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Sample records for alcohol physical inactivity

  1. BMI, physical inactivity, cigarette and alcohol consumption in female nursing students: a 5-year comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing staff are often involved in counseling patients with regard to health behavior. Although care promoting healthy lifestyle choices is included in the curriculum of nursing students in Germany, several studies of nursing students have reported a high prevalence of unhealthy behavior. This paper focuses on the behavior of female nursing students with regard to body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. It describes trends through the comparison of results from 2008 and 2013. Methods Data was collected in two waves at a regional medical training college. First, 301 nursing students were asked to fill out a 12 page questionnaire on health behavior in 2008. The questioning was repeated in 2013 with 316 participating nursing students using the previous questionnaire. Results 259 female nursing students completed the questionnaire in 2013. 31.6% of them were either overweight or obese, 28.5% exercised less than once a week, 42.9% smoked between 10 and 20 cigarettes a day and 72.6% drank alcohol, wherefrom 19.7% consumed alcohol in risky quantities. In comparison to the data of 266 female nursing students from 2008, there were significant differences in the BMI and alcohol consumption: The percentage of overweight and obese students and the percentage of alcohol consumers at risk increased significantly. Conclusions Health behavior of female nursing students is often inadequate especially in regard to weight and cigarette and alcohol consumption. Strategies are required to promote healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:24742064

  2. The economic burden of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking, excess weight, alcohol use, and physical inactivity in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, H.; Andres, E.N.; Koot, J.M.; Reilly, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to calculate the proportion of cancers in Canada attributable to tobacco smoking (ts), alcohol use (au), excess weight (ew), and physical inactivity (pia); to explore variation in the proportions of those risk factors (rfs) over time by sex and province; to estimate the economic burden of cancer attributable to the 4 rfs; and to calculate the potential reduction in cancers and economic burden if all provinces achieved rf prevalence rates equivalent to the best in Canada. Methods We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions (pafs) to estimate the cancer-related economic burden associated with the four rfs. Sex-specific relative risk and age- and sex-specific prevalence data were used in the modelling. The economic burden was adjusted for potential double counting of cases and costs. Results In Canada, 27.7% of incident cancer cases [95% confidence interval (ci): 22.6% to 32.9%] in 2013 [47,000 of 170,000 (95% ci: 38,400–55,900)] were attributable to the four rfs: ts, 15.2% (95% ci: 13.7% to 16.9%); ew, 5.1% (95% ci: 3.8% to 6.4%); au, 3.9% (95% ci: 2.4% to 5.3%); and pia, 3.5% (95% ci: 2.7% to 4.3%). The annual economic burden attributable to the 47,000 total cancers was $9.6 billion (95% ci: $7.8 billion to $11.3 billion): consisting of $1.7 billion in direct and $8.0 billion in indirect costs. Applying the lowest rf rates to each province would result in an annual reduction of 6204 cancers (13.2% of the potentially avoidable cancers) and a reduction in economic burden of $1.2 billion. Conclusions Despite substantial reductions in the prevalence and intensity of ts, ts remains the dominant risk factor from the perspective of cancer prevention in Canada, although ew and au are becoming increasingly important rfs. PMID:27536174

  3. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  4. Health and economic costs of physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries and is being recognized as a serious public health problem. Recent evidence shows a high percentages of individuals worldwide who are physically inactive, i.e. do not achieve the WHO's present recommendation of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity per week in addition to usual activities. Living in sedentary lifestyle is one of the leading causes of deaths and a high risk factor for several chronic diseases, like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2, and osteoporosis. This article summarizes evidence for relative risk of the civilization diseases attributable to physical inactivity and the most important conclusions available from the recent investigations computing the economic costs specific to physical inactivity. The findings provide health and economic arguments needed for people to understand the meaning of a sedentary lifestyle. This may be also useful for public health policy in the creation of programmes for prevention of physical inactivity.

  5. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  6. [Physical inactivity as public health problem].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Luka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the public health aspects of physical inactivity, and the importance of sport, recreation and other types of physical activity to health of population. Reduction of physical inactivity in today's every day life became great public health concern. The causes of such situation are linked to the pattern of modern life, sedentary type of work, autoimmunization in production, passive role of citizens in sports, and others. Adequate physical activity is very important means in prevention of many health problems, like obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes, hearth diseases, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and others. Physical activity and regular exercises in elderly increase independency from others in every day living, increase physical condition and reduce accidents, improve mental health, satisfaction with life; reduce hypertension and quantity of drugs. Physical inactivity increases economic burden of the country. The results of the Croatian Health Survey from 2003, done on representative sample of Croatian adult population shows that 44% of men and 30% of women are physically inactive. Situation in cities is even worse. In Zagreb 85% of men and 45% of women are inactive. The criteria for physical active person were walking three times a week for 30 minutes at least. The solution of the problem for the future is to pay more and more intensive attention to develop comprehensive community programs. More support should be given in construction of facilities for sport and recreation, during wintertime and for persons with special needs. The key role and responsibility for the promotion of physical activity of citizens will have primary health services (family practitioners, public health services), nongovernmental organization and media.

  7. Physical inactivity, excess adiposity and premature mortality.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Janssen, I; Ardern, C I

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the evidence that physical inactivity and excess adiposity are related to an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and to better identify the independent contributions of each to all-cause mortality rates. A variance-based method of meta-analysis was used to summarize the relationships from available studies. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for physical activity from the 55 analyses (31 studies) that included an index of adiposity as a covariate was 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.821, whereas it was 0.82 [95% CI 0.80-0.84] for the 44 analyses (26 studies) that did not include an index of adiposity. Thus, physically active individuals have a lower risk of mortality by comparison to physically inactive peers, independent of level of adiposity. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for an elevated body mass index (BMI) from the 25 analyses (13 studies) that included physical activity as a covariate was 1.23 [95% CI 1.18-1.29], and it was 1.24 [95% CI 1.21-1.28] for the 81 analyses (36 studies) that did not include physical activity as a covariate. Studies that used a measure of adiposity other than the BMI show similar relationships with mortality, and stratified analyses indicate that both physical inactivity and adiposity are important determinants of mortality risk.

  8. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  9. Sarcopenia and Physical Inactivity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Keiji; Ookawara, Susumu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia and physical inactivity synergistically progress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strong predictors of mortality in this population. Exercise training and essential amino acids and vitamin D supplements may contribute to improving sarcopenia and physical inactivity in CKD patients. PMID:27570755

  10. Sarcopenia and Physical Inactivity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keiji; Ookawara, Susumu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia and physical inactivity synergistically progress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strong predictors of mortality in this population. Exercise training and essential amino acids and vitamin D supplements may contribute to improving sarcopenia and physical inactivity in CKD patients. PMID:27570755

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive. PMID:24968689

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  13. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference. PMID:27777692

  14. Adolescence: A "Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    This publication examines influences on the present and future physical activity levels of adolescents, noting that the adolescents' physical activity habits, as well as other risk factors, are likely to track into the adult years. Section 1 discusses physical activity in adolescence, noting that adolescence is a time when physical activity tends…

  15. Parental Predictors of Physical Inactivity in Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some parental predictors of physical inactivity in Spanish adolescents. The sample comprised 1,978 children, aged between 12 and 16 years. A quantitative and qualitative technical triangulation was employed. The study analyzed data of the parents' educational level, the importance they grant to physical-sport activities, and their physical-sport practice. Quantitative technique: a questionnaire (MACOFYD) was used to collect the data. Descriptive, bivariate, and multinomial regression analyses were employed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Qualitative technique: four discussion groups were conducted, consisting of parents, physical education teachers, teachers of other subjects, and children aged between 12 and 16 years. The results indicated that adolescents are four times more likely to be physically inactive if their parents have never exercised (odds ratio [OR] = 4.065, and = 3.487, for the fathers and mothers, respectively, p < 0.05). When parents grant “some” or “much” importance to physical-sport practice, adolescents are less likely to be physically inactive (OR = 0.185 and 0.118 respectively, p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between adolescents' physical-sport activity and parents' educational level. However, young people reproach their parents because they emphasize academic goals more than physical-sport practice-an observation that teachers also confirm. Young people perceive their parents as being the education agents with the greatest influence over their inactive lifestyles. Many parents are unaware of their influence and, therefore, do not take responsibility, declaring that the teachers' influence is greater. Key points Parental factors significantly affect adolescent physical inactivity. Parents' physical inactivity is among the most important factors. Statistically significant results were found for gender. Being female tripled the likelihood of being sedentary. The

  16. Do Dopaminergic Impairments Underlie Physical Inactivity in People with Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Alexxai V.; O'Neal, Timothy J.; Friend, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we review two lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis: (1) chronic exposure to obesogenic diets has been linked to impairments in dopamine synthesis, release, and receptor function, particularly in the striatum, and (2) striatal dopamine is necessary for the proper control of movement. Identifying the biological determinants of physical inactivity may lead to more effective strategies for increasing physical activity in people with obesity, as well as improve our understanding of why it is difficult for people with obesity to alter their levels of physical activity. PMID:27790107

  17. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria; Inoue, Shigeru; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan; Leetongin, Grit; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance. The reasons for this late start are myriad, multifactorial, and complex. This infrastructure should continue to be formed, intersectoral approaches are essential to advance, and advocacy remains a key pillar. Although there is a need to build global capacity based on the present foundations, a systems approach that focuses on populations and the complex interactions among the correlates of physical inactivity, rather than solely a behavioural science approach focusing on individuals, is the way forward to increase physical activity worldwide.

  18. Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for hip fracture in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, C; Wood, D; Cooper, C

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for hip fracture in the elderly. DESIGN--Population based, case-control study. SETTING--Metropolitan borough of Newcastle upon Tyne. PARTICIPANT--A total of 197 patients aged 50 years and over, resident in Newcastle, and admitted consecutively with a hip fracture, and 382 community controls, matched by age and sex, who had not suffered a hip fracture. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Validated methods were used to assess customary physical activity. Information on body build, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption was also obtained. Grip strength was measured. Physical inactivity was strongly associated with the risk of hip fracture in men and women. Subjects who did not regularly weight-bear, perform muscle-loading activities such as climbing stairs, and perform productive activities such as gardening, were all more than twice as likely to sustain a hip fracture, when compared with subjects at the higher end of the activity spectrum. These increases in risk remained after adjusting for body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dependence in daily living activities. CONCLUSIONS--Customary physical inactivity is an independent determinant of hip fracture in the elderly. Strategies to improve the day to day activity of elderly people require urgent exploration. PMID:8120496

  19. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic

  20. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  1. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  2. Physical Inactivity and Incidence of Obesity among South Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Montgomerie, Alicia M.; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the association of physical inactivity with incidence of obesity in the South Australian adult population. Two representative data sources were used – the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS), a monthly surveillance system, and the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS), a biomedical cohort study. There were 75.3% (n = 12873) SAMSS participants and 72.8% (n = 1521) of NWAHS participants that were not obese at baseline. The cumulative incidence of obesity for SAMSS participants from the previous year to the current year was 2.7%. The cumulative incidence of obesity for NWAHS participants between baseline and stage 3 was 14.4%. Physical inactivity was associated with incident obesity (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14–1.90 [SAMSS] and RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03–1.93 [NWAHS]). This association remained, but was attenuated after adjustment for chronic conditions, risk factors and socio-demographic factors. However, physical activity should be continued to be encouraged in the population for its known additional health benefits. PMID:25383626

  3. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  4. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002–2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002–2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73–1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97–0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels. PMID:26844185

  5. Nutritional status and physical inactivity in moderated asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Rocco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preservation of nutritional status and of fat-free mass (FFM) and/or preventing of fat mass (FM) accumulation have a positive impact on well-being and prognosis in asthma patients. Physical inactivity is identified by World Health Organization as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical activity (PA) may contribute to limit FM accumulation, but little information is available on the interactions between habitual PA and body composition and their association with disease severity in asthma severity. Associations between habitual PA, FM, FFM, and pulmonary function were investigated in 42 subjects (24 patients with mild-moderate asthma and 18 matched control subjects). Sensewear Armband was used to measure PA and metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) continuously over 4 days, while body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Respiratory functions were also assessed in all study participants. FM and FFM were comparable in mild-moderate asthmatics and controls, but PA was lower in asthmatics and it was negatively correlated with FM and positively with the FFM marker body cell mass in all study subjects (P < 0.05). Among asthmatics, treated moderate asthmatics (ICS, n = 12) had higher FM and lower PA, METs, steps number/die, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than in untreated intermittent asthmatics (UA, n = 12). This pilot study assesses that in mild-moderate asthma patients, lower PA is associated with higher FM and higher disease severity. The current results support enhancement of habitual PA as a potential tool to limit FM accumulation and potentially contribute to preserve pulmonary function in moderate asthma, considering the physical inactivity a strong risk factor for asthma worsening. PMID:27495092

  6. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  7. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. PMID:26454139

  8. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  9. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  10. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  11. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. PMID:24425796

  12. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  13. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  14. Physical Inactivity and Related Barriers: A Study in a Community Dwelling of Older Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Sebastião; Sebastião, Emerson; Papini, Camila Bosquiero; Nakamura, Priscila Missaki; Valdanha Netto, Américo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical inactivity and related barriers in older Brazilian adults. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted, and a stratified random sampling procedure was used. A total of 359 older adults were interviewed. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Questionnaire of Barriers to Physical Activity Practice were used to assess physical activity level and barriers, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed on the prevalence of physical inactivity in either gender or age groups. Regarding barriers, the proportion of 9 out of 22 barriers was statistically significant between men and women. Self-reported physical inactivity/activity in older Brazilian adults continues to be a concern. Uncommonly, older males reported a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared to their counterparts. Additionally, physical inactivity prevalence continued to increase with the aging process. Yet, personal barriers such as lack of time and poor health were strongly associated with physical inactivity. The results of this study may help health professionals and public policy makers to better address the issues related to a healthy lifestyle among older adults and promote physical activity among Brazilian older adults and in other countries with similar characteristics. PMID:23209906

  15. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence.

  16. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  17. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  19. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  20. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  1. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  2. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  3. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  4. Consequences of physical inactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jorine E; Boezen, H Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2010-12-01

    The many health benefits of regular physical activity underline the importance of this topic, especially in this period of time when the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in the population is increasing. Physical activity levels are especially low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Regular physical activity and an active lifestyle has shown to be positively associated with outcomes such as exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, and therefore could be beneficial for the individual COPD patient. An adequate level of physical activity needs to be integrated into daily life, and stimulation of physical activity when absent is important. This article aims to discuss in more detail the possible role of regular physical activity for a number of well-known outcome parameters in COPD. PMID:21128749

  5. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. Methods This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11–18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Results Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p < 0.05), but more males were physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p < 0.05). Television viewing was associated with lower odds of no physical activity (No PA) in males [0–2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18–0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23–0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30–0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0–2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10–1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24–2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with

  6. The proportion of youths’ physical inactivity attributable to neighbourhood built environment features

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the independent association between several neighbourhood built environment features and physical inactivity within a national sample of Canadian youth, and estimated the proportion of inactivity within the population that was attributable to these built environment features. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 6626 youth aged 11–15 years from 272 schools across Canada. Participants resided within 1 km of their school. Walkability, outdoor play areas (parks, wooded areas, yards at home, cul-de-sacs on roads), recreation facilities, and aesthetics were measured objectively within each school neighbourhood using geographic information systems. Physical inactivity (<5 days/week of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, which controlled for several covariates, examined relationships between built environment features and physical inactivity. Results The final regression model indicated that, by comparison to youth living in the least walkable neighbourhoods, the risks for physical inactivity were 28-44% higher for youth living in neighbourhoods in the remaining three walkability quartiles. By comparison to youth living in neighbourhoods with the highest density of cul-de-sacs, risks for physical inactivity were 28-32% higher for youth living in neighbourhoods in the lowest two quartiles. By comparison to youth living in neighbourhoods with the least amount of park space, risks for physical inactivity were 28-37% higher for youth living in the neighbourhoods with a moderate to high (quartiles 2 and 3) park space. Population attributable risk estimates suggested that 23% of physical inactivity within the population was attributable to living in walkable neighbourhoods, 16% was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a low density of cul-de-sacs, and 15% was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate to high amount of park

  7. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance.

  8. The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Physical Inactivity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer D.; Voss, Jameson D.; Knight, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. Objectives After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10) and ozone (O3) exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging). Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. Results With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16–35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001). Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. Conclusions In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these results provide

  9. Driven to Be Inactive?—The Genetics of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The health implications of physical inactivity, including its integral role in promoting obesity, are well known and have been well documented. Physical activity is a multifactorial behavior with various factors playing a role in determining individual physical activity levels. Research using both human and animal models in the past several years has clearly indicated that genetics is associated with physical activity. Furthermore, researchers have identified several significant and suggestive genomic quantitative trait loci associated with physical activity. To date, the identities of the causal genes underlying physical activity regulation are unclear, with few strong candidate genes. The current research provides a foundation from which future confirmatory research can be launched as well as determination of the mechanisms through which the genetic factors act. The application of this knowledge could significantly augment the information available for physical activity behavior change interventions resulting in more efficient programs for those predisposed to be inactive. PMID:21036329

  10. Prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity in a slum in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Alves, Lucas Victor

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of physical inactivity and examine the role of potential predictors in a very low-income adult population in a slum located in Recife city, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,176 subjects aged 20-60 years residing in a slum. Using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 307 (26.1%) study participants-97 (23.8%) men and 210 (27.3%) women-have a low physical activity score (MET-minutes per week). Increased age was associated with physical inactivity only in people without overweight/obesity. Low physical activity was less common (i.e., respondents were more active) than in other Brazilian population-based studies. These results suggest that the relationship between physical activity and socioeconomic level is more complex and depends on the internal characteristics of the community.

  11. Physical inactivity as the culprit of metabolic inflexibility: evidence from bed-rest studies.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Rudwill, Floriane; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Although it is no longer debatable that sedentary behaviors are an actual cause of many metabolic diseases, the physiology of physical inactivity has been poorly investigated for this purpose. Along with microgravity, the physiological adaptations to spaceflights require metabolic adaptations to physical inactivity, and that is exceedingly well-simulated during the ground-based microgravity bed-rest analogs. Bed rest thus represents a unique model to investigate the mechanisms by which physical inactivity leads to the development of current societal chronic diseases. For decades, however, clinicians and physiologists working in space research have worked separately without taking full awareness of potential strong mutual questioning. This review summarizes the data collected over the last 60 years on metabolic adaptations to bed rest in healthy subjects. Our aim is to provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that physical inactivity per se is one of the primary causes in the development of metabolic inflexibility. This evidence will focus on four main tenants of metabolic inflexiblity: 1) insulin resistance, 2) impaired lipid trafficking and hyperlipidemia, 3) a shift in substrate use toward glucose, and 4) a shift in muscle fiber type and ectopic fat storage. Altogether, this hypothesis places sedentary behaviors upstream on the list of factors involved in metabolic inflexibility, which is considered to be a primary impairment in several metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21836047

  12. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  13. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  14. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  15. Using gender-based analyses to understand physical inactivity among women in Yellowstone County, Montana.

    PubMed

    Duin, Diane K; Golbeck, Amanda L; Keippel, April Ennis; Ciemins, Elizabeth; Hanson, Hillary; Neary, Tracy; Fink, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health problems. Gender, the socially constructed roles and activities deemed appropriate for men and women, is an important factor in women's physical inactivity. To better understand how gender influences participation in leisure-time physical activity, a gender analysis was conducted using sex-disaggregated data from a county-wide health assessment phone survey and a qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts. From this gender analysis, several gender-based constraints emerged, including women's roles as caregivers, which left little time or energy for physical activity, women's leisure time activities and hobbies, which were less active than men's hobbies, and expectations for women's appearance that made them uncomfortable sweating in front of strangers. Gender-based opportunities included women's enjoyment of activity as a social connection, less rigid gender roles for younger women, and a sense of responsibility to set a good example for their families. The gender analysis was used to gain a deeper understanding of gender-based constraints and opportunities related to physical activity. This understanding is being used in the next step of our research to develop a gender-specific intervention to promote physical activity in women that addresses the underlying causes of physical inactivity through accommodation or transformation of those gender norms.

  16. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

  17. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  18. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  19. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Doukky, Rami; Mangla, Ashvarya; Ibrahim, Zeina; Poulin, Marie-France; Avery, Elizabeth; Collado, Fareed M; Kaplan, Jonathan; Richardson, DeJuran; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-04-01

    The impact of physical inactivity on heart failure (HF) mortality is unclear. We analyzed data from the HF Adherence and Retention Trial (HART) which enrolled 902 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III HF, with preserved or reduced ejection fraction, who were followed for 36 months. On the basis of mean self-reported weekly exercise duration, patients were classified into inactive (0 min/week) and active (≥1 min/week) groups and then propensity score matched according to 34 baseline covariates in 1:2 ratio. Sedentary activity was determined according to self-reported daily television screen time (<2, 2 to 4, >4 h/day). The primary outcome was all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death and HF hospitalization. There were 196 inactive patients, of whom 171 were propensity matched to 342 active patients. Physical inactivity was associated with greater risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 3.00; p <0.001) and cardiac death (HR 2.01, CI 1.28 to 3.17; p = 0.002) but no significant difference in HF hospitalization (p = 0.548). Modest exercise (1 to 89 min/week) was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of death (p = 0.003) and cardiac death (p = 0.050). Independent of exercise duration and baseline covariates, television screen time (>4 vs <2 h/day) was associated with all-cause death (HR 1.65, CI 1.10 to 2.48; p = 0.016; incremental chi-square = 6.05; p = 0.049). In conclusion, in patients with symptomatic chronic HF, physical inactivity is associated with higher all-cause and cardiac mortality. Failure to exercise and television screen time are additive in their effects on mortality. Even modest exercise was associated with survival benefit. PMID:26853954

  20. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Doukky, Rami; Mangla, Ashvarya; Ibrahim, Zeina; Poulin, Marie-France; Avery, Elizabeth; Collado, Fareed M; Kaplan, Jonathan; Richardson, DeJuran; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-04-01

    The impact of physical inactivity on heart failure (HF) mortality is unclear. We analyzed data from the HF Adherence and Retention Trial (HART) which enrolled 902 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III HF, with preserved or reduced ejection fraction, who were followed for 36 months. On the basis of mean self-reported weekly exercise duration, patients were classified into inactive (0 min/week) and active (≥1 min/week) groups and then propensity score matched according to 34 baseline covariates in 1:2 ratio. Sedentary activity was determined according to self-reported daily television screen time (<2, 2 to 4, >4 h/day). The primary outcome was all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death and HF hospitalization. There were 196 inactive patients, of whom 171 were propensity matched to 342 active patients. Physical inactivity was associated with greater risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 3.00; p <0.001) and cardiac death (HR 2.01, CI 1.28 to 3.17; p = 0.002) but no significant difference in HF hospitalization (p = 0.548). Modest exercise (1 to 89 min/week) was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of death (p = 0.003) and cardiac death (p = 0.050). Independent of exercise duration and baseline covariates, television screen time (>4 vs <2 h/day) was associated with all-cause death (HR 1.65, CI 1.10 to 2.48; p = 0.016; incremental chi-square = 6.05; p = 0.049). In conclusion, in patients with symptomatic chronic HF, physical inactivity is associated with higher all-cause and cardiac mortality. Failure to exercise and television screen time are additive in their effects on mortality. Even modest exercise was associated with survival benefit.

