 0.13+/-0.02 mm at 2 weeks to 0.30+/-0.10 mm at 8 weeks (p<0.05 at 2, 4, 8 weeks, but >0.05 at 6 weeks, compared to the contralateral eyes) and an increase in the radius of the corneal curvature (0.20+/-0.07 mm at 4 weeks, p<0.01; 0.17+/-0.05 mm at 8 weeks, p<0
MacDermot, K D; Roth, S C; Hall, C; Winter, R M
A family is presented with short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, mild vertebral changes, and sensorineural deafness inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Myopia and retinal detachment presenting in adult life were also present in some affected members. We suggest that this disorder may be a distinct entity within the spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia group of disorders. Images PMID:3681905
Veth, Kerry N; Willer, Jason R; Collery, Ross F; Gray, Matthew P; Willer, Gregory B; Wagner, Daniel S; Mullins, Mary C; Udvadia, Ava J; Smith, Richard S; John, Simon W M; Gregg, Ronald G; Link, Brian A
The glaucomas comprise a genetically complex group of retinal neuropathies that typically occur late in life and are characterized by progressive pathology of the optic nerve head and degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. In addition to age and family history, other significant risk factors for glaucoma include elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and myopia. The complexity of glaucoma has made it difficult to model in animals, but also challenging to identify responsible genes. We have used zebrafish to identify a genetically complex, recessive mutant that shows risk factors for glaucoma including adult onset severe myopia, elevated IOP, and progressive retinal ganglion cell pathology. Positional cloning and analysis of a non-complementing allele indicated that non-sense mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (lrp2) underlie the mutant phenotype. Lrp2, previously named Megalin, functions as an endocytic receptor for a wide-variety of bioactive molecules including Sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenic protein 4, retinol-binding protein, vitamin D-binding protein, and apolipoprotein E, among others. Detailed phenotype analyses indicated that as lrp2 mutant fish age, many individuals--but not all--develop high IOP and severe myopia with obviously enlarged eye globes. This results in retinal stretch and prolonged stress to retinal ganglion cells, which ultimately show signs of pathogenesis. Our studies implicate altered Lrp2-mediated homeostasis as important for myopia and other risk factors for glaucoma in humans and establish a new genetic model for further study of phenotypes associated with this disease.
Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Du, Ergang; Jiang, Kelimu; Zheng, Wenjing; Ke, Bilian
Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r = 0.26, P < 0.01), and lens position (age adjusted; r = -0.31, P < 0.01) were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05, all). Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.
Veth, Kerry N.; Willer, Jason R.; Collery, Ross F.; Gray, Matthew P.; Willer, Gregory B.; Wagner, Daniel S.; Mullins, Mary C.; Udvadia, Ava J.; Smith, Richard S.; John, Simon W. M.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Link, Brian A.
The glaucomas comprise a genetically complex group of retinal neuropathies that typically occur late in life and are characterized by progressive pathology of the optic nerve head and degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. In addition to age and family history, other significant risk factors for glaucoma include elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and myopia. The complexity of glaucoma has made it difficult to model in animals, but also challenging to identify responsible genes. We have used zebrafish to identify a genetically complex, recessive mutant that shows risk factors for glaucoma including adult onset severe myopia, elevated IOP, and progressive retinal ganglion cell pathology. Positional cloning and analysis of a non-complementing allele indicated that non-sense mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (lrp2) underlie the mutant phenotype. Lrp2, previously named Megalin, functions as an endocytic receptor for a wide-variety of bioactive molecules including Sonic hedgehog, Bone morphogenic protein 4, retinol-binding protein, vitamin D-binding protein, and apolipoprotein E, among others. Detailed phenotype analyses indicated that as lrp2 mutant fish age, many individuals—but not all—develop high IOP and severe myopia with obviously enlarged eye globes. This results in retinal stretch and prolonged stress to retinal ganglion cells, which ultimately show signs of pathogenesis. Our studies implicate altered Lrp2-mediated homeostasis as important for myopia and other risk factors for glaucoma in humans and establish a new genetic model for further study of phenotypes associated with this disease. PMID:21379331
Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.
Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic, behavioral, intrapersonal, and socioenvironmental factors were identified based on behavioral theories and potential mediators of the Project Northland Chicago intervention. Single and multiple regression models were created for users and nonusers to determine associations between these factors and alcohol use behavior and intentions. The multiple regression models explained 35% and 56% of the variance in alcohol use behavior and intentions between students for nonusers and users, respectively. Results suggest that primary prevention programs for alcohol use should occur prior to sixth grade, particularly for the substantial group at high risk for early use. PMID:18303109
Chebib, Mary; Hinton, Tina; Schmid, Katrina L; Brinkworth, Darren; Qian, Haohua; Matos, Susana; Kim, Hye-Lim; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Kumar, Rohan J; Johnston, Graham A R; Hanrahan, Jane R
This study reports pharmacological and physiological effects of cis- and trans-(3-aminocyclopentanyl)butylphosphinic acid (cis- and trans-3-ACPBPA). These compounds are conformationally restricted analogs of the orally active GABA(B/C) receptor antagonist (3-aminopropyl)-n-butylphosphinic acid (CGP36742 or SGS742). cis-[IC(50)(rho1) = 5.06 microM and IC(50)(rho2) = 11.08 microM; n = 4] and trans-3-ACPMPA [IC(50)(rho1) = 72.58 microM and IC(50)(rho2) = 189.7 microM; n = 4] seem competitive at GABA(C) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, having no effect as agonists (1 mM) but exerting weak antagonist (1 mM) effects on human GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. cis-3-ACPBPA was more potent and selective than the trans-compound, being more than 100 times more potent at GABA(C) than GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. cis-3-ACPBPA was further evaluated on dissociated rat retinal bipolar cells and dose-dependently inhibited the native GABA(C) receptor (IC(50) = 47 +/- 4.5 microM; n = 6). When applied to the eye as intravitreal injections, cis- and trans-3-ACPBPA prevented experimental myopia development and inhibited the associated vitreous chamber elongation, in a dose-dependent manner in the chick model. Doses only 10 times greater than required to inhibit recombinant GABA(C) receptors caused the antimyopia effects. Using intraperitoneal administration, cis- (30 mg/kg) and trans-3-ACPBPA (100 mg/kg) enhanced learning and memory in male Wistar rats; compared with vehicle there was a significant reduction in time for rats to find the platform in the Morris water maze task (p < 0.05; n = 10). As the physiological effects of cis- and trans-3-ACPBPA are similar to those reported for CGP36742, the memory and refractive effects of CGP36742 may be due in part to its GABA(C) activity.
Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.
Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing
Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group
Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885
Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T
Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.
... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...
Speer, Rita D.
