Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol prevention efforts

  1. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  2. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps.

    PubMed

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  3. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A.; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  4. Trends in College Binge Drinking during a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1933-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Kuo, Meichun; Seibring, Mark; Nelson, Toben F.; Lee, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed students at colleges that had participated in college alcohol surveys between 1993-99 to examine trends in binge drinking, related problems, and prevention efforts. Binge drinking rates remained constant, with shifts in drinking behavior among subgroups. Immoderate drinking and harm among drinkers increased. More students lived in…

  5. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  6. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  7. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  8. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  9. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  10. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  11. Prevention of alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W B

    1994-09-01

    The primary goal of educational alcohol prevention programs is to lower the overall prevalence of alcohol use and abuse among populations at risk for negative alcohol-related outcomes. Youth are primarily targeted for prevention since there is ample evidence that alcohol-related injuries constitute a major risk for this group in particular. Prevention includes a goal to delay the onset of regular consumption and decrease high-risk consumption among youth who do drink. No matter what definition of alcohol use or abuse is adopted, the goal of prevention is to lower the proportion of youth who engage in that type of use. Among those who already use or abuse alcohol by any definition, the goal of prevention is to reduce the average intensity of use and prevent the progression of consumption to more severe levels. Reducing high-risk consumption may include preventing drinking while driving as well as promoting "responsible" drinking. Prevention programs may include a focus on reducing or eliminating consumption among occasional users. Prevention is also targeted at adults, primarily focusing on reduction of alcohol-impaired driving, reduction of alcohol-related violence, and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:7845939

  12. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  13. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  14. Preventing Underage Alcohol Access: Policy and Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    One of the major challenges faced by states and communities is the prevention of underage alcohol access. Underage drinking is widespread and, to a large extent, tolerated by society. It is also implicated in a range of health and social problems that are both tragic and costly. The bad news is clear and all too visible. Underage alcohol use is a…

  15. Alcoholism Prevention: Guide to Resources and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide is intended as a compilation of literature pertaining to prevention of alcoholism from 1973 to the present, with the exception of a very few earlier, highly significnat documents. Materials cited were gleaned from searches of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information database, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Hazelden Foundation…

  16. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  17. Grassroots efforts pursue alcohol policy reform: refocusing upstream in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Stivers, C

    1994-01-01

    ORGANIZATION SETTING. The New Mexico Alcohol Issues Consortium (NMAIC) originated in January 1989 as a grassroots effort to focus on the reduction of driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) in New Mexico. It was the brainchild of three state health department officials and grew to include in its membership representatives from education, medicine, law enforcement, neighborhood associations, business, and local and state government. RATIONALE. New Mexico ranks at or near the top in several alcohol-related statistics, including motor vehicle fatalities, cirrhosis, and alcoholism. Furthermore, the 'alcohol environment' in New Mexico included the allowance for the purchase of alcoholic beverages at drive-up windows, lax enforcement of DWI laws, and even state legislators with DWI records. Theoretical bases upon which NMAIC goals and strategies were based include the public health model, the public health/dynamic systems, model of alcohol and other drug use, and 'refocusing upstream,' all of which give attention to the environment as a determinant of health status. IMPLEMENTATION. While the NMAIC's activities addressed a variety of alcohol-related problems in New Mexico, the bulk of the organization's efforts for four years were directed toward increasing the excise tax on alcohol, either as a statewide measure or via county-level local option referenda. Strategies which were enacted to support this legislative activity included collaboration with other programs and organizations with similar DWI-prevention goals, and staged media events to solicit public support. IMPACT. In four years, the NMAIC had established itself as a credible organization which was successful in publicly and systematically challenging existing alcohol policies in New Mexico. The NMAIC was also instrumental in empowering individuals and communities to speak and act against the alcohol problems in their own communities. Finally, during the 1993 New Mexico Legislative Session, a bill was passed which

  18. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  19. The Moderating Effects of School Climate on Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…

  20. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Dependence: Anticraving Medications for Relapse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Chul

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder that results from a variety of genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Relapse prevention for alcohol dependence has traditionally involved psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pharmacotherapy, however, in conjunction with behavioral therapy, is generating interest as another modality to prevent relapse and enhance abstinence. Naltrexone and acamprosate are at the forefront of the currently available pharmacological options. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist and is thought to reduce the rewarding effect of alcohol. Acamprosate normalizes the dysregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated glutamatergic excitation that occurs in alcohol withdrawal and early abstinence. These different mechanisms of action and different target neurotransmitter systems may endow the two drugs with efficacy for different aspects of alcohol use behavior. Since not all patients seem to benefit from naltrexone and acamprosate, there are ongoing efforts to improve the treatment outcomes by examining the advantages of combined pharmacotherapy and exploring the variables that might predict the response of the medications. In addition, novel medications are being investigated to assess their efficacy in preventing relapse and increasing abstinence. PMID:16642544