  1. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced.

  2. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced. PMID:22905632

  3. Body image emotions, perceptions, and cognitions distinguish physically active and inactive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Gisèle A.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Bélanger, Mathieu; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if body image emotions (body-related shame and guilt, weight-related stress), perceptions (self-perceived overweight), or cognitions (trying to change weight) differ between adolescents characterized by smoking and physical activity (PA) behavior. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were collected in 2010–11 and were available for 1017 participants (mean (SD) age = 16.8 (0.5) years). Participants were categorized according to smoking and PA status into four groups: inactive smokers, inactive non-smokers, active smokers and active non-smokers. Associations between body image emotions, perceptions and cognitions, and group membership were estimated in multinomial logistic regression. Results Participants who reported body-related shame were less likely (OR (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.29–0.94)) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who reported body-related guilt and those trying to gain weight were more likely (2.14 (1.32–3.48) and 2.49 (1.22–5.08), respectively) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who were stressed about weight and those perceiving themselves as overweight were less likely to be in the active non-smoker group than the inactive smoker group (0.79 (0.64–0.97) and 0.41 (0.19–0.89), respectively). Conclusion Body image emotions and cognitions differentiated the active smoker group from the other three groups. PMID:26844062

  4. High prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; da Silva, Aline Medeiros; Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS, as well as associated factors. Methods: Ninety-one adolescents (from 10 to 19 years old) with HIV/AIDS who are patients at a university follow-up service were interviewed. Anthropometric data (weight, height, and waist circumference) were measured twice; clinical information was obtained from medical records, and habitual physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire proposed by Florindo et al. The cutoff point for sedentariness was 300 minutes/week. Results: The prevalence of inadequate height for age, malnutrition, and overweight/obesity was 15.4%, 9.9% and 12.1%, respectively. The most common physical activities were soccer (44.4%), volleyball (14.4%) and cycling (7.8%). The median times spent with physical activity and walking/bicycling to school were 141 min and 39 min, respectively. Most adolescents (71.4%) were sedentary and this proportion was higher among girls (p=0.046). Conclusions: A high prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS was observed, similar to the general population. Promoting physical activity among adolescents, especially among girls with HIV/AIDS, as well as monitoring it should be part of the follow-up routine of these patients. PMID:25907024

  5. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  6. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo. PMID:27082526

  7. Inflammatory, autoimmune, chronic diseases: bad diet and physical inactivity are causes or effects?

    PubMed

    Gracia, M C

    2006-01-01

    It is now well established that most chronic diseases, especially those identified as inflammatory, are statistically correlated with some typical dietary excesses and physical inactivity. But do really these habits cause the diseases, or they result from them? Current opinion favours the first option, but fails to explain why the satisfaction of eating, naturally evolved in our brains to produce health, apparently induces countless millions of people to eat unrestrictedly until becoming mortally sick, whereas trying to keep a theoretically healthy diet is most often a real torture. The inverse explanation makes much more sense: since inflammation produces much heat, calorie-rich diets are required. An inflamed digestive tract lacks digestive power and is easily irritated or damaged by solid objects, therefore requiring a refined, concentrated, low-fibre diet. And inflamed or merely sick organisms are easily exhausted by physical effort, hence physical inactivity. This study confirms that, most probably, the primary causes of inflammatory diseases are always external inflammatory agents, like infectious micro-organisms or toxic substances, of which a particularly ubiquitous example is nicotine. High-calorie/low-fibre diets and physical inactivity are direct consequences of generalised inflammation. Inversely, in most cases, physical exercise and moderation in eating, by themselves, cannot substantially suppress inflammations, but they can prevent them from being further reinforced by the neural reward system. Moreover, diets and exercise causing important suffering will usually do more harm than good, especially to children and young people, not to mention pregnant or nursing women. Only the identification and elimination of the inflammatory agents can efficiently prevent and cure inflammatory diseases, and currently nicotine, absorbed intentionally or passively, from tobacco or other sources, must be considered the chief suspect because of its inflammatory power

  8. High Levels of Physical Inactivity Amongst Dental Professionals: A Questionnaire Based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shivlingesh, KK; Jayaprakash, K; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Gupta, Neha; Anand, Richa; Motghare, Vaibhav; Prabhakar, Ishan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A Dentist plays an important role in providing health education (General and Oral) to the community. Questions arise regarding their own health, which in turn affects their patients’ counselling for leading a healthy and a physically active life. Aim: To measure and compare the amount of physical activity present amongst dental professionals with the general population of Greater Noida. Materials and Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure physical activity and statistical significance was calculated using SPSS version 21.0. Statistical significance was kept as p <.05. Results: Compared to the general population, Dentists were more obese and reported increased levels of low physical activity. Dentists had an increased and significant transportation and leisure time activity (p= .03 and .01) whereas, the general population had a higher level of vigorous activity(p = <.01). The MET hour/week for dentists and general population was 33.72 and 36.24 respectively, which was quite low as compared to European population. Conclusion: The results indicate that dentists report a lower level of physical activity as compared to the general population of Greater Noida. However, on a global scale, the physical inactiveness of dentists and general population alike could pose a serious health hazard and if kept unchecked, shall increase the global burden of chronic disease. PMID:25738085

  9. Physical activity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence of inactivity and perceived barriers

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Joanna; Ingles, Jodie; Timperio, Anna; Patterson, Jillian; Ball, Kylie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and to determine potential demographic, clinical and health-related factors influencing likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients (n=198) with HCM attending a specialist HCM centre from July 2014 to November 2015. The primary outcome measure was physical activity (minutes per day), as measured by self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)) and objective means (ActiGraph accelerometer). For both, participants were classified as meeting guidelines if they did at least 150 min per week of physical activity. Quality of life (Short Form-36 V.2, SF-36v2), barriers to exercise and clinical–demographic data were also collected. Results In total, 54.8% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations based on IPAQ, and 12.7% did not meet guidelines based on accelerometer data. The most commonly identified barriers to exercise were ‘pain interferes with my exercise’ (33%) and ‘I have an injury/disability that stops me’ (29%). Independent factors associated with meeting guidelines included older age (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.85, p=0.002), higher education level (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.93, p=0.03), better physical quality of life (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.09, p=0.05) and more reported barriers (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.91, p=0.01). Conclusions More than half of the patients with HCM did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Several barriers to exercise among individuals with HCM exist, and provide the basis for targeted interventions to promote physical activity and improve overall health in patients with HCM. PMID:27547438

  10. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

  11. [Effect of aging and physical inactivity on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Yamanouchi, K; Nakajima, H; Shinozaki, T; Fujii, S; Chikada, N; Suzuki, Y; Chikada, K; Kato, K; Oshida, Y

    1990-09-01

    It has been well documented that glucose intolerance is associated with aging, but it is not yet clear whether this phenomenon is due to the aging process itself or is secondary to the appearance of other age-related conditions among which physical inactivity is one of most important variables. To evaluate the effect of aging process and/or physical inactivity on insulin action, this study was undertaken using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects without diabetes mellitus and other serious diseases consisted of 14 non-obese aged individuals and 10 young controls (YC group), ranging in age from 63 to 85 yrs, and from 19 to 21 yrs, respectively. The aged individuals were further divided into two groups (one was termed as the AS group, in which 7 aged subjects had been confined to bed for at least 3 months and the other was termed as the AC group in which 7 aged controls kept their daily physical activity such as walking). The results of OGTT did not show any remarkable differences between AC and YC groups. In the AS group, however, glucose intolerance and low insulin response during OGTT were observed. In view of the tissue insulin action, MCR, which is thought as a reliable marker for tissue insulin action, evaluated by euglycemic insulin clamp was 5.31 +/- 0.68, 8.57 +/- 1.20, 9.60 +/- 0.35 ml/kg/min in the AS, AC and YC groups, respectively (AS less than AC, p less than 0.05, AS less than YC, p less than 0.01, AC less than YCM, N.S.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Physical Inactivity in U.S. Adolescents: Family, Neighborhood, and Individual Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Concern about physical inactivity among U.S. youth has been mounting in recent years, in light of studies suggesting that few adolescents (about one out of three) engage in recommended levels of physical activity. Although much attention has been paid to individual factors that may contribute to this problem, such as television viewing and…

  13. Sex differences in the physical inactivity and health-related quality of life relationship among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days) were used as primary outcome variables. PIA and HRQOL prevalence estimates were computed with 95% CIs. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for age, ethnicity, and income. Results: Physically inactive rural adults were significantly more likely to report poor HRQOL in all overall crude models with ORs ranging from 1.59 to 2.16. Additionally, sex-by-PIA interactions were significant across all crude HRQOL models with ORs ranging from 2.27 to 3.08 and 1.56 to 2.42 for women and men, respectively. Sex differences were maintained in fully adjusted models, except for mental health and inactivity health with ORs ranging from 1.80 to 2.58 and 1.41 to 1.79 for women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Results from this study show that PIA is a strong predictor of poor HRQOL even after controlling for confounding variables. Furthermore, physically inactive rural women appear more likely to report poor levels of HRQOL than physically inactive rural men. PMID:27766235

  14. Body composition of physically inactive and active 25-month-old female rats.

    PubMed

    Slentz, C A; Holloszy, J O

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical activity on the body composition of ageing female rats. Female pathogen-free Long-Evans rats were housed either in individual 7 x 14 x 8 inch cages or in cages with attached running wheels to which they had free access. The runners ate significantly more than the sedentary rats. Food intake from month 10 through month 24 of age averaged 14.6 +/- 0.7 g for the sedentary group, and 18.3 +/- 2.2 g for the active group. The body fat content of the sedentary rats was approximately 50% higher, while their lean body mass and protein content were significantly lower than that of the runners at age 25 months. Total body weight was similar in the active and sedentary groups. Percent body fat and protein of the 25-month-old physically active rats were not significantly different from that of 9-month-old rats, while the sedentary 25-month-old rats had a significantly higher body fat content and a lower body protein content than the 9-month-old animals. These results suggest the possibility that the changes in body composition that occur during middle age in sedentary female rats are largely due to physical inactivity, and that the lean tissue wasting that occurs as the result of the aging process is a late event that occurs closer to the end of life.

  15. Cigarette, alcohol use and physical activity among Myanmar youth workers, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Howteerakul, N; Suwannapong, N; Than, M

    2005-05-01

    Over 1.2 million migrants from Myanmar are currently residing in Thailand. Little information is known about Myanmar youth risk behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with cigarette and alcohol use, and physical inactivity, among Myanmar youth working in a harbor town in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. One hundred and seventy-seven young workers aged 15-24 years, living in the study area, were interviewed by structured questionnaire. About 21.5% were current smokers, 25.4% were alcohol drinkers, and 36.7% were physically inactive. Univariate analysis indicated one variable was significantly associated with cigarette smoking: education level higher than primary school (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.02-5.0), Three variables were significantly associated with alcohol drinking: married status (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.02-4.5); non-seafood-processing workers, i e, street vendors, construction laborers, etc. (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and high job stress due to supervisor/boss (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Two variables were significantly associated with physical inactivity: female youth (OR=3.9 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and education level higher than primary school (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). The prevalence of smoking, alcohol drinking and physical inactivity among Myanmar migrant youths was quite high. Government and non-government organizations should co-operate to provide interventions to reduce youths' risk behaviors.

  16. Prevalence of physical inactivity in nine rural INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in five Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Van Minh, Hoang; Juvekar, Sanjay; Razzaque, Abdur; Ashraf, Ali; Masud Ahmed, Syed; Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan; Soonthornthada, Kusol; Huu Bich, Tran

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity leads to higher morbidity and mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as stroke and heart disease. In high income countries, studies have measured the population level of physical activity, but comparable data are lacking from most low and middle-income countries. Objective To assess the level of physical inactivity and its associated factors in selected rural sites in five Asian countries. Methods The multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in nine rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites within the INDEPTH Network in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Using the methodology from the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS), about 2,000 men and women aged 25–64 years were selected randomly from each HDSS sampling frame. Physical activity at work and during leisure time, and on travel to and from places, was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ2). The total activity was calculated as the sum of the time spent in each domain of activities in metabolic equivalent-minutes per week, and was used to determine the level of physical activity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess demographic factors associated with a low level of physical activity. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity ranged from 13% in Chililab HDSS in Vietnam to 58% in Filabavi HDSS in Vietnam. The majority of men were physically active, except in the two sites in Vietnam. Most of the respondents walked or cycled for at least 10 minutes to get from place to place, with some exceptions in the HDSSs in Indonesia and Thailand. The majority of respondents, both men and women, were inactive during their leisure time. Women, older age, and high level of education were significantly associated with physical inactivity. Conclusion This study showed that over 1/4 men and 1/3 women in Asian HDSSs within the INDEPTH Network are physically inactive. The

  17. Transition from physical activity to inactivity increases skeletal muscle miR-148b content and triggers insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gastebois, Caroline; Chanon, Stéphanie; Rome, Sophie; Durand, Christine; Pelascini, Elise; Jalabert, Audrey; Euthine, Vanessa; Pialoux, Vincent; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal; Lefai, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated miR-148b as a potential physiological actor of physical inactivity-induced effects in skeletal muscle. By using animal and human protocols, we demonstrated that the early phase of transition toward inactivity was associated with an increase in muscle miR-148b content, which triggered the downregulation of NRAS and ROCK1 target genes. Using human myotubes, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-148b decreased NRAS and ROCK1 protein levels, and PKB phosphorylation and glucose uptake in response to insulin. Increase in muscle miR-148b content might thus participate in the decrease in insulin sensitivity at the whole body level during the transition toward physical inactivity. PMID:27597765

  18. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  19. ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  20. Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel

    2010-11-20

    The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile.

  1. Glucose intolerance and physical inactivity: the relative importance of low habitual energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Wareham, N J; Wong, M Y; Day, N E

    2000-07-15

    Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus are associated with physical inactivity, but it is unclear whether preventive interventions should aim at increasing overall energy expenditure or increasing participation in vigorous, fitness-enhancing activities. Studies aimed at separating and quantifying the effects of these two dimensions of physical activity should use well-validated measurement instruments and employ a study design in which the bivariate error structure of these instruments is determined. In the Isle of Ely Study (Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), 775 individuals aged 45-70 years in 1994-1997 completed a glucose tolerance test and assessment of 4-day physical activity level (total energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) by heart rate monitoring, a technique that has been validated against doubly labeled water and whole-body calorimetry. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) per kg)) was measured in a submaximal test. To correct for measurement error, the authors had 190 individuals repeat both tests on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Two-hour glucose level was negatively correlated with physical activity level (men: r = -0.22, p < 0.001; women: r = -0.11, p < 0.05) and VO2max per kg (men: r = -0.18, p < 0.01; women: r = -0.19, p < 0.001) and was positively correlated with age and obesity. The model incorporating bivariate adjustment for measurement error showed that energy expenditure had a major effect on glucose tolerance, but there was less of an effect for cardiorespiratory fitness. These data provide support for public health strategies aimed at increasing overall energy expenditure.

  2. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity among Inactive Children in a Physical Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called "exergaming", has been designed to capitalize on the…

  3. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared to inactive obese women

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Todd Cade, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive ((OBI) age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3kg/m2, body fat percentage in late gestation: 37.7 ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active ((OBA) age: 28.9 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 34.0±3.7kg/m2, body fat in late gestation: 36.6 ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Results Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared to OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 6.3 ±2.5mg/L, p=0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r=0.43, p=0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r=0.39, p=0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r=0.36, p=0.04). Conclusions Maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  4. [A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE PERCEPTION OF HEALTH MAINTENANCE FROM INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TO DECREASING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Rotman, Dani; Constantini, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Modern man spends most of his waking hours (50-70%) in one form or another of sedentary behavior, defined as activity conducted in a sitting or reclining position involving low energy expenditure. The remaining waking hours are spent performing low intensity physical activity (25-45%) and medium-high intensity physical activity (less than 5%): Despite this distribution, medical research has focused on the impact of increasing medium-high intensity physical activity and many health organizations' recommendations are in accordance. In recent years, research conducted has begun to examine the effect inactivity has on health and has shown that excess sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for a wide range of medical problems such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, poor cardiovascular health profile, diabetes mellitus, and possibly cancer. Although the higher risk brought on by sedentary behaviour is partially reduced by increasing medium-high intensity physical activity, it is not completely neutralized. One way to diminish the harm caused by long hours of sitting is to take short breaks during periods of prolonged sitting in order to walk. According to these findings, it is worthwhile to recommend reducing the hours spent in sedentary behaviour, or at least to take frequent short breaks ("activity snacks") during periods of prolonged sitting to get up and walk around. PMID:27544992

  5. Education Associations With Smoking and Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity Among Hispanic and Asian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether associations between education and 2 health behaviors—smoking and leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI)—depended on nativity and age at immigration among Hispanic and Asian young adults. Methods. Data came from the 2000–2008 National Health Interview Survey. The sample included 13 345 Hispanics and 2528 Asians aged 18 to 30 years. Variables for smoking and LTPI were based on self-reported data. We used logistic regression to examine education differentials in these behaviors by nativity and age at immigration. Results. The association of education with both smoking and LTPI was weaker for foreign-born Hispanics than for US-born Hispanics but did not vary by nativity for Asians. Education associations for smoking and LTPI among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an early age more closely resembled those of US-born Hispanics than did education associations among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an older age. A similar pattern for smoking was evident among Asians. Conclusions. Health-promotion efforts aimed at reducing disparities in key health behaviors among Hispanic and Asian young adults should take into account country of residence in childhood and adolescence as well as nativity. PMID:21233440

  6. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  7. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  8. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  9. Physical Inactivity Is Associated with Moderate-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Laila; McArdle, Nigel; Eastwood, Peter R.; Ward, Kim L.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Wilson, Annette C.; Hillman, David R.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether low levels of physical activity were associated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), OSA-related symptoms, and cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A case-control study design was used. OSA cases were patients referred to a sleep clinic for suspected OSA (n = 2,340). Controls comprised participants from the Busselton community (n = 1,931). Exercise and occupational activity were derived from questionnaire data. Associations were modelled using logistic and linear regression and adjusted for confounders. Results: In comparison with moderate exercise, the high, low, and nil exercise groups had an odds ratio (OR) for moderate-severe OSA of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.8), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.0), and 2.7 (95% CI 1.9–3.7), respectively. Relative to men in heavy activity occupations, men in medium, light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.5), 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.2), and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2–2.8), respectively. Relative to women in medium activity occupations, women in light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 4.2 (95% CI 2.6–7.2) and 3.5 (2.0–6.0). OSA patients who adequately exercised had lower: levels of doctor-diagnosed depression (p = 0.047); symptoms of fatigue (p < 0.0001); systolic (p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015); and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Low levels of physical activity were associated with moderate-severe OSA. Exercise in individuals with OSA is associated with lower levels of depression, fatigue, blood pressure and CRP. Citation: Simpson L, McArdle N, Eastwood PR, Ward KL, Cooper MN, Wilson AC, Hillman DR, Palmer LJ, Mukherjee S. Physical inactivity is associated with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1091–1099. PMID:26285117

  10. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  11. Prediagnostic Obesity and Physical Inactivity Are Associated with Shorter Telomere Length in Prostate Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Joshu, Corinne E; Peskoe, Sarah B; Heaphy, Christopher M; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Yoon, GhilSuk; Lee, Thomas K; Hicks, Jessica L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and inactivity have been associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine whether telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity, and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically treated for prostate cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we measured telomere length in cancer and benign cells using a telomere-specific FISH assay. Adiposity and activity were assessed via questionnaire within 2 years of diagnosis. Adjusting for age, pathologic stage, and grade, the median and SD of the per cell telomere signals were determined for each man for stromal cells and cancer cells by adiposity and activity categories. Overweight/obese men (54%) were similar to normal weight men on most factors, but had higher Gleason sum and lower activity levels. Overweight/obese men had 7.4% shorter telomeres in stromal cells than normal weight men (P = 0.06). The least active men had shorter telomeres in stromal cells than more active men (Ptrend = 0.002). Men who were overweight/obese and the least active had the shortest telomeres in stromal cells (20.7% shorter; P = 0.0005) compared with normal weight men who were the most active. Cancer cell telomere length and telomere length variability did not differ by measures of adiposity or activity. Telomere shortening in prostate cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences prostate cancer risk and outcomes.

  12. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity: a prospective study of risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Tamimi, Rulla M; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-08-01

    In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-videogames) reported by adolescent girls in relation to their subsequent risk for BBD as young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years at study initiation (1996), who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013. Annual surveys (1996-2001) obtained data on physical and sedentary activities during the past year. Beginning in 2005, women (≥18 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 133 cases, to 11/01/2013). Logistic regression (adjusted for baseline adiposity and age; additional factors in multivariable-adjusted models) estimated associations between adolescent activities (moderate-vigorous, walking, METS, inactivity) and biopsy-confirmed BBD in young women. Girls who walked the most had significantly lower risk of BBD (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.61, ≥30 vs ≤15 min/day; p = .049). We observed no evidence that inactivity (≥3 vs <2 h/day OR = 1.02, p = .92) or METS (top vs bottom tertile OR = 1.19, p = .42) were associated with BBD. Accounting for factors including family history, childhood adiposity, and other activities and inactivities, adolescent girls who walked the most were at lower risk for BBD. We found no evidence that high moderate-vigorous activity might reduce risk, nor did we observe any association with inactivity. Continued follow-up will re-evaluate these findings as more BBD cases, and ultimately breast cancer, are diagnosed. PMID:25034340

  13. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E.; Barrows, Katherine M.; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T.; McClain, Donald A.; O'Connell, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88−/− mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88−/− mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity. PMID:25968578

  14. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E; Barrows, Katherine M; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T; McClain, Donald A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88(-/-) mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88(-/-) mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity.

  15. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels.