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
Krois, Deborah Helen
Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…
... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...
McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886
Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.
Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.
Zeng, Guang; Bowrey, Hannah E; Fang, Jun; Qi, Yanhua; McFadden, Sally A
In a variety of species, the refractive state of the eye differs in different parts of the visual field (VF) with greater myopia in the region that views the ground ("lower field myopia"). We studied the refraction and eye shape of the normal guinea pig eye to determine what feature(s) underlie this visual adaptation. Guinea pigs (n=67) were either newborn or raised under incandescent light until 14, 37 or 45 days of age (20, 44, 20 and 11 eyes respectively). Refractive error was measured on-axis and 30° off-axis in the superior (SVF), inferior (IVF), temporal (TVF) and nasal (NVF) visual fields. Eye shape was analyzed from images of frozen hemisections in both the horizontal and vertical mid plane in 14 day animals, and in the vertical plane at 0, 14 and 45 days of age. Axial distances in vitro were correlated with in vivo high frequency ultrasound (r(2)=0.90). In the horizontal plane, asymmetry was caused by a ± 6° conical zone surrounding the optic nerve (12° off-axis in NVF), suggesting significant myopia in this zone. At 30°, there was no asymmetry in eye length, but the NVF was +1.7D more myopic due to asymmetry in corneal power. In the vertical plane at 30°, the IVF was more myopic than the SVF by -3.8D at 0 days, -5.9D at 14 days and -6.0D at 37 days. It resulted from vertical asymmetry in the distance of the retina from the lens center, which was longest in the mid IVF. This non-linear ramp retina was present at birth. In older animals, the peak of the ramp shifted more centrally, and the eye developed longer lengths in the extreme upper periphery (SVF) which may have been caused by the low position of the room ceiling. The vertical asymmetry in eye shape was mirrored by changes in choroid thickness, suggesting a mechanism by which eye shape was refined by vision during development. In early life, ocular growth in the vertical plane was 1.7 times higher in the center relative to the periphery, a pattern that reversed in the following month. Since
Makowsky, C R; Whitehead, P C
According to the single distribution theory increases in the availability of alcoholic beverages in the general population are associated with increases in average consumption and increases in alcohol-related damage. If it can be demonstrated that advertising contributes to availability, perhaps in the form of what has been called social or subjective availability, then advertising could be considered an appropriate target of prevention. A 58-year ban on advertising of alcoholic beverages was lifted in Saskatchewan in 1983. Data on monthly sales of beer, wine and distilled spirits were examined for the years 1981 to 1987. Box-Jenkins time series techniques were used to estimate the statistical relationship between the policy change and volume of sales of alcoholic beverages. The results revealed that sales of beer increased and sales of spirits decreased following the change in legislation that permitted alcohol advertising in Saskatchewan. The main finding is that there was no impact on wine and total alcohol sales from the introduction of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising may have produced a substitution effect with respect to beer and spirits, but this was not predicted. This evaluation suggests that alcohol advertising is not a contributory force that influences the overall level of alcohol consumption. The place of advertising in the single distribution theory remains not proven, and the place of advertising as an instrument of public policy with respect to the prevention of alcohol-related damage remains in question.
Hydrogen-bond acidity of OH groups in various molecular environments (phenols, alcohols, steroid derivatives, and amino acids structures): experimental measurements and density functional theory calculations.
Graton, Jérôme; Besseau, François; Brossard, Anne-Marie; Charpentier, Eloïse; Deroche, Arnaud; Le Questel, Jean-Yves
The hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donating strengths of a series of 36 hydroxylic H-bond donors (HBDs) with N-methylpyrrolidinone have been measured in CCl4 solution by FTIR spectrometry. These data allow the definition of a H-bond acidity scale named pKAHY covering almost three pK units, corresponding to 16 kJ mol(-1). These results are supplemented by equilibrium constants determined in CH2Cl2 for one-third of the data set to study compounds showing a poor solubility in CCl4. A systematic comparison of these experimental results with theoretical data computed in the gas phase using DFT (density functional theory) calculations has also been carried out. Quantum electrostatic parameters appear to accurately describe the H-bond acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas partial atomic charges according to the Merz-Singh-Kollman and CHelpG schemes are not suitable for this purpose. A substantial decrease of the H-bond acidity of the OH group is pointed out when the hydroxyl moiety is involved in intramolecular H-bond interactions. In such situations, the interactions are further characterized through AIM and NBO analyses, which respectively allow localizing the corresponding bond critical point and the quantification of a significant charge transfer from the available lone pair to the σ*OH antibonding orbital. Eventually, the H-bond ability of the hydroxyl groups of steroid derivatives and of lateral chains of amino acids are evaluated on the basis of experimental and/or theoretical data.
Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten
Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.
Schmidt, Dieter; Grzybowski, Andrzej
Vincenz (Wincenty) Fukala, was born in 1847 in Zolkiew at Galicia in Poland, studied medicine and ophthalmology in Vienna in 1871. He was a pioneer in systematically extracting the clear crystalline lens in young patients with high myopia. He demonstrated the benefit to this group of increased visual acuity which enabled them to work and ophthalmologists gradually began to carry out surgery in high myopes worldwide. He persisted in operating despite the vigorous opposition of several authorities but, through sheer determination he convinced skeptics of the efficacy of his surgical method of lens dissection. He performed the first lens discission in 1887 and in 1894, he had successfully treated 44 patients. The late complication of retinal detachment, which was not understood until years later, eventually led surgeons to abandon the procedure until the recent improvements in both lenticular and retinal surgery techniques that led to better prognosis.
Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.
Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171
Vest, Andrea E.; Simpkins, Sandra D.
Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates…
Brennan, Jewel E.
Alcoholism is a problem of immense proportions. Views about alcoholism range from consideration of the problem as a moral weakness to the disease concept approach. Since the effects of alcoholic intake can be benevolent as well as toxic, the dilemma centers around alcohol usage. Various theories have been formulated, experimented with, and…
Heine, M W
A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
Diamond, I; Messing, R O
Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567
... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...
Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian
Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people.
Vest, Andrea E; Simpkins, Sandra D
Little is known about how adolescents' peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates had high alcohol use. Interestingly, those with no or low sport participation seemed to emulate the alcohol use of their non-sport friends, whereas adolescents in a high number of sports had elevated alcohol use regardless of their non-sport friends' alcohol use.
Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.
... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...
Chafetz, Morris E.
It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)
... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...
... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...
Helzer, John E.
Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...
Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.
Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042
Williams, Betty Fry; And Others
This paper presents an overview of how fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is identified, a review of theories on how alcohol acts to produce FAS, and a summary of the impact of the early and long-term effects of FAS. Issues that are particularly pertinent to children with FAS and their caregivers are raised. (DB)
Abbey, Antonia; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.
