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Sample records for alcohol physical activity

  1. Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Joanna; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants: Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug…

  2. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component.

  3. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  4. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p <0.001) and low activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p <0.001; all-cause mortality: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.81, p <0.001) were linked to the highest risk, compared with moderate drinking and higher levels of physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM

  5. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  6. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption: relationship to blood lipids and lipoproteins in premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Cresanta, M K; Papanek, P

    1984-07-01

    A total of 164 premenopausal female subjects were randomly selected for evaluation from a much larger pool of volunteers. The relationships between blood lipid and lipoprotein levels as dependent variables and cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined from partial regression coefficients. A lower HDL-C level (10.1 mg/dL) was seen in smokers v nonsmokers. For each ounce of alcohol consumed, HDL-C level was higher by 2.8 mg/dL, and greater physical activity was associated with a higher HDL-C level of 8.6 mg/dL. An analysis of covariance with covariance adjustments for age and body fat revealed that smokers who regularly exercise or consume alcohol had significantly lower HDL-C levels than nonsmokers with similar habits. Subjects who both exercise and consume alcohol demonstrated higher HDL-C levels than those who indulge in one or the other separately. Results suggest that cigarette smoking may attenuate the effects of chronic exercise or alcohol consumption, or of both, to raise HDL-C levels. Also, chronic exercise and alcohol consumption may exert an additive effect, raising HDL-C level.

  7. [Relation of the physical-sport activity practice and alcohol consumption of citizens older than 14 years old].

    PubMed

    Valero Valenzuela, Alfonso; Ruiz Juan, Francisco; García Montes, Ma Elena; Granero Gallegos, Antonio; Martínez Rodríguez, Ana María

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to ascertain any possible relationship that could exist between the alcohol consumption of the population and several sociodemographic variables, in addition to the influence of physical exercise/sports on the creation of healthy lifestyle habits. The sample comprised 1102 subjects from Almeria Spain, over 14 years of age, to whom we administered the "physical exercise/sporting habits and life styles" questionnaire, selecting the sections on physical exercise/sporting habits in leisure, fitness and state of health perception and alcohol consumption habits, related to attitudes, behavioural and sociodemographic variables. We used an innovative tool for data analysis in the sphere of physical exercise, known as the Bayesian networks, emphasizing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical exercise/sporting activities, it being the active people, with an interest in physical exercise/sports, who have a good perception of their health and physical fitness who are the ones who make habitual and occasional use of this substance. The profile of the individual who does not drink alcohol is female, over 44 years of age, with no studies, housewives who have a poor perception of their health, and who do not do any physical exercise or plays sports, whereas the populations with health risks, are men between 15 and 44 years of age who have secondary school studies or a degree and who work in the public or private sector.

  8. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  9. Physical activity and nutrition attitudes in obese Hispanic children with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hattar, Lana N; Wilson, Theresa A; Tabotabo, Leanel A; Smith, E O’Brian; Abrams, Stephanie H

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess nutrition, physical activity and healthful knowledge in obese children with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH or NA) compared to children without liver disease. METHODS: Children with biopsy-proven NASH comprised the NASH group. Age, sex and ethnicity matched control groups consisted of obese (OB) and lean (CO) children with no liver disease. Subjects were administered the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey and one blood draw was obtained. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled with a mean age of 12.1 ± 2.1 years, and all were Hispanic. Even though the OB and NA had a similar increased body mass index (%), 35% of the NA group always read nutrition labels compared to none in the OB (P < 0.05), and more NA children felt their diet is “less healthy”. NA consumed the least amount of fruits with only 25% having ≥ 1 fruit/d vs 45% in OB and 64.7% in CO (P < 0.05 NA vs CO). Only 15% of NA subjects performed light exercise vs 35% and 59% of OB and CO groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The mean physical activity score was lowest in the NA group (P < 0.05). Amongst the subjects with NASH, we found that 100% of patients with grade 2 or 3 fibrosis had a sedentary score > 2 compared to only 63.6% of those with grade 1 or no fibrosis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with NASH had increased se-dentary behavior, decreased activity, and fruit intake. Larger studies may determine the benefit of changing these behaviors as treatment for NASH. PMID:22110265

  10. Physical activity and risk of fatty liver in people with different levels of alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Kai, Yuko; Uchida, Ken; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Nagamatsu, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether physical activity affects the future incidence of fatty liver in people with never-moderate and heavy alcohol consumption. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health check-up programme at Meiji Yasuda Shinjuku Medical Center in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Population A total of 10 146 people aged 18 years or older without fatty liver enrolled through baseline surveys conducted from 2005 to 2007. They were grouped into never-moderate alcohol drinkers (n=7803) and heavy alcohol drinkers (n=2343) and followed until 2013. Main outcome measure Incident fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasound. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.4 years (34 648 person-years), 1255 never-moderate alcohol drinkers developed fatty liver; 520 heavy alcohol drinkers developed fatty liver during a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (9596 person-years). For never-moderate alcohol drinkers, engaging in >3×/week of low-intensity (HR=0.82, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.96) and moderate-intensity (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81) physical activity significantly reduced incident fatty liver compared with those who engaged in physical activity <1×/week. For vigorous-intensity physical activity, frequencies of 2×/week (HR=0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.86) and >3×/week (HR=0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79) were significantly associated with lower risk of incident fatty liver. In propensity-adjusted models, these significant associations still remained. By contrast, in heavy alcohol drinkers, there were no significant associations between the type or frequency of physical activity and incident fatty liver. Conclusions Physical activity had an independent protective effect on incident fatty liver only in the never-moderate alcohol drinkers, and the preventive effect increased with higher frequencies and intensities of physical activity. PMID:25095878

  11. Alcohol Use and Strenuous Physical Activity in College Students: A Longitudinal Test of 2 Explanatory Models of Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; Riley, Elizabeth N.; Smith, Gregory T.; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Participants: Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Methods: Participants reported…

  12. An Impact Evaluation of Two Versions of a Brief Intervention Targeting Alcohol Use and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Anna E.; Werch, Chudley (CHAD); Michniewicz, Mara; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immediate impact of two new versions of the Project SPORT program, a brief one-on-one tailored consult addressing alcohol use and physical activity for adolescents. One new version was a brief interactive CD-ROM (Study one) and a second was a brief small group consultation (Study two). In study one,…

  13. Alcohol, physical activity and other risk factors for colorectal cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, A. H.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Ross, R. K.; Henderson, B. E.

    1987-01-01

    The aetiology of colorectal cancer was studied in a cohort of 11,888 residents of a retirement community. After four and one-half years of follow-up, 58 male and 68 female incident colorectal cancers were identified. Daily alcohol drinkers experienced nearly a two-fold increase in risk (2 sided P = 0.002). Colorectal cancer was also positively associated with Quetelet's index and inversely associated with avocational physical activity. The results were consistent for both sexes but were statistically significant only for males. With the exception of dietary vitamin C, none of the nutrients under study (i.e., vitamins A and E, dietary fibre, calcium, and beta carotene) showed a significant association with colorectal cancer. An inverse relationship between colorectal cancer and dietary vitamin C was observed in females, but there was no association with either vitamin C from supplements or with total vitamin C intake. Males and females who had 3 or more children showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.9), but those with no children did not show the highest risk. PMID:3620314

  14. Cigarette, alcohol use and physical activity among Myanmar youth workers, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Howteerakul, N; Suwannapong, N; Than, M

    2005-05-01

    Over 1.2 million migrants from Myanmar are currently residing in Thailand. Little information is known about Myanmar youth risk behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with cigarette and alcohol use, and physical inactivity, among Myanmar youth working in a harbor town in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. One hundred and seventy-seven young workers aged 15-24 years, living in the study area, were interviewed by structured questionnaire. About 21.5% were current smokers, 25.4% were alcohol drinkers, and 36.7% were physically inactive. Univariate analysis indicated one variable was significantly associated with cigarette smoking: education level higher than primary school (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.02-5.0), Three variables were significantly associated with alcohol drinking: married status (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.02-4.5); non-seafood-processing workers, i e, street vendors, construction laborers, etc. (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and high job stress due to supervisor/boss (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Two variables were significantly associated with physical inactivity: female youth (OR=3.9 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and education level higher than primary school (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). The prevalence of smoking, alcohol drinking and physical inactivity among Myanmar migrant youths was quite high. Government and non-government organizations should co-operate to provide interventions to reduce youths' risk behaviors.

  15. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  16. Physical activity as a treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Maureen; VanWagner, Lisa B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the effectiveness of exercise as a therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and potential benefits in treating insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Medline (EBSCOhost) and PubMed were searched for English-language randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in human adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the various effects of exercise alone, a combination of exercise and diet, or exercise and diet coupled with behavioral modification on NAFLD from 2010 to Feburary 2015. RESULTS: Eighteen of 2298 available studies were chosen for critical review, which included 6925 patients. Nine (50%) studies were randomized controlled trials. Five (27.8%) studies utilized biopsy to examine the effects of physical activity on hepatic histology. The most commonly employed imaging modality to determine change in hepatic steatosis was hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Only two studies examined the effects of low impact physical activity for patients with significant mobility limitations and one compared the efficacy of aerobic and resistance exercise. No studies examined the exact duration of exercise required for hepatic and metabolic improvement in NAFLD. CONCLUSION: While exercise improved hepatic steatosis and underlying metabolic abnormalities in NAFLD, more studies are needed to define the most beneficial form and duration of exercise treatment. PMID:26261693

  17. Coffee, Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity and QT Interval Duration: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. Methods We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. Results In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were −1.2 ms (95% CI −4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and −2.0 ms (−11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (−0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (−0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (−2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (−2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was −0.8 ms (−3.0 to 1.4). Conclusion Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity. PMID

  18. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, and chronic disease risk factors: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ding, Eric L; Djoussé, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively. PMID:16670030

  19. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired…

  20. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    PubMed

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77)), current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3)), increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14)), physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17)), but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10). At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300)) and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27)), but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  1. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community.

  2. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  3. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes.

  4. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  6. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-11-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  7. [Assessment of selected features of the lifestyle being conduicive to the state of health of 16-18 year old girls. Part I. Dieting, physical activity, smoking and drinking alcohol].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.

  8. Statistical and Biological Gene-Lifestyle Interactions of MC4R and FTO with Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity: New Effects on Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Covas, M. Isabel; Carrasco, Paula; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Martí, Amelia; Coltell, Oscar; Ordovás, Jose M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01–1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/−SE: −0.57+/−0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion Statistical and biological

  9. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  10. Relationship of physical activity and sedentarism with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and Mediterranean diet in Spanish teenagers.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: Este estudio examinó la asociación de la actividad física y el sedentarismo con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco, y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en adolescentes de ambos sexos. Métodos: Un total de 1897 adolescentes españoles (12-16 años) participaron en el presente estudio transversal. Las variables fueron medidas mediante cuestionarios previamente validados para estas edades. Resultados: La actividad física estuvo positivamente asociada con el grado de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en ambos sexos (ß = ,144, P < ,001 para chicos y ß = ,066, P < ,05 en chicas), e inversamente asociada con el tabaquismo en chicos (ß = -,135, P =.

  11. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  12. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R.; Zhu, H.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Yao, J.; Fu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Xu, Y.-M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol-gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  13. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  14. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  15. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  16. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  17. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  18. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  19. Negative Effects of Alcohol on Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail B.

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ and system of the body. The article examines the negative physiological and psychomotor effects of short-term alcohol consumption relevant to physical fitness and athletic performance. Educators must be responsible for reaching students and discussing the issue. (SM)

  20. Antimicrobial activity of alcohols from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Przybysz, Elżbieta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Information on the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cuticular alcohols on growth and virulence of insecticidal fungi is unavailable. Therefore, we set out to describe the content of cuticular and internal alcohols in the body of housefly larvae, pupae, males and females. The total cuticular alcohols in larvae, males and females of Musca domestica were detected in comparable amounts (4.59, 3.95 and 4.03 μg g(-1) insect body, respectively), but occurred in smaller quantities in pupae (2.16 μg g(-1)). The major free alcohol in M. domestica larvae was C(12:0) (70.4%). Internal alcohols of M. domestica larvae were not found. Among cuticular pupae alcohols, C(12:0) (31.0%) was the most abundant. In the internal lipids of pupae, only five alcohols were identified in trace amounts. The most abundant alcohol in males was C(24:0) (57.5%). The percentage content of cuticular C(24:0) in males and females (57.5 and 36.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of cuticular lipids in larvae and pupae (0.9 and 5.6%, respectively). Only two alcohols were present in the internal lipids of males in trace amounts (C(18:0) and C(20:0)). The most abundant cuticular alcohols in females were C(24:0) (36.5%) and C(12:0) (26.8%); only two alcohols (C(18:0) and C(20:0)) were detected in comparable amounts in internal lipids (3.61±0.32 and 5.01±0.42 μg g(-1), respectively). For isolated alcohols, antimicrobial activity against 10 reference strains of bacteria and fungi was determined. Individual alcohols showed approximately equal activity against fungal strains. C(14:0) was effective against gram-positive bacteria, whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all tested alcohols. Mixtures of alcohols found in cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of M. domestica generally presented higher antimicrobial activity than individual alcohols. In contrast, crude extracts containing both cuticular and internal lipids showed no antifungal activity against the

  1. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  2. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  3. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic subjects with and without liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, F; Perez, J; Morancho, J; Pinto, B; Richart, C

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was measured in samples of liver tissue from a group of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects to determine whether decreased liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity is a consequence of ethanol consumption or liver damage. The alcoholic patients were classified further into the following groups: control subjects with no liver disease (group 1), subjects with non-cirrhotic liver disease (group 2), and subjects with cirrhotic liver disease (group 3). The non-alcoholic subjects were also divided, using the same criteria, into groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The analysis of the results showed no significant differences when mean alcohol dehydrogenase activities of alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients with similar degrees of liver pathology were compared (groups 1 v 4, 2 v 5, and 3 v 6. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was, however, severely reduced in patients with liver disease compared with control subjects. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption does not modify hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The reduction in specific alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic liver disease is a consequence of liver damage. PMID:2379876

  4. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  5. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  6. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  7. The impact of husband physical aggression and alcohol use on marital functioning: does alcohol "excuse" the violence?

    PubMed

    Testa, M; Leonard, K E

    2001-10-01

    Alcohol has been posited to serve as an "excuse" for deviant behavior, including domestic violence. A recent study suggested that wives hold husbands less responsible for their aggressive behavior when husbands are problem drinkers. To replicate and extend this study, the independent and interactive effects of husband physical aggression and husband alcohol use on wives' marital satisfaction and thoughts of divorce were examined among newlywed couples (n = 387). Husband physical aggression had a significant negative effect on marital satisfaction and a significant positive effect on divorce ideation regardless of the measure of husband alcohol use employed. Alcohol dependence had a negative effect on satisfaction; however, in no case was there an interaction between alcohol and aggression. Results fail to replicate an earlier study supporting an excuse function of alcohol and suggest that alcohol does not mitigate the negative effects of domestic violence on marital functioning.