  16. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. PMID:25070696

  17. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  18. The Majority of the Migrant Factory Workers of the Light Industry in Shenzhen, China May Be Physically Inactive

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tse, Vincent W. S.; Zhou, Shenglai

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a strong risk factor of non-communicable diseases (NCD). In China, there are 250 million migrant factory workers, who are susceptible to physical inactivity and hence NCD because of work nature and setting. With random stratified sampling, 807 such workers of the light industry were recruited in Shenzhen, China and completed a self-administered questionnaire with informed consent. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity (defined according to the World Health Organization’s recommendation on level of moderate/vigorous physical activity) was 95.4%. Of all participants, 69.1% showed “a very low level of physical activity” (VLLPA), defined as ≤30 minutes of weekly moderate/vigorous physical activity, which was significantly associated with female sex (Odds ratio [OR]=1.65), lower education level (OR=0.10 to 0.33, primary education as the reference group) and married status (OR=0.63, single status as the reference group). Adjusted for these factors, perceived social support (Adjusted OR=0.87) was negatively associated with VLLPA, while job stress due to workload, which was significant in the univariate analysis (OR=0.98), became non-significant (p=0.184). Significant interaction between perceived social support and perceived job stress onto VLLPA was found (p=0.044), implying that the negative association between job stress and VLLPA, which might reflect a potential response to cope with stress by performing exercises, was stronger among those with weaker social support. The extremely low level of physical activity rings an alarm, as it implies high risk of NCD, and as there are no existing programs promoting physical activity in this group. Interventions need to take into account social support, potential coping to job stress, and structural factors of the factory setting, while involving factories’ management. PMID:26244514

  19. Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: study design of a randomized controlled trial for physically inactive adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomised controlled trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a value-based intervention program to encourage a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults aged 30 to 50 years. The conceptual framework of the program is based on an innovative behavioural therapy called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) that aims to increase an individual’s psychological flexibility and support behaviour change towards a higher quality and more meaningful life. Methods Participants will be randomly allocated to a feedback group (FB) or an Acceptance and Commitment based (ACT + FB) group. Both the groups will receive written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity levels and offered an opportunity to attend a body composition analysis. In addition, the Acceptance and Commitment based group will attend six group sessions and be given a pedometer for self-monitoring of their daily physical activity throughout the 9-week intervention. The group sessions aim to clarify individual values and enhance committed actions towards the goal of achieving a more meaningful life. Participants will also be taught new skills to work on subjective barriers related to physical activity. Physical activity will be measured objectively by an accelerometer over seven consecutive days and by self-reported questionnaires at the baseline, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 15 months after the baseline measures. In addition, psychological well-being will be measured through the questionnaires, which assess mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility, psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Discussion This study’s objective is to demonstrate a research protocol for a randomized controlled study motivating a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values among physically inactive adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and intervention efficacy on physical activity and psychological well-being, and

  20. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein are associated with physical inactivity independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C P; Berntsen, A; Perstrup, L B; Eskildsen, P; Pedersen, B K

    2007-10-01

    It is recognized that the path from physical inactivity and obesity to lifestyle-related diseases involves low-grade inflammation, indicated by elevated plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Interestingly, contracting skeletal muscle is a major source of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) in response to acute exercise, but with a markedly lower response in trained subjects. As C-reactive protein (CRP) is induced by IL-6, we hypothesized that basal levels of IL-6 and CRP reflect the degree of regular physical activity when compared with other markers of inflammation associated with lifestyle-related morbidity. Fasting plasma/serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, CRP, tumur necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptor II (sTNF-RII), and adiponectin were measured in healthy non-diabetic men and women (n=84). The amount of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was assessed by interview. Obesity was associated with elevated insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, IL-6, CRP, and adiponectin (all P<0.05). Importantly, physical inactivity was associated with elevated C-peptide (P=0.036), IL-6 (P=0.014), and CRP (P=0.007) independent of obesity, age, gender, and smoking. Furthermore, the LTPA score was inversely associated with IL-6 (P=0.017) and CRP (P=0.005), but with neither of the other markers. The results indicate that low levels of IL-6 and CRP - not IL-18, TNF-alpha, sTNF-RII, or adiponectin - reflect regular physical activity.

  1. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  2. Addressing Physical Inactivity among Developmentally Disabled Students through Visual Schedules and Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimbelman, Merilee; Paschal, Angelia; Hawley, Suzanne R.; Molgaard, Craig A.; St. Romain, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This project tested visual schedules and social stories in a physical education setting in order to increase the physical activity of developmentally disabled students. Method: This cohort study design involved 17 physical education teachers in a training course with an initial survey and 7-month post-survey. The initial survey…

  3. Physical inactivity as a risk factor for primary and secondary coronary events in Göteborg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johansson, S; Rosengren, A; Tsipogianni, A; Ulvenstam, G; Wiklund, I; Wilhelmsen, L

    1988-11-01

    Physical activity at work and during leisure time were studied by using a questionnaire in a random sample of 7495 middle-aged men from the Primary Prevention Study in Göteborg and in 1273 able-bodied male patients with a first myocardial infarction, registered in the Infarction Register in the same city over the period 1968-84. Data on coronary risk factors and socio-economic factors were recorded in the population sample as were data on risk factors and known somatic predictors for prognosis in the infarction group. An inverse and graded association was found between leisure time physical activity and mean diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, tobacco smoking, socio-economic status and mental stress in the random sample. During the approximate 12-year follow-up, low physical activity during leisure time, but not at work, was associated with an increased risk of coronary deaths and non-fatal infarctions in univariate analysis. Inactive subjects had twice the incidence of total coronary events (9.4%) as physically active contemporaries (4.2%). After controlling for major coronary risk factors, occupational class, diabetes, family history of coronary heart disease and mental stress in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the association between leisure time physical activity and total coronary events disappeared. Physical activity at work and during leisure time estimated for the 12-month period preceding the first infarction was not associated with long-term prognosis after infarction. Infarction patients assessed to be in need of additional rehabilitation due to somatic restrictions, work-related factors and emotional instability, resumed work later and had a higher mortality and non-fatal recurrence rate during follow-up than patients not considered to require additional rehabilitation. Physical inactivity was not a risk factor for primary and secondary coronary events in this study. The inverse direction of the association

  4. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change.

  5. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change. PMID:19647014

  6. Factors associated with physical inactivity among female and male rural adolescents in Borneo - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Helmy, Hazmi; Chang, Ching Thon

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities have shown marked increase in metabolic syndrome among young people, with physical inactivity as one of the main contributing factors. This study aimed to determine factors associated with physical inactivity among male and female rural adolescents in a sample of schools in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 students aged 13-15 years. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, social influences) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurement was taken to generate body mass index (BMI)-for-age, while physical activity (PA) level was assessed using pedometers. The mean steps per day was 6251.37 (SD=3085.31) with males reported as being more active. About 27% of the respondents were either overweight or obese, with more females in this group. There was no significant difference in steps among males and females (p=0.212), and nutritional status (BMI-for-age) (p=0.439). Females consistently scored higher in most items under perceived barriers, but had significantly lower scores in self-efficacy's items. Males were more influenced by peers in terms of PA (p<0.001) and were more satisfied with their body parts (p=0.047). A significantly higher body size discrepancy score was found among females (p=0.034, CI -0.639, -0.026). PA level was low and almost one-third of the respondents were overweight and obese. Female students faced more barriers and had lower self-efficacy with regards PA. Based on the findings, it is recommended that interventions focus on reducing barriers while increasing support for PA. This is particularly important in improving the health status of the youth, especially among the females. PMID:24447982

  7. Negative Effects of Alcohol on Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail B.

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ and system of the body. The article examines the negative physiological and psychomotor effects of short-term alcohol consumption relevant to physical fitness and athletic performance. Educators must be responsible for reaching students and discussing the issue. (SM)

  8. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community. PMID:21665157

  9. Diet, physical inactivity and the prevalence of constipation throughout and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Emma; Davies, Jill; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Dettmar, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Few studies appear to have investigated the prevalence of constipation for all three trimesters of the gestative period, or indeed after birth. Using a prospective 4- to 7-day weighed food diary, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 7-day bowel habit diary, dietary factors, physical activity levels and bowel habit parameters were assessed and examined concurrently at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks post-partum. Ninety-four primiparous pregnant women were initially recruited, and 72, 59, 62 and 55 completed the first, second, third trimester and post-partum study stages, respectively. Key dietary factors and physical activity levels were compared between the constipated and non-constipated groups from each of the three trimesters and after parturition. Compared with non-constipated mothers-to-be, constipated participants consumed statistically significantly less water in the first trimester (P = 0.04), more food in the second trimester (P = 0.04), and less iron (P = 0.02) and food (P = 0.04) in the third trimester and after birth, respectively. No statistically significant differences were identified between light, moderate and vigorous physical activity levels when groups were compared. This study demonstrates that dietary factors may play a role in terms of preventing, or alleviating, bowel habit perturbations both throughout and after pregnancy. Further research is required to investigate the interrelationship between physical activity and constipation during and after pregnancy.

  10. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  11. Influence of physical inactivity on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic predisposition to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bo; Wang, Chunyu; Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Meixian; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The authors' aim was to determine whether sedentary behavior and physical activity modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity risk in Chinese children. A population-based study was carried out in 2,848 children (6-18 years of age) in Beijing, China, in 2004. It included 1,229 obese cases and 1,619 normal-weight controls. Lifestyle information was collected through the use of a validated questionnaire, and 6 SNPs were genotyped. The association between the 6 SNPs and obesity risk was modulated by sedentary behavior and physical activity. A higher risk of obesity was observed in children who carried the high-risk alleles of the 6 SNPs and engaged in sedentary behavior ≥2 hours/day outside of school or participated in low or moderate physical activity. Most notably, the association between 5 SNPs (Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 rs7138803, Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 rs1805081, fat mass- and obesity-associated gene rs6499640, melanocortin 4 receptor gene rs17782313, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265) and obesity risk was only observed in children who had moderate-to-low physical activity levels or engaged in sedentary behavior, regardless of which risk alleles they carried. The results indicated that encouraging less sedentary behavior and higher levels of physical activity could alleviate the influence of risk alleles on genetic predisposition to childhood obesity, thereby serving as a promising prevention strategy.

  12. "Exercise is Medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients.

  13. Battling America's epidemic of physical inactivity: building more walkable, livable communities.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The US surgeon general recommends a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity a day for adults to reduce the risk of chronic disease and an early death. Yet only about 1 in 4 American adults meets that recommendation through leisure-time physical activity and/or conscious exercise. One result is the so-called obesity epidemic, but a sedentary lifestyle also increases the risk of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer. We must create environments in which physical activity becomes a routine part of the day for more Americans. Encouraging routine walking and bicycling appears to be especially promising because of a growing understanding of how to create bicycle- and pedestrian-friendly settings. Everyone, not just those working in public health, must ally themselves with community leaders to pursue programs and policies to create settings with 4 key attributes: more compact neighborhoods with a mix of land uses; a comprehensive network of pathways, trails, bike lanes, and mass transit to allow "active" transportation; site designs that welcome cyclists and pedestrians; and an umbrella of safety that encourages people to get out of their cars. Many specific resources and programs are recommended to advance this agenda. Finally, we all must become role models by walking and cycling whenever possible and inviting others to do so with us.

  14. Physically active vs. inactive lifestyle, muscle properties, and glucose homeostasis in middle-aged and older twins.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, T; Sipilä, S; Kaprio, J; Kainulainen, H; Alen, M; Kujala, U M

    2013-10-01

    Exercise-induced positive changes in skeletal muscle properties and metabolism decrease the risk for disability, cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Here, we studied muscle properties and glucose homeostasis in a non-exercise stage in twin pairs with co-twins discordant for physical activity habits for at least 32 years of their adult lives. Isometric knee extension force, MR imaging of midthigh tissue composition and muscle volume, and fasting blood samples were acquired from 16 same-sex (seven monozygotic, nine dizygotic) middle-aged and older twin pairs. The consistently active twins had 20 % higher knee extension forces than their inactive co-twins (p = 0.006) although the active twins had only 4 % higher midthigh muscle cross-sectional areas (p = 0.072). These results were similar in intrapair analysis in which only the seven identical twin pairs were included. The ratio between the area of midthigh fat and muscle tissues was significantly lower among the active twins (0.65 vs. 0.48, p = 0.006). The active twins had also lower fasting plasma glucose levels (5.1 vs 5.6 mmol/l, p = 0.041). The area of midthigh intramuscular (extramyocellular) fat was associated with the markers of glucose homeostasis, especially with glycated hemoglobin, and these associations were emphasized by the diabetic and inactive twins. Regular exercise throughout the adult life retains muscle strength and quality but not necessarily mass. The regular use of muscles also prevents from the accumulation of intramuscular fat which might be related to maintained glucose metabolism and, thus, prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:23124702

  15. Obesity, diet and physical inactivity and risk of breast cancer in Thai women.

    PubMed

    Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Ploysawang, Pattama; Nooklang, Kanjamad; Jamsri, Paphawin; Somharnwong, Sopittra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between obesity, diet, physical activity and breast cancer in Thai women, we conducted a case control study with 1,130 cases and 1,142 controls. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and a structured questionnaire was performed by trained interviewers to collect information on demographic and anthropometric data, reproductive and medical history, residential history, physical activity and occupation as well as dietary habits. A significant positive association with an increased risk of breast cancer was observed in women body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 mg/m2 (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.07-1.65), the risk being higher in postmenopausal women (OR=1.67, 95%CI 1.24-2.25). In addition, underweight BMI at ages 10 and 20 years showed an inverse association in all women (OR=0.70, 95%CI 0.56-0.88 and OR=0.74, 95%CI 0.59-0.93, respectively) and in those with a premenopausal status (OR=0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93 and OR=0.76, 95%CI 0.56- 0.99, respectively). Regular exercise was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.68-0.98). Interestingly, analysis by type of activity revealed significant protective effects for women who reported the highest levels of walking for shopping (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.38-0.88). High consumption of vegetables and fruit were associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of animal fat showed an increased risk in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our results indicate that obesity and high consumption of animal fat are associated with breast cancer risk, particularly in postmenopausal women, while recreational physical activity has protective effects. It seems that primary prevention of breast cancer should be promoted in an integrated manner. Effective strategies need to be identified to engage women in healthy lifestyles.

  16. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance.

  17. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance. PMID:25559067

  18. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels.

  19. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. PMID:25903450

  20. Daily Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 19–89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084

  1. Downregulation of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases and Mitophagy-Related Genes in Skeletal Muscle of Physically Inactive, Frail Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Odessa; Brunker, Lucille; Hopkins, Paul N.; McClain, Donald A.; LaStayo, Paul C.; Marcus, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Reduced lean mass and physical function is a characteristic of frailty. However, it is currently unknown if proteolysis through the E3 ubiquitin ligases and the autophagic lysosomal pathway is dysregulated in inactive frail older women. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of key markers of ubiquitin-mediated and autophagic lysosomal proteolysis in inactive (N = 7) compared with active (N = 7) older women. Methods. Strength, mobility, leg lean mass, and physical activity assessment were used to characterize activity levels and frailty in older women. Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected after an overnight fast and were assessed for gene and protein targets related to E3 ubiquitin ligases and the autophagic lysosomal system. Results. We found that AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (Thr172) was increased (p = .045), and forkhead box O3A (FOXO3A) gene expression (p = .047) was lower in inactive frail older women. Foxo3a (Ser253), Beclin1 (Ser93/96), and class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (VPS34) protein expression were not different between the groups (p > .05). Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4, muscle ring finger 1, muscle atrophy F-box, and the autophagy/mitophagy gene expression markers, Beclin1, autophagy-related-7, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), dynamin-related protein 1, and Parkinson protein 2 (PARKIN) were lower in inactive frail older women (p < .05). Autophagy/mitophagy markers were positively correlated with the 6-minute walk and leg lean mass (p < .05). Conclusions. We conclude that physical inactivity in frail older women is associated with a downregulation of ubiquitin-mediated and autophagic lysosomal skeletal muscle gene expression, perhaps related to low muscle mass and poor physical function. PMID:24526667

  2. Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, “translates” into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a “policy problem” that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to “sell” to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government. We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to “solve” the PI policy problem. PMID:23496998

  3. Pre-diagnostic obesity and physical inactivity are associated with shorter telomere length in prostate stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshu, Corinne E; Peskoe, Sarah B; Heaphy, Christopher M; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Yun, GhilSuk; Lee, Thomas K; Hicks, Jessica L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and inactivity have been with associated advanced stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine if telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically treated for prostate cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we measured telomere length in cancer and benign cells using a telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Adiposity and activity were assessed via questionnaire within 2 years of diagnosis. Adjusting for age, pathologic stage and grade, the median and standard deviation of the per cell telomere signals were determined for each man for stromal cells and cancer cells by adiposity and activity categories. Overweight/obese men (54%) were similar to normal weight men on most factors, but had higher Gleason sum and lower activity levels. Overweight/obese men had 7.4% shorter telomeres in stromal cells than normal weight men (P=0.06). The least active men had shorter telomeres in stromal cells than more active men (P-trend=0.002). Men who were overweight/obese and the least active had the shortest telomeres in stromal cells (20.7% shorter; P=0.0005) compared to normal weight men who were the most active. Cancer cell telomere length and telomere length variability did not differ by measures of adiposity or activity. Telomere shortening in prostate cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences prostate cancer risk and outcomes. PMID:25990087

  4. Muscle fat oxidative capacity is not impaired by age but by physical inactivity: association with insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Rimbert, Virginie; Boirie, Yves; Bedu, Mario; Hocquette, Jean-François; Ritz, Patrick; Morio, Béatrice

    2004-04-01

    The study aimed at determining whether aging and/or sedentariness impairs muscle fat oxidative capacity (OXFA) and whether this was associated with increased risk to develop insulin resistance. We first examined muscle mitochondrial functions, OXFA and insulin sensitivity (ISI; evaluated during an oral glucose tolerance test) in a cross-sectional study with 32 sedentary (S) and endurance-trained (T), young (Y) and elderly (E) men (24.2+/-2.6 vs. 66.6+/-3.2 yr). As for mitochondrial functions, OXFA was higher in T than in S but similar between age groups (SY 41.8+/-11.3, TY 68.0+/-17.7, SE 40.1+/-14.1, TE 73.1+/-20.1 palmitate x min(-1) x g wet tissue(-1); activity P<0.0001, age P=NS, activity x age P=NS). Similar results were obtained with ISI (SY 6.2+/-2.2, TY 11.4+/-4.4, SE 5.9+/-1.5, TE 11.0+/-3.5, activity P<0.001, age P=NS, activity x age P=NS). Stepwise regression showed that, among body composition, VO2max and muscle biochemical characteristics, OXFA was the main predictor of ISI (r=0.60, P<0.001). We subsequently showed in eight sedentary elderly subjects (63.5+/-3.3 yr) that OXFA and insulin sensitivity (measured using insulin clamp) improved in parallel after 8 weeks of endurance training (r=0.79, P<0.01). We concluded that mitochondrial functions, OXFA and ISI, are not impaired by age but by physical inactivity and are closely correlated.

  5. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, H.; Koot, J. M.; Rasali, D. P.; Gustin, S. E.; Pennock, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.). The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sex-specific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion) than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion). While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion) in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs. PMID:27077793

  6. Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Gelius, Peter; Schow, Diana

    2013-03-07

    Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, "translates" into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a "policy problem" that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to "sell" to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government.We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to "solve" the PI policy problem.

  7. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A) suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A), a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was

  8. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  9. Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Joanna; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Smith, Ashley E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants: Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug…

  10. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement.

  11. Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

    PubMed

    Harley, Amy E; Rice, Jessica; Walker, Renee; Strath, Scott J; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement. PMID:24617833

  12. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  13. The development of a data model for research on the environmental correlates of physical inactivity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Jones, N F; Rutt, C; Frank, L D; Sallis, J F; Saelens, Brian E; Chapman, J; Lekiachvili, A

    2006-01-01

    Development of information systems to support research on environmental correlates of physical activity and nutrition has to date been largely ad hoc and driven by single research project requirements. In this rapidly growing field, research databases are becoming increasingly complex as researchers attempt to model the impact of multiple aspects of the environment such as neighborhood characteristics, site and building design, and nutritional environments on both aggregate and individual level measures of physical activity and weight. The presentation reports on the initial implementation of a logical data model in the context of an ongoing research program that is exploring the relation of neighborhood physical and demographic characteristics on physical activity levels measured in time and space.

  14. Exploring the Relationship of Outdoor Recreational Resources to Physical Inactivity, Obesity and Diabetes for the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Access to outdoor recreational resources is important for promoting healthy behavior and physical activity, which may decrease the risk of disease. To date, no study has examined the relationship between access to outdoor recreational resources (including protected l...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  16. Indoor confinement and physical inactivity rather than the proportion of dry food are risk factors in the development of feline type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, L I; Fazilova, V V; Plantinga, E A; Kooistra, H S; Beynen, A C

    2009-02-01

    With domestication and urbanisation, cats have transformed from being hunting animals that eat protein-rich prey into more sedentary animals that eat a carbohydrate-rich diet. It was hypothesised that a high intake of dry cat food and a lack of physical activity may play a role in the development of feline type 2 diabetes mellitus. Information on dietary history and physical activity of 96 cats with diabetes mellitus and 192 matched controls was collected retrospectively, using a telephone questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between questionnaire-derived variables and the development of diabetes mellitus. The energy percentage of dry food in the diet was not significantly correlated with the development of diabetes mellitus (P=0.29), whereas both indoor confinement (P=0.002) and low physical activity (P=0.004) were. The results indicated that the proportion of dry food in a cat's diet may not be an independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas physical inactivity and indoor confinement are.