  1. Research, Action, and the Community: Experiences in the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. OSAP Prevention Monograph-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents modified and updated papers from a symposium held to examine alcohol and drug abuse prevention efforts worldwide. It contains 32 papers from 11 countries; papers include: (1) "Community Action on Alcohol Problems: The Demonstration Project as an Unstable Mixture" (Robin Room); (2) "Perspectives on the Community in Action…

  2. Black Churches in Substance Use and Abuse Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane R.; Scott, Wilma; Lacey, Krim; Blount, Joan; Roman, Dorothy; Brown, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    In light of their historical role in African American communities, faith-based organizations are uniquely positioned to offer substance use prevention programs to urban African American youth. This article describes the efforts of a university-based program to provide training and technical assistance to faith-based organizations in the…

  3. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  4. New Headings: Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This brief booklet outlines the goals and rationale behind the Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program (NAPP). The program is built upon the assumption that alcoholism is a preventable and treatable illness. More than half the directors, counselors, and support staff at NAPP are sober alcoholics whose primary objectives involve aiding other alcoholics…

  5. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.S. gay bars, but these effects have not generalized to gay bars elsewhere or to other populations. Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers. Finally, a small number of studies have examined multilevel approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments. PMID:23584060

  6. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  7. Institutionalizing Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Moeykens, Barbara A.

    This bulletin is intended to help school administrators at the higher education level who are responsible for developing and institutionalizing alcohol and other drug prevention programs. Stressed is the importance of thinking about the program's long-term prospects during early stages of program planning. The information is based on interviews…

  8. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  9. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  10. Common Ground: An Investigation of Environmental Management Alcohol Prevention Initiatives in a College Community*

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Mark D.; DeJong, William; Fairlie, Anne M.; Lawson, Doreen; Lavigne, Andrea M.; Cohen, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article presents an evaluation of Common Ground, a media campaign-supported prevention program featuring increased enforcement, decreased alcohol access, and other environmental management initiatives targeting college student drinking. Method: Phase 1 of the media campaign addressed student resistance to environmentally focused prevention by reporting majority student support for alcohol policy and enforcement initiatives. Phase 2 informed students about state laws, university policies, and environmental initiatives. We conducted student telephone surveys, with samples stratified by gender and year in school, for 4 consecutive years at the intervention campus and 3 years at a comparison campus. We did a series of one-way between-subjects analyses of variance and analyses of covariance, followed by tests of linear trend and planned comparisons. Targeted outcomes included perceptions of enforcement and alcohol availability, alcohol use, and alcohol-impaired driving. We examined archived police reports for student incidents, primarily those resulting from loud parties. Results: There were increases at the intervention campus in students' awareness of formal alcohol-control efforts and perceptions of the alcohol environment, likelihood of apprehension for underage drinking, consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, and responsible alcohol service practices. There were decreases in the perceived likelihood of other students' negative behavior at off-campus parties. Police-reported incidents decreased over time; however, perceived consequences for off-campus parties decreased. No changes were observed for difficulty finding an off-campus party, self-reported alcohol use, or alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusions: The intervention successfully altered perceptions of alcohol enforcement, alcohol access, and the local alcohol environment. This study provides important preliminary information to researchers and practitioners engaged in collaborative

  11. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  12. The Indirect Effect of Alcohol Use on GPA in First-Semester College Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…

  13. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Their Roles in Alcohol Education/Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  16. A National Survey of Alcohol Prevention Programs on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…

  17. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

  18. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PMID:25089333

  19. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  20. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  1. The Best Prevention: Model Alcohol and Drug Education Program. NHTSA Prevention Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide was created for school administrators, parents, teachers, and community groups interested in developing effective alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs for elementary and secondary schools. A comprehensive approach to school-based alcohol and drug prevention is described and various prevention activities which have been selected by…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Facts and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria; Cook, Martha

    1993-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including characteristics, incidence, current government programs, successful local programs, and implications for school administrators. (DB)

  3. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  4. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems through Drug Education. Policy Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Public schools have a responsibility to educate students about drug abuse, and states have a responsibility to assist schools in their efforts. Properly designed and implemented drug education programs are the most cost-effective means of preventing alcohol and other drug problems. Poorly designed and implemented programs, on the other hand, can…

  5. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  6. A National Survey of State-Sponsored Programs to Prevent Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of questionnaires and follow-up interviews with public health departments in each state and the District of Columbia revealed that, as a whole, state governments have not made a sustained commitment to the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome. Several states have initiated programs that could serve as a model for national effort.…