Alcohol's psychological, cognitive, and motor effects contribute to rape. Based on theory and past research, we hypothesized that there would be a curvilinear relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed by perpetrators and how aggressively they behaved. Moderate levels of intoxication encourage aggressiveness; however, extreme levels…
Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.
A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…
Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J
Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.
Covington, Stephanie S.
There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…
Gress, James R.
Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…
Schuckit, Marc A.
Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…
... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…
Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p < 0.01). Current users were further divided into two groups, moderate and heavy, considering the amount and frequency of alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.
Borges, Guilherme; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Cremonte, Mariana; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza
Aims To replicate the finding that there is a single dimension trait in alcohol use disorders and to test whether usual 5+ drinks for men and/4+ drinks for women and other measures of alcohol consumption help to improve alcohol use disorder criteria in a series of diverse patients from Emergency Departments (EDs) in four countries. Design Cross-sectional surveys of patient 18 and older that reflected consecutive arrival at the ED. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Core was used to obtain a diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse. Quantity and frequency of drinking and drunkenness as well as usual number of drinks consumed during the last year. Setting Participants were 5,195 injured and non-injured patients attending 7 EDs in 4 countries, Argentina, Mexico, Poland the U.S., (between 1995-2001). Findings Using exploratory factor analyses alcohol use disorders can be described as a single, unidimensional continuum without any clear cut distinction between the criterions for dependence and abuse in all sites. Results from item response theory analyses showed that the current DSM-IV criterions tap people in the middle-upper end of the alcohol use disorder continuum. Alcohol consumption (amount and frequency of use) can be used in all EDs with the current DSM-IV diagnostic criterions to help tap the middle-lower part of this continuum. Even though some specific diagnostic criterions and some alcohol consumption variables showed differential item function across sites, test response curves were invariant for ED sites and their inclusion would not impact the final (total) performance of the diagnostic system. Conclusions DSM-IV abuse and dependence form a unidimensional continuum in ED patients regardless of country of survey. Alcohol consumption variables, if added, would help to tap patients with more moderate severity. DSM diagnostic system for alcohol use disorders showed invariance and performed extremely well in these samples. PMID
Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A
Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.
Egorova, T S; Smirnova, T S; Romashin, O V; Egorova, I V
Complicated high myopia is one of the leading causes responsible for the disablement in the children associated with visual impairment especially when it is combined with other pathological conditions and abnormalities among which are disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the present study, we for the first time examined visually impaired schoolchildren (n=44) who suffered from high myopia complications making use of the computed optical topographer for the evaluation of the state of their vertebral column. The control group consisted of 60 children attending a secondary school. The study revealed various deformations of the musculoskeletal system including scoliosis, misalignment of the pelvis, kyphosis, hyperlordosis, torsion, platypodia, deformation of the lower extremities and the chest. These deformations were more pronounced in the visually impaired schoolchildren in comparison with the children of the same age comprising the control group (p<0,05). It is concluded that the assessment of the state of the vertebral column with the use of the apparatus yields an important information for the elaboration and application of a series of measures for the timely provision of medical assistance needed for the comprehensive rehabilitation of the visually impaired schoolchildren presenting with high myopia complications.
MCKNIGHT, CHARLOTTE M.; SHERWIN, JUSTIN C.; YAZAR, SEYHAN; FORWARD, HANNAH; TAN, ALEX X.; HEWITT, ALEX W.; PENNELL, CRAIG E.; MCALLISTER, IAN L.; YOUNG, TERRI L.; CORONEO, MINAS T.; MACKEY, DAVID A.
PURPOSE To determine the association between ocular sun exposure measured by conjunctival ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence and myopic refractive error in young adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS SETTING Population-based cohort in Western Australia. STUDY POPULATION Total of 1344 mostly white subjects aged 19–22 years in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Eye Health Study. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES Cycloplegic autorefraction, conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence photography, participant questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of myopic refractive error (spherical equivalent less than −0.50 diopters) and area of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence in mm2. RESULTS There was an inverse relationship between myopic refractive error and ocular sun exposure, with more than double the prevalence of myopia in the lowest quartile of conjunctival autofluorescence than the highest quartile (33.0% vs 15.6%). Median area of autofluorescence was significantly lower in myopic than in nonmyopic subjects (31.9 mm2 vs 47.9 mm2, P < .001). These differences remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, parental history of myopia, and subject level of education. The use of corrective lenses did not explain the lower conjunctival autofluorescence observed in myopic subjects. CONCLUSIONS In this young adult population, myopic refractive error was inversely associated with objectively measured ocular sun exposure, even after adjustment for potential confounders. This further supports the inverse association between outdoor activity and myopia. PMID:25072831
Schmid, Katrina L; Strasberg, Gal; Rayner, Cassie L; Hartfield, Perry J
Intravitreal injections of GABA antagonists, dopamine agonists and brief periods of normal vision have been shown separately to inhibit form-deprivation myopia (FDM). Our study had three aims: (i) establish whether GABAergic agents modify the myopia protective effect of normal vision, (ii) investigate the receptor sub-type specificity of any observed effect, and (iii) consider an interaction with the dopamine (DA) system. Prior to the period of normal vision GABAergic agents were applied either (i) individually, (ii) in combination with other GABAergic agents (an agonist with an antagonist), or (iii) in combination with DA agonists and antagonists. Water injections were given to groups not receiving drug treatments so that all experimental eyes received intravitreal injections. As shown previously, constant form-deprivation resulted in high myopia and when diffusers were removed for 2 h per day the period of normal vision greatly reduced the FDM that developed. GABA agonists inhibited the protective effect of normal vision whereas antagonists had the opposite effect. GABAA/C agonists and D2 DA antagonists when used in combination were additive in suppressing the protective effect of normal vision. A D2 DA agonist restored some of the protective effect of normal vision that was inhibited by a GABA agonist (muscimol). The protective effect of normal vision against form-deprivation is modifiable by both the GABAergic and DAergic pathways.
Machell, David F.
Develops a theoretical rationale in support of the concept of "fellowship," the healing cornerstone of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Reviews supporting literature from the areas of personality theory, group psychotherapy, alcoholism psychopathology, and alcoholism psychological treatment. Suggests a common premise and common ground of…
Cross, Jennifer E.; Zimmerman, Don; O'Grady, Megan A.
The objectives were to explore the relation between the built environment of residence halls and the alcohol use of college students living on campus from the perspective of the theory of routine activity. This exploratory study examined data from two samples on one college campus. Online surveys assessed alcohol use, attitudes toward alcohol use,…
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.
Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali
Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334
LaChance, Laurie L.