  17. Physical inactivity and television-viewing time among Aboriginal adults with asthma: a cross-sectional analysis of the Aboriginal Peoples Survey

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, N.; Dogra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this analysis was to 1) determine the association between asthma and physical activity levels or sedentary time among Aboriginal adults, and 2) understand the influence of physical inactivity and sedentary time on health care use among Aboriginal adults with asthma. Methods: We analyzed 20 953 adults from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Those with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and a current prescription for asthma medication were considered to have current asthma. Insufficient physical activity was defined as < 3 hours/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity; high television screen time was defined as > 10 hours/week. Health care use was assessed using the number of health professional visits and overnight hospital stays. Results: Aboriginal adults with asthma were more likely to report high television-viewing time (OR = 1.16; CI: 1.11–1.22) and insufficient physical activity (OR = 1.15; CI: 1.10–1.20) than those without asthma. Those with asthma who reported high television-viewing time reported more health professional consults in the past 12 months (OR = 2.59; CI: 2.34–2.87), more overnight stays in hospital in the past year (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.82–2.08) and more overnight stays in the hospital in the past 5 years (OR = 1.13; CI: 1.07–1.18); results were less consistent for physical activity and health care use. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Aboriginal adults with asthma are less active than their peers without asthma and that such a lifestyle may be associated with higher health care use. These findings have implications for physical activity promotion and sedentary behaviour strategies targeting Aboriginal adults with asthma. PMID:25970805

  18. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  19. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component. PMID:18639987

  20. Swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Saori

    2015-12-01

    Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are versatile biomaterials due to their excellent biocompatibility. In the past decades, physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels have been extensively studied for biomedical applications. However, these materials have not yet been implemented due to their mechanical strength. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels consist of a swollen amorphous network of poly(vinyl alcohol) physically crosslinked by microcrystallites. Although the mechanical properties can be improved to some extent by controlling the distribution of microcrystallites on the nano- and micro-scales, enhancing the mechanical properties while maintaining high water content remains very difficult. It may be technologically impossible to significantly improve the mechanical properties while keeping the gel's high water absorbance ability using conventional fabrication methods. Physical and chemical understandings of the swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are considered here; some promising strategies for their practical applications are presented. This review focuses more on the recent studies on swelling and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, prepared using only poly(vinyl alcohol) and pure water with no other chemicals, as potential biomedical materials. PMID:26614797

  1. Physical and social availability of alcohol for young enlisted naval personnel in and around home port

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B

    2007-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption rates are higher in the young adult military enlisted population than among civilians of the same age. The literature on alcohol availability, both generally and specifically with respect to work-related drinking, establishes clear links between ease of access, alcohol consumption rates and alcohol-related problems. Methods In this paper, a qualitative analysis of 50 semi-structured interviews with U.S. Navy personnel was combined with quantitative findings from a mail survey of 713 young enlisted men and women in order to shed light on alcohol availability and its correlates in the home port environments of young adult enlisted personnel. The interviews were analyzed by two anthropologists seeking recurring themes or topics related to alcohol availability. These qualitative data were contextualized by descriptive statistics of the survey responses regarding ease of obtaining alcohol on and around naval bases, and from friends in and out of the Navy. Results Findings associated with social and physical availability of alcohol include low prices in Navy Exchange base stores, frequent barracks parties, drink promotions in bars surrounding bases, and multiple opportunities for underage drinking despite age limits on alcohol purchases and official efforts to deglamorize alcohol use in the Navy. Both qualitative and qualitative findings suggest that respondents found alcohol and opportunities to drink overwhelmingly available in both on-base and off-base settings, and from friends both in and out of the Navy. Conclusion There is qualitative and quantitative evidence for extensive physical and social availability of alcohol in and around bases for young adults in the military. Policy implications include raising the presently tax-free alcohol prices in base stores and enforcing existing policies regarding underage drinking, particularly the provision of alcohol by people of legal drinking age, and by bars in and around bases

  2. Age, physical inactivity, obesity, health conditions, and health-related quality of life among patients receiving conservative management for musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Steven M; Schippers, Mandy; Marshall, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    undesirable clinical attributes of comorbidity, obesity, and physical inactivity. However, findings from this investigation are compelling for the care of patients of all ages. Potential integration of physical activity behavior change or other effective lifestyle interventions into models of care for patients with musculoskeletal disorders is worthy of further investigation. PMID:25031532

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Web-Based Video-Coaching to Assist an Automated Computer-Tailored Physical Activity Intervention for Inactive Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based physical activity interventions that apply computer tailoring have shown to improve engagement and behavioral outcomes but provide limited accountability and social support for participants. It is unknown how video calls with a behavioral expert in a Web-based intervention will be received and whether they improve the effectiveness of computer-tailored advice. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of brief video-based coaching in addition to fully automated computer-tailored advice in a Web-based physical activity intervention for inactive adults. Methods Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: (1) tailoring + video-coaching where participants received an 8-week computer-tailored Web-based physical activity intervention (“My Activity Coach”) including 4 10-minute coaching sessions with a behavioral expert using a Web-based video-calling program (eg, Skype; n=52); (2) tailoring-only where participants received the same intervention without the coaching sessions (n=54); and (3) a waitlist control group (n=45). Demographics were measured at baseline, intervention satisfaction at week 9, and physical activity at baseline, week 9, and 6 months by Web-based self-report surveys. Feasibility was analyzed by comparing intervention groups on retention, adherence, engagement, and satisfaction using t tests and chi-square tests. Effectiveness was assessed using linear mixed models to compare physical activity changes between groups. Results A total of 23 tailoring + video-coaching participants, 30 tailoring-only participants, and 30 control participants completed the postintervention survey (83/151, 55.0% retention). A low percentage of tailoring + video-coaching completers participated in the coaching calls (11/23, 48%). However, the majority of those who participated in the video calls were satisfied with them (5/8, 71%) and had improved intervention adherence (9/11, 82% completed 3 or 4

  7. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  8. Physical Pain in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Entering Treatment in Poland—Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic pain and problematic alcohol use commonly co-exist, as the use of alcohol is commonly considered a useful pain self-management strategy. The purpose of this study was to characterize pain and pain-related problems in a group of primary alcohol-dependent individuals entering treatment facilities. Method: A sample of 366 (73.5% men and 26.5% women) alcohol-dependent (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria) subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, social functioning, sexual and physical abuse during childhood, and severity of alcohol and sleep problems as well as level of impulsivity and general psychopathology. The study group was divided into a “mild or no pain” group and a “moderate or greater pain” group. Results: Among the study group, 34.4% of individuals reported moderate or greater physical pain during the last 4 weeks. The statistical analysis revealed that the experience of physical pain was significantly associated with lower level of education, unemployment, experience of sexual abuse before 18 years of age, and severity of alcohol dependence as well as other potential predictors of relapse (impulsivity, sleep problems, general psychopathology). When entered into logistic regression analysis with other dependent variables, the level of general psychopathology, severity of sleep problems, age, and education were all significantly associated with pain severity. Conclusions: Physical pain is a prevalent and potentially impairing experience in adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing pain in alcohol-dependent individuals should be studied to evaluate their impact on improving overall treatment outcomes. PMID:26098037

  9. The active (ADHa) and inactive (ADHi) forms of the PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus differ in their respective oligomeric structures and redox state of their corresponding prosthetic groups.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; González-Valdez, Alejandra Abigail; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Kroneck, Peter M H; Sosa-Torres, Martha Elena; Escamilla, Jose E

    2012-03-01

    The membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus contains one pyrroloquinoline quinone moiety (PQQ), one [2Fe-2S] cluster, and four c-type cytochromes. Here, we describe a novel and inactive enzyme. ADHi, similarly to ADHa, is a heterodimer of 72- and 44-kDa subunits and contains the expected prosthetic groups. However, ADHa showed a threefold molecular mass as compared to ADHi. Noteworthy, the PQQ, the [2Fe-2S] and most of the cytochromes in purified ADHi is in the oxidized form, contrasting with ADHa where the PQQ-semiquinone is detected and the [2Fe-2S] cluster as well as the cytochromes c remained fully reduced after purification. Reduction kinetics of the ferricyanide-oxidized enzymes showed that while ADHa was brought back by ethanol to its full reduction state, in ADHi, only one-quarter of the total heme c was reduced. The dithionite-reduced ADHi was largely oxidized by ubiquinone-2, thus indicating that intramolecular electron transfer is not impaired in ADHi. The acidic pH of the medium might be deleterious for the membrane-bound ADH by causing conformational changes leading to changes in the relative orientation of heme groups and shift of corresponding redox potential to higher values. This would hamper electron transfer resulting in the low activity observed in ADHi.

  10. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  11. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  12. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  13. The Role of Intrapersonal Factors on Alcohol and Drug Use Among Latinos With Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    CORDOVA, DAVID; PARRA-CARDONA, RUBEN; BLOW, ADRIAN; JOHNSON, DEBORAH; PRADO, GUILLERMO; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.

    2013-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by alcohol and drug use. Social work best practice approaches require an understanding of the effects of intrapersonal factors on alcohol and drug use, yet the theoretical and empirical literature remain underdeveloped, especially among ethnic minority populations. We sought to obtain a detailed description of the role of intrapersonal factors, including perceptions and life experiences, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. We employed community-based participatory research in conjunction with photovoice. A total of 17 focus group interviews were completed. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews occurred with a total of 28 participants who participated in each round. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results highlight intrapersonal risk and protective factors to inform social work practice and work toward developing and evaluating alcohol and drug use preventive interventions for this overlooked and vulnerable population. PMID:24000277

  14. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  15. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…

  16. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  17. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  18. Effects of Alcohol on Trajectories of Physical Aggression among Urban Youth: An Application of Latent Trajectory Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of…

  19. Targeting Inactive Enzyme Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijiu; Zeng, Li-Fan; Wu, Li; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Ting; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Ya-Qiu, Long; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a therapeutic target for diabetes, obesity, as well as cancer. Identifying inhibitory compounds with good bioavailability is a major challenge of drug discovery programs targeted toward PTPs. Most current PTP active site-directed pharmacophores are negatively charged pTyr mimetics which cannot readily enter the cell. This lack of cell permeability limits the utility of such compounds in signaling studies and further therapeutic development. We identify aryl diketoacids as novel pTyr surrogates and show that neutral amide-linked aryl diketoacid dimers also exhibit excellent PTP inhibitory activity. Kinetic studies establish that these aryl diketoacid derivatives act as noncompetitive inhibitors of PTP1B. Crystal structures of ligand-bound PTP1B reveal that both the aryl diketoacid and its dimeric derivative bind PTP1B at the active site, albeit with distinct modes of interaction, in the catalytically inactive, WPD loop open conformation. Furthermore, dimeric aryl diketoacids are cell permeable and enhance insulin signaling in hepatoma cells, suggesting that targeting the inactive conformation may provide a unique opportunity for creating active site-directed PTP1B inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:19012396

  20. Developmental Links between Trajectories of Physical Violence, Vandalism, Theft, and Alcohol-Drug Use from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Koot, Hans M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism increased from ten to 14. All trajectories of…

  1. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  2. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  3. Local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, features of the built environment, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Niyonsenga, Theo; Daniel, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Descriptive norms vary between places. Spatial variation in health-related descriptive norms may predict individual-level health outcomes. Such relationships have rarely been investigated. This study assessed 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in relation to local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity (n = 1890) and physical inactivity (n = 1906) in models accounting for features of the built environment. HbA1c was measured three times over 10 years for a population-based biomedical cohort of adults in Adelaide, South Australia. Environmental exposures were expressed for cohort participants using 1600 m road-network buffers centred on participants' residential address. Local descriptive norms (prevalence of overweight/obesity [body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)] and of physical inactivity [<150 min/week]) were aggregated from responses to a separate geocoded population survey. Built environment measures were public open space (POS) availability (proportion of buffer area) and walkability. Separate sets of multilevel models analysed different predictors of 10-year change in HbA1c. Each model featured one local descriptive norm and one built environment variable with area-level education and individual-level covariates (age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status). Interactions between local descriptive norms and built environment measures were assessed. HbA1c increased over time. POS availability and local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each associated with greater rates of HbA1c increase. Greater walkability was associated with a reduced rate of HbA1c increase, and reduced the influence of the overweight/obesity norm on the rate of increase in HbA1c. Local descriptive health-related norms and features of the built environment predict 10-year change in HbA1c. The impact of local descriptive norms can vary according to built environment features. Little researched thus far

  4. Physical, Social, and Perceived Availabilities of Alcohol and Last Month Alcohol Use in Rural and Small Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Linda R.; Henry, Kimberly L.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly…

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: The Possible Role of Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Passos, Emanuel; Ascensão, António; Martins, Maria João; Magalhães, José

    2015-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyle coupled with excessive consumption of high caloric food has been related to the epidemic increase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis and, eventually, may culminate in hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the progression of NASH are not completely understood, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction seems to play a key role in the process. Hepatic ER stress has been associated to hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocyte death, contributing to liver dysfunction. Physical exercise seems to be the most effective preventive and therapeutic non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate several features related to NASH, possibly targeting most of the referred mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of ER-related NASH. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on NASH-related ER stress. In this review, we will discuss the ER stress associated to NASH conditions and highlight the possible benefits of physical exercise in the attenuation and/or reversion of NASH-related ER stress. PMID:25838034

  6. Understanding nutritional interventions and physical exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, R; Carbajo-Pescador, S; Mauriz, J L; Gonzalez-Gallego, J

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in adults and its prevalence is rising around the world. This pathology is characterized by accumulation of liver fat, which exceeds 5% of liver weight in absence of alcohol consumption, viral infection or other hepatic etiology. Since NAFLD has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or alteration of lipid profiles, it is considered as the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have not been clearly elucidated, but different events such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are involved. Modifications in lifestyle constitute the first line for the management of NAFLD. Nutritional interventions include low fat and carbohydrate diet with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion. Moreover, supplementation with antioxidant and cytoprotective agents could be useful to decrease oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Physical activity enables to reduce the expression of lipogenic genes, fat accumulation, or insulin resistance and improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Benefits have been found following both aerobic exercise and resistance training, and remain even after exercise cessation. However, more studies are required to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nutritional and physical intervention, and to define the volume of activity required and its association with weight loss. In this paper, we offer an updated overview of the mechanisms implicated in the progression of NAFLD, and analyze the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions and physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of this condition. PMID:25601465

  7. Childhood Physical Punishment and Later Alcohol Drinking Consequences: Evidence From a Chinese Context*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.; Huang, Yueqin; Anthony, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to estimate a link between early physical punishment in childhood and later alcohol outcomes, taking family history of drinking problems into account, with epidemiological data from China. The yield from previous studies on this relationship is mixed evidence, largely traceable to research design variations, including model specifications that concern parental alcohol or other drug problems (AODPs) that might account for both earlier discipline practices and later drinking problems in the offspring. Method: Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys—metropolitan China study, with cross-sectional representative sample surveys of adult household residents living in two metropolitan cities, Beijing and Shanghai. Participants in this general mental health survey were asked about early life experiences (e.g., parental AODP, childhood misbehavior), as well as their own drinking outcomes. Stratification was used to control for parental AODP.\\ Results: Logistic regressions found robust associations linking childhood physical punishment with drinking outcomes, even with stratification for parental AODP and childhood misbehavior. Conclusions: These results from a cross-sectional survey lay a foundation for future prospective and longitudinal research on possible causal relationships that link childhood physical punishment with later drinking outcomes in China. PMID:21138708

  8. Physical properties of gamma irradiated poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondino, A. V.; González, M. E.; Romero, G. R.; Smolko, E. E.

    1999-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) films from 15% w/w aqueous solutions and a thickness of 0.2 mm were selected for this study. The films were first humidified and then acetalized and/or gamma irradiated. Then, their physical properties were tested. Tensile strength of the hydrogel films reached its maximum value in samples irradiated with a 80 kGy dose, in the case of acetalized films the dose necessary for maximum tensile strength was only 40 kGy. The combination of acetalization with formaldehyde and gamma radiation produced an elastic hydrogel with good tackiness and excellent mechanical and thermal strength.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  10. Dose-Response Effects of a Web-Based Physical Activity Program on Body Composition and Metabolic Health in Inactive Older Adults: Additional Analyses of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vroege, David P; Wijsman, Carolien A; Broekhuizen, Karen; de Craen, Anton JM; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans JG; van Mechelen, Willem; Slagboom, P Eline; Catt, Michael; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert ALM

    2014-01-01

    Background Low physical activity is a major risk factor for several age-related diseases. Recently, we showed in a randomized controlled trial that a 12-week Web-based intervention (Philips DirectLife) to increase physical activity was effective in increasing physical activity levels and metabolic health in an inactive population aged 60-70 years. Objective The goal of this paper was to assess how many participants successfully reached the physical activity level as targeted by the intervention and what the effects of the intervention on body composition and metabolic health in these successful individuals were to provide insight in the maximum attainable effect of the intervention. Methods Among the 235 participants in a randomized controlled trial of the Actief en Gezond Oud (AGO) study, we assessed the effects of the intervention on metabolic parameters in those who had successfully reached their personalized physical activity target compared with the entire intervention group. Furthermore, we studied the dose-response effect of increase in physical activity on metabolic outcome within the intervention group. Results Of the intervention group, 50 of 119 (42.0%) participants successfully reached the physical activity target (corresponding to a 10% increased daily physical activity on average). This group showed markedly higher effects of the intervention compared to the entire intervention group, with greater decreases in body weight (2.74 vs 1.49 kg), waist circumference (3.74 vs 2.33 cm), insulin resistance (HOMA index: 0.23 vs 0.20), and in cholesterol/HDL ratio (0.39 vs 0.20) and Framingham risk score (0.90% vs 0.54%). We found that men compared to women were more likely to be successful. The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity and body weight loss, BMI reduction, waist circumference reduction, HDL cholesterol increasing, and cholesterol/HDL ratio lowering

  11. [Relation of the physical-sport activity practice and alcohol consumption of citizens older than 14 years old].

    PubMed

    Valero Valenzuela, Alfonso; Ruiz Juan, Francisco; García Montes, Ma Elena; Granero Gallegos, Antonio; Martínez Rodríguez, Ana María

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to ascertain any possible relationship that could exist between the alcohol consumption of the population and several sociodemographic variables, in addition to the influence of physical exercise/sports on the creation of healthy lifestyle habits. The sample comprised 1102 subjects from Almeria Spain, over 14 years of age, to whom we administered the "physical exercise/sporting habits and life styles" questionnaire, selecting the sections on physical exercise/sporting habits in leisure, fitness and state of health perception and alcohol consumption habits, related to attitudes, behavioural and sociodemographic variables. We used an innovative tool for data analysis in the sphere of physical exercise, known as the Bayesian networks, emphasizing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical exercise/sporting activities, it being the active people, with an interest in physical exercise/sports, who have a good perception of their health and physical fitness who are the ones who make habitual and occasional use of this substance. The profile of the individual who does not drink alcohol is female, over 44 years of age, with no studies, housewives who have a poor perception of their health, and who do not do any physical exercise or plays sports, whereas the populations with health risks, are men between 15 and 44 years of age who have secondary school studies or a degree and who work in the public or private sector.

  12. Changes in Physical Property of Epoxy Resin with Absorption of Methyl Alcohol and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ken; Nohara, Hiroshi; Shintani, Ryuichi

    1994-05-01

    Changes in physical properties with absorption of methyl alcohol and water were investigated. Upon CH3OH absorption, a boundary front appeared between the shell and core. The change in physical properties with absorption depended on the solvent and the volume absorbed. For example, when CH3OH of about 11 wt% was absorbed, Young's modulus decreased from 3.0×108 to 4.9×106 N/m2. In the case of H2O absorption (1 wt%), Young's modulus changed only slightly to 1.7×108 N/m2. The glass transition temperature T g shifted down to room temperature upon CH3OH absorption, but did not shift upon H2O absorption.

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol) physical hydrogels: new vista on a long serving biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marie-Helene; Jensen, Bettina E B; Smith, Anton A A; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2011-10-10

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and physical hydrogels derived thereof have an excellent safety profile and a successful history of biomedical applications. However, these materials are hardly in the focus of biomedical research, largely due to poor opportunities in nano- and micro-scale design associated with PVA hydrogels in their current form. In this review we aim to demonstrate that with PVA, a (sub)molecular control over polymer chemistry translates into fine-tuned supramolecular association of chains and this, in turn, defines macroscopic properties of the material. This nano- to micro- to macro- translation of control is unique for PVA and can now be accomplished using modern tools of macromolecular design. We believe that this strategy affords functionalized PVA physical hydrogels which meet the demands of modern nanobiotechnology and have a potential to become an indispensable tool in the design of biomaterials.

  14. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes.

  15. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  16. Non-esterified fatty acid levels and physical inactivity: the relative importance of low habitual energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Franks, Paul W; Wong, Man-Yu; Luan, Jian'an; Mitchell, Jo; Hennings, Susie; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2002-09-01

    The fasting concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the degree to which it declines during an oral glucose tolerance test are closely associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, relatively few studies have described possible environmental determinants of NEFA concentrations. Physical activity is likely to be related to NEFA levels, but habitual activity level is difficult to quantify in epidemiological studies. In particular, it is unclear whether NEFA is more closely related to cardio-respiratory fitness or to habitual energy expenditure. In order to quantify these relationships, we analysed data from the Ely prospective population-based study in which 931 subjects underwent a glucose tolerance test with measurements of cardio-respiratory fitness and 4 d energy expenditure by heart-rate monitoring, a technique previously validated against whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labelled water. In order to estimate the latent variables of usual fitness and energy expenditure, a subset of 190 subjects underwent repeat testing on three further occasions over 1 year. In analyses adjusting only for age and sex, energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory fitness were both negatively correlated with the total area under the NEFA curve following the oral glucose load (standardised beta coefficients -0.030 and -0.039 respectively; both P<0.001) However, further adjustment for degree of obesity and bivariate measurement error suggested that the effect of energy expenditure was significantly greater than that for fitness (-0.047 and -0.005 respectively). These results suggest that the area under the NEFA curve in the oral glucose tolerance test, a measure of insulin sensitivity, is strongly associated with the habitual level of physical activity.

  17. The best of the best discourse on health: poetic insights on how professional sport socializes a family of men into hegemonic masculinity and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Madill, Leanna; Hopper, Timothy F

    2007-03-01

    This study examines how 4 men from the same family, representing different generations, construct health from their perceptions of professional athletes. Many men are socialized and participate in sport discourses that promote certain truths about being a man that often have detrimental effects to their health. The capacity of research to inform men's construction of health is limited. In an attempt to engage male participants within the research process and cause a form of catalytic validity, transcripts from interviews with the men were analyzed, and thematic findings were represented in a poetic form and shared with the participants for discussion and refinement. The findings revealed how the male participants reiterated messages that the media promotes, such as the importance of physical and mental strength for a man. More significantly, the men became aware that they assumed a narrow definition of health portrayed by professional athletics that perpetuated a hegemonic masculinity. Reflections on changes in the men's lifestyle choices after engaging in the research process are offered in the conclusion.

  18. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  19. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  20. An Impact Evaluation of Two Versions of a Brief Intervention Targeting Alcohol Use and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Anna E.; Werch, Chudley (CHAD); Michniewicz, Mara; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immediate impact of two new versions of the Project SPORT program, a brief one-on-one tailored consult addressing alcohol use and physical activity for adolescents. One new version was a brief interactive CD-ROM (Study one) and a second was a brief small group consultation (Study two). In study one,…

  1. The effect of exercise, alcohol or both combined on health and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Suter, P M; Schutz, Y

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is consumed on a daily basis by a large fraction of the population, and in many countries, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is considered as an integral part of the diet. Although the relationship between alcohol intake and obesity is controversial, regular consumption of alcohol, through its effects in suppressing fat oxidation, is regarded as a risk factor for weight gain, increased abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Indeed, alcohol taken with a meal leads to an increase in postprandial lipemia-an effect on postprandial metabolism that is opposite to that observed with exercise. Furthermore, although regular exercise training and/or a preprandial exercise session reduce postprandial lipemia independently of alcohol ingestion, the exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia is nonetheless less pronounced when alcohol is also consumed with the meal. Whether or not alcohol influences exercise and sport performance remains contradictory. It is believed that alcohol has deleterious effects on the performance, although it may contribute to reduce pain and anxiety. The alcohol effects on sports performance depend on the type and dosage of alcohol, acute vs chronic administration, the alcohol elimination rate as well as the type of exercise. PMID:19079280

  2. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  3. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696.

  4. Towards holistic dual diagnosis care: physical health screening in a Victorian community-based alcohol and drug treatment service.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lara; Felstead, Boyce; Bhowmik, Jahar; Avery, Rachel; Nelson-Hearity, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    The poorer health outcomes experienced by people with mental illness have led to new directions in policy for routine physical health screening of service users. By contrast, little attention has been paid to the physical health needs of consumers of alcohol and other drug (AOD) services, despite a similar disparity in physical health outcomes compared with the general population. The majority of people with problematic AOD use have comorbid mental illness, known as a dual diagnosis, likely to exacerbate their vulnerability to poor physical health. With the potential for physical health screening to improve health outcomes for AOD clients, a need exists for systematic identification and management of common health conditions. Within the current health service system, those with a dual diagnosis are more likely to have their physical health surveyed and responded to if they present for treatment in the mental health system. In this study, a physical health screening tool was administered to clients attending a community-based AOD service. The tool was administered by a counsellor during the initial phase of treatment, and referrals to health professionals were made as appropriate. Findings are discussed in terms of prevalence, types of problems identified and subsequent rates of referral. The results corroborate the known link between mental and physical ill health, and contribute to developing evidence that AOD clients present with equally concerning physical ill health to that of mental health clients and should equally be screened for such when presenting for AOD treatment.