  7. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  8. Relapse Prevention Model of Behavioral Maintenance: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Colley, Mary; Cinelli, Bethann

    1992-01-01

    Describes Relapse Prevention as therapeutic modality, based on Social Learning Theory, used to prevent relapse for individuals who have completed treatment for substance abuse behaviors. Outlines relapse prevention theory and suggests various components of model be incorporated into alcohol education curricula. Outlines teaching strategies to…

  9. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  10. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…

  11. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    In response to growing awareness of and concern about alcohol and other drug problems, institutions of higher education are implementing policies and programs in an attempt to curb alcohol and other drug use and its associated negative consequences. Momentum is building for comprehensive prevention approaches that combine traditional education…

  12. Peer Leadership in School and Community Alcohol Prevention Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli A.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Williams, Carolyn L.; Roel, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes peer leadership components within a community-wide trial to prevent alcohol use and related youth problems. Seventh and eighth graders could be elected or volunteer as peer leaders. Surveys indicated that at baseline, both types of leaders had fewer problem behaviors than non-peer leaders. Following the 7th-grade curriculum, alcohol use…

  13. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  14. Couples Relapse Prevention Sessions as a Maintenance Strategy for Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Henry S. G.; And Others

    This study evaluated whether alcoholics who receive relapse prevention (RP) sessions in the year after a short-term behavioral marital therapy (BMT) do better at long-term follow-up than do those not receiving the additional RP. Sixty couples with an alcoholic husband, after participating in 10 weekly BMT couples group sessions, were assigned…

  15. College Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide: Environmental Approaches to Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; Colthurst, Tom; Segars, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This guide is designed to help individuals identify and modify risks that contribute to alcohol-related problems within college and university communities. Despite general agreement among campus officials and students alike that alcohol use contributes to a range of problems confronting colleges and universities, prevention often does not command…

  16. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  17. Environmental Management: An Approach to Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Most campus alcohol and other drug (AOD) programs include prevention, intervention, and treatment services designed to address individual students' knowledge of the consequences of alcohol and other drug use, to improve their skills in resisting such behavior, or to address existing problematic use of or addiction to alcohol or other drugs.…

  18. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  19. Defining Active and Reasonable Efforts: Reasonable Efforts to Prevent Placement and Preserve Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of guidelines to expand understanding of and compliance with both the reasonable efforts requirement of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act 1980 (P.L. 96-272) and active efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act 1978 (P.L. 95-608) to help keep Indian families together. (Author/BB)

  20. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  1. Medication error prevention: profiling one of pharmacy's foremost advocacy efforts for advice on error prevention.

    PubMed

    Proulx, S; Wilfinger, R; Cohen, M R

    1997-04-01

    Medication errors have become a growing concern with the increase in the number of critically ill patients, in the complexity of drug therapy and in the use of more potent, dangerous drugs. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), a nonprofit organization founded three years ago, is in the forefront of medication error prevention efforts. Working with practitioners, regulatory agencies, healthcare institutions, professional organizations and the pharmaceutical industry, both nationally and internationally, ISMP provides timely and accurate medication safety information through its educational programs, site-reviews, and ongoing publications. This article reviews the work of ISMP and offers recommendations for managers to begin error prevention strategies. PMID:10166239

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention Model Learning Systems: Preliminary Designs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Saul H.

    The final report on a project designed to develop a model learning system for alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention contains format details of four specific programs. Each program is geared to obtain maximum success in reinforcing responsible behavior, to change learner behavior, and to insure effective implementation in a variety of…

  3. Resident Assistant Training Program for Increasing Alcohol, Other Drug, and Mental Health First-Aid Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Gonzalez, Jennifer M. Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2014-01-01

    In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on 8 U.S. campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems six months after baseline. Compared to those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs’ ability to provide alcohol, other drug, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates. PMID:25322950

  4. Preventing Substance Abuse by Supporting Families' Efforts with Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Brenna H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, because the resources of most contemporary nuclear families for monitoring and providing alternative incentives are not sufficient to compete with the positive contingencies associated with substance use, communities must support parent's efforts by supplementing them. (LKS)

  5. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia. Other welcome developments include the formation of Parliamentarians for the Prevention of FASD (2011), revision of guidelines regarding alcohol use in pregnancy by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; 2009) and provision of targeted funding for FASD research by the NHMRC (2013). Initiatives by Indigenous communities to restrict access to alcohol and diagnose and prevent FASD have had a significant impact in high-risk communities. The National Organisation for FASD has an important ongoing advocacy and educational remit. Nongovernment organisations such as the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education have contributed to prevention by developing resources to assist health professionals to advise women about the harms of alcohol use in pregnancy; encouraging men to abstain from alcohol during the pregnancy; drafting a national plan; and advocating for pregnancy warning labels on alcohol. Internationally, in 2014, a charter on prevention of FASD was published in The Lancet Global Health, and the World Health Organization released guidelines for identification and management of substance use in pregnancy. Early recognition and support for individuals with FASD is crucial to prevent adverse secondary outcomes; however, primary prevention of alcohol use in pregnancy, and

  6. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  7. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  8. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations. PMID:27000422

  9. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A

    2016-03-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations. PMID:27000422

  10. Evaluating a Student Assistance Program (SAP) as Part of a Larger Prevention Effort: Growing Up Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jordan E.