The foreword states that this publication aims to assist the reader to better understand the dimensions of the drug and alcohol abuse problems of adolescents and the responses of choice by professionals and by those caring for adolescents. These topics are discussed: (1) the stepping stone theory; (2) correlates of substance abuse; (3)…
Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell
Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…
Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired
Johnson, Scott A
Sex offenders and violent offenders in general that were intoxicated at the time of their offense often claim that they were too intoxicated to know 1) what they were doing at the time of the offense and 2) therefore unable to recall the details of the offense situation the next day. What the literature has to say contradicts the claims of sex offenders or violent offenders who claim they were "out of control" and that they do not recall what they did in the offense situation. Alcohol use (mild to moderate consumption) appears to result in 1) alcohol myopia; 2) increased attentional focus on the more salient emotions (whether negative or positive); 3) improved creative thinking and improved attention to the activity at hand; 4) decreased frontal lobe activity (e.g., lack of concern about consequences or morals); 5) is impacted by alcohol expectancies; and 6) does not prevent an individual from being able to recall activity that occurred while intoxicated when provided cues.
Ballal, Deepti; Chapman, Walter G
Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with propanol having a lower interfacial tension than methanol and ethanol. 2-propanol is not as effective in decreasing the interfacial tension as 1-propanol because it partitions poorly to the surface due to its larger excluded volume. But for a given surface alcohol mole fraction, all the alcohol mixtures give similar values for interfacial tension. For separation of alcohol from water, methods that take advantage of the high surface mole fraction of alcohol have advantages compared to separation using the vapor in equilibrium with a water-alcohol liquid.
Masters, Michael P
The principal aim of this research is to provide a new model for investigating myopia in humans, and contribute to an understanding of the degree to which modern variation and evolutionary change in orbital and overall craniofacial morphology may help explain the common eye form association with this condition. Recent research into long and short-term evolution of the human orbit reveals a number of changes in this feature, and particularly since the Upper Paleolithic. These include a reduction in orbital depth, a decrease in anterior projection of the upper and lower orbital margins, and most notably, a reduction in orbital volume since the Holocene in East Asia. Reduced orbital volume in this geographic region could exacerbate an existing trend in recent hominin evolution toward larger eyes in smaller orbits, and may help explain the unusually high frequency of myopia in East Asian populations. The objective of the current study is to test a null hypothesis of no relationship between a ratio of orbit to eye volume and spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) in a sample of Chinese adults, and examine how relative size of the eye within the orbit relates to SER between the sexes and across the sample population. Analysis of the orbit, eye, and SER reveals a strong relationship between relative size of the eye within the orbit and the severity of myopic refractive error. An orbit/eye ratio of 3 for females and 3.5 for males (or an eye that occupies approximately 34% and 29% of the orbit, respectively), designates a clear threshold at which myopia develops, and becomes progressively worse as the eye continues to occupy a greater proportion of the orbital cavity. These results indicate that relative size of the eye within the orbit is an important factor in the development of myopia, and suggests that individuals with large eyes in small orbits lack space for adequate development of ocular tissues, leading to compression and distortion of the lithesome globe
Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Berger, Dale E; Alvaro, Eusebio M
Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of planned behavior (TPB). The predictive contribution of both theories was examined in the context of underage adult alcohol use. Using full structural equation modeling, results substantiated the hypotheses that secure peer attachment positively predicted norms and behavioral control toward alcohol, but secure maternal attachment inversely predicted attitudes and behavioral control toward alcohol. Alcohol attitudes, norms, and behavioral control each uniquely explained alcohol intentions, which anticipated an increase in alcohol behavior 1 month later. The hypothesized processes were statistically corroborated by tests of indirect and total effects. These findings support recommendations for programs designed to curtail risky levels of underage drinking using the tenets of attachment theory and TPB.
The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.
Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A
Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.
Norton, Thomas T.; Amedo, Angela O.; Siegwart, John T.
We examined in tree shrews the effect of age on the development of, and recovery from, myopia induced with a negative lens. Starting at 11, 16, 24, 35 or 48 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]), juvenile tree shrews (n = 5 per group) wore a monocular −5 D lens for 11 days. A long-term lens-wear group (n=6) began treatment at 16 days of VE and wore the lens for 30 days. A young adult group (n = 5) began to wear a −5 D lens between 93 and 107 days of VE (mean ± SD, 100 ± 6 days of VE) and wore the lens for 29 to 54 days (mean ± SD, 41.8 ± 9.8 days). The recovery phase in all groups was started by discontinuing −5 D lens wear. Contralateral control eyes in the three youngest groups were compared with a group of age-matched normal eyes and showed a small (<1 D), transient myopic shift. The amount of myopia that developed during lens wear was measured as the difference between the treated and control eye refractions. After 11 days of lens wear, the induced myopia was similar for the four younger groups (near full compensation: 11 day, −5.1 ± 0.4 D; 16 day, −4.7 ± 0.3 D, 24 day, −4.9 ± 0.4 D; 35 day, −4.0 ± 0.02) and slightly less in the oldest juvenile group (48 day, −3.3 ± 0.5 D). The young adult animals developed −4.8 ± 0.3 D of myopia after a longer lens-wear period. The rate of compensation (D/day) was high in the 4 youngest groups and decreased in the 48-day and young adult groups. The refractions of the long-term lens-wear juvenile group remained stable after compensating for the −5 D lens. During recovery, all animals in the youngest group recovered fully (< 1 D residual myopia) within seven days. Examples of both rapid (< 10 days) and slow recovery (> 12 days) occurred in all age groups except the youngest. Every animal showed more rapid recovery (higher recovery slope) in the first 4 days than afterward. One animal showed extremely slow recovery. Based on the time-course of myopia development observed in
Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.