  5. Mental and Physical Health Status and Alcohol and Drug Use Following Return From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Mark R.; Vogt, Dawne; Glickman, Mark E.; Elwy, A. Rani; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Martin, James

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined (1) mental and physical health symptoms and functioning in US veterans within 1 year of returning from deployment, and (2) differences by gender, service component (Active, National Guard, other Reserve), service branch (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines), and deployment operation (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]). Methods. We surveyed a national sample of 596 OEF/OIF veterans, oversampling women to make up 50% of the total, and National Guard and Reserve components to each make up 25%. Weights were applied to account for stratification and nonresponse bias. Results. Mental health functioning was significantly worse compared with the general population; 13.9% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder, 39% for probable alcohol abuse, and 3% for probable drug abuse. Men reported more alcohol and drug use than did women, but there were no gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder or other mental health domains. OIF veterans reported more depression or functioning problems and alcohol and drug use than did OEF veterans. Army and Marine veterans reported worse mental and physical health than did Air Force or Navy veterans. Conclusions. Continuing identification of veterans at risk for mental health and substance use problems is important for evidence-based interventions intended to increase resilience and enhance treatment. PMID:22390605

  6. The role of neighborhood disadvantage, physical disorder, and collective efficacy in adolescent alcohol use: a multilevel path analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicki; Denny, Simon; Sheridan, Janie; Zhao, Jinfeng; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-09-01

    Research into the salient exposures which explain neighborhood variation in adolescent alcohol use remains inconclusive. The Social Disorganization Theory suggests that neighborhood-level disadvantage may reduce collective efficacy to control adolescent risky behavior. Collective perceptions of physical disorder are also implicated in this neighborhood pathway. Drawing on data from a nationally-representative survey of urban high school students in New Zealand, multilevel path analysis was used to estimate the direct and mediating effects of neighborhood disadvantage, physical disorder, and collective efficacy on current drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and typical quantity of alcohol consumed. The findings supported an indirect pathway from disadvantage to binge drinking and high typical quantities in young adolescents (<16 years), mediated by physical disorder and reduced collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was not associated with current drinking in young adolescents. An opposing indirect effect was evident among older adolescents (≥16 years), whereby collective efficacy was positively associated with drinking outcomes. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27521816

  7. [Practical strategies for lifestyle modification in people with hyperuricemia and gout treatment through diet, physical activity, and reduced alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ikuo; Kamiya, Hiroki; Tsukuda, Akiko

    2008-04-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in Japan, suggesting the recent lifestyle change may be a key factor leading to this pathophysiological condition. In addition, people with hyperuricemia are often associated with various morbid conditions constituting the metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, healthy lifestyle interventions would be a basic therapeutic approach not only to hyperuricemia but to metabolic syndrome, though it is not easy to promote behaviour changes. This review focuses on strategies for lifestyle intervention for clinical practice, including how we advise patients on appropriate diets, physical activity and alcoholic beverage consumption.

  8. Older versus younger treatment-seeking smokers: differences in smoking behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychosocial and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sharon M; Humfleet, Gary L; Gorecki, Julie A; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Reus, Victor I; Prochaska, Judith J

    2008-03-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet few recent studies have described older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers aged 50 years or older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50) presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002-2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers aged 50+, and a second open to smokers aged 18 or older. As predicted, smokers aged 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and had poorer physical functioning than those aged <50. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women aged 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women aged <50, and less likely than men to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or as having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers aged <50. We found no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  9. Older versus Younger Treatment-Seeking Smokers: Differences in Smoking Behavior, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Psychosocial and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet there are few recent data describing older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers age 50 years and older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50), presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002–2004 for participation in two randomized clinical trials: one exclusively for smokers age 50+, and a second open to smokers age18 and older. As predicted, smokers age 50+ were more tobacco dependent, had better psychological functioning, and poorer physical functioning than those <50. Contrary to predictions, there were no differences in motivation to quit cigarette smoking or in alcohol use. Women age 50+ were less likely to report marijuana use than women <50, and less likely to receive a positive diagnosis for alcohol abuse then men. Despite higher scores on measures of tobacco dependence, older smokers were less likely to be diagnosed as tobacco dependent or having tobacco withdrawal using DSM-IV criteria. Rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were high in both age groups but were higher for smokers <50. There were no striking differences between studies in reasons for exclusion, but in both, the proportion of individuals excluded due to current antidepressant use was high. Implications for the assessment and treatment of older adults are discussed. PMID:18324565

  10. Regrets of Action and Inaction across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilovich, Thomas; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Regan, Dennis; Nishina, Sadafumi

    2003-01-01

    Conducted five studies in three cultures considered less individualistic than the United States (China, Japan, and Russia) to investigate regrets related to action and inaction in people's lives. Respondents in all three cultures tended to regret inactions more than actions in the long term. Types of regrets (generally involving the self rather…

  11. 21 CFR 312.45 - Inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactive status. 312.45 Section 312.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Administrative Actions § 312.45 Inactive status. (a) If...

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  13. Places where preschoolers are (in)active: An observational study on Latino preschoolers and their parents using objective measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in)activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in)activity for this ethnic group. Th...

  14. Understanding the Interplay between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g. disadvantage) and social processes (e.g. interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multi-level modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  15. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  16. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors.

  17. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors. PMID:24726583

  18. Some Physical Properties of Pure and Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol under Applied Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemeda, O. M.; Hemeda, D. M.; Said, M. Z.

    Thick films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing very fine metallic powder, copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) 2.5% by weight, were prepared by the casting method. The temperature dependence of Young's modulus at constant stress, the stress dependence of Young's modulus (Y), the stress dependence of dielectric constant (ɛ) and stress dependence of phonon velocity, were studied. It was found that Young's modulus (Y) of the pure sample has the lowest value and that of PVA + Al has the highest value. This can be explained on the basis that Y depends on the ratio between the energy of molecular interactions and the energy of thermal motion of the sample units. We also found that the dielectric constant increases with the addition of metallic powder, and with an increasing applied stress. The phonon velocity increased with increasing stress. The increase of stress decreases imperfections leading to the increased phonon velocity. The electronic absorption spectra of PVA is not affected by doping Al and Fe, whereas the PVA doped with Cu shows a shift of the absorption maxima toward a longer wavelength. The instantaneous elastic behavior may be observed only at low temperatures and very short creep times.

  19. Structure and physical properties of high amorphous polyvinyl alcohol/clay composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Speranza, V.; Vignali, A.; Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Lavorgna, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently a high amorphous polyvinyl alcohol (HAVOH) which can be easily melt processed has been patented and commercialized with the trade name G-Polymer. In this work, we report on the characterization of clay-G-Polymer composites obtained by melt processing of HAVOH with two commercial chemically-modified organoclays, Cloisite 15A and Cloisite 30B. Results show that the extent of polymer intercalation in the layered clay structure as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of the obtained composites depend on the nature of clay organo-modifier, i.e a quaternary ammonium salt of dimethyl dehydrogenated tallow for Cloisite 15A and an alkyl ammonium salt of bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl tallow for Cloisite 30B. In particular Cloisite 15A, which is only slightly intercalated by the polymer during melt compounding, contributes to enhance glass transition temperature and mechanical properties of the resulting composites. On the contrary, Cloisite 30B which is significantly intercalated by the interacting polymer macromolecules, disturbs to some extent the H-bonding network established within the polymeric matrix thus showing a reduction of thermal and mechanical properties.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Longitudinal Trajectories of Physical Functioning in Central and Eastern Europe: A 10-Year Follow-up of HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Besala, Agnieszka; Bell, Steven; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical functioning (PF) is an essential domain of older persons’ health and quality of life. Health behaviors are the main modifiable determinants of PF. Cross-sectionally, alcohol consumption appears to be linked to better PF, but longitudinal evidence is mixed and very little is known about alcohol consumption and longitudinal PF trajectories. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 28,783 men and women aged 45–69 years from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and seven towns of the Czech Republic. At baseline, alcohol consumption was measured by a graduated frequency questionnaire and problem drinking was evaluated using the CAGE questionnaire. PF was assessed using the Physical Functioning Subscale of the SF-36 instrument at baseline and three subsequent occasions. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the associations between alcohol consumption and PF trajectories over 10-year follow-up. Results: PF scores declined during follow-up in all three cohorts. Faster decline in PF over time was found in Russian female frequent drinkers, Polish female moderate drinkers, and Polish male regular heavy drinkers, in comparison with regular and/or light-to-moderate drinkers. Nondrinking was associated with a faster decline compared with light drinking only in Russian men. Problem drinking and past drinking were not related to the decline rate of PF. Conclusions: This large longitudinal study in Central and Eastern European populations with relatively high alcohol intake does not strongly support the existence of a protective effect of alcohol on PF trajectories; if anything, it suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with greater deterioration in PF over time. PMID:26748094

  1. Influence of Cr2O3 nanoparticles on the physical properties of polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, A.; El Sayed, A. M.; Morsi, W. M.; El-Sayed, S.

    2012-11-01

    Nano-sized chromium oxide (Cr2O3) was synthesized by sol-gel method and mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to produce nanocomposite films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and dispersion of Cr2O3 on the surface of the PVA films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on nano-sized Cr2O3, pure PVA, and Cr2O3/PVA composites. Based on the results of both XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), the average particle size of the Cr2O3 was ≈ 46 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the thermal stability and degree of crystallinity of the PVA were reinforced by the addition of Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The absorbance and extinction coefficients of the composites were studied in the UV-vis range and compared with those of pure PVA. The optical energy band gap, Eg, was calculated. Dielectric constant, ɛ', dielectric loss modulus, M″, and ac conductivity, σac, of all samples were measured within temperature and frequency ranges of 300-468 K and 10 kHz-2 MHz, respectively. According to the frequency and temperature dependence of the dielectric loss modulus, M″, the observed α-relaxation peak was due to the micro-Brownian motion of the polymer main chains. The behavior of σac(f) for the composite films indicated that the conduction mechanism was correlated barrier hopping (CBH). The results of this work were discussed and compared with those of previous studies of PVA composites.

  2. Dual-wavelength polymer laser based on an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Meng; Tong, Fei; Li, Songtao; Ma, Yanbin; Deng, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xinping

    2016-09-01

    Dual-wavelength laser emission is achieved by using an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure, which can be conveniently fabricated using spin coating technique. Poly [(9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl)-alt-co-(1, 4-benzo-(2, 1', 3) -thiadiazole)] and polyvinyl alcohol are employed as the active and the inactive materials, respectively. Two laser wavelengths are simultaneously observed, which are attributed to the difference of the surrounding refractive index of two active waveguides in the sandwich-like structure. Each wavelength is controlled by the respective waveguide structure, meaning that multi-wavelength laser can be designed by stacking the active/inactive layer pair. These results provide more flexibility to design compact laser sources.

  3. Is Moderate Red Wine Consumption Safe in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth R.; Tieu, Vanessa; Shaikh, Maliha; Forsyth, Chris; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. Additionally, we have recently shown that alcohol consumption is associated with more symptoms in IBD. However, it is not known whether moderate daily alcohol consumption can modify IBD disease activity. To test what effects alcohol may have on patients with IBD, we evaluated the effect of moderate daily red wine for 1 week on two factors associated with recurrent IBD disease activity: intestinal permeability and stool calprotectin. Methods To assess the effects of moderate daily alcohol consumption on intestinal permeability and inflammation, we recruited 21 patients: 8 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), and 7 healthy controls. All participants with IBD completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index), to confirm they had inactive disease. All subjects then underwent a baseline assessment that included a blood draw, urine collection after sugar challenge, and stool collection. Subjects then consumed 1–3 glasses of red wine a day for 1 week (approx. 0.4 g EtOH/kg), and repeated the three measures. Results No subjects flared during the study. Moderate alcohol consumption did not significantly change either clinical disease activity scores or C-reactive protein. In contrast to healthy subjects, daily consumption of red wine significantly (1) decreased stool calprotectin in IBD subjects from baseline (p = 0.001) and (2) increased intestinal permeability as measured by urinary lactulose/mannitol excretion (marker of small bowel permeability) in CD (p = 0.028) or urinary sucralose secretion (marker of large bowel permeability) in UC (p = 0.012). Conclusions One week of moderate consumption of red wine in inactive IBD was associated with a significant

  4. “They Don’t Look at What Affects Us”: The Role of Ecodevelopmental Factors on Alcohol and Drug Use among Latinos with Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, David; Parra-Cardona, J. Ruben; Blow, Adrian; Johnson, Deborah J.; Prado, Guillermo; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Latinos with disabilities disproportionately report substance use, including binge drinking and drug use. Ecodevelopmental factors, including socioeconomic patterning of poverty, social exclusion and post-colonial racism, have been shown to impact alcohol and drug use. However, this line of research remains under-developed among Latinos with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to obtain rich descriptions of the role of ecodevelopmental factors, including family and community, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. Methods We utilized a community-based participatory research design, in conjunction with an innovative methodology referred to as photovoice. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 17 focus groups. Reflections in each focus group interview were aloud and digitally audiotaped. A total of 28 participants 19–35 years of age (mean age= 27.65, SD= 5.48) participated in each round of photography and focus group interviews. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results Findings highlight ecodevelopmental family and community risk and protective factors. At the family level, participants reflected on the ways in which family functioning, including family support, communication and cohesion, can serve as risk and promotive factors for alcohol and drug use. Additionally, participants described in detail how experiences of poverty, stigma and discrimination, violence, accessibility to alcohol and drugs, accessibility for persons with disabilities, transportation, community support and cohesion, and access to health and mental health services constitute risk and promotive factors at the community level. Conclusion Findings are suggestive of how ecodevelopmental family and community factors might increase the risk for alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. From this qualitative research, we derive a series of testable

  5. 'They don't look at what affects us': the role of ecodevelopmental factors on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cordova, David; Parra-Cardona, Jose Ruben; Blow, Adrian; Johnson, Deborah J; Prado, Guillermo; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Latinos with disabilities disproportionately report substance use, including binge drinking and drug use. Ecodevelopmental factors, including socioeconomic patterning of poverty, social exclusion, and post-colonial racism, have been shown to impact alcohol and drug use. However, this line of research remains underdeveloped among Latinos with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to obtain rich descriptions of the role of ecodevelopmental factors, including family and community, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. Methods. We utilized a community-based participatory research design, in conjunction with an innovative methodology referred to as photovoice. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 17 focus groups. Reflections in each focus group interview were aloud and digitally audiotaped. A total of 28 participants 19-35 years of age (mean age = 27.65, SD = 5.48) participated in each round of photography and focus group interviews. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results. Findings highlight ecodevelopmental family and community risk and protective factors. At the family level, participants reflected on the ways in which family functioning, including family support, communication, and cohesion, can serve as risk and promotive factors for alcohol and drug use. Additionally, participants described in detail how experiences of poverty, stigma and discrimination, violence, accessibility to alcohol and drugs, accessibility for persons with disabilities, transportation, community support and cohesion, and access to health and mental health services constitute risk and promotive factors at the community level. Conclusion. Findings are suggestive of how ecodevelopmental family and community factors might increase the risk of alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. From this qualitative research, we derive a series of testable

  6. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  7. Physical activity as a treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Maureen; VanWagner, Lisa B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the effectiveness of exercise as a therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and potential benefits in treating insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Medline (EBSCOhost) and PubMed were searched for English-language randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in human adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the various effects of exercise alone, a combination of exercise and diet, or exercise and diet coupled with behavioral modification on NAFLD from 2010 to Feburary 2015. RESULTS: Eighteen of 2298 available studies were chosen for critical review, which included 6925 patients. Nine (50%) studies were randomized controlled trials. Five (27.8%) studies utilized biopsy to examine the effects of physical activity on hepatic histology. The most commonly employed imaging modality to determine change in hepatic steatosis was hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Only two studies examined the effects of low impact physical activity for patients with significant mobility limitations and one compared the efficacy of aerobic and resistance exercise. No studies examined the exact duration of exercise required for hepatic and metabolic improvement in NAFLD. CONCLUSION: While exercise improved hepatic steatosis and underlying metabolic abnormalities in NAFLD, more studies are needed to define the most beneficial form and duration of exercise treatment. PMID:26261693

  8. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  9. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states.

  10. Therapeutic-Ultrasound-Triggered Shape Memory of a Melamine-Enhanced Poly(vinyl alcohol) Physical Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Yan, Qiang; Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2015-06-10

    Therapeutic-ultrasound-triggered shape memory was demonstrated for the first time with a melamine-enhanced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) physical hydrogel. The addition of a small amount of melamine (up to 1.5 wt %) in PVA results in a strong hydrogel due to the multiple H-bonding between the two constituents. A temporary shape of the hydrogel can be obtained by deformation of the hydrogel (∼65 wt % water) at room temperature, followed by fixation of the deformation by freezing/thawing the hydrogel under strain, which induces crystallization of PVA. We show that the ultrasound delivered by a commercially available device designed for the patient's pain relief could trigger the shape recovery process as a result of ultrasound-induced local heating in the hydrogel that melts the crystallized PVA cross-linking. This hydrogel is thus interesting for potential applications because it combines many desirable properties, being mechanically strong, biocompatible, and self-healable and displaying the shape memory capability triggered by a physiological stimulus.

  11. 29 CFR 1404.6 - Inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arbitrators; Admission and Retention § 1404.6 Inactive status. A member of the Roster who continues to meet... longer than two (2) years and the arbitrator has not paid the annual listing fee, the arbitrator will... heath, vacation, schedule or other reasons. (b) Arbitrators whose schedules do not permit cases to...

  12. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactive status. 214.200 Section 214.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES...

  13. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inactive status. 214.200 Section 214.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES...

  14. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., flavoring, lubricant, preservative, or solvent, in the preparation of other drugs shall be exempt...

  15. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  16. Effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengli; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiangjin; Feng, Xiugao; Yang, Dawei; Lin, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the disease activity and physical functioning in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently understated. Present study aims to investigate the relationship between them. A total of 425 patients with AS were recruited in the study and their smoking and drinking habit were investigated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) were evaluated. Parameters including fingertip-to-floor distance, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain, total back pain and morning stiffness were analyzed as well. Blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. For 118 (27.8%) AS patients with smoking habit, the scorings of BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and other physical parameters (including fingertip-to-floor, overall assessment of health, nocturnal pain and total back pain) were higher than those in patients without smoking. 101 (23.8%) AS patients with alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher scores in BASMI (P < 0.05). In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption variables contributed to the variance in BASDAI scores, adding an additional 1.6% to the overall R-square, resulting in a final R-square of 5.1%. Smoking has a negative effect on disease activity of patients with AS and the patients' physical functioning. Alcohol consumption would aggravate the overall physical functioning of AS patient. The results indicated the potential benefit of quitting smoking and drinking for AS patients. PMID:26550348

  17. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  18. Physical exercise prevents and mitigates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced liver mitochondrial structural and bioenergetics impairments.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia; Diogo, Cátia V; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Viscor, Ginés; Santos-Alves, Estela; Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is considered a non-pharmacological tool against several lifestyle disorders in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved. The present study aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity-VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training-ET) role of exercise against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n=20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n=10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n=20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n=10). After 9weeks of diet-treatment, half of SS and HS animals were engaged in an ET program (SET and HET) for 8weeks, 5days/week and 60min/day. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and transmembrane-electric potential (ΔΨ) were evaluated in the presence of glutamate-malate (G/M), palmitoyl-malate (P/M) and succinate (S/R). Mitochondrial enzymes activity, lipid and protein oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits, cytochrome c, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) content were assessed. HS groups show the histological features of NASH in parallel with decreased ΔΨ and respiratory control (RCR) and ADP/O ratios (G/M and P/M). A state 3 decrease (G/M and S/R), FCCP-induced uncoupling respiration (S/R) and ANT content were also observed. Both exercise types counteracted oxygen consumption (RCR, ADP/O and FCCP-uncoupling state) impairments and improved ΔΨ (lag-phase). In conclusion, exercise prevented or reverted (VPA and ET, respectively) the bioenergetic impairment induced by NASH, but only ET positively remodeled NASH-induced liver structural damage and abnormal mitochondria. It is possible that alterations in inner membrane integrity and fatty acid oxidation may be related to the observed phenotypes induced by exercise.

  19. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  20. Psychopathy and the Prediction of Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression: The Roles of Impulsive Antisociality and Fearless Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Giancola, Peter R.; Lance, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Methods Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Results Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Conclusions Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. PMID:22959485

  1. Choices & Careers; Free to Choose: Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Debbie Tucker

    This unit for American Indian girls 15 to 18 years old and for their parents is an attempt to create a better understanding of alcoholism. The narrative section focuses upon the following ideas: (1) what alcoholism is; (2) frequency of alcoholism; (3) physical effects; (4) the effect of alcoholism on the family; (5) causes of alcoholism; (6) signs…

  2. 30 CFR 57.5045 - Posting of inactive workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of inactive workings. 57.5045 Section 57.5045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Posting of inactive workings. Inactive workings in which radon daughter concentrations are above 1.0...

  3. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    PubMed Central

    Suchyta, Marissa; Miotto, Benoit; McGarry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7), the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1. PMID:25988259

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  8. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  9. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  10. Exploring Socio-Ecological Factors Influencing Active and Inactive Spanish Students in Years 12 and 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devís-Devís, José; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Peiró-Velert, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores socio-ecological factors and their interplay that emerge from a qualitative study and influence adolescents' physical activity and sport participation. A total of 13 boys and 7 girls active and inactive adolescents, from years 12 and 13 and different types of school (state and private), participated in semi-structured…

  11. A novel polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel functionalized with organic boundary lubricant for use as low-friction cartilage substitute: synthesis, physical/chemical, mechanical, and friction characterization.

    PubMed

    Blum, Michelle M; Ovaert, Timothy C

    2012-10-01

    A novel material design was developed by functionalizing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with an organic low-friction boundary lubricant (molar ratios of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 moles of lauroyl chloride). The hydrogels were fabricated using two different techniques. First, the boundary lubricant was initially functionalized to the polymer, then the hydrogels were created by physically crosslinking the reacted polymer. Second, hydrogels were initially created by crosslinking pure polyvinyl alcohol, with the functionalization reaction performed on the fully formed gel. After the reaction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance spectra revealed a clear ester peak, the diminishment of the alcohol peak, and the amplification of the alkyl peaks, which confirmed attachment of the hydrocarbon chains to the polymer. Additional chemical characterization occurred through elemental analysis where an average increase of 22% carbon and 40% hydrogen provided further confirmation of attachment. Physical characterization of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels was performed by water content and contact angle measurements. Water content dependency showed that method 1 had a direct relationship with boundary lubricant concentration, and method 2 displayed an inverse relationship. The contact angle increased as boundary lubricant concentration increased for the pure matrix material for both processing methods, suggesting that the hydrocarbons produced surface properties that mimic natural cartilage, and contact behavior of the biphasic system was dependent on processing method. Friction tests demonstrated a significant decrease in friction coefficient, with a maximum decrease of 70% and a minimum decrease of 24% for boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels compared with nonfunctionalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels.

  12. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  13. THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS: A Chiral Macroscopic Force between Liquid of Butyl Alcohol and Copper Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Hong; Liu, Zhong-Zhu

    2008-11-01

    A non-zero macroscopic chirality-dependent force between a copper block and a vessel of homochiral molecules (butyl alcohol) is calculated quantitatively with the central field approximation. The magnitude of the force is estimated with the published limits of the scalar and pseudo-scalar coupling constants.