  8. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  9. Alcohol Usage and Abrupt Cessation Modulate Diurnal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norrell, Stacy; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Burau, Keith; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol has many effects throughout the body. The effect on circadian rhythms and the correlation of these effects to withdrawal effects of alcohol present interesting findings. By measuring 3 planes of activity of female Sprague-Dawley rats during alcohol usage and continuing study through the first two days following withdrawal of alcohol allow for the observation of a drastic modulation of the circadian pattern of activity. PMID:20615456

  10. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  11. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  12. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  13. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  14. [Dopamine content in blood and activity of alcohol-transforming enzymes in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N K

    1997-01-01

    An increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity is observed in patients with chronic alcoholism at the first stage of the disease under normal indices of activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase and thymol sample that evidences for the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase synthesis in the liver. At the second stage of alcoholism the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase, the index of thymol sample increase while activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreases that indicates to organic destructive changes in the liver. At the third stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease in activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase relative to activity of these enzymes at the second stage, that can evidence for the increase of the possibility of the processes of synthesis of the liver. The correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase activity to that of aldehyde dehydrogenase in the process of formation and development of alcoholism is shifted towards the progressive accumulation of acetaldehyde. Parallel increase of dopamine concentration in blood creates conditions for formation of morphine-like alcaloides--products of condensation of acetaldehide with dopamine.

  15. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  16. [Effects of H2-blockers on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2008-12-01

    First-pass metabolism (FPM) of alcohol is demonstrated by lower blood alcohol concentrations after oral than intravenous administration of the same dose. FPM occurs predominantly in the stomach and has been attributed to class IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzyme localizated in the gastric mucosa. A number of factors that influence on gastric ADH activity and thereby modulate FPM have been identified. These include age, sex, ethnicity, concentrations and amounts of alcohol consumed and drugs. Several H2-receptor antagonists, including cimetidine and ranitidine, inhibit gastric ADH activity and reduce FPM, resulting in higher blood alcohol concentrations after H2-blockers administration.

  17. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Junior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for junior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) interpersonal situations; (5) laws and customs; and (6) problem drinking and alcoholism. Each…

  18. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Senior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for senior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) alcohol industry; (5) interpersonal situations; (6) laws and customs; and (7) problem drinking…

  19. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical ...

  20. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  1. A Qualitative Investigation of the Relationship between Consumption, Physical Activity, Eating Disorders, and Weight Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Barry, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and disordered eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and physical activity and disordered eating. However, there is a paucity of published research examining the interrelatedness of all 3 behaviors together. Purpose: This study examines…

  2. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity predicts alcohol sensitivity and voluntary alcohol intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wargelius, Hanna-Linn; Fahlke, Claudia; Suomi, Stephen J; Oreland, Lars; Higley, James Dee

    2010-02-01

    Platelet monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) has been proposed to be a biological marker for the properties of monoamine systems, with low activity being associated with vulnerability for high scores on personality traits such as sensation seeking, monotony avoidance, and impulsiveness, as well as for vulnerability for alcoholism. In the present study, platelet MAO-B activity was analysed in 78 rhesus macaques, and its relation to voluntary alcohol intake and behaviours after intravenous alcohol administration was observed. Monkeys with low platelet MAO-B activity had low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid and showed excessive aggression after alcohol administration. A novel finding was that animals with low platelet MAO-B activity showed less intoxication following alcohol administration. As we have shown previously, they also voluntarily consumed more alcohol. We here replicate results from studies on both humans and non-human primates, showing the utility of platelet MAO as a marker for risk behaviours and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, we link platelet MAO activity to alcohol sensitivity.

  3. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  4. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  5. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge.

  6. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  7. Covariates of Craving in Actively Drinking Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zaharakis, Nikola; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship of alcohol craving with biopsychosocial and addiction factors that are clinically pertinent to alcoholism treatment. Alcohol craving was assessed in 315 treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent subjects using the PACS questionnaire. Standard validated questionnaires were used to evaluate a variety of biological, addiction, psychological, psychiatric, and social factors. Individual covariates of craving included age, race, problematic consequences of drinking, heavy drinking, motivation for change, mood disturbance, sleep problems, and social supports. In a multivariate analysis (R2 = .34), alcohol craving was positively associated with mood disturbance, heavy drinking, readiness for change, and negatively associated with age. The results from this study suggest that alcohol craving is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors. PMID:20716308

  8. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  9. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  10. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  11. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  12. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  13. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  14. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  15. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  16. Physical and social availability of alcohol for young enlisted naval personnel in and around home port

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B

    2007-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption rates are higher in the young adult military enlisted population than among civilians of the same age. The literature on alcohol availability, both generally and specifically with respect to work-related drinking, establishes clear links between ease of access, alcohol consumption rates and alcohol-related problems. Methods In this paper, a qualitative analysis of 50 semi-structured interviews with U.S. Navy personnel was combined with quantitative findings from a mail survey of 713 young enlisted men and women in order to shed light on alcohol availability and its correlates in the home port environments of young adult enlisted personnel. The interviews were analyzed by two anthropologists seeking recurring themes or topics related to alcohol availability. These qualitative data were contextualized by descriptive statistics of the survey responses regarding ease of obtaining alcohol on and around naval bases, and from friends in and out of the Navy. Results Findings associated with social and physical availability of alcohol include low prices in Navy Exchange base stores, frequent barracks parties, drink promotions in bars surrounding bases, and multiple opportunities for underage drinking despite age limits on alcohol purchases and official efforts to deglamorize alcohol use in the Navy. Both qualitative and qualitative findings suggest that respondents found alcohol and opportunities to drink overwhelmingly available in both on-base and off-base settings, and from friends both in and out of the Navy. Conclusion There is qualitative and quantitative evidence for extensive physical and social availability of alcohol in and around bases for young adults in the military. Policy implications include raising the presently tax-free alcohol prices in base stores and enforcing existing policies regarding underage drinking, particularly the provision of alcohol by people of legal drinking age, and by bars in and around bases

  17. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  18. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  19. Parental Physical Force and Alcohol Use in Emerging Adults: Mediation by Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Mary Ward; McKinney, Cliff

    2016-07-25

    Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use.

  20. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  1. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L; O'Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use.

  5. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317

  6. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  7. Poly(vinyl alcohol) Physical Hydrogels: Matrix-Mediated Drug Delivery Using Spontaneously Eroding Substrate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels have a long and successful history of applications in biomedicine. Historically, these matrices were developed to be nondegradable—limiting their utility to applications as permanent implants. For tissue engineering and drug delivery, herein we develop spontaneously eroding physical hydrogels based on PVA. We characterize in detail a mild, noncryogenic method of producing PVA physical hydrogels using poly(ethylene glycol) as a gelating agent, and investigate PVA molar mass as a means to define the kinetics of erosion of these biomaterials. PVA hydrogels are characterized for associated inflammatory response in adhering macrophages, antiproliferative effects mediated through delivery of cytotoxic drugs to myoblasts, and pro-proliferative activity achieved via presentation of conjugated growth factors to endothelial cells. Together, these data present a multiangle characterization of these novel multifunctional matrices for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery mediated by implantable biomaterials. PMID:26958864

  8. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  9. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  10. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  12. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  13. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  14. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  15. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-29

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, and physical health concerns.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Pantalone, David W; Chawla, Neharika; Lindgren, Kristen P; Clum, Gretchen A; Lee, Christine; Resick, Patricia A

    2008-04-01

    PTSD is a risk factor for alcohol problems and both in turn have been independently associated with increased health problems. However, it is unclear whether alcohol use moderates the relationship between PTSD and health. Participants were battered women (N = 336) recruited from local domestic violence shelters and non-shelter victim-assistance agencies. A 2 (PTSD diagnosis) x 3 (abstainer, infrequent/light, regular/heavy drinking) ANCOVA was conducted, with injuries and length of abuse as covariates and health concerns as the dependent variable. Main effects for PTSD and alcohol use were significant but not the interaction. Women with PTSD reported the greatest number of health concerns. Women who abstained from drinking and those who drank regularly/heavily reported more health concerns than the infrequent/light drinkers. Health concerns associated with PTSD do not appear to be due to problem drinking. In addition, infrequent/light drinking, even for women with PTSD, may be associated with fewer health concerns.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus chungangensis: application in cream cheese to moderate alcohol uptake.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Choi, Woo Jin; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-09-01

    Many human gastrointestinal facultative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are therefore capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. However, the ADH activity of Lactococcus spp., except Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, has not been widely determined, though they play an important role as the starter for most cheesemaking technologies. Cheese is a functional food recognized as an aid to digestion. In the current study, the ADH activity of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and 11 reference strains from the genus Lactococcus was determined. Only 5 strains, 3 of dairy origin, L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), L. lactis ssp. cremoris KCCM 40699(T), and Lactococcus raffinolactis DSM 20443(T), and 2 of nondairy origin, Lactococcus fujiensis NJ317(T) and Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) KCTC 13185(T), showed ADH activity and possessed the ADH gene. All these strains were capable of making cheese, but the highest level of ADH activity was found in L. chungangensis, with 45.9nmol/min per gram in tryptic soy broth and 65.8nmol/min per gram in cream cheese. The extent that consumption of cheese, following imbibing alcohol, reduced alcohol uptake was observed by following the level of alcohol in the serum of mice. The results show a potential novel benefit of cheese as a dairy functional food.

  18. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  19. Polyphenols in alcoholic beverages activating constitutive androstane receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kamei, Asuka; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Rogi, Tomohiro; Taieishi, Norifumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Kiso, Yoshionobu; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor CAR is a xenosensing nuclear receptor that can be activated by natural polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins. We examined alcoholic beverage phytochemicals for their ability to activate CAR. HepG2 cells were transfected with CAR expression vector and its reporter gene, and then treated with trans-resveratrol, ellagic acid, β-caryophyllene, myrcene, and xanthohumol. A luciferase assay revealed that ellagic acid and trans-resveratrol activated both human and mouse CAR. Since CAR regulates many genes involved in energy metabolism, the possibility exists that these polyphenols would reduce the risk of certain alcohol-induced metabolic disorders with the help of CAR.

  20. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  1. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  2. Report of National Collegiate Alcohol Awareness Week Activities Fall 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ann English; And Others

    This document presents a report of the education and prevention activities recognizing National Collegiate Alcohol Awareness (NCAA) Week undertaken at Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan during October and early November, 1987. It begins with a brief review of the university's campus-wide programs, goals, and activities to reduce…

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  4. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  5. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  6. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  7. Alcoholism and Dampened Temporal Limbic Activation to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Urban, Trinity; O’Reilly, Cara E.; Howard, Julie A.; Sawyer, Kayle; Harris, Gordon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive chronic drinking is accompanied by a broad spectrum of emotional changes ranging from apathy and emotional flatness to deficits in comprehending emotional information, but their neural bases are poorly understood. Methods Emotional abnormalities associated with alcoholism were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging in abstinent long-term alcoholic men in comparison to healthy demographically matched controls. Participants were presented with emotionally valenced words and photographs of faces during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding tasks followed by recognition. Results Overall, faces evoked stronger activation than words, with the expected material-specific laterality (left hemisphere for words, and right for faces) and depth of processing effects. However, whereas control participants showed stronger activation in the amygdala and hippocampus when viewing faces with emotional (relative to neutral) expressions, the alcoholics responded in an undifferentiated manner to all facial expressions. In the alcoholic participants, amygdala activity was inversely correlated with an increase in lateral prefrontal activity as a function of their behavioral deficits. Prefrontal modulation of emotional function as a compensation for the blunted amygdala activity during a socially relevant face appraisal task is in agreement with a distributed network engagement during emotional face processing. Conclusions Deficient activation of amygdala and hippocampus may underlie impaired processing of emotional faces associated with long-term alcoholism and may be a part of the wide array of behavioral problems including disinhibition, concurring with previously documented interpersonal difficulties in this population. Furthermore, the results suggest that alcoholics may rely on prefrontal rather than temporal limbic areas in order to compensate for reduced limbic responsivity and to maintain behavioral adequacy when faced with emotionally

  8. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  9. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  10. Liquid courage or liquid fear: alcohol intoxication and anxiety facilitate physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Zeichner, Amos

    2012-06-01

    Participants were 138 male social drinkers between 18 and 30 years of age from a university community in the southeastern United States in 2000. Trait and state anxiety was measured using the Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Facial Action Coding System, respectively. Participants consumed an alcoholic or nonalcoholic control beverage and completed a shock-based aggression task. Regression analysis indicated that alcohol-facilitated elevations in anxiety mediated the relation between alcohol consumption and aggression and that trait anxiety and physical provocation moderated this effect. Implications and limitations of this study are noted and future research directions are suggested.

  11. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  12. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  13. Agrp neuron activity is required for alcohol-induced overeating

    PubMed Central

    Cains, Sarah; Blomeley, Craig; Kollo, Mihaly; Rácz, Romeo; Burdakov, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol intake associates with overeating in humans. This overeating is a clinical concern, but its causes are puzzling, because alcohol (ethanol) is a calorie-dense nutrient, and calorie intake usually suppresses brain appetite signals. The biological factors necessary for ethanol-induced overeating remain unclear, and societal causes have been proposed. Here we show that core elements of the brain's feeding circuits—the hypothalamic Agrp neurons that are normally activated by starvation and evoke intense hunger—display electrical and biochemical hyperactivity on exposure to dietary doses of ethanol in brain slices. Furthermore, by circuit-specific chemogenetic interference in vivo, we find that the Agrp cell activity is essential for ethanol-induced overeating in the absence of societal factors, in single-housed mice. These data reveal how a widely consumed nutrient can paradoxically sustain brain starvation signals, and identify a biological factor required for appetite evoked by alcohol. PMID:28072397

  14. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  15. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  16. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  17. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  18. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  19. Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390

  20. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world. PMID:27622000

  2. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.

  3. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  4. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  5. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  6. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  7. The Role of Intrapersonal Factors on Alcohol and Drug Use Among Latinos With Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    CORDOVA, DAVID; PARRA-CARDONA, RUBEN; BLOW, ADRIAN; JOHNSON, DEBORAH; PRADO, GUILLERMO; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.