We examined normal emmetropization and the refractive responses to binocular plus or minus lenses in young (late infantile) and juvenile tree shrews. In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile animals. Normal emmetropization was examined with daily noncycloplegic autorefractor measures from 11 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]) when the eyes were in the infantile, rapid growth phase and their refractions were substantially hyperopic, to 35 days of VE when the eyes had entered the juvenile, slower growth phase and the refractions were near emmetropia. Starting at 11 days of VE, two groups of young tree shrews wore binocular +4 D lenses (n = 6) or −5 D lenses (n = 5). Starting at 24 days of VE, four groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 5 each) wore binocular +3 D, +5 D, −3 D, or −5 D lenses. Non-cycloplegic measures of refractive state were made frequently while the animals wore the assigned lenses. The refractive response of the juvenile plus-lens wearing animals was compared with the refractive recovery of an age-matched group of animals (n=5) that were myopic after wearing a −5 D lens from 11 to 24 days of VE. In normal tree shrews, refractions (corrected for the small eye artifact) declined rapidly from (mean ± SEM) 6.6 ± 0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4 ± 0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8 ± 0.4 D at 35 VE. Plus 4 D lens treatment applied at 11 days of VE initially corrected or over-corrected the young animals’ hyperopia and produced a compensatory response in most animals; the eyes became nearly emmetropic while wearing the +4 D lenses. In contrast, plus-lens treatment starting at 24 days of VE initially made the juvenile eyes myopic (over-correction) and, on average, was less effective. The response ranged from no change in refractive state (eye continued to experience myopia) to full compensation (emmetropic with
Siegwart, John T; Norton, Thomas T
We examined normal emmetropization and the refractive responses to binocular plus or minus lenses in young (late infantile) and juvenile tree shrews. In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile animals. Normal emmetropization was examined with daily noncycloplegic autorefractor measures from 11 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]) when the eyes were in the infantile, rapid growth phase and their refractions were substantially hyperopic, to 35 days of VE when the eyes had entered the juvenile, slower growth phase and the refractions were near emmetropia. Starting at 11 days of VE, two groups of young tree shrews wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=6) or -5 D lenses (n=5). Starting at 24 days of VE, four groups of juvenile tree shrews (n=5 each) wore binocular +3 D, +5 D, -3 D, or -5 D lenses. Non-cycloplegic measures of refractive state were made frequently while the animals wore the assigned lenses. The refractive response of the juvenile plus-lens wearing animals was compared with the refractive recovery of an age-matched group of animals (n=5) that were myopic after wearing a -5 D lens from 11 to 24 days of VE. In normal tree shrews, refractions (corrected for the small eye artifact) declined rapidly from (mean±SEM) 6.6±0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4±0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8±0.4 D at 35 VE. Plus 4 D lens treatment applied at 11 days of VE initially corrected or over-corrected the young animals' hyperopia and produced a compensatory response in most animals; the eyes became nearly emmetropic while wearing the +4 D lenses. In contrast, plus-lens treatment starting at 24 days of VE initially made the juvenile eyes myopic (over-correction) and, on average, was less effective. The response ranged from no change in refractive state (eye continued to experience myopia) to full compensation (emmetropic with the lens in place
Norton, Thomas T; Amedo, Angela O; Siegwart, John T
We examined in tree shrews the effect of age on the development of, and recovery from, myopia induced with a negative lens. Starting at 11, 16, 24, 35 or 48days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]), juvenile tree shrews (n=5 per group) wore a monocular -5D lens for 11days. A long-term lens-wear group (n=6) began treatment at 16days of VE and wore the lens for 30days. A young adult group (n=5) began to wear a -5D lens between 93 and 107days of VE (mean+/-SD, 100+/-6days of VE) and wore the lens for 29-54days (mean+/-SD, 41.8+/-9.8days). The recovery phase in all groups was started by discontinuing -5D lens wear. Contralateral control eyes in the three youngest groups were compared with a group of age-matched normal eyes and showed a small (<1D), transient myopic shift. The amount of myopia that developed during lens wear was measured as the difference between the treated and control eye refractions. After 11days of lens wear, the induced myopia was similar for the four younger groups (near full compensation: 11days, -5.1+/-0.4D; 16days, -4.7+/-0.3D; 24days, -4.9+/-0.4D; 35days, -4.0+/-0.02) and slightly less in the oldest juvenile group (48days, -3.3+/-0.5D). The young adult animals developed -4.8+/-0.3D of myopia after a longer lens-wear period. The rate of compensation (D/day) was high in the 4 youngest groups and decreased in the 48-day and young adult groups. The refractions of the long-term lens-wear juvenile group remained stable after compensating for the -5D lens. During recovery, all animals in the youngest group recovered fully (<1D residual myopia) within 7days. Examples of both rapid (<10days) and slow recovery (>12days) occurred in all age groups except the youngest. Every animal showed more rapid recovery (higher recovery slope) in the first 4days than afterward. One animal showed extremely slow recovery. Based on the time-course of myopia development observed in the youngest age groups, the start of the susceptible period for
Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.
Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…
Brown, Sandra A.; And Others
Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…
McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kramer, John R.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
BACKGROUND Many states require screening of individuals arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) to determine recidivism risk and the need for treatment based on severity of alcohol problems. Several screening instruments use DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence to assess alcohol problems in this population, but whether they adequately measure alcohol problems in individuals with DUIs has not been examined. In addition, gender differences in DUI samples suggest that female offenders have more severe alcohol problems than male offenders. The current study examines differences in alcohol criteria functioning by DUI history and gender using an item response theory (IRT) approach. METHODS Data from diagnostic interviews with 8605 participants in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, including 1655 who ever reported a DUI arrest (20% women), were used to examine differences in alcohol criteria functioning between men and women with and without DUIs. The factor underlying item response was conceptualized as unidimensional, representing alcohol problem severity. RESULTS Social/interpersonal problems, larger/longer, and inability/persistent desire to quit displayed greater discrimination of IRT-defined alcohol problem severity among individuals with DUIs than those without. Irrespective of DUI status, women had a higher threshold than men for time spent drinking or recovering. Women without DUIs had a higher threshold than similar men for social/interpersonal problems. Taken as a whole, the criteria yielded similar amounts of information in all groups. CONCLUSIONS DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence adequately detect alcohol problem severity in individuals with DUIs and some are better at detecting severity in this particularly high-risk group than in individuals without DUIs. However, the criteria as a whole are equally effective in measuring alcohol problem severity among individuals with and without DUIs, and
Torok, Natalie J
Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.
Vallee, B L
The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.
Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C
Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.
Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J
Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.
In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…
... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...
Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaoying; Lu, Yi; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhou, Xingtao
Purpose. To analyze the safety, effectiveness, and stability of triplex surgery for phakic 6H anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens explantation and phacoemulsification with in-the-bag IOL implantation for super high myopia in long-term observations. Methods. This retrospective case series evaluated 16 eyes of 10 patients who underwent triplex surgery. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), and associated adverse events were evaluated. Results. The mean follow-up time after the triplex surgery was 46 ± 14 months. The mean logMAR BCVA was significantly improved after triplex surgery (P = 0.047). One eye developed endophthalmitis five days postoperatively and underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Five eyes with preoperative severe endothelial cell loss developed corneal decompensation and underwent keratoplasty at a mean time of 9.4 ± 2.6 months after the triplex surgery. One eye had graft failure and underwent a second keratoplasty. The eye developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and underwent PPV with silicone oil 18 months later. ECD before the triplex surgery was not significantly different compared with that at last follow-up (P = 0.495) apart from these five eyes. Three eyes (18.8%) developed posterior capsule opacification. Conclusions. Triplex surgery was safe and effective for phakic 6H related complicated cataracts. Early extraction before severe ECD loss is recommended. PMID:27190642
Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P.