  14. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  15. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  16. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  17. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  18. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  19. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  20. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kimberly B.; Grant, Julia D.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric rho = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems – behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD– and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. PMID:27322801

  1. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  2. The prognosis and management of inactive HBV carriers.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Federica; Viganò, Mauro; Grossi, Glenda; Lampertico, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection lacking the serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and with antibodies against HBeAg (anti-HBe), are the prevalent subgroup of HBV carriers worldwide. The prognosis of these patients is different from inactive carriers (ICs), who are characterized by persistently normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and low (<2000 IU/ml) serum HBV DNA levels, a serological profile that may also be intermittently observed in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis. This is why a confirmed diagnosis of IC requires quarterly ALT and HBV DNA measurements for at least 1 year, while a single-point detection of combined HBsAg <1000 IU/ml and HBV DNA <2000 IU/ml has a robust predictive value for the diagnosis of IC. Characteristically, ICs have minimal or no histological lesions of the liver corresponding to liver stiffness values on Fibroscan of <5 kPa. Antiviral treatment is not indicated in ICs since the prognosis for the progression of liver disease is favourable if there are no cofactors of liver damage such as alcohol abuse, excess weight or co-infection with the hepatitis C virus or delta virus. Moreover, spontaneous HBsAg loss frequently occurs (1-1.9% per year) in these patients while the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare, at least in Caucasian patients. However, an emerging issue reinforcing the need for clinical surveillance of ICs is the risk of HBV reactivation in patients who undergo immunosuppressive therapy without receiving appropriate antiviral prophylaxis. After diagnosis, management of ICs includes monitoring of ALT and HBV DNA every 12 months with periodic measurement of serum HBsAg levels to identify viral clearance. PMID:26725905

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  4. Characterizing inactive ribosomes in translational profiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The broad impact of translational regulation has emerged explosively in the last few years in part due to the technological advance in genome-wide interrogation of gene expression. During mRNA translation, the majority of actively translating ribosomes exist as polysomes in cells with multiple ribosomes loaded on a single transcript. The importance of the monosome, however, has been less appreciated in translational profiling analysis. Here we report that the monosome fraction isolated by sucrose sedimentation contains a large quantity of inactive ribosomes that do not engage on mRNAs to direct translation. We found that the elongation factor eEF2, but not eEF1A, stably resides in these non-translating ribosomes. This unique feature permits direct evaluation of ribosome status under various stress conditions and in the presence of translation inhibitors. Ribosome profiling reveals that the monosome has a similar but not identical pattern of ribosome footprints compared to the polysome. We show that the association of free ribosomal subunits minimally contributes to ribosome occupancy outside of the coding region. Our results not only offer a quantitative method to monitor ribosome availability, but also uncover additional layers of ribosome status needed to be considered in translational profiling analysis. PMID:27335722

  5. 1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, BREMERTON, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON WITH EX-USS HORNET CVS-12, THREE MINECRAFT ALONGSIDE TO PORT. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. Determinants and patterns of physical activity practice among Spanish university students.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, Dora; Tauler, Pedro; Bennasar, Miquel; Pericas, Jordi; Moreno, Carlos; Martinez, Sonia; Aguilo, Antoni

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of physical activity practice, as well as the motivations for being or not being physically active in Spanish university students. A representative sample of students from a Spanish university (n = 2,051; 42.1% males; mean age 21.9, s = 4.8 years) participated in the present cross-sectional study. A questionnaire including questions regarding lifestyle, dietary habits, parents' characteristics, and physical activity habits was administered to the students. The socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of physical activity practice were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. 68.4% of men and 48.4% of women reported to practise physical activity in the present sample. Those who practised physical activity consumed more fruits and were less likely to be smokers compared to non-physically active students. Also, physically inactive men spent more time in front of the computer and physically inactive women spent more time in front of the TV and were more likely to be frequent alcohol consumers. Maternal educational level and maternal physical activity habits were also important determinants of physical activity practice among men and women respectively. In conclusion, physically active students tended to engage in other healthy habits in the present population, suggesting the clustering of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle factors among specific subgroups.

  7. Relationship of physical activity and sedentarism with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and Mediterranean diet in Spanish teenagers.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: Este estudio examinó la asociación de la actividad física y el sedentarismo con el consumo de alcohol y tabaco, y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en adolescentes de ambos sexos. Métodos: Un total de 1897 adolescentes españoles (12-16 años) participaron en el presente estudio transversal. Las variables fueron medidas mediante cuestionarios previamente validados para estas edades. Resultados: La actividad física estuvo positivamente asociada con el grado de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en ambos sexos (ß = ,144, P < ,001 para chicos y ß = ,066, P < ,05 en chicas), e inversamente asociada con el tabaquismo en chicos (ß = -,135, P =.

  8. Alcohol-medical drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Seneviratne, Chamindi

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of alcohol and medications may lead to potentially serious medical conditions. Increasing prescription medication abuse in today's society necessitates a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-medication interactions in order to help prevent adverse events. Interactions of medications with alcohol result in altered bioavailability of the medication or alcohol (pharmacokinetic interactions) or modification of the effects at receptor or ion channel sites to alter behavioral or physical outcome (pharmacodynamic interactions). The nature of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions involved in alcohol-medication interactions may differ between acute and chronic alcohol use and be influenced by race, gender, or environmental or genetic factors. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between alcohol and medications and provides examples for such interactions from replicated research studies. In conclusion, further translational research is needed to address several gaps in our current knowledge of alcohol-medication interactions, including those under various pathologic conditions.

  9. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  10. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  11. Statistical and Biological Gene-Lifestyle Interactions of MC4R and FTO with Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity: New Effects on Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Covas, M. Isabel; Carrasco, Paula; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Martí, Amelia; Coltell, Oscar; Ordovás, Jose M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01–1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/−SE: −0.57+/−0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion Statistical and biological

  12. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  13. An Exploratory Study of Inactive Health Information Seekers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to identify people who do not actively seek out health information and the demographic characteristics of Inactive Seekers. The possible determinants of inactive seeking behaviors is also explored. Design and Measurements A total of 14,420 survey respondents were drawn from the 2009 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) data. K-means clustering was used to discriminate Inactive Seekers from Active Seekers. The inactive information seeker group was formed based on their experience with health information seeking. The potential determinants that were tested to predict inactive seeking included the following: health condition, health service use, health media exposure, and computer/Internet activities. Results Within this national survey data, the respondents were more likely to be included in the Inactive Seekers (N=8,312, 58.5%) compared to Active Seekers (N=5,908, 41.5%). The demographic characteristics indicated that the Inactive Seekers were identified as younger, male, highly educated, White, and high household income people. The binary logistic regression results from the study model indicated that healthier people were less likely to seek out health information than their counterparts. In addition, those who were exposed to various media were almost 1.6 times more likely to seek out health information than those who were not exposed to such media. Within this study data, the statistically significant determinants identified were health condition and health media exposure while computer/Internet activities did not show strong indications in predicting inactive seeking behavior. Conclusion The development of more generalizable measures for health literacy or behavioral patterns will bolster advanced study on inactive seeking relating to knowledge of technology and health context. Further study should be directed at estimating the negative aspects of information seeking such as information ignorance or information

  14. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  15. Physical characteristics of poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium alginate hydrogels for the immobilization of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Doria-Serrano, M C; Ruiz-Treviño, F A; Rios-Arciga, C; Hernández-Esparza, M; Santiago, P

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and calcium alginate were prepared by a freezing and thawing cycle process and characterized, in terms of the role of the polymer mixture percentage and the number of treatment cycles, on their weight swelling ratio, WSR, gel fraction, and activated sludge entrapment and immobilization. The results show that the morphology of these hydrogels is highly dependent on the PVA-Ca alginate ratio of 5 wt % total polymer content in the initial aqueous solution and that the number of entrapped microorganisms which survive the freezing-thawing procedure is independent of this ratio. For 80/20 PVA-Ca alginate hydrogels, results also show that for up to three freezing and thawing cycles, the WSR, which is in average 24, is not severely affected by the number of the cycles. For the hydrogels with three cycles, the calculated gel fraction for the composite hydrogel is 0.99. Immobilized microorganisms from sedimented activated sludge, constituted by bacteria and fungi, die in high numbers during the freezing and thawing treatment. However, with a proper time of incubation with glucose as carbon source, the population of bacteria is recovered and mainly proliferate inside the hydrogel, attached on top of the fibril network formed by the polymers, while fungi are recovered predominantly on the surface of the spheres.

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  17. Activation of Inactive Nitrogenase by Acid-Treated Component I

    PubMed Central

    Nagatani, H. H.; Shah, Vinod K.; Brill, Winston J.

    1974-01-01

    When Azotobacter vinelandii was derepressed for nitrogenase synthesis in a N-free medium containing tungstate instead of molybdate, an inactive component I was synthesized. Although this inactive component I could be activated in vivo upon addition of molybdate to the medium, it could not be activated in vitro when molybdate was added to the extracts. Activation occurred, however, when an acid-treated component I was added to extracts of cells derepressed in medium containing tungstate. Acid treatment completely abolished component I activity. Mutant strains UW45 and UW10 were unable to fix N2. Both strains synthesized normal levels of component II but produced inactive component I. Acid-treated component I activated inactive component I in extracts of mutant strain UW45 but not mutant strain UW10. This activating factor could be obtained from N2-fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Rhodospirillum rubrum. PMID:4218230

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN FROM EAST, NOTE STOCK SHELTERS IN BACKGROUND AND HAYSTACKS AND STORAGE IN FOREGROUND - Grant-Kohrs Ranch, Flumes, Highway 10, Deer Lodge, Powell County, MT

  19. THE PRINTO CRITERIA FOR CLINICALLY INACTIVE DISEASE IN JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Dragana; Pistorio, Angela; Palmisani, Elena; Miettunen, Paivi; Ravelli, Angelo; Pilkington, Clarissa; Wulffraat, Nico; Malattia, Clara; Garay, Stella; Hofer, Michael; Quartier, Pierre; Dolezalova, Pavla; Calvo, Inmaculada; Ferriani, Virginia; Ganser, Gerd; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Melo-Gomes, Jose Antonio; Reed, Ann M.; Wierzbowska, Malgorzata; Rider, Lisa G.; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop data-driven criteria for clinically inactive disease on and off therapy for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Methods The PRINTO database contains 275 patients with active JDM evaluated prospectively up to 24 months. Thirty-eight patients off therapy at 24 months were defined as clinically inactive and included in the reference group. These were compared with a random sample of 76 patients who had active disease at study baseline. Individual measures of muscle strength/endurance, muscle enzymes, physician's and parent's global disease activity/damage evaluations, inactive disease criteria derived from literature, and other ad hoc criteria, were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, and Cohen's kappa agreement. Results The individual measures that best characterised inactive disease (sensitivity and specificity >0.8 and Cohen's K>0.8) were manual muscle testing (MMT)≥78, physician global assessment of muscle activity=0, physician global assessment of overall disease activity (PhyGloVAS) ≤0.2, the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) ≥48, the Disease Activity Score (DAS) ≤3 and the Myositis Disease Activity Assessment Visual Analogue Scale (MYOACT) ≤0.2. The best combination of variables to classify a patient as being in a status of inactive disease on or off therapy is at least 3 out of 4 of the following criteria: creatine kinase ≤150, CMAS≥48, MMT≥78, and PhyGloVAS≤0.2. After 24 months, 30/31 (96.8%) patients were inactive off therapy and 69/145 (47.6%) were inactive on-therapy. Conclusion PRINTO established data-driven criteria, with clearly evidence-based cut off values, to identify JDM patients with clinically inactive disease. These criteria can be used in clinical trials, in research and in clinical practice. PMID:22736096

  20. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Philippa S.; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E.; Desai, Ashish P.; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J. Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management. PMID:26703719

  1. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management. PMID:26703719

  2. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-11-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  3. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity. PMID:22696577

  4. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W

    2012-08-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6-11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity. PMID:22696577

  5. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W

    2012-08-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6-11 yr old fail to obtain the recommended 60 min/day of physical activity and 92% of adolescents fail to achieve this goal [Troiano et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 40, 2008]. Nonetheless, invasive mechanistic studies in children linking diminished physical activity with metabolic maladies are lacking for obvious ethical reasons. The rodent wheel lock (WL) model was adopted by our laboratory and others to study how different organ systems of juvenile rats respond to a cessation of daily physical activity. Our WL model houses rats in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels starting at 28 days of age. After a certain period of voluntary running (3 to 6 wk), the wheels are locked, thus preventing the rats' primary source of physical activity. The studies discussed herein suggest that obesity-associated maladies including skeletal muscle insulin resistance, hypothalamic leptin resistance, fatty acid oxidation impairments in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and endothelial dysfunction are initiated in juvenile animals that are restrained from voluntary exercise via WL. The use of the juvenile rodent WL or other inactivity models will continue to provide a powerful clinical translational tool that can be used for primordial prevention of human childhood obesity.

  6. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    PubMed

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines.

  7. Effect of monomer sequence distribution in poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) on the hydrogen bonding structure and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Shun; Urakawa, Osamu; Inoue, Tadashi

    2015-03-01

    It has been well known that hydrogen (H-) bonding interaction in polymer materials strongly affects their properties. For example, glass transition temperature (Tg) and terminal relaxation time increase by introducing H-bonding sites. This is because the molecular motion is restricted due to the formation of inter- and intra-chain H-bonds. For H-bonding copolymers in which H-bonding monomer and non- bonding one are incorporated, the fraction dependence of their properties has been examined so far. However, the influence of sequence distribution on their properties has not been studied in detail. In this work, we investigated the H-bonding structure and physical properties of molten poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) with different monomer sequences to clarify the effect of the sequence distribution. We found that, with increasing the randomness in monomer sequences, the number of H-bonds between carbonyl group and hydroxyl (OH) group increased. Moreover, OH groups form linearly connected structure (OH-OH-OH) and its number also increases with the sequence randomness. Tg for the samples with higher sequence randomness are higher than those with lower randomness for high VOH copolymers. These results indicate that formation of larger number of H-bonds makes Tg higher.

  8. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R.; Zhu, H.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Yao, J.; Fu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Xu, Y.-M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol-gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  9. Physical and sexual violence, childhood sexual abuse and HIV/STI risk behaviour among alcohol-using women engaged in sex work in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mongolia is low, it could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Two-hundred twenty-two women who (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression and modified Poisson regression were performed. Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs.

  10. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  12. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  13. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  14. Why are Jupiter-family comets active and asteroids in cometary-like orbits inactive?. How hydrostatic compression leads to inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Surveys in the visible and near-infrared spectral range have revealed the presence of low-albedo asteroids in cometary-like orbits (ACOs). In contrast to Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), ACOs are inactive, but possess similar orbital parameters. Aims: In this work, we discuss why ACOs are inactive, whereas JFCs show gas-driven dust activity, although both belong to the same class of primitive solar system bodies. Methods: We hypothesize that ACOs and JFCs have formed under the same physical conditions, namely by the gravitational collapse of ensembles of ice and dust aggregates. We use the memory effect of dust-aggregate layers under gravitational compression to discuss under which conditions the gas-driven dust activity of these bodies is possible. Results: Owing to their smaller sizes, JFCs can sustain gas-driven dust activity much longer than the bigger ACOs, whose sub-surface regions possess an increased tensile strength, due to gravitational compression of the material. The increased tensile strength leads to the passivation against dust activity after a relatively short time of activity. Conclusions: The gravitational-collapse model of the formation of planetesimals, together with the gravitational compression of the sub-surface material simultaneously, explains the inactivity of ACOs and the gas-driven dust activity of JFCs. Their initially larger sizes means that ACOs possess a higher tensile strength of their sub-surface material, which leads to a faster termination of gas-driven dust activity. Most objects with radii larger than 2 km have already lost their activity due to former gravitational compression of their current surface material.

  15. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  16. COAP: Children of Alcoholic Parents. Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMonnin, Leona

    The Children of Alcoholics Project (COAP) offers a preschool curriculum designed to increase the survival skills of children of alcoholics and help these children adjust to problems in an alcoholic home. The program goals address cognitive, social and emotional, and physical development. Children are selected for the program based on…

  17. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  18. Inactive conformation enhances binding function in physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yakovenko, Olga; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    Many receptors display conformational flexibility, in which the binding pocket has an open inactive conformation in the absence of ligand and a tight active conformation when bound to ligand. Here we study the bacterial adhesin FimH to address the role of the inactive conformation of the pocket for initiating binding by comparing two variants: a wild-type FimH variant that is in the inactive state when not bound to its target mannose, and an engineered activated variant that is always in the active state. Not surprisingly, activated FimH has a longer lifetime and higher affinity, and bacteria expressing activated FimH bound better in static conditions. However, bacteria expressing wild-type FimH bound better in flow. Wild-type and activated FimH demonstrated similar mechanical strength, likely because mechanical force induces the active state in wild-type FimH. However, wild-type FimH displayed a faster bond association rate than activated FimH. Moreover, the ability of different FimH variants to mediate adhesion in flow reflected the fraction of FimH in the inactive state. These results demonstrate a new model for ligand-associated conformational changes that we call the kinetic-selection model, in which ligand-binding selects the faster-binding inactive state and then induces the active state. This model predicts that in physiological conditions for cell adhesion, mechanical force will drive a nonequilibrium cycle that uses the fast binding rate of the inactive state and slow unbinding rate of the active state, for a higher effective affinity than is possible at equilibrium. PMID:26216967

  19. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  20. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol's pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All the participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (the Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index, respectively) validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients' perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general U.S. population. Specifically, of the 90 inactive IBD patients, 56 (62%) were current drinkers, compared with 61% in the general U.S. population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42) and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (P=.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared with quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  1. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid...

  2. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid...

  3. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  4. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  5. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  6. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  7. 5 CFR 1650.15 - Abandonment of inactive accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abandonment of inactive accounts. 1650.15 Section 1650.15 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.15 Abandonment of...

  8. Identification of Inactive Medications in Narrative Medical Text

    PubMed Central

    Breydo, Eugene M.; Chu, Julia T.; Turchin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patient’s medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring. PMID:18999079

  9. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk 1

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. Methods: cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. Results: half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. Conclusions: due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). PMID:27737378

  10. 11 CFR 9033.6 - Determination of inactive candidacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) General. The Commission may, on the basis of the factors listed in 11 CFR 9033.6(b) below, make a... ineligible as provided in 11 CFR 9033.5. (b) Factors considered. In making its determination of inactive... in 11 CFR 9033.10(b) and will advise the candidate of the date on which active campaigning in...

  11. Inactive Health Personnel Project in New Hampshire. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Health Careers Council, Concord.

    With the goal of more efficient utilization of existing health manpowers in New Hampshire, data were gathered on inactive medical personnel, and the feasibility of various methods of refresher training was explored. Because of New Hampshire's intrinsic characteristics of climate and scattered population and the scarcity of qualified instructors,…

  12. 25 CFR 23.63 - Appeals from inaction of official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals from inaction of official. 23.63 Section 23.63 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT... affected, or whose ability to protect such interests is impeded by the failure of an official to act on...

  13. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid...

  14. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid...

  15. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid...

  16. 11 CFR 9033.6 - Determination of inactive candidacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) General. The Commission may, on the basis of the factors listed in 11 CFR 9033.6(b) below, make a... ineligible as provided in 11 CFR 9033.5. (b) Factors considered. In making its determination of inactive... in 11 CFR 9033.10(b) and will advise the candidate of the date on which active campaigning in...

  17. Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Key Foundations and New Developments.

    PubMed

    Childers, Ryan E; Ahn, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a spectrum of conditions that include alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic alcoholic liver disease. The diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease remains founded in an accurate patient history and detailed physical examination. Concurrent with the physical examination, objective data from laboratory, imaging, and histologic studies are helpful to confirm a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Novel biomarkers, scoring systems, and imaging modalities are improving the ability to diagnose and manage alcoholic liver disease, but for most practicing clinicians, these have not been adopted widely because of their cost, but also because of limitations and uncertainty in their performance characteristics. PMID:27373609

  18. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Alcohol Policy Considerations for Indian Reservations and Bordertown Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading health problems among American Indian communities. Public policy options that address these problems include controlling the supply of alcoholic beverages; shaping drinking practices directly; or reducing physical and social environmental risks. Discusses alcohol-related death rates and community…

  1. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  2. Pattern of active and inactive sequences of diabetes self-monitoring in mobile phone and paper diary users.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial involving overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes, we find that smartphone users have sharply higher adherence to self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, blood glucose, and body weight, as compared to paper diary users. By characterizing the pattern of adherence with the probability of continuation of active and inactive sequences of self-monitoring, we find that smartphone users have longer active sequences of self-monitoring of all four behaviors that were being monitored. Smartphone users are also quicker to resume self-monitoring of diet and physical activity after a lapse in self-monitoring, whereas paper diary users have shorter inactive sequences for monitoring blood glucose and body weight. The findings are informative for data collection methodology in this burgeoning area of research.

  3. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  4. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA) as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance. PMID:26556368

  5. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  6. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  7. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  8. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  9. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital. PMID:20546546

  10. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  11. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  12. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P < 0.05). The augmented negative amino acid balance was the result of an increased muscle protein breakdown (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle efflux of glutamine and alanine increased significantly after bed rest due to a significant increase in de novo synthesis (P < 0.05). Thus, inactivity sensitizes skeletal muscle to the catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  13. Adolescent alcoholism in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A

    1986-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol by Nigerian adolescents is investigated. Adolescence and alcoholism as applied in this study are defined, and the financial costs and physical and mental effects of alcohol use are described. The author used unobtrusive methods to gather data, visiting three nightclubs and an amusement park where alcohol is served in order to observe and interview adolescents. The findings show that adolescents begin drinking at an early age and consume large quantities of beer. The findings are consistent with those of other epidemiological studies. Finally, recommendations for controlling adolescent alcohol use are made.

  14. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  15. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  16. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  17. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  18. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science.

  19. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types... circumstances. (c) Transfer to disability inactive status. The USPTO Director, after notice and opportunity...

  20. Any link between sexual inactivity and treadle pump performance characteristics: The Malawi case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Chidanti-Malunga; Yamikani, Malunga

    In mitigating the effects of climate change in Malawi, government promotes the use of low cost irrigation technologies to small-scale farmers, especially in wetlands where water is available. The treadle pump is one such technology. The pump is a manual water lifting device operated by feet. Although the technology has been widely accepted by small-scale farmers, there are documented reports that some farmers abandon the technology, preferring other technologies such as river diversion. One theory for the abandonment is that female farmers claim that the technology makes their male counterparts sexually inactive. This research seeks to find an explanation to the misconception. The study analyzed the physical characteristics of the treadle pump and its users. The results show that the technology is male-dominated (30% were females out of a sample of 40). The results also show that the technology is labor-intensive with very small discharge rates (an average of 0.78 l/s) achieved regardless of the BMI of the operator. With such small discharge rates, in order to fulfill irrigation requirements of a crop, the operator has to pump for long hours. This exercise makes men naturally tired, perhaps making them sexually inactive as well.