    2013-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by alcohol and drug use. Social work best practice approaches require an understanding of the effects of intrapersonal factors on alcohol and drug use, yet the theoretical and empirical literature remain underdeveloped, especially among ethnic minority populations. We sought to obtain a detailed description of the role of intrapersonal factors, including perceptions and life experiences, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. We employed community-based participatory research in conjunction with photovoice. A total of 17 focus group interviews were completed. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews occurred with a total of 28 participants who participated in each round. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results highlight intrapersonal risk and protective factors to inform social work practice and work toward developing and evaluating alcohol and drug use preventive interventions for this overlooked and vulnerable population. PMID:24000277

  8. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  9. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  10. The Identification of Perillyl Alcohol Glycosides with Improved Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to perillyl alcohol (POH) differential glycosylation and the corresponding synthesis of a set of 34 POH glycosides is reported. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed a sugar dependent antiproliferative activity and the inhibition of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation as a putative mechanism of representative POH glycosides. The most active glycoside from this cumulative study (4′-azido-d-glucoside, PG9) represents one of the most cytotoxic POH analogues reported to date. PMID:25121720

  11. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  12. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  13. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  14. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  15. Physical Health Conditions and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Offenders with Alcohol Use Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among samples with diagnosed alcohol use disorders but few studies have evaluated the factors that account for this increased risk and none have systematically evaluated the risk posed by comorbid physical health conditions. The current study evaluated the likelihood of perpetrating IPV among alcohol diagnosed offenders with medical health problems relative to healthy counterparts. Physical health and partner violence data provided by 655 criminal offenders with alcohol use disorders diagnosed during a court-ordered substance abuse evaluation were examined. One third of participants (35.3%) endorsed a physical health condition and 46.4% reported perpetrating physical IPV. The odds of perpetrating IPV among participants with a physical health condition were 2.29 times larger than among healthy participants. Specific conditions emerged as risk factors for IPV, including brain injury, cardiac issues, chronic pain, liver issues, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatitis, and recent injury. Findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing physical health conditions that may complicate IPV treatment efforts. Integrated behavioral and medical health treatment approaches may increase treatment compliance and reduce the risk of future partner violence among offenders with co-occurring issues, such as mental illness, addiction, and physical health conditions. PMID:26058979

  16. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  17. Effects of Alcohol on Trajectories of Physical Aggression among Urban Youth: An Application of Latent Trajectory Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of…

  18. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  19. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  20. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  1. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  2. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  3. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  4. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  5. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  6. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  7. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  8. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  9. [Association between physical violence, consumption of alcohol and other drugs, and bullying among Brazilian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Araújo, Wildo Navegantes de; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the association between alcohol and drug consumption and bullying on the one hand and involvement in situations of physical violence among adolescents 13 to 15 years in public and private schools in State capitals and the Federal District of Brazil. The study analyzed data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) for the year 2009. Data analysis used logistic regression. Prevalence of involvement in physical violence was 12.9% more common in boys than girls. Both genders showed associations between physical violence or being a victim of bullying and use of illegal drugs, plus the heightened effect of the combined consumption of alcohol and other drugs. In boys, alcohol consumption showed a significant association with physical violence. Having the father or both parents living at home was inversely associated with physical violence in girls. Knowledge of factors associated with physical violence among adolescents is important for supporting health promotion strategies and a culture of peace, thereby counteracting the idea of taking teenage violence for granted.

  10. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  11. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  12. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  16. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  17. Inhibitory effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Carper, W R; Dorey, R C; Beber, J H

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) in vitro. We observed a time-dependent inhibition of this dehydrogenase by disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate similar to that obtained for aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3). These results suggest a possible explanation for various side effects observed in the clinical use of Antabuse.

  18. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  19. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  20. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

  1. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  2. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  3. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  4. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  5. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Substance Use among Adolescents in Slovenian Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    LESJAK, Vesna; STANOJEVIĆ-JERKOVIĆ, Olivera

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the relationship between leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and substance use among adolescents report contradictory results. The aim of our study was to examine the association between self-reported leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use among adolescents in Slovenia. Methods Subjects consisted of 822 school children aged from 14 to 16 years, living in urban area of Ljubljana and Maribor. The data was collected using the EURO URHIS 2 survey. Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the correlation between the independent variables of physical activity; time spent watching television and using the computer, and each of the five substance use dependent variables. Results Frequency of daily smoking was significantly associated with leisure time physical activity, while alcohol and cannabis use were not. Watching TV ≥ 2 hours per day was associated with heavy episodic drinking in the past month, no associations were found for smoking and cannabis use. Using the computer ≥ 2 hours per day was positively associated with daily smoking, drinking alcohol in the past month, heavy episodic drinking in the past month and ever being intoxicated, while cannabis use was not. Conclusions These findings suggest that leisure time physical activity is associated with daily cigarette smoking, and leisure time sedentary behaviour is associated with alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents. The results of our study show the need for the formation of suitable preventive measures concerning reduced sitting time as well as leisure time physical activity targeted to adolescents. PMID:27646724

  6. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID

  7. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-03

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  9. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  10. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  11. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  12. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  13. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  14. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  15. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  16. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  17. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    CONTINUED Aerobic exercises were the primary type of physical activity considered. The research focused on two specific objectives: (1) to review and... physical fitness and exercise activities . One of the priority objectives is to increase the proportion of adults (aged 18 to 65) participating in... physical activity will be used to encompass both aerobic fitness and exercise . This will allow consideration of the impact of varying levels of exercise

  18. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food: physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    PubMed Central

    van Os‐Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G.; Blom, W. Marty; Houben, Geert F.; Knulst, André C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get more insight into the frequency of exposure to cofactors and how often cofactors are associated with more severe symptoms in food allergic patients. Methods A questionnaire was completed by patients visiting the Allergology outpatient clinic. Patients with food allergy were included. Outcome measures were the frequency of medication use of medication groups that might act as cofactor and the frequency that physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of analgesics are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. Results Four hundred ninety‐six patients were included in the study. The frequency with which patients used one or more types of medication that might act as cofactors was 7.7%: antacids/acid neutralizing medication (5%), NSAIDs (2%), beta blockers (0.6%), angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (0.6%), and angiotensin receptor blockers (0.2%). Of all patients, 13% reported more severe symptoms to food after involvement of one or more of the cofactors: physical exercise (10%), alcohol consumption (5%), and use of analgesics (0.6%). Sixty‐five percent did not know if these cofactors caused more severe symptoms; 22% reported that these cofactors had no effect. Conclusions Only a small percentage of patients (7.7%) used medication that might aggravate food allergic reactions. Physical exercise and alcohol consumption were the most frequently reported cofactors, but occurring still in only 10% or less. PMID:27980774

  19. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  20. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples.

  1. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  2. Pastime in a pub: observations of young adults' activities and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol consumption typically takes place in a time-out situation, which can be spent by engaging in several leisure time activities. Usually, conversation is the dominant pastime in a bar, but this may take place during other activities, like watching TV or playing games. These activities may inhibit drinking because of the physical difficulties of drinking and being active at the same time. Findings of an observational study on drinking in young adults (N=238) in a bar lab will be discussed. In the present study, we followed the ad-lib drinking of peer groups (7-9 persons) during 1-h periods. The results suggest that (1) selection of activities is not related to initial drinking level or personality characteristics; (2) active pastime is related to slower drinking than passive pastime (in males); (3) male problem drinkers appear to compensate for the "lost" amount of drinking after an active phase; and (4) involvement in active pastime is not related to total alcohol consumption. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  4. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  5. Developmental Links between Trajectories of Physical Violence, Vandalism, Theft, and Alcohol-Drug Use from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Koot, Hans M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism increased from ten to 14. All trajectories of…

  6. Association between Physical Pain and Alcohol Treatment Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; McCallion, Elizabeth; Vowles, Kevin E.; Kirouac, Megan; Frohe, Tessa; Maisto, Stephen A.; Hodgson, Ray; Heather, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of two clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Method Participants included 1383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Study Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age=44.4 (SD=10.2)), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age=41.6 (SD=10.1)) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Results Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Conclusion Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. PMID:26098375

  7. [Nutrition and physical activity: two targets for cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Dupertuis, Yves M; Belabed, Linda; Pichard, Claude

    2010-05-26

    The links between nutrition and cancer onset are now well established by epidemiological studies. The scientific evidence is presented in a report of the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF). Protective factors towards overall cancer risk are fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Overweight and obesity, intakes of alcoholic beverage, fat, salt, high temperature cooked and processed red meat, increase cancer risk. In addition, beta-carotene systematic supplementation could increase lung cancer risk in smokers. As optimal controlling of these risk factors can decrease cancer mortality by 25%, nutritional counselling must be integrated in the global strategy of primary and secondary prevention of cancers.

  8. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  9. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  10. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  11. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  12. Immunostimulating activity of polyhydric alcohol isolated from Taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Guen; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Da Gyung; Kim, Joo Won; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Park, Yong Il; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-04-01

    A polyhydric alcohol (PAL) was isolated from Taxus cuspidata and its immunostimulatory activities were assessed. The primary monosaccharide composition of the PAL was determined to be glucose, where HPAEC analysis showed no significant amount of any other sugars. However, glycerol and xylitol were identified as the main sugar alcohols. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the purified PAL is a complex glycitol, which structurally contains significant amount of hydroxyl groups. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy also demonstrated that PAL is a complex glycitol built in hexose polymerization. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the PAL stimulates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PAL for 24h remarkably increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38 and JNK in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the total protein levels of ERK (t-ERK), p38 (t-p38) and JNK (t-JNK) remained unchanged. These results clearly demonstrate that PAL stimulates the immune response in RAW 264.7 cells through the activation of MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the primary structure and immune-stimulating activities of PAL from the fruit of T. cuspidata.

  13. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity in Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, During and ... Activity Recommendations in Adults - Types of Fitness - The Price of Inactivity - Food as Fuel; Before, During or ...

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  15. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  16. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  17. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  18. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  19. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  20. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  1. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  2. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  3. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  4. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  5. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  6. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  7. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to…

  8. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  9. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  10. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  11. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  12. A review of the physical features of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Miguel; Jones, Kenneth Lyons

    2017-01-01

    The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS. Most features can be explained by the damage to the brain during pregnancy and can be replicated in animal models. Many different diagnostic guidelines are used for the diagnosis of FASD and the physical features are considered differently in each of them. There is a need for universal clinical criteria for the diagnosis of FASD if our goal is to favor universal recognition.

  13. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  14. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  15. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2010-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.

  16. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  17. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2015-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even

  18. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol

    PubMed Central

    West, Charles H.K.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Ritchie, James C.; Weiss, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats, alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats, alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even

  19. [Atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and physical activity. Review].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Camilo; Fernández, Ana Zita; María de Jesús, Alina Isabel

    2008-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and related diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and, therefore, as a problem of public health. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be part of the pathophysiology of these diseases. It is well known that physical activity plays an important role as a public health measure by reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events in the general population. It is also known that physical activity increases in some tissues, the reactive oxygen species production. In this review the atherosclerosis-oxidative stress-physical activity relationship is focused on the apparent paradox by which physical activity reduces atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in parallel with the activation of an apparently damaging mechanism which is an increased oxidative stress. A hypothesis including the experimental and clinical evidence is presented to explain the aforementioned paradox.

  20. Physical activity in physical education: teacher or technology effects.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Traci; Ward, Phillip; Martin, Beth; Leenders, Nicole Y J M

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed if wearing a heart rate monitor influenced student activity levels in elementary physical education. Data were analyzed for 4 students using an alternating treatment design to assess differential effects between accelerometer activity counts obtained from students when wearing the heart rate monitor and when they were not wearing the monitor. Results show that (a) there was no difference in activity counts between the 2 conditions, (b) boys had higher means than girls, and (c) the variance between more and less active boys was greater than the variance among the girls.

  1. Physical, Social, and Perceived Availabilities of Alcohol and Last Month Alcohol Use in Rural and Small Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Linda R.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly…

  2. Review of the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, T; Harrison, J; Steenkamp, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective and design: To assess the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity by reviewing the English language literature published up to October 2003. Results: Alcohol is widely used in association with recreational aquatic activity in the United States, but there is minimal information regarding the extent of use elsewhere. A priori and anecdotal evidence suggests that alcohol is an important risk factor for drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity. Specific studies provide good evidence supporting this, but the extent of increased risk associated with alcohol use, and the attributable risk due to alcohol use, is not well characterised. Drowning appears to be the overwhelming cause of death associated with recreational aquatic activity with alcohol detected in the blood in 30%–70% of persons who drown while involved in this activity. The few relevant studies on degree of increased risk suggest persons with a blood alcohol level of 0.10 g/100 ml have about 10 times the risk of death associated with recreational boating compared with persons who have not been drinking, but that even small amounts of alcohol can increase this risk. The population attributable risk seems to be in the range of about 10%–30%. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption significantly increases the likelihood of immersions resulting in drowning during aquatic activities. However, more information is required if appropriate prevention activities are to be planned, initiated, and evaluated. This includes better information on alcohol use, and attitudes to alcohol use, in association with recreational aquatic activity, and the nature and extent of increased risk associated with alcohol use. Evaluation of interventions is also needed. PMID:15066977

  3. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect.

  4. [Anaerobic growth ability and alcohol fermentation activity of microscopic fungi].

    PubMed

    Kurakov, A V; Khidirov, K S; Sadykova, V S; Zviagintsev, D G

    2011-01-01

    The method proposed in this study was used to isolate fungi grown under anaerobic conditions and to reveal distinctions in their abundance and species composition in different habitats. The ability of micromycetes of different taxa to grow under anaerobic conditions and ensure alcohol fermentation was determined for a representative sample (344 strains belonging to more than 60 species). The group of fungi growing under anaerobic conditions included species with high, moderate, and low fermentation activity. The ability for anaerobic growth and fermentation depended on the taxonomic affiliation of fungi. In some cases, the expression of these characteristics depended on the habitat from which the strain was isolated. The maximum level of ethanol accumulation in culture liquid (1.2-4.7%) was detected for Absidia spinosa, Aspergillus sp. of group flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Acremonium sp., Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp., Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. sambucinum, Rhizopus arrhizus var. Arrhizus, Trichoderma atroviride, and Trichoderma sp.

  5. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  6. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  7. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  8. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  9. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  10. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  11. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  12. Heavy alcohol consumption and physical health problems: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W; Popham, R E

    1975-09-01

    A review of morbidity and mortality studies bearing on the hazards to physical health of chronic heavy alchol use indicates that such use carries a risk of premature death greatly exceeding normal expectancy. While the life style typical of many heavy drinker contributes to this risk, the effects of alcohol per se account for a substantial part of the excess mortality. The lowest level of consumption at which there is a significant increase in the death rate has yet to be determined. It is certainly below 120 g/day- the lower limit of consumption of most clinical alcoholics-and quite possibly below 35-60g: levels which appear to carry an increased likelihood of cirrhosis and certain cancers. On the other hand, the mortality experience of drinkers commonly identified as 'moderate' in the literature does not seem to differ notably from that of life-long abstainers. The relationship between heavy drinking and elevated mortality is exhibited in populations at large by the generally close covariation of cirrhosis death rates and per capita alcohol sales. There are also indications of co-variation between the latter and the excess of male over female general mortality in the middle age range.

  13. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects Women in their sixties. Results Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk of bone fractures and increased physical activity. Conclusions Perceived risk of osteoporosis may lead to decreased physical activity and hence actually increase the risk. When informing individuals about health risk people's images and imaginations of the actual risk have to be acknowledged. When a bone scan is being considered, explicit advice encouraging physical activity – especially the weight-bearing kind – should be stressed. PMID:17846934

  14. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  15. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and yard work • Moderate to heavy housework • Pleasure dancing and home exercise More vigorous physical activity can ... jogging • Stair climbing • Bicycling, swimming or rowing • Aerobic dancing or cross-country skiing (continued) ANSWERS by heart ...