This study contributes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key trade-offs between alternative policies for balancing competing demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. We have identified a baseline operating policy for the Conowingo Dam that closely reproduces the dynamics of current releases and flows for the Lower Susquehanna and thus can be used to represent the preferences structure guiding current operations. Starting from this baseline policy, our proposed decision analytic framework then combines evolutionary many-objective optimization with visual analytics to discover new operating policies that better balance the trade-offs within the Lower Susquehanna. Our results confirm that the baseline operating policy, which only considers deterministic historical inflows, significantly overestimates the system's reliability in meeting the reservoir's competing demands. Our proposed framework removes this bias by successfully identifying alternative reservoir policies that are more robust to hydroclimatic uncertainties while also better addressing the trade-offs across the Conowingo Dam's multisector services.
Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.
Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant. Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280
Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil
The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja
Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.
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Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron
Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.
Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael
Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…
Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)
Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…
The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…
Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…
... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...
Davidson, D M
The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174
Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J
Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.
Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron
Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.
Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.
Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…
Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar
The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.
Collery, Ross F; Veth, Kerry N; Dubis, Adam M; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A
Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2=0.9548, R2=0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of -0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of -0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
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... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...
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... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...
Garcia-Medina, Manuel; Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; Garrido-Fernandez, Pablo; Galvan-Espinosa, Jose; Martin-Molina, Jesus; Garcia-Maturana, Carlos; Perez-Pardo, Sergio; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores
Objective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and degree of myopia (DM) in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain). To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes) aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum), and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM). Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8), the mean overall CCT was 550.12 μm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014). CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002). Subjects over 30 years (13.83) had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38) (P = 0.04). The mean overall DM was −4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001). Myopia was stable in the 20- to 40-year-old study population (P = 0.089). A linear relationship was found between CCT and IOP (R2 = 0.152, P ≤ 0.001). CCT influenced the IOP value by 15.2%. However no linear relationship between DM and IOP, or between CCT and DM, was found. Conclusions: CCT was found to be similar to that reported in other studies in different populations. IOP tends to increase after the age of 30 and is not accounted for by alterations in CCT values. PMID:21468330
Smith, Earl L; Campbell, Melanie C W; Irving, Elizabeth
In the following point-counterpoint article, internationally-acclaimed myopia researchers were challenged to defend the two opposing sides of the topic defined by the title; their contributions, which appear in the order Point followed by Counterpoint, were peer-reviewed by both the editorial team and an external reviewer. Independently of the invited authors, the named member of the editorial team provided an Introduction and Summary, both of which were reviewed by the other members of the editorial team. By their nature, views expressed in each section of the Point-Counterpoint article are those of the author concerned and may not reflect the views of all of the authors.
... relate to alcohol use. 1 Racial and Ethnic Minority Stress Stress also can arise as a result of a person’s minority status, especially as it pertains to prejudice and discrimination. Such stress may range from mild (e.g., hassles such ...
Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David
History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of ‘Late Lessons from Early Warnings’ (European Environment Agency, 2013), two analyses were carried out to help answer this question. A bibliometric analysis of research articles in 78 environmental, health and safety (EHS) journals revealed that most focused on well-known rather than on newly emerging chemicals. We suggest that this ‘scientific inertia’ is due to the scientific requirement for high levels of proof via well replicated studies; the need to publish quickly; the use of existing intellectual and technological resources; and the conservative approach of many reviewers and research funders. The second analysis found that since 1996 the funding of EHS research represented just 0.6% of the overall funding of research and technological development (RTD). Compared with RTD funding, EHS research funding for information and communication technologies, nanotechnology and biotechnology was 0.09%, 2.3% and 4% of total research, respectively. The low EHS research ratio seems to be an unintended consequence of disparate funding decisions; technological optimism; a priori assertions of safety; collective hubris; and myopia. In light of the history of past technological risks, where EHS research was too little and too late, we suggest that it would be prudent to devote some 5–15% of RTD on EHS research to anticipate and minimise potential hazards while maximising the commercial longevity of emerging technologies. PMID:24913017
Zyablitskaya, Mariya; Takaoka, Anna; Munteanu, Emilia L.; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.
Purpose Second harmonic generation signals (SHG) are emitted preferentially from collagenous tissue structures and have been used to evaluate photochemically-induced (CXL) crosslinking changes in the cornea. Since therapeutic tissue crosslinking (TXL) using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG) of the sclera is a potential treatment for high myopia, we explored the use of SHG microscopy to evaluate the effects. Methods Single sub-Tenon's (sT) injections (400 μL) using SMG (40–400 mM) were made at the equatorial 12 o'clock position of the right eye of cadaveric rabbit heads (n = 16 pairs). After 3.5 hours, confocal microscopy (CM) was performed using 860 nm two-photon excitation and 400 to 450 nm emission. Pixel density and fiber bundle “waviness” analyses were performed on the images. Crosslinking effects were confirmed using thermal denaturation (Tm) temperature. Comparison experiments with riboflavin photochemical crosslinking were done. Results Therapeutic tissue crosslinking localization studies indicated that crosslinking changes occurred at the site of injection and in adjacent sectors. Second harmonic generation signals revealed large fibrous collagenous bundled structures that displayed various degrees of waviness. Histogram analysis showed a nearly 6-fold signal increase in 400 mM SMG over 40 mM. This corresponded to a ΔTm = 13°C for 400 mM versus ΔTm = 4°C for 40 mM. Waviness analysis indicated increased fiber straightening as a result of SMG CXL. Conclusions Second harmonic generation signal intensity and fiber bundle waviness is altered by scleral tissue crosslinking using SMG. These changes provide insights into the macromolecular changes that are induced by therapeutic crosslinking technology and may provide a method to evaluate connective tissue protein changes induced by scleral crosslinking therapies. PMID:28055099
Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong
Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.
There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563
Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated . The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.
Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin
State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…
Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.
Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933
Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M
With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the
... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...
Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.
... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...
Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642
... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15201626 . Definitions Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUD is a medical ... or more days in the past month. NIAAA’s Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing AUD: ...
McCullough, Brother Thomas
Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)
... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...
... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...
Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H
A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?