  1. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and its Effect on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth R.; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol’s pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn’s Disease, 38 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and 39 patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). All participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity, the CDAI or UCAI respectively, validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by NIAAA criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients’ perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general US population. Specifically, 56 of 90 (62%) of inactive IBD patients were current drinkers, compared to 61% in the general US population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42), and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (p=0.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared to quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  2. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  3. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  5. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  7. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Enzyme Inhibition by Allosteric Capture of an Inactive Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gregory M.; Shahian, Tina; Baharuddin, Aida; Gable, Jonathan E.; Craik, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    All members of the human herpesvirus protease family are active as weakly associating dimers, but inactive as monomers. A small molecule allosteric inhibitor of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus protease (KSHV Pr) traps the enzyme in an inactive monomeric state where the C-terminal helices are unfolded and the hydrophobic dimer interface is exposed. NMR titration studies demonstrate that the inhibitor binds to KSHV Pr monomers with low μM affinity. A 2.0 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a C-terminal truncated KSHV Pr-inhibitor complex locates the binding pocket at the dimer interface and displays significant conformational perturbations at the active site, 15 Å from the allosteric site. NMR and CD data suggest that the small molecule inhibits human cytomegalovirus protease (HCMV Pr) via a similar mechanism. As all HHV proteases are functionally and structurally homologous, the inhibitor represents a class of compounds that may be developed into broad-spectrum therapeutics which allosterically regulate enzymatic activity by disrupting protein-protein interactions. PMID:21723875

  13. Alterations in protein metabolism during space flight and inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, Arny A.; Paddon-Jones, Doug; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and the accompanying diminished muscular activity lead to a loss of body nitrogen and muscle function. These losses may affect crew capabilities and health in long-duration missions. Space flight alters protein metabolism such that the body is unable to maintain protein synthetic rates. A concomitant hypocaloric intake and altered anabolic/catabolic hormonal profiles may contribute to or exacerbate this problem. The inactivity associated with bedrest also reduces muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. For this reason, bedrest provides a good model for the investigation of potential exercise and nutritional countermeasures to restore muscle protein synthesis. We have demonstrated that minimal resistance exercise preserves muscle protein synthesis throughout bedrest. In addition, ongoing work indicates that an essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplement may ameliorate the loss of lean body mass and muscle strength associated with 28 d of bedrest. The investigation of inactivity-induced alterations in protein metabolism, during space flight or prolonged bedrest, is applicable to clinical populations and, in a more general sense, to the problems associated with the decreased activity that occur with aging.

  14. Alcohol myopathy: impairment of protein synthesis and translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Lang, C H; Kimball, S R; Frost, R A; Vary, T C

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in skeletal and cardiac muscle. One such change observed in both tissues after either acute alcohol intoxication or chronic alcohol consumption is a characteristic decrease in the rate of protein synthesis. A decrease in translation efficiency appears to be responsible for at least part of the reduction. This review highlights advances in determining the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol impairs protein synthesis and places these observations in context of earlier studies on alcoholic myopathy. Both acute and chronic alcohol administration impairs translational control by modulating various aspects of peptide-chain initiation. Moreover, this alcohol-induced impairment in initiation is associated with a decreased availability of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E in striated muscle, as evidenced by an increase in the amount of the inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex and decrease in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. In contrast, alcohol does not produce consistent alterations in the control of translation initiation by the eIF2 system. The etiology of these changes remain unresolved. However, defects in the availability or effectiveness of various anabolic hormones, particularly insulin-like growth factor-I, are consistent with the alcohol-induced decrease in protein synthesis and translation initiation.

  15. Attitudes of Counselors Toward the Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared attitudes of mental health and rehabilitation counselors toward alcoholics with their attitudes toward homosexuals, public offenders, the mentally retarded, the physically disabled, and the mentally ill. Mean scores from the Semantic Differential Scale demonstrated that attitudes toward the alcoholic were significantly lower than each of…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  17. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  18. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  19. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    PubMed

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  20. Reactivation of the inactive X chromosome in development and reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Ohhata, Tatsuya; Wutz, Anton

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, one of the two X chromosomes of female cells is inactivated for dosage compensation between the sexes. X chromosome inactivation is initiated in early embryos by the noncoding Xist RNA. Subsequent chromatin modifications on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) lead to a remarkable stability of gene repression in somatic cell lineages. In mice, reactivation of genes on the Xi accompanies the establishment of pluripotent cells of the female blastocyst and the development of primordial germ cells. Xi reactivation also occurs when pluripotency is established during the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. The mechanism of Xi reactivation has attracted increasing interest for studying changes in epigenetic patterns and for improving methods of cell reprogramming. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of Xi reactivation during development and reprogramming and illustrate potential clinical applications.

  1. Mechanical properties and fiber type composition of chronically inactive muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Monti, R. J.; Vallance, K. A.; Kim, J. A.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    A role for neuromuscular activity in the maintenance of skeletal muscle properties has been well established. However, the role of activity-independent factors is more difficult to evaluate. We have used the spinal cord isolation model to study the effects of chronic inactivity on the mechanical properties of the hindlimb musculature in cats and rats. This model maintains the connectivity between the motoneurons and the muscle fibers they innervate, but the muscle unit is electrically "silent". Consequently, the measured muscle properties are activity-independent and thus the advantage of using this model is that it provides a baseline level (zero activity) from which regulatory factors that affect muscle cell homeostasis can be defined. In the present paper, we will present a brief review of our findings using the spinal cord isolation model related to muscle mechanical and fiber type properties.

  2. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  3. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  4. 18 Percent of Pregnant Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... have physical, learning, and/or behavior problems, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) . 1 These problems are caused by alcohol ... 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs): Facts about FASDs. Retrieved from http: / / www. ...

  5. Children of Alcoholics: Implications for Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Sias, Shari M.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse affects the entire family, yet only recently has attention focused on the needs of children with parents or guardians who abuse alcohol and/or other drugs. Professional school counselors (PSCs) must be prepared to identify and address the needs of these students. Parental alcohol abuse presents serious academic, emotional, physical,…

  6. Educating Health Professionals about Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Individuals exposed to alcohol during fetal development can have physical, mental, behavioral, and learning disabilities, with lifelong implications. These conditions are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Health care…

  7. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  8. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2015-01-27

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  9. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  10. "No Time to Play": Perceptions toward Physical Activity in Youth with Cystic Fibrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Schneiderman, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Although physical activity may reduce lung function decline in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF), most patients are inactive. Little is known about why youth with CF are inactive or how to facilitate physical activity. This study explored perceptions toward physical activity in 14 youth with CF at a Canadian Hospital. Qualitative interviews were…

  11. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  12. Alcohol and the heart: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1982-06-01

    It is now well established that consumption of ethyl alcohol, both acute and chronic, exerts deleterious effects on the heart. Evidence is presented that the initial event that precipitates both acute and chronic changes reflects the physical effects of alcohol on membrane phospholipids and perhaps proteins. The presence of alcohol increases membrane fluidity, a condition that leads to an adaptive change in the phospholipid composition of the membranes, with resultant greater rigidity of the membranes. The effects of alcohol on the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, when combined with other nonspecific insults, may lead to a drastic increase in calcium permeability; the resulting calcium influx may cause cell necrosis and initiate irreversibly cardiomyopathy. It is likely that changes in membrane fluidity also exert profound effects on enzyme and transport activities of membrane-bound proteins. In addition, alcohol may interact directly with the hydrophobic regions of proteins. Such interactions may play an important role not only in membrane-bound proteins, but also in alcohol-induced changes in contractile proteins of the heart. It is suggested that, in general, the effects of alcohol are similar to those of other anesthetic agents, and that the elucidation of the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy may require a deeper understanding of the physical interaction among alcohol, phospholipids, and proteins.

  13. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  14. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  15. Typologies of Greek inactive older adults based on reasons for abstaining from exercise and conditions for change.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2008-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine typologies of non-exercisers based on reasons for physical inactivity and conditions reported to be necessary to change exercise behaviour. These typologies were then compared on psychological variables of interest and exercise history. Questionnaires were distributed to Greek older adults aged 60 and above who were recruited from social clubs and city cafés. Only individuals engaging in no regular exercise were recruited (n = 188). The results of hierarchical and k-means cluster analyses revealed two clusters for males ("approachable" and "unconvinced") and three for females ("unconcerned", "approachable", and "unconvinced"). The clusters differed significantly on psychological variables not used in the cluster solution. Exercise history distinguished between clusters only among males. The results reveal that physically inactive older adults are not a homogeneous group of individuals. Implementers of physical activity interventions should probably use a range of strategies that take into consideration that some sedentary older adults are more amenable to consider taking up exercise than others. PMID:18803065

  16. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and food corporations in promoting NCD risk and unhealthy lifestyles in South Africa and in exacerbating inequities in NCD distribution among populations. Through their business practices such as product design, marketing, retail distribution, and pricing and their business practices such as lobbying, public relations, philanthropy, and sponsored research, national and transnational corporations in South Africa shape the social and physical environments that structure opportunities for NCD risk behavior. Since the election of a democratic government in 1994, the South African government and civil society groups have used regulation, public education, health services, and community mobilization to modify corporate practices that increase NCD risk. By expanding the practice of health education to include activities that seek to modify the practices of corporations as well as individuals, South Africa can reduce the growing burden of NCDs. PMID:27037150

  17. Contribution of ALDH2 polymorphism to alcoholism-associated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Zhang, Yingmei; Nair, Sreejayan; Culver, Bruce W; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is considered as an independent lifestyle factor that may influence the risk of a number of cardiovascular anomalies including hypertension. In healthy adults, binge drinking and chronic alcohol ingestion lead to the onset and development of hypertension although the precise mechanism(s) remains obscure. Although oxidative stress and endothelial injury have been postulated to play a major contributing role to alcoholism-induced hypertension, recent evidence depicted a rather unique role for the genotype of the acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), which is mainly responsible for detoxifying ethanol consumed, in alcoholism-induced elevation of blood pressure. Genetic polymorphism of ALDH2 in human results in altered ethanol pharmacokinetic properties and ethanol metabolism, leading to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde following alcohol intake. The unfavorable consequence of the ALDH2 variants is believed to be governed by the accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. Presence of the mutant or inactive ALDH2*2 gene often results in an increased risk of hypertension in human. Such association between blood pressure and ALDH2 enzymatic activity may be affected by the interplay between gene and environment, such as life style and ethnicity. The aim of this mini-review is to summarize the possible contribution of ALDH2 genetic polymorphism in the onset and development of alcoholism-related development of hypertension. Furthermore, the double-edged sword of ALDH2 gene and genetic polymorphism in alcoholism and alcoholic tissue damage and relevant patents will be discussed.

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN VICTIMS OF PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Jaquier, Véronique; Tennen, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of alcohol problems and disorders among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV), factors related to current alcohol use are understudied. We examined current risk factors for alcohol problems among 143 substance-using, IPV-exposed women recruited from an urban community from 2007-2010. PTSD symptom severity was associated with alcohol-related problems and a positive alcohol screen; physical IPV severity was related to alcohol dependence. Posthoc analyses revealed that PTSD symptom severity mediated relationships between physical IPV severity and hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking. Focusing on managing PTSD symptoms and physical IPV in community-based interventions may halt the progression from alcohol use to dependence. PMID:22360665

  19. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  20. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients. PMID:27030835

  1. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  2. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  3. Circadian modulation of acute alcohol sensitivity but not acute tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Kim; Lyons, Lisa C

    2011-05-01

    An increased understanding of the factors affecting behavioral and neurological responses to alcohol and alcohol physiology is necessary given the tremendous toll alcohol abuse and alcoholism exert on individuals and society. At the behavioral and molecular levels, the response to alcohol appears remarkably conserved from Drosophila to humans, suggesting that investigations across model species can provide insight into the identification of common modulatory factors. We investigated the interaction between the circadian clock and alcohol sensitivity, alcohol tolerance, and alcohol absorbance in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a loss-of-righting reflex (LoRR) assay, we found that flies exhibit a circadian rhythm in the LoRR, with the greatest sensitivity to alcohol occurring from mid to late night, corresponding to the flies' inactive phase. As predicted, a circadian rhythm in the LoRR was absent in circadian mutant flies and under conditions in which the circadian clock was nonfunctional. Circadian modulation of the response to alcohol was not due to circadian regulation of alcohol absorbance. Similar to other animals, Drosophila develop acute and chronic tolerance to alcohol upon repeat exposures. We found that the circadian clock did not modulate the development of acute alcohol tolerance measured as the difference in sensitivity to alcohol between naïve and pre-exposed flies. Thus, the circadian clock modulates some, but not all, of the behavioral responses to alcohol exposure, suggesting that specific mechanisms underlie the observed circadian modulation of LoRR rather than global cellular circadian regulation. This study provides valuable new insights in our understanding of the circadian modulation of alcohol-induced behaviors that ultimately could facilitate preventative measures in combating alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  4. Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Luca; Lajoie, Bryan R; Carter, Ava C; Attia, Mikael; Zhan, Ye; Xu, Jin; Chen, Chong Jian; Kaplan, Noam; Chang, Howard Y; Heard, Edith; Dekker, Job

    2016-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions,remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes indifferent neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD

  5. Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Luca; Lajoie, Bryan R; Carter, Ava C; Attia, Mikael; Zhan, Ye; Xu, Jin; Chen, Chong Jian; Kaplan, Noam; Chang, Howard Y; Heard, Edith; Dekker, Job

    2016-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions,remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes indifferent neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD

  6. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October-November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  7. Acamprosate and alcohol: II. Effects on alcohol withdrawal in the rat.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, R; Putzke, J; Stefferl, A; Schöbitz, B; Zieglgänsberger, W

    1996-06-01

    The suppressing effect of acamprosate (calcium-acetyl homotaurinate) on alcohol drinking is well established; however, little is known about its effects upon the alcohol-induced withdrawal syndrome. Male Wistar rats received as a sole drinking fluid a 20% (v/v) alcohol solution for one week. Animals consumed on average 5.3 +/- 0.3 g/kg per day alcohol, which resulted in blood alcohol levels of 38 +/- 14 mg/dl. For the quantification of alcohol withdrawal we used a new radio-telemetric system which enabled us to monitor body temperature, locomotor activity, food and water intake patterns constantly during alcohol withdrawal. Although alcohol intake and the resulting blood alcohol levels were low, clear signs of withdrawal could be observed. Thus, hyperthermia and hyperlocomotion occurred 18 h after the termination of forced alcohol drinking. Food intake was initially enhanced but dropped significantly below basal food intake in control animals one day after the termination of forced alcohol drinking. Acamprosate given twice a day (200 mg/kg, i.p., 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.) reduced hyperlocomotion and food intake significantly in the alcohol withdrawal animals, however, it did not change withdrawal-induced hyperthermia. When acamprosate was given to alcohol-naive animals, it increased locomotor activity and body temperature transiently, in particular during the rats' active night phase. In summary, (i) the radio-telemetric system used in the present study proved to be a very sensitive method for quantifying alcohol-induced withdrawal symptoms; (ii) acamprosate reduced alcohol-induced physical signs of withdrawal, however, this effect could not be observed for all parameters measured, which might be explained by the fact that (iii) acamprosate exerts a slight, transient psychomotor stimulant effects by itself.

  8. Novel Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Associations Between Obesity, Physical Activity And Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Duncan S.; Thomas, Non E.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  11. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  12. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  13. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now...

  14. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now...

  15. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now...

  16. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now...

  17. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now...

  18. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types... practitioner take and pass a professional responsibility examination. (c) Transfer to disability...

  19. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission will not require a license pursuant to 10 CFR chapter I for possession of residual radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section...

  20. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission will not require a license pursuant to 10 CFR chapter I for possession of residual radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section...

  1. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission will not require a license pursuant to 10 CFR chapter I for possession of residual radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section...

  2. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission will not require a license pursuant to 10 CFR chapter I for possession of residual radioactive... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section...

  3. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  4. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Implications for Treatment. Treatment Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Stephen E., Ed.

    Articles in this monograph examine key issues in combined drug and alcohol use. The first chapter discusses clinical and research evidence about the physical and psychological effects of various drug and alcohol combinations. Chapter Two presents findings about usage patterns of alcohol and drugs. The impact of alcohol use in a treatment setting…

  5. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  6. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  7. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  8. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  9. Accelerated wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of physically cross linked polyvinyl alcohol-chitosan hydrogel containing honey bee venom in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohamed A; Abdel-Raheem, Ihab T

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of impaired wound healing. The objective of this study was to develop a bee venom-loaded wound dressing with an enhanced healing and anti-inflammatory effects to be examined in diabetic rats. Different preparations of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), chitosan (Chit) hydrogel matrix-based wound dressing containing bee venom (BV) were developed using freeze-thawing method. The mechanical properties such as gel fraction, swelling ratio, tensile strength, percentage of elongation and surface pH were determined. The pharmacological activities including wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to primary skin irritation and microbial penetration tests were evaluated. Moreover, hydroxyproline, glutathione and IL-6 levels were measured in the wound tissues of diabetic rats. The bee venom-loaded wound dressing composed of 10 % PVA, 0.6 % Chit and 4 % BV was more swellable, flexible and elastic than other formulations. Pharmacologically, the bee venom-loaded wound dressing that has the same previous composition showed accelerated healing of wounds made in diabetic rats compared to the control. Moreover, this bee venom-loaded wound dressing exhibited anti-inflammatory effect that is comparable to that of diclofenac gel, the standard anti-inflammatory drug. Simultaneously, wound tissues covered with this preparation displayed higher hydroxyproline and glutathione levels and lower IL-6 levels compared to control. Thus, the bee venom-loaded hydrogel composed of 10 % PVA, 0.6 % Chit and 4 % BV is a promising wound dressing with excellent forming and enhanced wound healing as well as anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24293065

  10. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  11. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  12. Understanding Impediments and Enablers to Physical Activity among African American Adults: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…

  13. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  14. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  15. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  16. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  17. Physical Activity among Ethnically Diverse College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suminski, Richard R.; Petosa, Rick; Utter, Alan C.; Zhang, James J.

    2002-01-01

    Compared physical activity patterns among Asian, African, white, and Hispanic, American college students. Self-report data indicated that nearly half of the sample did not engage in vigorous physical activity, and 16.7 percent were inactive. Weight-training, youthful physical activity, and television viewing accounted for a significant portion of…

  18. Positive mood + action = negative mood + inaction: effects of general action and inaction concepts on decisions and performance as a function of affect.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William

    2011-08-01

    General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants' moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants' memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime's adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect.

  19. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  20. No evidence of association between structural polymorphism at the dopamine D3 receptor locus and alcoholism in the Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Susumu; Muramatsu, Taro; Matsushita, Sachio; Murayama, Masanobu

    1996-07-26

    Dopaminergic systems mediate reward mechanisms and are involved in reinforcing self-administration of dependence-forming substances, including alcohol. Studies have reported that polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, whose structure and function are similar to those of the dopamine D3 receptor, increase the susceptibility to alcoholism. The observations led to the examination of the possible association between a structural polymorphism of the D3 receptor gene and alcoholism. Genotyping results, employing a PCR-RFLP method, showed no difference in allele and genotype frequencies of the D3 BalI polymorphism (Ser{sup 9}/Gly{sup 9}) between Japanese alcoholics and controls. Moreover, these frequencies were not altered in alcoholics with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), a well-defined negative risk factor for alcoholism. These results strongly suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is not associated with alcoholism. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Designed to Move? Physical Activity Lobbying and the Politics of Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggin, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Physical inactivity is a major public health concern. At a population level, it is increasingly perceived to be a social problem which is global and multidimensional, and which requires attention by a diverse range of state, private and civil society organisations. Given the increasing attention to physical in/activity by a range of…

  2. Exercise Modality Choices One Year After Intervention in Previously Inactive Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-07-01

    A convenience sample of 176 healthy, community-dwelling, inactive older adults (mean age 70 ± 5 years; 62 males, 114 females) were tracked for one year. The purpose was to describe the exercise modality choices older adults make one year following participation in an exercise and education intervention. Telephone follow-up contacted 137 participants (78%, men = 50, women = 87) and 62% of the men and 69% of the women reported to be "currently exercising." Exercising independently was the most common type of exercise reported by 81% and 64% of men and women, respectively. Walking was the most commonly reported modality by both genders. The setting of exercise was most often reported to be at home or outside for both men and women. The main reason for continued participation at 12 months was for overall health (50% of men and 40% of women). Little variation was observed for exercise modality choice. Future interventions should consider a variety of exercise and physical activity opportunities for older adults.

  3. Neighborhood Street Scale Elements, Sedentary Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Inactive Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. Purpose To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006–2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05). Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05). Conclusions Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car. PMID:23236434

  4. Boys, Transitions, and Physical (In)activity: Exploring the Socio-Behavioural Mediators of Participation.

    PubMed

    Jachyra, Patrick; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Objet: Explorer les mécanismes sociocomportementaux qui poussent les garçons à faire de l'activité physique (AP) ou les en dissuade à l'aube de l'adolescence et les répercussions sur le plan de la physiothérapie. Méthodes: Cette étude qualitative critique comportait des entrevues en profondeur basées sur des techniques de « l'entrevue active » de 15 garçons adolescents. La génération et l'analyse des données ont été propulsées par les techniques de la théorie à base empirique et la sociologie de la pratique de Bourdieu. Résultats: L'analyse a dégagé des relations intersectionnelles entre les émotions, les plaisirs inhérents au mouvement et un sentiment de lien avec l'AP, dont chacune a agi comme facteur de motivation incitant à faire de l'AP. De façon analogue, l'insatisfaction à l'égard de leur corps, des perceptions de soi négatives et des cas répétés d'intimidation explicite et symbolique ont convergé pour dissuader de faire de l'AP et susciter de l'apathie à cet égard. Conclusion: La détermination de mécanismes sociocomportementaux qui motivent et découragent l'activité physique aide à produire de nouvelles connaissances qui aident à comprendre l'attrition de l'AP chez les garçons à l'aube de l'adolescence. En tant que promoteurs de la santé et experts du mouvement, les physiothérapeutes ont un rôle important à jouer en aidant les adolescents, sans égard à leurs aptitudes, à participer à des activités qui leur donnent un sens, de l'inclusivité et un sentiment de lien avec l'AP.