  16. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  17. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  18. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  19. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    PubMed

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  20. Activity and Social Behavior in a Complex Environment in Rats Neonatally Exposed to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Boschen, Karen E.; Hamilton, Gillian F.; Delorme, James E.; Klintsova, Anna Y.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental complexity (EC) is a powerful, stimulating paradigm that engages animals through a variety of sensory and motor pathways. Exposure to EC (30 days) following 12 days of wheel running preserves hippocampal neuroplasticity in male rats neonatally exposed to alcohol during the third-trimester equivalent (binge-like exposure on postnatal days [PD] 4–9). The current experiment investigates the importance of various components of EC (physical activity, exploration, social interaction, novelty) and examines whether neonatal alcohol exposure affects how male rats interact with their environment and other male rats. Male pups were assigned to 1 of 3 neonatal conditions from PD 4–9: suckle control (SC), sham-intubated (SI), or alcohol-exposed (AE, 5.25 g/kg/day). From PD 30–42 animals were housed with 24-h access to a voluntary running wheel. The animals were then placed in EC from PD 42–72 (9 animals/cage, counterbalanced by neonatal condition). During EC, the animals were filmed for five 30-min sessions (PD 42, 48, 56, 64, 68). For the first experiment, the videos were coded for distance traveled in the cage, overall locomotor activity, time spent near other animals, and interaction with toys. For the second experiment, the videos were analyzed for wrestling, mounting, boxing, grooming, sniffing, and crawling over/under. AE animals were found to be less active and exploratory and engaged in fewer mounting behaviors compared to control animals. Results suggest that after exposure to wheel running, AE animals still have deficits in activity and social behaviors while housed in EC compared to control animals with the same experience. PMID:25150044

  1. Activity and social behavior in a complex environment in rats neonatally exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Karen E; Hamilton, Gillian F; Delorme, James E; Klintsova, Anna Y

    2014-09-01

    Environmental complexity (EC) is a powerful, stimulating paradigm that engages animals through a variety of sensory and motor pathways. Exposure to EC (30 days) following 12 days of wheel running preserves hippocampal neuroplasticity in male rats neonatally exposed to alcohol during the third-trimester equivalent (binge-like exposure on postnatal days [PD] 4-9). The current experiment investigates the importance of various components of EC (physical activity, exploration, social interaction, novelty) and examines whether neonatal alcohol exposure affects how male rats interact with their environment and other male rats. Male pups were assigned to 1 of 3 neonatal conditions from PD 4-9: suckle control (SC), sham-intubated (SI), or alcohol-exposed (AE, 5.25 g/kg/day). From PD 30-42 animals were housed with 24-h access to a voluntary running wheel. The animals were then placed in EC from PD 42-72 (9 animals/cage, counterbalanced by neonatal condition). During EC, the animals were filmed for five 30-min sessions (PD 42, 48, 56, 64, 68). For the first experiment, the videos were coded for distance traveled in the cage, overall locomotor activity, time spent near other animals, and interaction with toys. For the second experiment, the videos were analyzed for wrestling, mounting, boxing, grooming, sniffing, and crawling over/under. AE animals were found to be less active and exploratory and engaged in fewer mounting behaviors compared to control animals. Results suggest that after exposure to wheel running, AE animals still have deficits in activity and social behaviors while housed in EC compared to control animals with the same experience.

  2. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  3. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  4. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  5. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  6. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    physical activity through exposure to exercise ...ing physical activity . Reduced Physical Activity : Bed Rest If increased physical activity associated with reg- ular exercise results in hypervolemia... Activity : Exercise Increased physical activity provides the stimulus for action of several mechanisms that promote the expansion of plasma and

  7. Does Alcohol Use among Sexually Active College Students Moderate HIV Risk Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert M.; Norman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    College students frequently use alcohol and are very sexually active, but do the two behaviors result in greater HIV risk? We employed the AIDS Risk Reduction Model to assess condom use during vaginal intercourse for sexually active college students using and not using alcohol proximal to sex. Students reported multiple lifetime sex partners and…

  8. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  9. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  10. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  11. Physical activity and the healthy mind.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians should seek to enhance the quality rather than the quantity of human life. Physical activity programs can increase life satisfaction through an immediate increase of arousal and a long-term enhancement of self-esteem and body image. In the young child competition can cause excessive arousal, but long-term adverse effects are rare. In the adult a reduction of anxiety and stress and a general feeling of well-being reduce the frequency of minor medical complaints, generating important economic benefits. Physical activity programs also help to correct the reactive depression that accompanies conditions such as myocardial infarction. Interest in physical activity should be stimulated from the earliest years of primary school. The allocation of curricular time to physical education does not hamper academic achievement. Rather, through its impact on psychomotor learning, it enhances the total process of intellectual and psychomotor development. PMID:6337692

  12. Physical and sexual violence and health care utilization in HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    LIEBSCHUTZ, J. M.; GEIER, J. L.; HORTON, N. J.; CHUANG, C. H.; SAMET, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined interpersonal violence and its association with health care utilization and substance use severity among a cohort of 349 HIV-infected men and women with histories of alcohol problems assessed biannually up to 36 months. Data included demographics, lifetime interpersonal violence histories, age at first violence exposure, recent violence (prior six months), substance use severity and health care utilization (ambulatory visits, Emergency Department (ED) visits, hospitalizations) and adherence to HIV medication. Kaplan-Meier survival curves estimated the proportion of subjects experiencing recent violence. Generalized estimating equation regression models evaluated the relationship between recent violence, utilization and substance use severity over time, controlling for demographics, CD4 counts and depressive symptoms. Subject characteristics included: 79% male; mean age 41 years; 44% black, 33% white and 23% other. Eighty percent of subjects reported lifetime interpersonal violence: 40% physical violence alone, and 40% sexual violence with or without physical violence. First violence occurred prior to age 13 in 46%. Twenty-four (41%) of subjects reported recent violence by 24 and 36 months, respectively. In multivariate analyses, recent violence was associated with more ambulatory visits, ED visits and hospitalizations and worse substance use severity, but not medication adherence. Due to the high incidence and associated increased health care services utilization, violence prevention interventions should be considered for HIV-infected patients with a history of alcohol problems. PMID:16036243

  13. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  14. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes.

  15. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C.; Parks, Christine G.; Wilson, Lauren E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004–2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Results Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (PR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92) or standing (PR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. Conclusion In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. PMID:25773471

  16. Blood cell superoxide dismutase and enolase activities as markers of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ledig, M; Doffoel, M; Doffoel, S; Kopp, P; Bockel, R; Mandel, P

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic alcoholism would be facilitated by using sensitive biochemical markers in blood cells, mainly to detect differences between alcoholic subjects with or without liver injury. We propose two types of markers: the first one is superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity involved in the conversion of superoxide radicals (O2-.) formed during acetaldehyde oxidation by xanthine oxidase after chronic alcohol consumption; the second one is enolase activity with both isoenzyme forms: nonneuronal enolase (NNE) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) which has been shown to be modified in many injuries related to the glycolytic pathways. For SOD activity we found a significant increase in alcoholic patients with liver injury and mainly in cirrhotic patients with ascitis. Both enolase activities were also found to be significantly increased in alcoholic patients with liver injury but NNE activity was also increased in alcoholics without apparent liver disease. Our results suggest that increased activity of SOD and NSE in blood cells may be related to liver injury mainly in alcoholism while increased NNE activity may also be a marker of alcohol abuse without liver injury.

  17. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  18. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  19. Effects of alcohol on trajectories of physical aggression among urban youth: an application of latent trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Jennings, Wesley G; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of physical aggression over time (ages 12-14) among urban adolescents from Chicago, IL. Data from the Project Northland Chicago (n = 3038, 49.4% female) was used. The current study sample included 1,160 Black, 1,015 Hispanic and 863 White/other adolescents for a total of 3,038 adolescents. Four trajectories of physical aggression were identified: Non-aggressive (16%), Desistors (9%), Escalators (20%) and Chronic Aggressive (55%). After adjusting for physical aggression behaviors, delinquent friends, lack of supervised time, demographic variables, smoking and marijuana use, past year alcohol users at age 11 were 2.1 times more likely to be "Escalators" and 1.9 times more likely to be in the "Chronic Aggressive" group. Gender and ethnic differences were also observed in the trajectories of physical aggression. Black youth were 2.5 times more likely to be in the "Chronic Aggressive" group. Findings highlight the importance of targeting alcohol prevention to reduce physical aggression among urban young adolescents.

  20. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  1. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  2. Physical Activity Opportunities before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the many ways in which schools can provide physical activity opportunities for students by taking advantage of hours that students might otherwise spend waiting for school to begin or playing computer games after school has ended. The article presents creative strategies for engaging students in activities that are…

  3. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  4. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  5. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  6. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  7. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Amy Z; Ham, Sandra A; Muppidi, Shravani Reddy; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician's advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute) during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising more to control or lower cholesterol levels among US adults might be valid.

  8. Physical activity and lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Thune, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Since lung cancer is among the cancers with the highest incidence and has the highest mortality rate of cancer worldwide, the means of reducing its impact are urgently needed. Emerging evidence shows that physical activity plays an etiological role in lung cancer risk reduction. The majority of studies support the fact that total and recreational physical activity reduces lung cancer risk by 20-30% for women and 20-50% for men, and there is evidence of a dose-response effect. The biological mechanisms operating between physical activity and lung cancer are likely complex and influenced by many factors including inherited or acquired susceptibility genes, gender, smoking, and other environmental factors. Several plausible biological factors and mechanisms have been hypothesized linking physical activity to reduced lung cancer risk including: improved pulmonary function, reduced concentrations of carcinogenic agents in the lungs, enhanced immune function, reduced inflammation, enhanced DNA repair capacity, changes in growth factor levels and possible gene-physical activity interactions. Future research should target the possible subgroup effects and the biologic mechanisms that may be involved.

  9. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) physical hydrogels: noncryogenic stabilization allows nano- and microscale materials design.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bettina E B; Smith, Anton A A; Fejerskov, Betina; Postma, Almar; Senn, Philipp; Reimhult, Erik; Pla-Roca, Mateu; Isa, Lucio; Sutherland, Duncan S; Städler, Brigitte; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2011-08-16

    Physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, have an excellent safety profile and a successful history of biomedical applications. However, highly inhomogeneous and macroporous internal organization of these hydrogels as well as scant opportunities in bioconjugation with PVA have largely ruled out micro- and nanoscale control and precision in materials design and their use in (nano)biomedicine. To address these shortcomings, herein we report on the assembly of PVA physical hydrogels via "salting-out", a noncryogenic method. To facilitate sample visualization and analysis, we employ surface-adhered structured hydrogels created via microtransfer molding. The developed approach allows us to assemble physical hydrogels with dimensions across the length scales, from ∼100 nm to hundreds of micrometers and centimeter sized structures. We determine the effect of the PVA molecular weight, concentration, and "salting out" times on the hydrogel properties, i.e., stability in PBS, swelling, and Young's modulus using exemplary microstructures. We further report on RAFT-synthesized PVA and the functionalization of polymer terminal groups with RITC, a model fluorescent low molecular weight cargo. This conjugated PVA-RITC was then loaded into the PVA hydrogels and the cargo concentration was successfully varied across at least 3 orders of magnitude. The reported design of PVA physical hydrogels delivers methods of production of functionalized hydrogel materials toward diverse applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery.

  11. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda. PMID:16120214

  12. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  13. Diminished adrenocorticotropin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in nondepressed, actively drinking male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Berman, J D; Cook, D M; Buchman, M; Keith, L D

    1990-09-01

    Although changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have frequently been reported in alcoholics, the majority of studies have used recently detoxified subjects in whom abstinence phenomena and clinical depression may contribute to observed stress axis alterations. To isolate the primary effects of alcohol dependence on the stress axis, the ACTH and cortisol responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured in seven actively drinking male alcoholics recruited from the general public through a newspaper advertisement along with eight age-matched male controls. The alcoholic subjects met current American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, were stably employed, and had no concurrent psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, or psychometric evidence of depression. While relatively young (30.0 yr; range, 22-48 yr), they had lengthy histories of alcohol-related problems (11.9 yr; range, 5-30 yr). Insulin administration resulted in similar nadirs in blood sugar in both alcoholic and control groups. However, the plasma ACTH response was markedly blunted in the alcoholics (P = 0.040, by Mann-Whitney U test). There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased cortisol levels in the alcoholic group. The findings suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in alcoholics is a primary results of chronic ethanol exposure rather than a confounding effect of clinical depression or recent detoxification.

  14. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2012-02-17

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.

  15. Mobile Computer Application for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready~Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice. PMID:23463915

  16. Mobile computer application for promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready∼Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice.

  17. The determinants of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, R K; Sallis, J F; Orenstein, D R

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:3920714

  18. Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Drenjančević, Ines; Davidović Cvetko, Erna

    2013-02-01

    Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise.

  19. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  20. Anti-ulcer activity of higher primary alcohols of beeswax.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, L; Más, R

    1995-09-01

    The anti-ulcer effects of a natural mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols, designated D-002, isolated from beeswax, were compared with those of cimetidine on indomethacin-, ethanol-, water-immersion-induced ulcers and on gastric secretion in rats. D-002 (25-50 mg kg-1 p.o.) was similar to cimetidine in dose-dependently reducing the duration of indomethacin-induced ulcers while also being effective in preventing ethanol-induced ulcers, which are not affected by cimetidine. On the other hand, D-002 (100 mg kg-1) moderately decreased the volume of gastric basal secretion in pylorus-ligated rats, but not the acidity. Nevertheless, it inhibited gastric ulcer induced by pylorus-ligation at doses (50 mg kg-1) that were ineffective in decreasing the volume. In addition, 100 mg kg-1 of D-002 prevented the formation of acute gastric ulcers induced in rats by water-immersion stress. The results demonstrate the anti-ulcer activity of the preparation in different experimental models suggesting its potential value for ulcer therapy.

  1. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  2. Physical activity, sport, and pediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M C; Iscoe, K E

    2006-02-01

    The benefits derived from regular physical activity include improved cardiovascular fitness, increased lean mass, improved blood lipid profile, enhanced psychosocial well-being, and decreased body adiposity. The benefits for children with diabetes may also include blood glucose control and enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, for these children, engagement in vigorous physical activity and sport must be properly controlled through modifications in insulin therapy and nutritional intake so that the benefits of exercise outweigh the risks. The following review describes the various physiological and metabolic factors which occur both during exercise and during sport while describing specific recommendations to control glucose excursions by proper insulin management and diet.

  3. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  4. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms

  5. Activation of corn cellulose with alcohols to improve its dissolvability in fabricating ultrafine fibers via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haizhen; Ni, Jinping; Chen, Jing; Xue, Wenwen; Wang, Jinggang; Na, Haining; Zhu, Jin

    2015-06-05

    Water and four small molecular alcohols are respectively used to activate corn cellulose (CN cellulose) with the aim to improve the dissolvability in DMAc/LiCl. Among all these activated agents, monohydric alcohols are found to produce the optimal effect of activation in the whole process including of activating, dissolving, and electrospinning of CN cellulose. Meanwhile, well distributed fibers with the diameter of 500nm-2μm are fabricated in electrospinning. Understanding the activation effect of monohydric alcohols with water and polyhydric alcohols, the most effective activated agent is ascertained with the characteristics of small molecular size, low viscosity, and single functionality. This work is definitely initiated to understand the critical principle of CN cellulose in dissolving. Accordingly, a feasible methodology is also established to prepare ultrafine cellulose fibers with good morphology in electrospinning.