Obry, Antoine; Santin, Mathieu D.; Ben-Yacoub, Sirine; Pâques, Michel; Amsellem-Levera, Sabine; Bribian, Ana; Simonutti, Manuel; Augustin, Sébastien; Debeir, Thomas; Sahel, José Alain; Christ, Annabel; de Castro, Fernando; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Cosette, Pascal; Kozyraki, Renata
Myopia is a common ocular disorder generally due to increased axial length of the eye-globe. Its extreme form high myopia (HM) is a multifactorial disease leading to retinal and scleral damage, visual impairment or loss and is an important health issue. Mutations in the endocytic receptor LRP2 gene result in Donnai-Barrow (DBS) and Stickler syndromes, both characterized by HM. To clearly establish the link between Lrp2 and congenital HM we inactivated Lrp2 in the mouse forebrain including the neural retina and the retinal and ciliary pigment epithelia. High resolution in vivo MRI imaging and ophthalmological analyses showed that the adult Lrp2-deficient eyes were 40% longer than the control ones mainly due to an excessive elongation of the vitreal chamber. They had an apparently normal intraocular pressure and developed chorioretinal atrophy and posterior scleral staphyloma features reminiscent of human myopic retinopathy. Immunomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that increased eye lengthening was first observed by post-natal day 5 (P5) and that it was accompanied by a rapid decrease of the bipolar, photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cells, and eventually the optic nerve axons. It was followed by scleral thinning and collagen fiber disorganization, essentially in the posterior pole. We conclude that the function of LRP2 in the ocular tissues is necessary for normal eye growth and that the Lrp2-deficient eyes provide a unique tool to further study human HM. PMID:26107939
Fan, Qiao; Guo, Xiaobo; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Williams, Katie M.; Yazar, Seyhan; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Howe, Laura D.; Pourcain, Beaté St; Evans, David M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; McMahon, George; Hysi, Pirro G.; Krapohl, Eva; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B.; Baird, Paul Nigel; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ding, Xiaohu; Wojciechowski, Robert; Young, Terri L.; Pärssinen, Olavi; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Plomin, Robert; Hammond, Christopher J.; Mackey, David A.; He, Mingguang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Meguro, Akira; Wright, Alan F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Young, Alvin L.; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Metspalu, Andres; Paterson, Andrew D.; Döring, Angela; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Klein, Barbara E.; Pourcain, Beate St; Fleck, Brian; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Hayward, Caroline; Williams, Cathy; Delcourt, Cécile; Pang, Chi Pui; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gieger, Christian; Hammond, Christopher J.; Simpson, Claire L.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mackey, David A.; Evans, David M.; Stambolian, Dwight; Chew, Emily; Tai, E-Shyong; Krapohl, Eva; Mihailov, Evelin; Smith, George Davey; McMahon, George; Biino, Ginevra; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Seppälä, Ilkka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Craig, Jamie E.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Ried, Janina S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Wang, Jie Jin; Liao, Jiemin; Zhao, Jing Hua; Xie, Jing; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Kemp, John P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Jonas, Jost B.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Wedenoja, Juho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Williams, Katie M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oexle, Konrad; Howe, Laura D.; Chen, Li Jia; Xu, Liang; Farrer, Lindsay; Ikram, M. Kamran; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Schache, Maria; Pirastu, Mario; Miyake, Masahiro; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Fossarello, Maurizio; Kähönen, Mika; Tedja, Milly S.; He, Mingguang; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Wareham, Nick J.; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Pärssinen, Olavi; Raitakari, Olli; Polasek, Ozren; Tam, Pancy O.; Foster, Paul J.; Mitchell, Paul; Baird, Paul Nigel; Chen, Peng; Hysi, Pirro G.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Gharahkhani, Puya; Fan, Qiao; Höhn, René; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Luben, Robert N.; Igo Jr, Robert P.; Plomin, Robert; Wojciechowski, Robert; Klein, Ronald; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Saw, Seang-Mei; Yazar, Seyhan; Ping Yip, Shea; Feng, Sheng; Vaccargiu, Simona; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; MacGregor, Stuart; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Rantanen, Taina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Young, Terri L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Wong, Tien-Yin; Aung, Tin; Haller, Toomas; Vitart, Veronique; Nangia, Vinay; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Xiangtian; Guo, Xiaobo; Ding, Xiaohu; Wang, Ya Xing; Lu, Yi; Teo, Yik-Ying; Vatavuk, Zoran
Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7–15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N = 10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E–08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E–21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P = 6.3E–04). PMID:27174397
Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.
Preliminary results of the correction of myopia up to -7.00 D by tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) with a scanning and tracking excimer laser by Autonomous Technologies are discussed. 41 eyes participated (20 males). 28 eyes were evaluated one month postop. At epithelization day mean uncorrected vision was 20/45.3. At one month postop, 92.8 of eyes were 20/40 and 46.4% were 20/20. No eye was worse than 20/50. 75% of eyes were within +/- 0.5 D of emmetropia and 82% were within +/- 1.00 D of emmetropia. Eyes corrected for monovision were included. One eye lost 3 lines of best corrected vision, and had more than 1.00 D induced astigmatism due to a central corneal ulcer. Additional complications included symptomatic recurrent corneal erosions which were controlled with topical hypertonic saline. T-PRK appears to allow effective correction of low to moderate myopia. Further study will establish safety and efficacy of the procedure.
Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis
Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445
genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution
Ulhøi, John P; Ulhøi, Benedicte P
This paper calls for the need to address climate change within the concept of sustainable development, in recognition of the interrelationships between environmental, economic and social systems. So far, health- providing organizations such as hospitals have paid surprisingly little attention to the relationships between environmental change (e.g. climate change) and human health, or between hospitals (as professional organizations) and their impact on sustainable development. Although it is usually such industries as the chemical, extractive and metal industries, etc., that are associated with environmentally harmful activities, there is also an urgent need to emphasize the roles and responsibilities of hospitals and their embeddedness in a wider ecological, economic and social context. The key objective here is to discuss the relevance of sustainability and environmental management issues in a sector that until now has conveniently ignored its roles and responsibilities in relation to sustainability issues. The paper concludes that arguments based on systems theory, environment, medicine, economics and innovation strongly urge hospitals to reconsider their present roles and environmental responsibilities.
Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105
Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J
Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.
Willoughby, Patrick H; Niu, Dawen; Wang, Tao; Haj, Moriana K; Cramer, Christopher J; Hoye, Thomas R
We have studied reactions of secondary and primary alcohols with benzynes generated by the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction. These alcohols undergo competitive addition vs dihydrogen transfer to produce aryl ethers vs reduced benzenoid products, respectively. During the latter process, an equivalent amount of oxidized ketone (or aldehyde) is formed. Using deuterium labeling studies, we determined that (i) it is the carbinol C-H and adjacent O-H hydrogen atoms that are transferred during this process and (ii) the mechanism is consistent with a hydride-like transfer of the C-H. Substrates bearing an internal trap attached to the reactive, HDDA-derived benzyne intermediate were used to probe the kinetic order of the alcohol trapping agent in the H2-transfer as well as in the alcohol addition process. The H2-transfer reaction is first order in alcohol. Our results are suggestive of a concerted H2-transfer process, which is further supported by density functional theory (DFT) computational studies and results of a kinetic isotope effect experiment. In contrast, alcohol addition to the benzyne is second order in alcohol, a previously unrecognized phenomenon. Additional DFT studies were used to further probe the mechanistic aspects of the alcohol addition process.