  5. Skeletal muscle adaptations to physical inactivity and subsequent retraining in young men.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E L; Seynnes, O R; Bottinelli, R; McPhee, J S; Atherton, P J; Jones, D A; Butler-Browne, G; Narici, M V

    2013-06-01

    Skeletal muscle structure and function are markedly affected by chronic disuse. With unloading, muscle mass is lost at rate of about 0.4 %/day but little is known about the recovery of muscle mass and strength following disuse. Here we report an extensive data set describing in detail skeletal muscle adaptations in structure and function in response to both disuse and retraining. Eight young men (23 ± 2.2 years) underwent 3 weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) followed by a 3-week resistance training recovery program. Knee extensor isometric torque, voluntary activation, quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle volume (QFvol), fascicle length (Lf) and pennation angle (θ), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of all four heads of the QF muscle, were measured before, after ULLS, and post-ULLS-resistance training. Needle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of a subgroup (n = 6) of the same subjects and cross sectional area of individual muscle s and myosin content of muscle samples were determined. Following 3 weeks of ULLS, isometric torque decreased by 26 %, PCSA by 3 %, QFvol by 10 %. Lf and θ of all four heads of QF significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05). Following the 3-week retraining period, isometric torque, PCSA, QFvol, Lf and θ of all four heads of QF were all fully restored to pre ULLS values. CSA of individual muscle fibres and myosin content of muscle samples decreased by 26 and 35 % respectively (post-ULLS) and recovered to almost pre-ULLS values following retraining. There were no significant changes in voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscles in response to either ULLS or subsequent retraining. These results indicate that: (1) the loss of muscle force with 3-week unloading in humans is mostly explained by muscle atrophy and by a decrease in myosin content and, (2) all the neuromuscular changes induced by this model of disuse can be fully restored after a resistance training intervention of equal duration. PMID:23666342

  6. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome–like Symptoms in Japanese Patients with Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Toshihiko; Kato, Yu; Takimoto, Mayu; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Ohda, Yoshio; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shigemi; Shima, Masayuki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies are available that have investigated the risk factors for overlapping irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study has 3 objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in Japanese patients with inactive IBD using Rome III criteria, (2) to examine the relationship of IBS-like symptoms to health related quality of life (HR-QOL), and (3) to investigate associations for developing IBS-like symptoms in patients with inactive IBD. Methods IBS-like symptoms were evaluated using the Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal disorders. HR-QOL and hospital anxiety and depression scale were evaluated. Results IBS-like symptoms were found in 17.5% (7/40) of patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, 27.1% (29/107) of patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD), and 5.3% (23/438) of healthy control subjects. The QOL level was significantly lower and anxiety score was significantly higher in inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms than in those without such symptoms (P = 0.003, P = 0.009). Use of anti-anxiety drugs was associated with the presence of IBS symptoms (P = 0.045). HR-QOL score was lower and anxiety score was higher in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in inactive IBD patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms has low QOL and anxiety; suggesting that anxiety may be associated with symptom development in such patients. PMID:27193973

  7. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  12. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  13. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  14. Health behaviors in elderly people. A 5-year follow-up of 75-year-old people living in three Nordic localities. Smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and healthy eating, and attitudes to their importance.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Maria, Aijö

    2002-06-01

    Few studies about health behavior among elderly persons in the Nordic countries are available, and our knowledge about longitudinal changes is especially limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected health behaviors as reported at age 75 years in Finland, Sweden and Denmark together with answers regarding attitudes to such habits, and study longitudinal changes between 75 and 80 years. The study population included 499 men and 704 women born in 1914/15 and examined in 1989/90 in Jyväskylä (Finland), Göteborg (Sweden), and Glostrup (Denmark). Survivors were re-examined in 1994/95. A self-administered validated questionnaire developed from the Danish Nationwide Health Surveys was given to the participants during a home visit and checked when the subjects came to the laboratory examination. The Danes had the highest proportion of smokers and persons with daily alcoholic beverage consumption and the smallest proportion of healthy eaters, but the Swedes had the most sedentary life-style. Women had the healthiest life-style. Between ages 75 and 80 years, the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased, but there was no change in believing the importance of one's own effort in maintaining health. The free-time physical activity decreased, but there was no change in the attitude towards physical activity. There were major cross-national differences among the three Nordic localities, but the health behaviors were rather stable, though the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased. Not more than 60 to 70% of the subjects believed that their own efforts are important to health.

  15. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution. PMID:23766548

  16. Evidence for a Chemoautotrophically Based Food Web at Inactive Hydrothermal Vents (Manus Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dover, C. L.; Erickson, K.; Macko, S.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are ephemeral systems. When venting shuts down, sulfide-dependent taxa die off, and non-vent taxa can colonize the hard substrata. In Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea), where active and inactive sulfide mounds are interspersed, hydroids, cladorhizid sponges, barnacles, and bamboo sponges, and other invertebrate types may occupy inactive sulfide mounds. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of animals occupying inactive sulfide mounds are consistent with nutritional dependence on either chemoautotrophically or photosynthetically produced organic material, but sulfur isotopic compositions of these animals point to a chemoautotrophic source of sulfur from dissolved sulfide in vent fluids rather than sulfur derived from seawater sulfate through photosynthesis. Given that suspension-feeding and micro- carnivorous invertebrates are the biomass dominants at inactive sulfide mounds, the primary source of chemoautotrophic nutrition is likely suspended particulates and organisms delivered from nearby active vents.

  17. Evidence for a chemoautotrophically based food web at inactive hydrothermal vents (Manus Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, K. L.; Macko, S. A.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2009-09-01

    Hydrothermal vents are ephemeral systems. When venting shuts down, sulfide-dependent taxa die off, and non-vent taxa can colonize the hard substrata. In Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea), where hydrothermally active and inactive sites are interspersed, hydroids, cladorhizid sponges, barnacles, bamboo corals, and other invertebrate types may occupy inactive sites. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of animals occupying inactive sites are consistent with nutritional dependence on either chemoautotrophically or photosynthetically produced organic material, but sulfur isotopic compositions of these animals point to a chemoautotrophic source of sulfur from dissolved sulfide in vent fluids rather than sulfur derived from seawater sulfate through photosynthesis. Given that suspension-feeding and micro-carnivorous invertebrates are the biomass dominants at inactive sites, the primary source of chemoautotrophic nutrition is likely suspended particulates and organisms delivered from nearby active vents.

  18. Increasing and Decreasing Motor and Cognitive Output: A Model of General Action and Inaction Goals

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D.; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P.

    2013-01-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as “action” and “rest.” The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior. PMID:18729691

  19. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT INACTIVE AND ABANDONED METALS MINE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental problems associated with abandoned and inactive mines are addressed along with some approaches to resolving those problems, including case studies demonstrating technologies that have worked. New technologies being investigated are addressed also.

  20. Physical activity and other health behaviors in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Reineck, Elizabeth; Rolston, Brice; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Salberg, Lisa; Baty, Linda; Kumar, Suwen; Wheeler, Matthew T; Ashley, Euan; Saberi, Sara; Day, Sharlene M

    2013-04-01

    The clinical expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is undoubtedly influenced by modifying genetic and environmental factors. Lifestyle practices such as tobacco and alcohol use, poor nutritional intake, and physical inactivity are strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality in the general population. Before addressing the direct effect of such modifiable factors on the natural history of HC, it is critical to define their prevalence in this population. A voluntary survey, drawing questions in part from the 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), was posted on the HC Association website and administered to patients with HC at the University of Michigan. Propensity score matching to NHANES participants was used. Dichotomous and continuous health behaviors were analyzed using logistic and linear regression, respectively, and adjusted for body mass index and propensity score quintile. Compared to the matched NHANES participants, the patients with HC reported significantly less alcohol and tobacco use but also less time engaged in physical activity at work and for leisure. Time spent participating in vigorous or moderate activity was a strong predictor of self-reported exercise capacity. The body mass index was greater in the HC cohort than in the NHANES cohort. Exercise restrictions negatively affected emotional well-being in most surveyed subjects. In conclusion, patients with HC are less active than the general United States population. The well-established relation of inactivity, obesity, and cardiovascular mortality might be exaggerated in patients with HC. More data are needed on exercise in those with HC to strike a balance between acute risks and the long-term health benefits of exercise. PMID:23340032

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  3. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  5. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources.

  6. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.

  7. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M.; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette

    2015-01-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. PMID:25653311

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  9. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  12. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  13. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  14. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  15. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  16. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  17. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity and physical activity is complex. For example, childhood obesity has been partially attributed to physical inactivity ( 12 ), ... Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Changes in terminology for childhood overweight and obesity. National health statistics reports; no 25. Hyattsville, MD: ...

  18. Idea Bank: Wiffle Ball Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Projectile motion, a cornerstone topic of introductory physics, is usually a student's first exposure to the problem-solving techniques used in this subject. Often, this is an inactive learning experience--students work with pencil and paper to read and solve projectile motion problems (e.g., diagrams and descriptions of balls being hit, kicked,…

  19. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  20. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of the study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. Stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms were observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  1. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  3. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  4. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  5. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  6. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  7. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  8. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  9. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  10. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  11. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  12. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  13. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  14. Nutrition implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer K; Giesbrecht, Heather E; Eskin, Michael N; Aliani, Michel; Suh, Miyoung

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption. It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because there is a lack of information on the role of nutrients and prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD, the focus of this review is to provide an overview of nutrients (vitamin A, docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, zinc, choline, vitamin E, and selenium) that may prevent or alleviate the development of FASD. Results from various nutrient supplementation studies in animal models and FASD-related research conducted in humans provide insight into the plausibility of prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of multiple-nutrient supplementation. PMID:25398731

  15. Nutrition implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer K; Giesbrecht, Heather E; Eskin, Michael N; Aliani, Michel; Suh, Miyoung

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption. It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. Because there is a lack of information on the role of nutrients and prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD, the focus of this review is to provide an overview of nutrients (vitamin A, docosahexaenoic acid, folic acid, zinc, choline, vitamin E, and selenium) that may prevent or alleviate the development of FASD. Results from various nutrient supplementation studies in animal models and FASD-related research conducted in humans provide insight into the plausibility of prenatal nutrition interventions for FASD. Further research is necessary to confirm positive results, to determine optimal amounts of nutrients needed in supplementation, and to investigate the collective effects of multiple-nutrient supplementation.

  16. Inactive Disease and Remission in Childhood-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Rina; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa S.; Ravelli, Angelo; Beresford, Michael W.; Avcin, Tadej; Espada, Graciela; Eberhard, B. Anne; Schanberg, Laura E.; O’Neil, Kathleen M.; Silva, Clovis A.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Onel, Karen; Singer, Nora G.; von Scheven, Emily; Imundo, Lisa F; Nelson, Shannen; Giannini, Edward H.; Brunner, Hermine I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To define inactive disease (ID) and clinical remission (CR), and delineate variables that can be used to measure ID/CR in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE). Methods Delphi questionnaires were sent to an international group of pediatric rheumatologists. Respondents provided information about variables to be used in future algorithms to measure ID/CR. The usefulness of these variables was assessed in 35 children in ID and 31 children with minimally active lupus (MAL). Results While ID reflects cSLE status at a specific point in time, CR requires the presence of ID for ≥ 6 months and considers treatment. There was consensus that patients in ID/CR can have ≤ 2 mild non-limiting symptoms (i.e. fatigue, arthralgia, headaches or myalgia) but not Raynaud’s phenomenon, chest pain, or objective physical signs of cSLE; ANA positivity and ESR elevation can be present. CBC, renal function testing, and complement C3 all must be within the normal range. Based on consensus, only damage-related laboratory or clinical findings of cSLE are permissible with ID. The above parameters were suitable to differentiate children with ID/CR from those with MAL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.85). Disease activity scores with or without the physician global assessment of disease activity and patient symptoms were well suited to differentiate children with ID from those with MAL. Conclusions Consensus has been reached on common definitions of ID/CR with cSLE and relevant patient characteristics with ID/CR. Further studies must assess the usefulness of the data-driven candidate criteria for ID in cSLE. PMID:22238253

  17. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  18. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  19. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity. PMID:26558638

  4. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Protective effects of voluntary physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Brocardo, Patricia S; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can damage the developing nervous system, producing long-lasting impairments in both brain structure and function. In this study we analyzed how exposure to this teratogen during the period of brain development affects the intracellular redox state in the brain as well as the development of anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we also tested whether aerobic exercise might have therapeutic potential for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) by increasing neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or by alleviating ethanol-induced behavioral deficits. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol across all three-trimester equivalents (i.e., throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed and control animals were assigned to either sedentary or running groups at postnatal day (PND) 48. Runners had free access to a running wheel for 12 days and at PND 60 anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed. Perinatal ethanol exposure resulted in the occurrence of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adult rats without affecting their locomotor activity. Voluntary wheel running reversed the depressive-like behaviors in ethanol-exposed males, but not in ethanol-exposed females. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of ethanol-exposed rats, and there was a concomitant reduction in the levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. Voluntary exercise was able to reverse the deficits in glutathione both in ethanol-exposed males and females. Thus, while voluntary physical exercise increased glutathione levels in both sexes, its effects at the behavioral level were sex dependent, with only ethanol-exposed male runners showing a decrease in depressive-like behaviors.

  5. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  6. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  7. Prior alcohol consumption does not impair go/no-go discrimination learning, but causes over-responding on go trials, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Charles L; Fisher, Hayley; Bright, Nicholas; Gallo, Mark; Ray, Madelyn H; Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Prior alcohol use is associated with impaired response inhibition in humans, including in laboratory go/no-go discrimination tasks. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol would alter go/no-go discrimination learning. Rats received 4-6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol (alone or accompanied by saline or 1.5g/kg alcohol injections) or water. Rats then began discrimination training 4-5days after the end of the alcohol access. Each lever was available for 40s with one lever intermittently reinforced ("active lever") and the other lever non-reinforced ("inactive lever"). The rats given access to alcohol without concurrent alcohol injections drank ∼10g/kg/24-h on average during the last three weeks of alcohol access. The groups given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection groups) exhibited suppressed drinking, but the Alcohol+Injection groups exhibited higher blood alcohol spikes than all other alcohol groups (195 vs. 85-90mg/dl, respectively). We found no evidence for impaired go/no-go discrimination learning in either experiment. However, the alcohol access groups with moderate-to-high average alcohol consumption (>3g/kg/24-h) exhibited over-responding to the active lever compared to the water-only groups. One group given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection group) that exhibited very low voluntary drinking (<1g/kg/24-h) did not exhibit the over-responding effect, suggesting that the total 24-h alcohol dose matters more than short-lived blood alcohol spikes. Our findings are in accord with previous research showing that repeated alcohol withdrawal causes over-responding for responses that lead to limited reinforcement. Future work will determine the psychological and neurobiological basis of this behavioral change.

  8. Prior alcohol consumption does not impair go/no-go discrimination learning, but causes over-responding on go trials, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Charles L; Fisher, Hayley; Bright, Nicholas; Gallo, Mark; Ray, Madelyn H; Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Prior alcohol use is associated with impaired response inhibition in humans, including in laboratory go/no-go discrimination tasks. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol would alter go/no-go discrimination learning. Rats received 4-6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol (alone or accompanied by saline or 1.5g/kg alcohol injections) or water. Rats then began discrimination training 4-5days after the end of the alcohol access. Each lever was available for 40s with one lever intermittently reinforced ("active lever") and the other lever non-reinforced ("inactive lever"). The rats given access to alcohol without concurrent alcohol injections drank ∼10g/kg/24-h on average during the last three weeks of alcohol access. The groups given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection groups) exhibited suppressed drinking, but the Alcohol+Injection groups exhibited higher blood alcohol spikes than all other alcohol groups (195 vs. 85-90mg/dl, respectively). We found no evidence for impaired go/no-go discrimination learning in either experiment. However, the alcohol access groups with moderate-to-high average alcohol consumption (>3g/kg/24-h) exhibited over-responding to the active lever compared to the water-only groups. One group given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection group) that exhibited very low voluntary drinking (<1g/kg/24-h) did not exhibit the over-responding effect, suggesting that the total 24-h alcohol dose matters more than short-lived blood alcohol spikes. Our findings are in accord with previous research showing that repeated alcohol withdrawal causes over-responding for responses that lead to limited reinforcement. Future work will determine the psychological and neurobiological basis of this behavioral change. PMID:27327103

  9. Alcohol Abuse on a College Campus: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a needs assessment study conducted by a university-based alcohol abuse prevention project. Results suggest that students are experiencing numerous difficulties in the physical, educational, legal, and psychological areas due to their use of alcoholic beverages. Implications for prevention and intervention…

  10. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome--Recent International Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Richard

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores incidence rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and describes physical and cognitive impairments exhibited by FAS children. It examines program strategies for prevention of FAS in the United States and reviews research undertaken at the Edinburgh University Medical School, Scotland, concerning alcohol effects on the ovum before…

  11. Effects of Trait Anger on Alcohol Consumption and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibsohn, Matthew T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared alcohol consumption and its consequences for high- and low-anger college students. High-anger students exhibited more frequent drinking and intoxication, and experienced severer physical, emotional, and behavioral alcohol-related consequences than low-anger students. Some gender differences were noted. Results are discussed in terms of…

  12. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  13. ALDH2 in Alcoholic Heart Diseases: Molecular Mechanism and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is manifested as cardiac hypertrophy, disrupted contractile function and myofibrillary architecture. An ample amount of clinical and experimental evidence has depicted a pivotal role for alcohol metabolism especially the main alcohol metabolic product acetaldehyde, in the pathogenesis of this myopathic state. Findings from our group and others have revealed that the mitochondrial isoform of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), which metabolizes acetaldehyde, governs the detoxification of acetaldehyde formed following alcohol consumption and the ultimate elimination of alcohol from the body. The ALDH2 enzymatic cascade may evolve as a unique detoxification mechanism for environmental alcohols and aldehydes to alleviate the undesired cardiac anomalies in ischemia-reperfusion and alcoholism. Polymorphic variants of the ALDH2 gene encode enzymes with altered pharmacokinetic properties and a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases associated with alcoholism. The pathophysiological effects of ALDH2 polymorphism may be mediated by accumulation of acetaldehyde and other reactive aldehydes. Inheritance of the inactive ALDH2*2 gene product is associated with a decreased risk of alcoholism but an increased risk of alcoholic complications. This association is influenced by gene-environment interactions such as those associated with religion and national origin. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy with a special focus on ALDH2 enzymatic metabolism. It will be important to dissect the links between ALDH2 polymorphism and prevalence of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, in order to determine the mechanisms underlying such associations. The therapeutic value of ALDH2 as both target and tool in the management of alcoholic tissue damage will be discussed. PMID:21664374

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  15. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  16. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  17. Autophosphorylation properties of inactive and active JNK2.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Genaro; Ficarro, Scott B; Gutierrez, Gustavo J; Bhoumik, Anindita; Peters, Eric C; Ronai, Ze'ev; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-07-15

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are ubiquitous proteins that phosphorylate their substrates, such as transcription factors, in response to physical stress, cytokines or UV radiation. This leads to changes in gene expression, ensuing either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Active phospho JNK1 is the main in vivo kinase component of the JNK cascade, whereas JNK2 is presumed not to participate as a kinase during JNK signalling. However, there is evidence that JNK isoforms interact functionally in vivo. Also, a recent chemical genetics investigation has confirmed that JNK transient activation leads to cellular proliferation, whereas a sustained one is pro-apoptotic. Here we investigate the phosphorylation pattern of JNK2, with protein biochemistry tools and tandem mass spectrometry. We choose to focus on JNK2 because of its reported constitutive activity in glioma cells. Our results indicate that purified JNK2 from transfected nonstressed 293T cells is a mixture of the mono-sites pThr183 and pTyr185 of its activation loop and of pThr386 along its unique C-terminal region. Upon UV stimulation, its phosphorylation stoichiometry is upregulated on the activation loop, generating a mixture of mono-pTyr185 and the expected dual-pThr183/pTyr185 species, with the pThr386 specie present but unaltered respect to the basal conditions.

  18. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  19. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  20. Discrimination of active and inactive sand from remote sensing - Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paisley, Elizabeth C. I.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Landsat TM images, field data, and laboratoray reflectance spectra were examined for the Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California to assess the use of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) remote sensing data to discriminate aeolian sand populations on the basis of spectral brightness. Results show that areas of inactive sand have a larger percentage of dark, fine-grained materials compared to those composed of active sand, which contain less dark fines and a higher percentage of quartz sand-size grains. Both areas are spectrally distinct in the VNIR, suggesting that VNIR spectral data can be used to discriminate active and inactive sand populations in the Mojave Desert. Analysis of laboratory spectra was complicated by the presence of magnetite in the active sands, which decreases their laboratory reflectance values to those of inactive sands. For this application, comparison of TM and laboratory spectra suggests that less than 35 percent vegetation cover does not influence the TM spectra.

  1. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients. PMID:16546698

  2. Establishment of X chromosome inactivation and epigenomic features of the inactive X depend on cellular contexts.

    PubMed

    Vallot, Céline; Ouimette, Jean-François; Rougeulle, Claire

    2016-09-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential epigenetic process that ensures X-linked gene dosage equilibrium between sexes in mammals. XCI is dynamically regulated during development in a manner that is intimately linked to differentiation. Numerous studies, which we review here, have explored the dynamics of X inactivation and reactivation in the context of development, differentiation and diseases, and the phenotypic and molecular link between the inactive status, and the cellular context. Here, we also assess whether XCI is a uniform mechanism in mammals by analyzing epigenetic signatures of the inactive X (Xi) in different species and cellular contexts. It appears that the timing of XCI and the epigenetic signature of the inactive X greatly vary between species. Surprisingly, even within a given species, various Xi configurations are found across cellular states. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying these variations, and how they might influence the fate of the Xi.

  3. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  4. Role of Active and Inactive Cytotoxic Immune Response in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Toro Zapata, Hernan Dario; Caicedo Casso, Angelica Graciela; Bichara, Derdei; Lee, Sunmi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mathematical models can be helpful to understand the complex dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection within a host. Most of work has studied the interactions of host responses and virus in the presence of active cytotoxic immune cells, which decay to zero when there is no virus. However, recent research highlights that cytotoxic immune cells can be inactive but never be depleted. Methods We propose a mathematical model to investigate the human immunodeficiency virus dynamics in the presence of both active and inactive cytotoxic immune cells within a host. We explore the impact of the immune responses on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection under different disease stages. Results Standard mathematical and numerical analyses are presented for this new model. Specifically, the basic reproduction number is computed and local and global stability analyses are discussed. Conclusion Our results can give helpful insights when designing more effective drug schedules in the presence of active and inactive immune responses. PMID:24955306

  5. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  6. 27 CFR 19.153 - Statement of physical security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of physical security. 19.153 Section 19.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.153 Statement of physical...

  7. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment. PMID:24475066

  8. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  9. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  10. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  11. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  12. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  13. Incidental and Reflective Learning in the Workplace: An Action Science Study of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; And Others

    There are over 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States, 22 million of whom have now reached adulthood yet continue to experience emotional, mental, and physical effects of life in an alcoholic family. In the workplace, adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) have recently become acknowledged as a group who face special challenges. The…

  14. "Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    Because of an increasing number of reports of adverse reactions associated with pharmaceutical excipients, in 1985 the Committee on Drugs issued a position statement recommending that the Food and Drug Administration mandate labeling of over-the-counter and prescription formulations to include a qualitative list of inactive ingredients. However, labeling of inactive ingredients remains voluntary. Adverse reactions continue to be reported, although some are no longer considered clinically significant, and other new reactions have emerged. The original statement, therefore, has been updated and its information expanded.

  15. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  16. Pedometers: A Strategy to Promote Increased Physical Activity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Debra J.; Mintah, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Inactive lifestyle behaviors are predominant in society, especially among the adult population. This study examined the issue of inactivity among college students. A pedometer was used as an intervention strategy, to increase awareness of, and motivate college students to achieve the minimum recommended amount of daily physical activity. A…

  17. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  18. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  20. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.