  6. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a…

  7. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  8. Preparation and physical properties of enhanced radiation induced crosslinking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Pengyang; Liu, Meihua; Zhang, Wanxi; Sun, Jiazhen

    2007-05-01

    Preparation and physical properties of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) crosslinked by enhanced radiation have been studied through various methods. It was found that the most effective agent for irradiation-crosslinking was triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) among four kinds of polyfunctional monomers. Gel content (65.6%) was formed for EVOH-44 (content of ethylene is 44 mol%) at 200 kGy with 5% TAIC, but for EVOH-32 (content of ethylene is 32 mol%), only 37.4% gel content was formed under the same conditions. This result showed that the more the content of ethylene units comprised in EVOH, the easier the chemical bonds could be formed between different molecular chains. Tensile strength and elastic modulus increased after crosslinking at high test temperature and elongation at break decreased at the same time. Hygroscopicity of EVOH showed noticeable decrease after enhancement radiation-crosslinking.

  9. Alcohol's impact on man's activities. Its role in unnatural death.

    PubMed

    Weston, J T

    1980-11-01

    The association of alcohol with unnatural death, especially automobile accidents, is widely accepted. Unfortunately, national statistics often do not include information from medical examiners, which can be a significant contribution. This report summarizes the experience of the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator during the period 1974-76. Thirty-nine per cent of automobile drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle accidents and 40% of pedestrians killed by motor vehicles had some blood alcohol present. The relationship of alcohol and other violent crimes is summarized, indicating the involvement of alcohol in 39% to 74% of the several types of crimes presented. The expense of alcohol-related accidents is presented. The psychological autopsy was used to prepare profiles of drivers involved in a variety of vehicular accidents. Drivers were grouped into five categories according to behavioral characteristics that were likely to have contributed to their accidents. Twenty-eight per cent of drivers involved in serious and fatal accidents in this study were judged to have had behavioral disorders in which alcohol often played a role.

  10. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  11. Physical activity and physical activity adherence in the elderly based on smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Resor, Michelle R; Stoever, Colby J; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of current smoking status and lifetime smoking status on physical fitness and physical activity regimen adherence as part of a larger study on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. At baseline, 218 participants self-reported smoking status which was verified by carbon monoxide expiration. Former and current smokers responded to questions about length of time quit, average daily cigarette intake, and years a smoker. Smoking measures were re-collected at 6- and 12-month follow-ups if the participants indicated a change in smoking status. Veterans completed multiple measures of physical activity (e.g., 6-min walk, 7-day Physical Activity Recall), and adherence to a physical activity goal was assessed. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Hierarchical regression models indicated smoking status was a predictor of the baseline 6-min walk such that smokers walked significantly shorter distances than nonsmokers. In addition, smoking status was found to be a significant predictor of adherence; however, the overall model that included smoking status as a predictor did not demonstrate a significant effect on adherence. Neither smoking status nor pack years were predictors of baseline self-reported physical activity or changes in physical activity post intervention. Results are consistent with recommendations to use physical exercise as an aid to tobacco cessation, even in aging men with extensive smoking histories.

  12. "Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes.

  13. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  14. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  15. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  16. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control.

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  18. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  19. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone Physical exercise has many benefits and should be a regular part of almost ... lifting. It's likely that for most patients, the benefits of exercise outweigh the perceived risks. Low-intensity activity is ...

  20. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  1. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  2. Teaching Responsibility through Physical Activity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    This book guides teachers in using physical activity to foster personal and social responsibility. Focusing on teaching in school settings, the book features comments from real students to motivate teachers to apply the concept; take-aways that summarize each chapter and help teachers consider their own situations; new chapters on the lesson plan…

  3. A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Elias, Lorin J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Harrison, Amabilis H; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the cognitive characteristics of individuals who demonstrate successful and unsuccessful self-regulation of physical activity behavior. In Study 1, participants articulated 1-week intentions for physical activity and wore a triaxial accelerometer over the subsequent 7 days. Among those who were motivated to increase their physical activity, those who were most and least successful were administered an IQ test. In Study 2, a second sample of participants completed the same protocol and a smaller subset of matched participants attended a functional imaging (fMRI) session. In Study 1, successful self-regulators (SSRs) scored significantly higher than unsuccessful self-regulators (USRs) on a test of general cognitive ability, and this difference could not be accounted for by favorability of attitudes toward physical activity or conscientiousness. In Study 2, the IQ effect was replicated, with SSRs showing a full standard deviation advantage over USRs. In the imaging protocol, USRs showed heavier recruitment of cognitive resources relative to SSRs in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex during performance of a Stroop task; SSRs showed heavier recruitment in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  4. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  5. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  6. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  7. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  8. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  10. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  12. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  13. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  14. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  15. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  16. The effects of exergaming on physical activity in a third-grade physical education class.

    PubMed

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical activity across participants.

  17. The effect of exercise, alcohol or both combined on health and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M; Schutz, Y

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is consumed on a daily basis by a large fraction of the population, and in many countries, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is considered as an integral part of the diet. Although the relationship between alcohol intake and obesity is controversial, regular consumption of alcohol, through its effects in suppressing fat oxidation, is regarded as a risk factor for weight gain, increased abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Indeed, alcohol taken with a meal leads to an increase in postprandial lipemia-an effect on postprandial metabolism that is opposite to that observed with exercise. Furthermore, although regular exercise training and/or a preprandial exercise session reduce postprandial lipemia independently of alcohol ingestion, the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia is nonetheless less pronounced when alcohol is also consumed with the meal. Whether or not alcohol influences exercise and sport performance remains contradictory. It is believed that alcohol has deleterious effects on the performance, although it may contribute to reduce pain and anxiety. The alcohol effects on sports performance depend on the type and dosage of alcohol, acute vs chronic administration, the alcohol elimination rate as well as the type of exercise.

  18. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Matthews, Charles E; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-01-01

    Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings

  19. Development of a Scottish physical activity questionnaire: a tool for use in physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, M.; Mutrie, N.; Loughlan, C.; McFarlane, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Three studies were undertaken to establish the reliability and validity of the Scottish physical activity questionnaire (SPAQ), developed to aid seven day recall of leisure and occupational physical activity. METHODS: To establish reliability, SPAQs (n = 34) were completed on a Monday and the following Wednesday. Thus each questionnaire measured four identical days. To establish concurrent validity, 94 participants completed a SPAQ and an adapted stage of exercise behaviour change questionnaire. Responses to SPAQ were then analysed by stage of exercise behaviour change. In a further study of criterion validity, 30 volunteers wore a Caltrac motion sensor for four consecutive days, after which they completed a SPAQ. RESULTS: In the first study, total physical activity had a coefficient of repeatability (R) of 53 minutes. Occupational physical activity showed a similar variance (R = 54.6 minutes) but leisure physical activity was more reliable (R = 29.3 minutes). The main variation in occupational physical activity was found to be walking (R = 39.8 minutes). In study 2, a one way analysis of variance showed the expected relation between physical activity and stage of exercise behaviour change, confirming the concurrent validity of SPAQ with the stage of exercise behaviour change model. In study 3, several erroneous recordings affected both SPAQ and the Caltrac results (kcal). After relevant corrections had been made, the correlation between the two measurement devices was 0.52 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SPAQ has been shown to be reliable and to hold strong concurrent validity and limited criterion validity. The main limitation in SPAQ appears to be the measurement of occupational walking. It is therefore recommended that further work be conducted to refine the measurement of this physical activity component. It is evident nonetheless that SPAQ can be used with confidence to measure outcomes in physical activity interventions when account is taken of its

  20. Outcome expectations that motivate physical activity among world senior games participants.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Shields, Eric C; Wood, Alison; Beck, Robert E

    2004-12-01

    This study validates a questionnaire which examines the role of selected outcome expectations from physical activity on motivating regular physical activity among a group of older adults. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 675 participants in the 2002 World Senior Games. Factor analysis identified four clusters among 14 outcome expectation items, which were labeled Recreation and Social, Physical Health, Mental Health, and Self-image. The percentage agreeing that the selected items motivated physical activity were calculated and ranked from 1 (high) to 14 (low). The average ranking in each of the four factors was 4.7 for Recreation and Social, 5.8 for Physical Health, 10.5 for Self-image, and 11.7 for Mental Health. The ranks of items did not significantly differ across categories of sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and disease history. However, the ranking did significantly differ between individuals who considered themselves to be physically active versus sedentary. Physically active individuals were most likely to agree that recreational enjoyment or fun motivated physical activity, whereas sedentary individuals were most likely to agree that improving the quality of life motivated physical activity.

  1. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  2. Research to Practice: Implementing Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385

  3. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  4. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  5. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  6. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  7. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  8. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  9. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  10. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  11. Rethinking Middle School Physical Education: Combining Lifetime Leisure Activities and Sport Education to Encourage Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Derek J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Pritchard, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Physical education represents an area of the middle school curriculum that has the potential to impact adolescents' developing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in positive and meaningful ways that may endure across the lifespan. Despite the well-documented benefits of engaging in regular physical activity (e.g., American Heart…

  12. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  13. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  14. Unhealthy Alcohol Use is Associated with Monocyte Activation Prior to Starting Anti-Retroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Hunt, Peter W.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Muyindike, Winnie; Ngabirano, Christine; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use may accelerate HIV disease progression, but the plausible biological mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Methods HIV-positive persons who were not on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) completed the baseline assessment for a longitudinal study examining the association of alcohol use with HIV disease markers. Oversampling drinkers, baseline samples were tested for markers of monocyte activation (sCD14), inflammation (IL-6), and coagulation (D-dimer). We defined “unhealthy alcohol use” as testing positive using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C; ≥ 3 for women and ≥ 4 for men) in the past 3 months or testing positive using a biomarker of heavy drinking, phophatidylethanol (PEth; ≥ 50 ng/ml). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations of unhealthy alcohol use with sCD14, Log10 IL-6, and D-dimer. Results Compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol, unhealthy drinkers had significantly higher sCD14 levels (mean = 1,676 vs. 1,387 ng/ml; mean difference (95% CI) = 289 (83, 495), p < 0.01). In analyses adjusted for demographic factors, current cigarette smoking, and HIV disease markers, unhealthy drinkers continued to display significantly higher sCD14 levels compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol (adjusted mean = 1,670 vs. 1,406 ng/ml; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) = 264 (47, 480), p = 0.02). Unhealthy alcohol use was not significantly associated with IL-6 or D-dimer levels. Conclusions unhealthy alcohol use was independently associated with a marker of monocyte activation (i.e., higher sCD14) that predicts mortality in treated HIV infection. Longitudinal research should examine if unhealthy alcohol use predicts changes in sCD14 prior to and following ART initiation. PMID:26509359

  15. Physical Activity and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Laan, Remmert; Dassau, Eyal; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    While being physically active bestows many health benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes, their overall blood glucose control is not enhanced without an effective balance of insulin dosing and food intake to maintain euglycemia before, during, and after exercise of all types. At present, a number of technological advances are already available to insulin users who desire to be physically active with optimal blood glucose control, although a number of limitations to those devices remain. In addition to continued improvements to existing technologies and introduction of new ones, finding ways to integrate all of the available data to optimize blood glucose control and performance during and following exercise will likely involve development of “smart” calculators, enhanced closed-loop systems that are able to use additional inputs and learn, and social aspects that allow devices to meet the needs of the users. PMID:25568144

  16. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  17. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2015-10-07

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation (b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation (b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  18. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  19. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  20. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  1. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  2. Have guidelines addressing physical activity been established in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to highlight, in relation to the currently accepted pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the known exercise habits of patients with NAFLD and to detail the benefits of lifestyle modification with exercise (and/or physical activity) on parameters of metabolic syndrome. More rigorous, controlled studies of longer duration and defined histopathological end-points comparing exercise alone and other treatment are needed before better, evidence-based physical activity modification guidelines can be established, since several questions remain unanswered. PMID:23239917

  3. Activation of Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol) using a Supramolecular Trigger†

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Daniel J.; Congdon, Thomas R.; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco)proteins (AF(G)Ps) have potent ice recrystallisation inhibition (IRI) activity – a desirable phenomenon in applications such as cryopreservation, frozen food and more. In Nature AF(G)P activity is regulated by protein expression levels in response to an environmental stimulus; temperature. However, this level of regulation is not possible in synthetic systems. Here, a synthetic macromolecular mimic is introduced, using supramolecular assembly to regulate activity. Catechol-terminated poly(vinyl alcohol) was synthesised by RAFT polymerization. Upon addition of Fe3+, larger supramolecular star polymers form by assembly with two or three catechols. This increase in molecular weight effectively ‘switches on’ the IRI activity and is the first example of external control over the function of AFP mimetics. This provides a simple but elegant solution to the challenge of external control of AFP-mimetic function. PMID:28003855

  4. Alcohol consumption and antitumor immunity: dynamic changes from activation to accelerated deterioration of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of how alcohol and its metabolites induce cancer have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol consumption affects antitumor immunity and host survival have largely been unexplored. We studied the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the immune system and antitumor immunity in mice inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma and found that alcohol consumption activates the immune system leading to an increase in the proportion of IFN-γ-producing NK, NKT, and T cells in mice not injected with tumors. One outcome associated with enhanced IFN-γ activation is inhibition of melanoma lung metastasis. However, the anti-metastatic effects do not translate into increased survival of mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. Continued growth of the subcutaneous tumors and alcohol consumption accelerates the deterioration of the immune system, which is reflected in the following: (1) inhibition in the expansion of memory CD8+ T cells, (2) accelerated decay of Th1 cytokine-producing cells, (3) increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells, (4) compromised circulation of B cells and T cells, and (5) increased NKT cells that exhibit an IL-4 dominant cytokine profile, which is inhibitory to antitumor immunity. Taken together, the dynamic effects of alcohol consumption on antitumor immunity are in two opposing phases: the first phase associated with immune stimulation is tumor inhibitory and the second phase resulting from the interaction between the effects of alcohol and the tumor leads to immune inhibition and resultant tumor progression.

  5. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  6. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  7. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  8. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  9. Hydrogen-bond-assisted activation of allylic alcohols for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-03-01

    We report direct activation of allylic alcohols using a hydrogen-bond-assisted palladium catalyst and use this for alkylation and amination reactions. The novel catalyst comprises a palladium complex based on a functionalized monodentate phosphoramidite ligand in combination with urea additives and affords linear alkylated and aminated allylic products selectively. Detailed kinetic analysis show that oxidative addition of the allyl alcohol is the rate-determining step, which is facilitated by hydrogen bonds between the alcohol, the ligand functional group, and the additional urea additive.