Cloninger, C R; Sigvardsson, S; Bohman, M
431 children (233 boys, 198 girls) born in Stockholm, Sweden, had a detailed behavioral assessment at 11 years of age, including a detailed interview with their school teachers, and at age 27 years were reevaluated to identify alcoholism or alcohol abuse. Specific predictions from a neurobiological learning theory about the role of heritable personality traits in susceptibility to alcohol abuse were tested in this prospective longitudinal study. Three dimensions of childhood personality variation were identified and rated without knowledge of adult outcome. These three dimensions (novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence) were largely uncorrelated with one another, and each was predictive of later alcohol abuse. Absolute deviations from the mean of each of the three personality dimensions were associated with an exponential increase in the risk of later alcohol abuse. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance were most strongly predictive of early-onset alcohol abuse. These two childhood variables alone distinguished boys who had nearly 20-fold differences in their risk of alcohol abuse: the risk of alcohol abuse varied from 4 to 75% depending on childhood personality.
Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth
Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the
Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A
A common finding in resistance to change research with food-maintained operant behavior is that the persistence of behavior depends on the rate of reinforcement delivered in the context in which the behavior occurs. The present experiment evaluated the effects of rate of response-dependent alcohol delivery on the resistance to change of rats' alcohol self-administration in the face of disruption produced by extinction and a range of doses of naltrexone (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Rats responded for a 10% alcohol solution in a multiple schedule of reinforcement arranging a higher rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 15 s) in the presence of one stimulus and a lower rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 45 s) in the presence of another stimulus. Baseline response rates and resistance to extinction were higher in the presence of the stimulus associated with higher rates of alcohol delivery. This finding is consistent with studies of the resistance to change of food-maintained behavior. The rate of alcohol delivered in the components, however, did not systematically affect resistance to disruption by naltrexone. One interpretation of this finding from the perspective of behavioral momentum theory is that naltrexone may decrease the impact of alcohol-associated stimuli on the persistence of drinking by reducing sensitivity to the relative reinforcement conditions arranged in the presence of different stimuli.
Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.
Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094
Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E
The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.
Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.
Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores
Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.
Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.
Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A
For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.
Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C
Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.
Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Wetherill, Leah; Eiler, William; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Wang, Yang; O’Connor, Sean J.
Rationale Impulsive behavior is associated with both alcohol use disorders and a family history of alcoholism (FHA). One operational definition of impulsive behavior is the stop signal task (SST), which measures the time needed to stop a ballistic hand movement. Objective Employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study right frontal responses to stop signals in heavy drinking subjects with and without FHA, and as a function of alcohol exposure. Methods Twenty two family history positive (FHP; age = 22.7 years, SD= 1.9) and 18 family history negative (FHN; age = 23.7, SD= 1.8) subjects performed the SST in fMRI in two randomized visits: once during intravenous infusion of alcohol, clamped at a steady-state breath alcohol (BrAC) concentration of 60mg%, and once during infusion of placebo saline. An independent reference group (n= 13, age= 23.7, SD= 1.8) was used to identify a priori right prefrontal regions activated by successful inhibition (Inh) trials, relative to ‘Go’ trials that carried no need for inhibition (Inh > Go). Results FHA interacted with alcohol exposure in right prefrontal cortex, where alcohol reduced [Inh > Go] activation in FHN subjects, but not in FHP subjects. Within this right frontal cortical region, stop signal reaction time (SSRT) also correlated negatively with [Inh > Go] activation, suggesting that the [Inh > Go] activity was related to inhibitory behavior. Conclusions The results are consistent with the low level of response theory (Schuckit, 1980; Quinn & Fromme, 2011), with FHP being less sensitive to alcohol’s effects. PMID:23468100
Osterman, Robin L; Carle, Adam C; Ammerman, Robert T; Gates, Donna
This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of a single-session of motivational interviewing (MI) to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy, while examining theory-based mechanisms of the intervention. Eligible pregnant women who drank any amount of alcohol in the previous year (n=122) were randomized to an intervention or comparison group. Drinking behaviors, basic psychological need satisfaction, and autonomous motivation to decrease prenatal alcohol use were measured at baseline, 30 day postbaseline, and 30 day postpartum follow-ups. Poisson and linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate treatment effects over time. Although MI was not found effective in decreasing alcohol use, low levels of reported alcohol use by the women at baseline left little room for improvement due to the intervention. To prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, future studies will use self-report and biomarkers to more accurately identify women in need of interventions to reduce their risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies.
Osterman, Robin L.; Carle, Adam C.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gates, Donna
This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of a single-session of motivational interviewing (MI) to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy, while examining theory-based mechanisms of the intervention. Eligible pregnant women who drank any amount of alcohol in the previous year (n=122) were randomized to an intervention or comparison group. Drinking behaviors, basic psychological need satisfaction, and autonomous motivation to decrease prenatal alcohol use were measured at baseline, 30 day postbaseline, and 30 day postpartum follow-ups. Poisson and linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate treatment effects over time. Although MI was not found effective in decreasing alcohol use, low levels of reported alcohol use by the women at baseline left little room for improvement due to the intervention. To prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, future studies will use self-report and biomarkers to more accurately identify women in need of interventions to reduce their risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. PMID:24637202
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Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M
The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.
Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang
Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014
The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.
Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B
Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.
Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027
Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M
A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.
Harper, C G; Kril, J J
There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.
Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.
Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.
Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.
An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.
An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.
An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated
Workman, Jane E.
Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…
Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…
Pancratz, Diane R.
This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…
Pike, William A.
In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow ...
... problem, don't blame yourself. continue How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? If you live with a parent ... needs to get help from a treatment center. Alcoholism affects family members just as much as it ...
Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.
New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.
Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.
A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.
... crashes, other injuries, high blood pressure, stroke, violence, suicide, and certain types of cancer. What is a ... than those of male alcoholics, including deaths from suicides, alcohol-related accidents, heart disease and stroke, and ...
Jensen, William B.
The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.
Cloninger, C R
Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.
Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.
Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…
Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…
The format for this curriculum guide, written for nurse practitioner faculty, consists of learning objectives, content outline, teaching methodology suggestions, references and recommended readings. Part 1 of the guide, Recognition of Early and Chronic Alcoholism, deals with features of alcoholism such as epidemiological data and theories,…
Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.
Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…
Reviews ethical and practical dilemmas associated with clients who have hidden alcohol dependencies, and proposes an approach rooted in Gestalt counseling theory which confronts these issues and is compatible with a current emerging alcohol-treatment model. Suggests specific activities for addressing client resistance to revealing a hidden alcohol…