  10. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  11. Influence of High School Physical Education on University Student's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jessica; Jenkins, Jayne; Wallhead, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Lifelong Physical Activity (LLPA) framework to examine the influence of high school physical education (PE) on university students' level of physical activity (PA). Participants included 365 undergraduate students from the Rocky Mountain West of the USA enrolled in a university physical activity course.…

  12. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during…

  13. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Delays T Cell Activation and Effector Function in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Margoles, Lindsay M.; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J.; Lyons, John D.; Liang, Zhe; Serbanescu, Mara A.; Wagener, Maylene E.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units in the US, and it is known that chronic alcohol use is associated with higher incidence of sepsis, longer ICU stays, and higher mortality from sepsis. Both sepsis and chronic alcohol use are associated with immune deficits such as decreased lymphocyte numbers, impaired innate immunity, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and susceptibility to infections; however, understanding of specific pathways of interaction or synergy between these two states of immune dysregulation is lacking. This study therefore sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying the immune dysregulation observed during sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol exposure. Using a murine model of chronic ethanol ingestion followed by sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture, we determined that while CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from alcohol fed mice eventually expressed the same cellular activation markers (CD44, CD69, and CD43) and effector molecules (IFN-γ, TNF) as their water fed counterparts, there was an overall delay in the acquisition of these phenotypes. This early lag in T cell activation was associated with significantly reduced IL-2 production at a later timepoint in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments in alcohol sepsis, as well as with a reduced accumulation of CD8dim activated effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that delayed T cell activation may result in qualitative differences in the immune response to sepsis in the setting of chronic alcohol ingestion. PMID:27861506

  14. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  15. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  16. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  17. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  18. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Inhibits the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Alcohol via Selective Activity Within the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie JM; Fisher, Kristen R; Hodge, Clyde W; Besheer, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGlu2/3) regulate a variety of alcohol-associated behaviors, including alcohol reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. To date, the role of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol has not been examined. Given that the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking, we examined the contributions of mGlu2/3 receptors in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. In male Long-Evans rats trained to discriminate between alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) and water, the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3–10 mg/kg) did not produce alcohol-like stimulus effects. However, pretreatment with LY379268 (1 and 3 mg/kg; in combination with alcohol) inhibited the stimulus effects of alcohol (1 g/kg). Systemic LY379268 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) was associated with increases in neuronal activity within the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens, as assessed by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Intra-amygdala activation of mGlu2/3 receptors by LY379268 (6 μg) inhibited the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol, without altering response rate. In contrast, intra-accumbens LY379268 (3 μg) profoundly reduced response rate; however, at lower LY379268 doses (0.3, 1 μg), the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol and response rate were not altered. These data suggest that amygdala mGlu2/3 receptors have a functional role in modulating the discriminative stimulus properties of alcohol and demonstrate differential motor sensitivity to activation of mGlu2/3 receptors in the amygdala and the accumbens. Understanding the neuronal mechanisms that underlie the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol may prove to be important for future development of pharmacotherapies for treating alcoholism. PMID:21734651

  19. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with elementary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in kindergarten through third grade and for students in fourth through six grades. Activities are suggested in 10 categories:…

  20. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with secondary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in grades 7 and 8 and for students in grades 9 through 12. Activities are suggested in 10 categories: (1) human growth and…

  1. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  2. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  3. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  4. Frequent hard physical activity lowered serum beta-carotene level in a population study of a rural city of Japan.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Ohwaki, A; Ito, Y; Matsushita, Y; Ido, M; Shimizu, H

    1995-07-01

    To determine the effect of physical activity on serum beta-carotene, we analyzed data about life styles including 3-day food records and blood samples collected from 57 men and 74 women in a rural city of Japan. Physical activity was asked as mean frequency of hard physical activities per week last year. A declining trend in serum beta-carotene was observed with increasing frequency of hard physical activities in men. In multiple regression analyses, the frequency of hard physical activities showed a negative partial correlation coefficient (r = -0.38, p = 0.007) with serum beta-carotene in men when controlled by age, BMI (body mass index), dietary factors (carotene intake, alcohol consumption and vitamin supplements use), smoking status, serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. These results suggest that frequent hard physical activity decreases serum beta-carotene especially in men.

  5. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD.

  6. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  7. Perinatal aromatase activity in male and female rats: effect of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Roselli, C E; Handa, R J

    1988-12-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been shown to produce long-term feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male rat behaviors which are organizationally dependent upon perinatal androgen levels. Such exposure has previously been shown to suppress the normal surge of testosterone during the critical prenatal period. Since defeminization of male rat behavior is dependent upon estrogen derived from the aromatization of testosterone in brain, brain aromatase activity was measured during the perinatal period in males and females exposed to alcohol beginning on Day 14 of gestation. Aromatase activity was measured in whole hypothalamus of fetuses from Day 16 through 20 of gestation and in the hypothalamic preoptic area and amygdala of animals 6-12 hr postparturition. Hypothalamic aromatase activity was elevated in fetal alcohol exposed males compared to controls on Days 18 and 19 of gestation and on postnatal Day 1. No effect of prenatal alcohol exposure was found in females. A sex effect in aromatase activity in the amygdala was evident on Day 1 when activity was found to be greater in males than females. Overall, these findings indicate that fetal alcohol exposure will elevate regional brain aromatase activity in males, but not females during the perinatal period of neurobehavioral sexual differentiation.

  8. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  9. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism attenuates neuronal activity triggered by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking

    PubMed Central

    Schank, J.R.; Nelson, B.S.; Damadzic, R.; Tapocik, J.D.; Yao, M.; King, C.E.; Rowe, K.E.; Cheng, K.; Rice, K.C.; Heilig, M.

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and its cognate neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) are involved in alcohol-related behaviors. We have previously reported that NK1R antagonism attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suppresses escalated alcohol self-administration, but does not affect primary reinforcement or cue-induced reinstatement. Here, we administered an NK1R antagonist or vehicle prior to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and mapped the resulting neuronal activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. As expected, vehicle treated animals exposed to footshock showed induction of Fos immunoreactivity in several regions of the brain stress circuitry, including the amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). NK1R antagonism selectively suppressed the stress-induced increase in Fos in the DR and NAC shell. In the DR, Fos-induction by stress largely overlapped with tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH), indicating activation of serotonergic neurons. Of NAC shell neurons activated during stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, about 30% co-expressed dynorphin (DYN), while 70% co-expressed enkephalin (ENK). Few (<1%) activated NAC shell neurons co-expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which labels the cholinergic interneurons of this region. Infusion of the NK1R antagonist L822429 into the NAC shell blocked stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, L822429 infusion into the DR had no effect, suggesting that the influence of NK1R signaling on neuronal activity in the DR is indirect. Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:26188146

  10. EEG Spectral Changes in Treatment Naïve Active Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, G.; Allen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study examines the EEG spectra of actively drinking treatment naïve alcoholics (TxNA). Methods EEGs were gathered on 51 TxNA’s and age and sex-matched controls during eyes-closed conditions. Participants were excluded for lifetime diagnoses of psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. Power for the theta to high beta bands was examined across midline electrodes. Results The TxNA sample exhibited a nexus of disinhibited traits associated with the vulnerability to alcoholism, and had developed alcohol dependence, but no other diagnosable psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. The TxNA subjects evidenced higher power for all EEG bands compared to controls. The magnitude and anterior-posterior extent of the group differences varied across bands. Within the TxNA group, EEG power was negatively correlated with average and peak alcohol drinking duration and average and peak alcohol dose. Conclusions Increased EEG power across the theta to high beta bands distinguishes TxNAs without comorbid diagnoses from controls. These effects varied across bands in their magnitude and spatial extent, suggesting that there are different effects for the different EEG spectral generators. We hypothesize the increased power in these individuals is a trait difference associated with the inherited nexus of disinhibited traits and its manifestation in alcoholism. Based on the strong negative correlations with alcohol use variables, we speculate that decreases in EEG power are a morbid effect of long-term alcohol abuse. We acknowledge that this hypothesized effect of alcohol abuse on EEG power is opposite to the increased EEG power we hypothesize is associated with alcoholism and its inherited nexus of disinhibited traits. An implication of this model is that with continuing alcohol abuse, the increased EEG power in TxNAs will eventually be overpowered by the effects of long-term severe alcohol abuse. This model predicts that in very long-term alcoholics EEG power

  11. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  12. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  13. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering.

  14. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  15. Oxidative stress in relation to diet and physical activity among premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Chelsea; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Nichols, Hazel B.

    2017-01-01

    Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite. Urinary F2-isoprostane and its metabolite were measured in urine samples collected at enrolment from 912 premenopausal women (aged 35–54 years) participating in the Sister Study. Physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary intakes were self-reported via questionnaires. With adjustment for potential confounders, the geometric means of F2-isoprostane and its metabolite were calculated according to quartiles of dietary intakes, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and linear regression models were used to evaluate trends. Significant inverse associations were found between F2-isoprostane and/or its metabolite and physical activity, vegetables, fruits, vitamin C, α-carotene, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin A, Se, lutein + zeaxanthin and long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Although trans fats were positively associated with both F2-isoprostane and its metabolite, other dietary fat subgroups including SFA, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, MUFA, PUFA, short-chain n-3 fatty acids, long-chain n-3 fatty acids and total fat were not associated with either F2-isoprostane or its metabolite. Our findings suggest that lower intake of antioxidant nutrients and higher intake of trans fats may be associated with greater oxidative stress among premenopausal women. PMID:27725001

  16. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  17. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  18. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, S D; Keenan, C; Schober, C; Mays, V M

    2000-12-01

    Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by gender. For men, normative alcohol use patterns or morbidity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, homosexually active women reported using alcohol more frequently and in greater amounts and experienced greater alcohol-related morbidity than exclusively heterosexually active women. Findings suggest higher risk for alcohol-related problems among lesbians as compared with other women, perhaps because of a more common pattern of moderate alcohol consumption.

  19. Can physical activity improve peak bone mass?

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Minett, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    The pediatric origin of osteoporosis has led many investigators to focus on determining factors that influence bone gain during growth and methods for optimizing this gain. Bone responds to bone loading activities by increasing mass or size. Overall, pediatric studies have found a positive effect of bone loading on bone size and accrual, but the types of loads necessary for a bone response have only recently been investigated in human studies. Findings indicate that responses vary by sex, maturational status, and are site-specific. Estrogen status, body composition, and nutritional status also may influence the bone response to loading. Despite the complex interrelationships among these various factors, it is prudent to conclude that increased physical activity throughout life is likely to optimize bone health.

  20. [Exercise, physical activity and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Canabal Torres, M Y

    1992-02-01

    Vigorous regular exercise is a recommended inclusion in the management of diabetes of persons with diabetes of both types, regardless of age. Benefits can be identified in the physiological (improved cardiovascular fitness, flexibility and muscle toning; in the metabolic and hormonal processes for energy production), as well as psychosocial realms (self-esteem, stress management, socialization opportunities). Considerations of the risks (hyper or hypoglicemia, ketoacidosis, neuropathies or complications os cardiac risks), and contraindications (unplanned weight training in cases with proliferative retinopathy, hypertensión, uncontrolled diabetes) must be part of the exercise prescription and implemmentation. Exercise programs must be fun, varied and comply with exercise physiology principles such as gradual progression in intensity or target heart rate, recommended frequency and duration, regular hydration, and warm-ups and cooling routines. Regular vigorous physical education, sports, regular exercise and active recreational activities can be part of a healthy lifestyle of persons with diabetes.

  1. Public Health, Academic Medicine, and the Alcohol Industry’s Corporate Social Responsibility Activities

    PubMed Central

    Robaina, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151

  2. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  3. The influence of hepatic insufficiency due to alcoholic cirrhosis on the erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA).

    PubMed

    Graudal, N; Torp-Pedersen, K; Bonde, J; Hanel, H K; Kristensen, M; Milman, N; Thomsen, A C

    1987-04-01

    The erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA), the stimulated erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKAS), and the thiaminepyrophosphate effect (TPPE) were measured in 21 alcoholic patients with cirrhosis and hepatic insufficiency, 13 alcoholic patients without cirrhosis and 21 non-alcoholic persons before and after oral treatment with 100 mg of thiamine daily for 2 weeks in order to investigate the influence of hepatic insufficiency on these variables. A statistically significant rise in ETKA and fall in TPPE were found in all three groups. ETKA, ETKAS and TPPE did not differ from each other in alcoholic patients with and without cirrhosis, but TPPE was significantly higher in these patients than in the non-alcoholic persons. The conclusions are that severe cirrhosis does not affect the erythrocyte transketolase apoenzyme, the ability of the tissues to convert thiamine to thiaminepyrophosphate for use in the erythrocytes or the absorption of thiamine from the gastrointestinal tract. Besides alcoholism seems to dispose to thiamine deficiency to a higher degree than cirrhosis, and the role of the liver as a thiamine store appears to be of minor importance in the development of thiamine deficiency. Finally, ETKA, ETKAS, and TPPE are considered to be usable as thiamine deficiency indicators in patients with cirrhosis as well as in patients without cirrhosis.

  4. Development of active polyvinyl alcohol/β-cyclodextrin composites to scavenge undesirable food components.

    PubMed

    López-de-Dicastillo, Carol; Jordá, María; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2011-10-26

    Active food packaging systems based on the incorporation of agents into polymeric package walls are being designed to purposely release or retain compounds to maintain or even increase food quality. The objective of this work was to develop polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)/β-cyclodextrin (βCD) composite films that can be applied to reduce undesirable component content such as cholesterol in foods through active retention of the compounds in the package walls during storage. Cyclodextrins were added to PVOH in a proportion of 1:1 and cross-linked with glyoxal under acidic media to reduce its water-soluble character. Three different cross-linking procedures were used: cross-linking of the polymer/polysaccharide mixture in solution and film casting, PVOH. βCD*; cross-linking of the polymer, addition of βCD, and casting of the mixture, PVOH*.CD; and casting of a PVOH film, addition of a βCD/glyoxal solution onto the film, and cross-linking during drying, PVOH.CD*. Characterization studies showed that the PVOH*.CD and PVOH.CD* films provided the best physical characteristics with the lowest release values and the highest barrier properties. As a potential application, materials were tested as potential cholesterol-scavenging films. There was a significant reduction in the cholesterol concentration in milk samples when they were exposed to the materials developed.

  5. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  6. Children's Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) during physical education is important for health purposes and for developing physical fitness and movement skills. To examine PA levels and how PA was influenced by environmental and instructor-related characteristics, we assessed children's activity during 368 lessons taught by 105 physical education specialists in 42…

  7. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  8. Implications for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Grace Goc; Scruggs, Philip W.; Brown, Helen; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs and physical education teachers will need to identify and resolve the tensions of shifting from a traditional role of a self-contained physical education program to that of an expanding role of physical education that supports lifelong physical activity in…

  9. Movement and Learning: Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Emily; Miller, Stacia; Chavez, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    We know the benefits of physical activity, and yet recess and physical education classes are being cut or scaled back to make room for meeting academic standards. Is cutting recess and physical education really benefiting academics? A look at some recent studies suggests that it is not. Integrating physical activity into the classroom may increase…

  10. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  11. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua) water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE) and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders. PMID:20974012

  12. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  13. HMGB1/TLR Receptor Danger Signaling Increases Brain Neuroimmune Activation in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Fulton T.; Qin, Liya; Sheedy, Donna; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Zou, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Innate immune gene expression is regulated in part through high mobility group box 1(HMGB1), an endogenous proinflammatory cytokine, that activates multiple members of the interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) family associated with danger signaling. We investigated expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 in chronic ethanol treated mouse brain, post-mortem human alcoholic brain, and rat brain slice culture to test the hypothesis that neuroimmune activation in alcoholic brain involves ethanol activation of HMGB1/TLR danger signaling. Methods Protein levels were assessed using Western blot, ELISA, immunohistochemical immunoreactivity (+IR), and mRNA levels were measured by real time PCR in ethanol-treated mice (5 g/kg/day, i.g., 10 days + 24 hr), rat brain slice culture, and post-mortem human alcoholic brain. Results Ethanol treatment of mice increased brain mRNA and +IR protein expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4. Post-mortem human alcoholic brain also showed increased HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4+IR cells that correlated with lifetime alcohol consumption as well as each other. Ethanol treatment of brain slice culture released HMGB1 into the media and induced the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Neutralizing antibodies to HMGB1 and small inhibitory mRNA to HMGB1 or TLR4 blunted ethanol induction of IL-1β. Conclusions Ethanol-induced HMGB1/TLR signaling contributes to induction of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Increased expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 in alcoholic brain and in mice treated with ethanol suggests that chronic alcohol-induced brain neuroimmune activation occurs through HMGB1/TLR signaling. PMID:23206318

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. Oxidation of alcohols and activated alkanes with Lewis acid-activated TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Wright, Ashley M; Page, Joshua S; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-11-03

    The reactivity of MCl3(η(1)-TEMPO) (M = Fe, 1; Al, 2; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) with a variety of alcohols, including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxyethanol, and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol, was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complex 1 was effective in cleanly converting these substrates to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. Complex 2 was also able to oxidize these substrates; however, in a few instances the products of overoxidation were also observed. Oxidation of activated alkanes, such as xanthene, by 1 or 2 suggests that the reactions proceed via an initial 1-electron concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) event. Finally, reaction of TEMPO with FeBr3 in Et2O results in the formation of a mixture of FeBr3(η(1)-TEMPOH) (23) and [FeBr2(η(1)-TEMPOH)]2(μ-O) (24), via oxidation of the solvent, Et2O.

  16. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  17. How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Eating?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Management How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? Taking care of your heart ... life. Planning a healthy diet and a regular physical activity program is the key to success. Prepare yourself ...

  18. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does physical activity help build healthy bones? Skip sharing on social ... Page Content ​​Bones are living tissue. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, and this ...

  19. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  20. Effects of a low alcohol dose on static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance.

    PubMed

    Mangold, S; Läubli, T; Krueger, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a single low alcohol dose (men 0.54 g and women 0.44 g alcohol per kg body weight) were measured by static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance. In 10 healthy volunteers balance was registered by a temporally and spatially high resolution platform measuring the center of foot pressure and a three-dimensional coordination measurement system. Fine motor activity and mental performance were tested with selected experiments from the NES2 (Neurobehavioral Evaluation System) neuropsychological test battery. Changes of bipedal and monopedal balance could be detected after the alcohol consumption. Neither the fine motor activity nor the mental performance test demonstrated significant effects. Thus, the static balance test proved to be a sensitive, fast, and atraumatic method to identify slight neurotoxic disturbances.

  1. Toxicity of chronic high alcohol intake on mouse natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, R M; Starkey, J R; Meadows, G G

    1988-02-01

    The toxicity of chronic alcohol intake on natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from well-nourished, female C57BL/6 mice was studied in a 4-hour cytolytic chromium-release assay against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. Mice were fed a nutritionally complete crystalline amino acid diet and received 20% w/v alcohol solution for 12 weeks. Ad libitum and pair-fed control mice were given diet and either an isocaloric glucose solution or water. Decreased NK cell activity was observed in alcohol-consuming mice relative to all other control groups. NK cell activity was moderately decreased by feeding mice a high glucose diet, but more severely lowered in pair-fed groups compared to ad libitum control groups.

  2. Sulfoximine-mediated syntheses of optically active alcohols. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, C. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Several routes are described for the production of optically active secondary and tertiary alcohols. In all cases, the asymmetry emanates from the use of (+)-(S)-N,S-dimethyl-S-phenyl-sulfoximine (1) at some point in the variation of the diastereomers. One route relies upon the separation of the diastereomers produced from the condensation of (+)-(S)-(N-methylphenyl-sulfonimidoyl) methyllithium with prochiral aldehydes and ketones. Subsequent carbon-sulfur bond cleavage of the separated diastereomeric beta-hydroxysulfoximines yields optically active alcohols. Alternatively, beta-hydroxysulfoximines were produced from the reduction of chiral beta-ketosulfoximines. The reductions were most successfully achieved with diborane generated externally and bubbled into a toluene solution of the ketone at -78 C. Optically active alcohols were also produced from prochiral ketones by reduction with diborane or lithium aluminum hydride complexes of resolved diastereomers of beta-hydroxysulfoximines.

  3. Experimental demonstration of the influence of alcohol advertising on the activation of alcohol expectancies in memory among fourth- and fifth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Dunn, M E; Yniguez, R M

    1999-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that children's organization and activation of alcohol expectancies in memory vary as a function of alcohol use, even among children as young as in the 3rd grade. To advance the understanding of influences on the development of alcohol expectancies in children, 551 4th- and 5th-grade children were exposed to 5 beer commercials or 5 soft drink commercials. After viewing the advertisements, all children reported their 1st associate to an alcohol prompt and completed a memory model-based measure of children's alcohol expectancies. Multidimensional scaling was used to map expectancies into hypothetical memory network format, and preference mapping was used to derive possible paths of activation. Children who viewed beer commercials were more likely to activate positive and arousing alcohol expectancies. In view of previous findings demonstrating that this pattern of activation corresponded to higher drinking among 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th graders, the present findings suggested that antecedents to drinking like exposure to advertising may promote heavier drinking among children by influencing the activation of expectancies in memory.

  4. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  5. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Shaye, Zahra; Mousavi Bazzaz, Mojtaba; Vakili, Veda

    2015-03-26

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest.

  6. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Zahra Abbasi; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Vakili, Veda

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest. PMID:26153203

  7. The Role of Physical Activity and Physical Function on the Risk of Falls in Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between physical activity and physical function on the risk of falls over time in a cohort of Mexican-American adults aged 75 and older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). Participants were divided into four groups according to their level of physical activity and physical function: low physical activity and low physical function (n = 453); low physical activity and high physical function (n = 54); high physical activity and low physical function (n = 307); and high physical activity and high physical function (n = 197). Using generalized linear equation estimation, we showed that participants with high physical activity and low physical function had a greater fall risk over time, followed by the high physical activity and high physical function group. Participants seldom took part in activities that improve physical function. To prevent falls, modifications to physical activity should be made for older Mexican Americans.

  8. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  9. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  10. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  11. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  12. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  13. Association of Parent and Peer Support with Adolescent Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…

  14. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  15. Parental Mediatory Role in Children's Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, P. Y. Peggy; Chow, Bik C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are important agents in the physical activity socializing process in children. The present study aims to examine the parental mediatory role in children's physical activity participation via a youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 872 Hong Kong Chinese children (aged ten to 13) in…

  16. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  17. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  18. Mission Impossible? Physical Activity Programming for Individuals Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…

  19. Physical Activity and Youth with Disabilities: Barriers and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Moran, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and active use of leisure time is important for everyone but particularly important for youth with disabilities. Unfortunately, youth with disabilities often have a difficult time or are even excluded from participating in physical activity due to limited physical and cognitive skills, attitudinal barriers in the community, lack…

  20. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  1. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  2. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  3. Discovery and exploitation of AZADO: the highly active catalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes (or carboxylic acids) or ketones is a fundamental transformation in organic synthesis. Stable organic nitroxyl radicals as represented by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) (1) have been used extensively to catalyze the oxidation of a number of alcohol substrates employing environmentally benign co-oxidants such as bleach (NaOCl) or PhI(OAc)2. Although TEMPO oxidation is better known as a method for selective oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes, the TEMPO-based method is not very efficient for the oxidation of structurally hindered secondary alcohols. We designed and synthesized 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl [AZADO (11)] and 1-Me-AZADO (20), a structurally less hindered class of nitroxyl radical. AZADOs were found to exhibit excellent catalytic activity enabling oxidation of a variety of alcohols with which TEMPO exhibits poor reactivity. Based on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing AZADO (11), 1-Me-AZADO (20), 1,3-dimethyl-AZADO (33), 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl [ABNO (34)] and 9-azanoradamantane N-oxyl [Nor-AZADO (37)], we concluded that the α-methyl group flanked nearby the nitroxyl group affects the reactivity for the oxidation of sterically hindered alcohols and the azaadamantane skeleton contributes to the high turnover of the catalyst. The highly active nature of AZADOs spurred us to exploit their further use in alcohol oxidations. A facile, green, one-pot oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids with broad substrate applicability has been developed by employing an expedient catalytic system consisting of the oxoammonium salt [1-Me-AZADO(+)X(-) (X=Cl, BF4)]/NaClO2. The synthetic use of AZADOs and the related nitroxyl radicals/oxoammonium salts-based methods for alcohol oxidation have been demonstrated in several total syntheses of natural products. We also describe the development of a Nor-AZADO (37)/DIAD/AcOH method that

  4. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  5. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification.

  6. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  7. Physical activity self-definition among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pis, Monika B; Pender, Nola J; Kazanis, Anamaria S

    2004-01-01

    Since research involving adults indicates that physical activity (PA) self-definition influences PA participation, understanding PA self-definition and related factors, such as PA frequency and enjoyment, in youth is essential for designing interventions to reverse the decline in PA that occurs from childhood through adolescence. The objective of this study was to explore correlates of PA self-definition and assess differences in PA self-definition among African American and European American boys and girls in early, middle, and late puberty. A 3 (developmental stage) x 2 (gender) design was used. African American and European American boys and girls, ages 9 to 17, participated. A total of 168 adolescents completed demographic data, developmental stage, and current and future PA self-definition questionnaires. Peak VO2 was obtained as a measure of physical fitness. Current PA self-definition was positively correlated with peak VO2 (p < .01) and future PA self-definition (p <.01). Males had higher current (p = .032) and future (p = .021) PA self-definition than females. The finding that boys have stronger current and future PA self-definitions than girls highlights the challenge for health professionals to enact immediate and effective measures to alter girls' perceptions of themselves in terms of PA participation. Since current PA self-definition is also significantly correlated with future PA participation, strategies to assist girls in developing a strong PA self-definition may contribute to increased PA in their adult years.

  8. Physical exercise prevents and mitigates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced liver mitochondrial structural and bioenergetics impairments.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia; Diogo, Cátia V; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Viscor, Ginés; Santos-Alves, Estela; Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is considered a non-pharmacological tool against several lifestyle disorders in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved. The present study aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity-VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training-ET) role of exercise against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n=20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n=10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n=20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n=10). After 9weeks of diet-treatment, half of SS and HS animals were engaged in an ET program (SET and HET) for 8weeks, 5days/week and 60min/day. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and transmembrane-electric potential (ΔΨ) were evaluated in the presence of glutamate-malate (G/M), palmitoyl-malate (P/M) and succinate (S/R). Mitochondrial enzymes activity, lipid and protein oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits, cytochrome c, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) content were assessed. HS groups show the histological features of NASH in parallel with decreased ΔΨ and respiratory control (RCR) and ADP/O ratios (G/M and P/M). A state 3 decrease (G/M and S/R), FCCP-induced uncoupling respiration (S/R) and ANT content were also observed. Both exercise types counteracted oxygen consumption (RCR, ADP/O and FCCP-uncoupling state) impairments and improved ΔΨ (lag-phase). In conclusion, exercise prevented or reverted (VPA and ET, respectively) the bioenergetic impairment induced by NASH, but only ET positively remodeled NASH-induced liver structural damage and abnormal mitochondria. It is possible that alterations in inner membrane integrity and fatty acid oxidation may be related to the observed phenotypes induced by exercise.

  9. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    PubMed

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  10. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  11. Promoting Children's Physical Activity in Physical Education: The Role of Active Video Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Moore, William; Gu, Xiangli; Chu, Tsz Lun; Gao, Zan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the children in the United States do not meet the global physical activity guidelines, and many children adopt sedentary lifestyles. Given the fact about two-thirds children are classified as overweight or obese, traditional video games have been blamed as a major contributor to children's sedentary behavior and excessive…

  12. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  13. Physical Activity Intensity, Lesson Context, and Teacher Interactions during an Unstructured Afterschool Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Miller, Daniel J.; Schuna, John M.; Liebert, Mina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs are promising arenas to improve youth physical activity (PA) levels. During the school year for 2012-2013, 5 elementary schools from a low-socioeconomic status (SES) school district in southern Colorado participated in evaluation of the afterschool program entitled Keep It Moving! (KIM). Methods: In this…

  14. [Physical activities and sports in asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A

    1983-05-31

    Asthma patients are too often advised to refrain from sport. Enforced sedentariness, especially in children, leads to muscle hypotonia, reduced mechanical efficiency, paramorphisms, and adverse psychological consequences. Not all asthmatics develop airway spasm as a result of exercise. On the other hand, there are subjects whose bronchial hyper-reactivity is stimulated solely by muscular effort. The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchospasm is not fully understood. In any event, numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial and even therapeutic effect of physical exercise and sport in cases of asthma. Provided they are practised with judgment and in accordance with a suitable programme, swimming, activities of an alternating aerobic and anaerobic type, cross-country skiing, gymnastics, and fencing are primarily indicated. Some asthmatics have also won Olympic medals. In the light of the studies carried out so far, it is strongly suggested that asthmatics be encouraged to take up sport suitable to their psychophysical characteristics, and not kept wrapped up in cotton wool.

  15. Political activism among physically disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Feinblatt, A

    1981-08-01

    The study examined the relationships between demographic, personality, and disability-specific variables and membership in a political action organization among the physically disabled. Thirty-nine disabled members of a political organization an 40 disabled nonmembers were interviewed. Educational and occupational status were found to be related to membership. Disability-specific variables, including diagnosis, length of time disabled, degree and etiology of disability, were found to be unrelated to membership in a political action organization. Degree of general political activity accounted for the greatest amount of variance in distinguishing members from nonmembers. Scores obtained on scales measuring degree of emotional stability, responsibility, and sociability were not significantly related to membership. Members, however, were found to be more assertive, more independent, and less conforming than nonmembers. Transportation difficulty was the main reason given for nonmembership by 50% of the nonmembers. Statistically significant differences between members and nonmembers were found concerning the goals of transportation and political action.

  16. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter.

  17. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  18. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  19. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  20. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  1. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity.

  2. Physical Activity Predicts Performance in an Unpracticed Bimanual Coordination Task

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Serbruyns, Leen; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2017-01-01

    Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before. Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a “learning to learn” skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity. PMID:28265253

  3. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  4. Influence of increased adrenergic activity and magnesium depletion on cardiac rhythm in alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Denison, H; Jern, S; Jagenburg, R; Wendestam, C; Wallerstedt, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in alcoholic men during detoxification and its relation to neuroendocrine activation and electrolyte disturbances. DESIGN--Consecutive case-control study. SETTING--Primary and secondary care, detoxification ward. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS--19 otherwise healthy alcoholic men (DSM-III-R) with withdrawal symptoms necessitating detoxification in hospital. 19 age matched, healthy non-alcoholic men as controls for Holter recordings. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with chlomethiazole; additional treatment with carbamazepine in patients with previous seizures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Computer based analyses of mean heart rate and arrhythmias from 24 hour Holter recordings, 24 hour urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, magnesium retention measured by means of intravenous loading test, and serum concentrations of electrolytes. RESULTS--The 24 hour mean heart rate was higher in the alcoholic men (97.4 beats/minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.2 to 103.6) than in the controls (69.6 beats/minute, 95% CI 65.4 to 73.8, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in diurnal heart rate variation. The prevalence of premature supraventricular depolarisations was lower in the alcoholic men (P < 0.05). Neither atrial fibrillation nor malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred. The sinus tachycardia in the alcoholic men correlated with the concomitant urinary excretion of catecholamines (P < 0.05). The mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.78 mmol/l (95% CI 0.73 to 0.83) in the alcoholic men and 0.83 mmol/l (95% CI 0.81 to 0.85) in a reference population of 55 men aged 40. Magnesium depletion (defined as magnesium retention > 30%) was detected in 10 alcoholic men (53%). Three alcoholic men had serum potassium concentrations < or = 3.3 mmol/l on admission. CONCLUSION--Increased adrenergic activity, magnesium depletion, and hypokalaemia are often seen after heavy drinking, but in alcoholic men without clinical heart disease

  5. The physical sacrifice of thinking: Investigating the relationship between thinking and physical activity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Todd; Dickinson, David L; Stroh, Nathan; Dickinson, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity level is an important contributor to overall human health and obesity. Research has shown that humans possess a number of traits that influence their physical activity level including social cognition. We examined whether the trait of "need for cognition" was associated with daily physical activity levels. We recruited individuals who were high or low in need for cognition and measured their physical activity level in 30-second epochs over a 1-week period. The overall findings showed that low-need-for-cognition individuals were more physically active, but this difference was most pronounced during the 5-day work week and lessened during the weekend.

  6. Is there such a thing as sustainable physical activity?

    PubMed

    Bjørnarå, H B; Torstveit, M K; Stea, T H; Bere, E

    2017-03-01

    There is a global need to diminish climate gas emissions, and a simultaneous call for enhanced levels of physical activity. Increased physical activity entails reduced risk for overweight and chronic diseases, as well as a potential to reduce transport's major contribution to global CO2 emissions. However, increased physical activity level also implies increased energy expenditure. Therefore, we aim to introduce the concept of sustainable physical activity, and to suggest certain physical activity habits due to their potentially sustainable properties. Worldwide, a third of adults and four fifths of adolescents ought to be more physically active in order to comply with current physical activity recommendations. Yet, considering upcoming resource challenges, types of physical activity should be taken into account. Active transportation represents carbon-friendly means of transportation as well as an opportunity for enhanced physical activity. Physical activity conducted in the local community is likely to favor sustainability through less use of fossil fuel, as it makes transportation redundant. Moreover, going "back to basic", using less equipment and appliances for everyday tasks could contribute toward energy balance through increased physical activity, and could decrease resource use. Finally, balancing food intake and energy expenditure would require less food production with accompanying energy savings.

  7. [Evidence-based guidelines for physical activity of adult Canadians].

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.

  8. Nutrition and function, with emphasis on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Torun, B; Viteri, F E

    1993-01-01

    Consumption of insufficient quantities of food would result to energy deficiency in children, and this can be prevented by early assessment of changes in physical activity. This paper focuses on the effects of general undernutrition on physical activity and on growth, behavior, and cognitive development in Mexico, Uganda, Colombia, and Guatemala. The paper contains studies investigating the influence of undernutrition on physical activity; total energy expenditure; level of physical fitness; influence of physical activity and growth; and relationship of physical activity with behavior and cognitive development. The level of energy expenditure between nutritional groups could be accounted for the smaller size of the body among undernourished children. On the other hand, physiological potential to physically perform work can be maintained by children with mild or moderate malnutrition, but their smaller size limits their output. Lastly, increased physical activity of children receiving food supplementation was associated with exploratory and behavioral differences compared with nonsupplemented children.

  9. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  10. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  11. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  12. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  13. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  14. Active Control of Complex Physical Systems: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maxtmum 200 words) Active control of complex systems imposes unique requirements for physical models and...months after the meeting, SPrinte In USA. Acceslon For NTIS CRA&W DTIC TAB Unlannounced ] Active Control of Complex Physical Systems Justificatton An...control strategies. Physical models This work on the active control of which are adequate to predict the influence of specific physical systems has been

  15. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    individuals to become more intrinsically motivated to engage in regular exercise and/or physical activity . This paper will present theories...an exercise or physical activity program. DiClemente and Velasquez (2002) make the 29 argument that people in the preparation stage may have...they are making are worthy of 30 Do you currently do any physical exercise ? Do you intend to do some vigorous physical activity in the next six

  16. Epileptiform Activity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possibilities of Its Indirect Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Raboch, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence during withdrawal and also in abstinent period in many cases is related to reduced inhibitory functions and kindling that may appear in the form of psychosensory symptoms similar to temporal lobe epilepsy frequently in conditions of normal EEG and without seizures. Because temporal lobe epileptic activity tend to spread between hemispheres, it is possible to suppose that measures reflecting interhemispheric information transfer such as electrodermal activity (EDA) might be related to the psychosensory symptoms. Methods and Findings We have performed measurement of bilateral EDA, psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) and alcohol craving (ACQ) in 34 alcohol dependent patients and 32 healthy controls. The results in alcohol dependent patients show that during rest conditions the psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) are related to EDA transinformation (PTI) between left and right EDA records (Spearman r = 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions The result may present potentially useful clinical finding suggesting a possibility to indirectly assess epileptiform changes in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:21541318

  17. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  18. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  19. Millikan Lecture 1996: Promoting active learning based on physics education research in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.

  20. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  1. Youth physical activity opportunities in lower and higher income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard Robert; Ding, Ding; Lee, Rebecca; May, Linda; Tota, Tonya; Dinius, David

    2011-08-01

    The presence of youth physical activity opportunities is one of the strongest environmental correlates of youth physical activity. More detailed information about such opportunities is needed to maximize their contributions to physical activity promotion especially in under resourced, lower income areas. The objectives of this study were to construct a comprehensive profile of youth physical activity opportunities and contrast profile characteristics between lower and higher income neighborhoods. Youth physical activity opportunities in eight lower (median household income <$36,000) and eight higher (>$36,000) income neighborhoods were identified and described using interviews, neighborhood tours, site visits, and systematic searches of various sources (e.g., Internet). Lower income neighborhoods had a greater number of locations offering youth physical activity opportunities but similar quantities of amenities. Lower income neighborhoods had more faith-based locations and court, trail/path, event, and water-type amenities. Higher income neighborhoods had significantly more for-profit businesses offering youth physical activity opportunities. Funding for youth physical activity opportunities in lower income neighborhoods was more likely to come from donations and government revenue (e.g., taxes), whereas the majority of youth physical activity opportunities in the higher income neighborhoods were supported by for-profit business revenue. Differences between lower and higher income neighborhoods in the type and amenities of youth physical activity opportunities may be driven by funding sources. Attention to these differences could help create more effective and efficient strategies for promoting physical activity among youth.

  2. The physical properties of biomorphous composite derived by infiltration of furfuryl alcohol into carbonized, monolithic blocks of Yucca flaccida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesinska, M.; Zachariasz, J.

    2007-08-01

    The block samples of yucca (Yucca flaccida) carbonized at temperature 350°C were impregnated under vacuum by furfuryl alcohol, which was next polymerized by solution of hydrochloric acid and cross-linked. The impregnated samples of carbonized plant were heat-treated again at 550°C to carbonize the filler. The resultant composites were characterized using a helium gas densitometry, the ultrasonic measurements, and observed with light microscope, as well as with SEM. Various physical parameters: the true density, the bulk porosity, the longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity and elastic anisotropy were determined. The thermal decomposition of carbonized yucca modified by polyfurfuryl alcohol was investigated at temperature ranging from 20 to 940°C using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  3. Integrated Health and Physical Education Program to Reduce Media Use and Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clocksin, Brian D.; Wattson, Doris L.; Williams, Daniel P.; Randsell, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare an integrated health and physical education curriculum, focused on reducing media use and on increasing physical activity in middle school adolescents, to traditional and nonintegrated health and physical education curricula. Two middle schools' health and physical education classes were assigned to an…

  4. Physical activity and its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chang, Yu-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a global public health problem, and it has been linked to many of the most serious illnesses facing many industrialized nations. There is little evidence examining the physical activity profile and determinants for the vulnerable population such as people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to describe the regular physical activity prevalence and to examine its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan. Participants were recruited from 3 special education schools in Taiwan, with the entire response participants composed of 351 primary caregivers of adolescents with ID (age 16-18 years). There were 29.9% ID individuals had regular physical activity habits, and the main physical activities were walking, sports, and jogging. There were only 8% individuals with ID met the national physical activity recommendation in Taiwan which suggests at least exercise 3 times per week and 30 min per time. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis of regular physical activity habit, we found that the factors of caregiver's educational level and preference toward physical activity were variables that can significantly predict ID individuals who had regular physical activity habit in their daily livings after controlling other factors. To maximize the positive effect of physical activity on people with ID, the present study suggests that it is needed to initiate appropriate techniques used for motivation to participate in physical activity for this population.

  5. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  6. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  7. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  8. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  9. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  10. Teaching Science with Toys: Physics Activities for Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Beverley A. P.; And Others

    This document is a collection of some of the physics activities used in the Teaching Science with TOYS professional development program for teachers. The TOYS activities have been compiled into this document as a resource for teachers who want to use toy-based physical science activities in the classroom. The activities do not assume any…

  11. Physical Activity and Fitness for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Janet A.; Corbin, Chuck, Ed.; Pangrazi, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the approach to physical activity for people with disabilities has been couched in medical rationale and focused on rehabilitation. This does not account for physical activity for the joy of it as in play, exercise to improve or maintain fitness, or activity required in employment. The new paradigm of healthy, active lifestyles for…

  12. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  13. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  14. Alcohol, Sex and Illegal Activities: An Analysis of Selected Facebook Central Photos in Fifty States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White; Smith, Zachary; Driver, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the central photos of 150 students in 50 states participating in Facebook for evidence of alcohol consumption, illegal activities and portrayal of sexually inappropriate behaviors (including nudity or partial nudity). Because the media has frequently reported evidence of these behaviors in…

  15. Perceptions and Evaluation of a Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study, conducted in the Midwestern United States, explored the perceptions of teachers at two different elementary schools as they implemented a physical activity program during the school day. The program engaged students in daily physical activity through brief, organized, structured physical exercise. Interviews and…

  16. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  17. Students' Attitudes toward an After-School Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research on student attitudes has been conducted in physical education, little information exists concerning student attitudes toward after-school physical activity programmes. This study assessed students' attitudes toward their after-school physical activity programme located in southwest Texas, USA. Participants included 158…

  18. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  19. Inspiring Students to a Lifetime of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lawrence F.; Anderson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies that physical education teachers can use to encourage their students to lead physically active lives. The strategies include: focus on lifelong physical activity; use goal setting and self-assessment; inspire students by personal example; model skills (either a teacher or skilled student may do the modeling); and combine…

  20. The Older Woman: Increased Psychosocial Benefits from Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakat, Diane; Odom, Sarah

    1982-01-01

    Older women who participate in physical activity programs find physical benefits in the improvement of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The psychosocial benefits which result from physical activity include an increase in self-esteem, increased social contacts, a counteraction to depression, and improved stress management. Suggestions…

  1. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  2. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  3. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  4. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  5. Physical Activity Opportunity in United States Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lisa; Butterfield, Stephen A.; Pratt, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that many elementary schools have curtailed recess and Physical Education (Morrow, Jackson & Payne 1999). These finding are at a variance with the goal of Healthy People 2010 to increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity opportunities (PAO) in U. S. public elementary schools.…

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  7. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  8. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet on asthma for physical education teachers and other school personnel offers guidelines for the maximum inclusion of students with asthma in regular physical education activities. It stresses that today's treatments can successfully control asthma so that students can participate fully in physical activities most of the time. First…

  9. Motives of College Women for Participating in Physical Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundegren, Herberta

    One hundred and fifty-one college women, 88 non-physical education majors, and 63 physical education majors were given a 75-item Q-sort of statements on motives for participation in physical activity and a background questionnaire that elicited demographic data and information on sports activity experience. The Q-sort data for each major group…

  10. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness"…

  11. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  12. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  13. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  14. Fortilin potentiates the peroxidase activity of Peroxiredoxin-1 and protects against alcohol-induced liver damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Abhijnan; Pinkaew, Decha; Doan, Hung Q.; Jacob, Reed B.; Verma, Sunil K.; Friedman, Hana; Peterson, Alan C.; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N.; McDougal, Owen M.; Fujise, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Fortilin, a pro-survival molecule, inhibits p53-induced apoptosis by binding to the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the tumor suppressor protein and preventing it from transcriptionally activating Bax. Intriguingly, fortilin protects cells against ROS-induced cell death, independent of p53. The signaling pathway through which fortilin protects cells against ROS-induced cell death, however, is unknown. Here we report that fortilin physically interacts with the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-1 (PRX1), protects it from proteasome-mediated degradation, and keeps it enzymatically active by blocking its deactivating phosphorylation by Mst1, a serine/threonine kinase. At the whole animal level, the liver-specific overexpression of fortilin reduced PRX1 phosphorylation in the liver, enhanced PRX1 activity, and protected the transgenic animals against alcohol-induced, ROS-mediated, liver damage. These data suggest the presence of a novel oxidative-stress-handling pathway where the anti-p53 molecule fortilin augments the peroxidase PRX1 by protecting it against degradation and inactivation of the enzyme. Fortilin-PRX1 interaction in the liver could be clinically exploited further to prevent acute alcohol-induced liver damage in humans. PMID:26726832

  15. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  17. Alcohol promotes migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells through activation of p38 MAPK and JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W; Parris, Amanda B; Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Qingxia; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-03-01

    Although alcohol is an established breast cancer risk factor, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies examined the general association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk; however, the risk for different breast cancer subtypes has been rarely reported. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer lacking hormone receptors and HER2 expression, and having poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TNBC etiology remains a significant challenge. In this study, we investigated cellular responses to alcohol in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Our results showed that alcohol at low concentrations (0.025-0.1% v/v) induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in 1% FBS-containing medium. Molecular analysis indicated that these phenotypic changes were associated with alcohol-induced reactive oxygen species production and increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Likewise, p38 or JNK inhibition attenuated alcohol-induced cell migration and invasion. We revealed that alcohol treatment activated/phosphorylated NF-κB regulators and increased transcription of NF-κB-targeted genes. While examining the role of acetaldehyde, the major alcohol metabolite, in alcohol-associated responses in TNBC cells, we saw that acetaldehyde induced cell migration, invasion, and increased phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and phospho-IκBα in a pattern similar to alcohol treatment. Taken together, we established that alcohol promotes TNBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms involve the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB signaling. In particular, the activation of p38 and JNK plays a pivotal role in alcohol-induced cellular responses. These results will advance our understanding of alcohol-mediated development and promotion of TNBC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  19. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543

  20. Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of a number of large multiwavelength monitoring campaigns that have taken place since the late 1980s, there are now several very large data sets on bright variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that are well-sampled in time and can be used to probe the physics of the AGN continuum source and the broad-line emitting region. Most of these data sets have been underutilized, as the emphasis thus far has been primarily on reverberation-mapping issues alone. Broader attempts at analysis have been made on some of the earlier IUE data sets (e.g., data from the 1989 campaign on NGC5 548) , but much of this analysis needs to be revisited now that improved versions of the data are now available from final archive processing. We propose to use the multiwavelength monitoring data that have been accumulated to undertake more thorough investigations of the AGN continuum and broad emission lines, including a more detailed study of line-profile variability, making use of constraints imposed by the reverberation results.