    This project, funded by the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP), is a comprehensive, multilevel prevention model for elementary school students, grades K-6. The project is based on OSAP's risk and resiliency factor model in which factors presumed to predispose youth toward or away from alcohol and other drug (AOD) use are influenced,…

  11. Keeping Our Kids Safe. Hearing on Examining State and Local Efforts To Identify and Prevent the Leading Causes of Injuries to Children, before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These transcripts of hearings present testimony on how we can protect children in dangerous and violent environments. The statements address the longstanding efforts to reduce childhood injury in this country, with an emphasis on prevention as the best approach to child injury and health care. Statements and testimony are presented for the…

  12. Maximizing the impact of HIV prevention efforts: Interventions for couples

    PubMed Central

    Medley, Amy; Baggaley, Rachel; Bachanas, Pamela; Cohen, Myron; Shaffer, Nathan; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to increase access to HIV testing and counseling services, population coverage remains low. As a result, many people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their own HIV status or the status of their sex partner(s). Recent evidence, however, indicates that as many as half of HIV-positive individuals in ongoing sexual relationships have an HIV-negative partner and that a significant proportion of new HIV infections in generalized epidemics occur within serodiscordant couples. Integrating couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) into routine clinic- and community-based services can significantly increase the number of couples where the status of both partners is known. Offering couples a set of evidence-based interventions once their HIV status has been determined can significantly reduce HIV incidence within couples and if implemented with sufficient scale and coverage, potentially reduce population-level HIV incidence as well. This article describes these interventions and their potential benefits. PMID:23656251

  13. [The Japanese government's efforts to prevent heat stroke].

    PubMed

    Homma, Masato

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, as one of the effects of global warming and heat island phenomenon, the risk of heat stroke in daily life is increasing. The worst heat wave in our history attacked in 2010, which killed more than 1,700 people. Therefore, the Japanese Government, including the Ministry of the Environment, has promoted the following measures: (1) Provision of information about prediction and observation of temperature and warning of hot weather (2) Awareness-raising of preventive measures appropriate to the heat stroke (3) Dissemination of information on the occurrence of heat stroke, e.g. the number of deaths, the number of persons taken to hospital by ambulance (4) Promotion of research and study on heat stroke PMID:22690615

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  15. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect. The stages of the drug involvement model form the basis for prevention programs providing early intervention directed at the so-called gateway drugs.Among the communications models, the health promotion concept advocates a comprehensive approach in developing health

  16. Community Development Strategies To Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Alert, 1992

    1992-01-01

    How community-based groups are confronting and preventing alcohol and other drug problems and related crime in their communities is the focus of this publication. A wide range of approaches and strategies, used by 10 nonprofit, community-based organizations representative of urban and rural areas, are presented. Case studies describe two community…

  17. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950

  18. Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancy among American-Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie; Baete Kenyon, Den Yelle; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur pre-conceptually with women, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at-risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Programme, which shows promise in reducing AEP risk in American Indian women aged 18 or older. A community needs assessment was conducted with key informant interviews and focus groups with an emphasis on how to expand OST CHOICES. To identify interconnected themes, a content analysis methodology was used on the qualitative feedback from the focus groups and interviews. Altogether, key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Several sub-themes regarding the prevention of AEP with youth were identified, expanding the OST CHOICES curriculum into the schools, and the role of family and culture within AEP prevention.

  19. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in America: Policies for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse has formulated six recommendations that can facilitate community efforts to prevent substance abuse. These recommendations are directed to federal, state, and local policymakers and the communities they serve. The recommendations are: (1) federal, state, and local policies should…

  20. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  1. Exploring the Identity-Theft Prevention Efforts of Consumers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jacquelyne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…

  2. Prevention Efforts Underlying Decreases in Binge Drinking at Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziemelis, Andris; Bucknam, Ronald B.; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2002-01-01

    Compared groups of colleges where students' binge drinking either increased or decreased over 2 years of campus prevention efforts. More institutions reported decreases than increases. Certain kinds of prevention programs appeared to work. Important characteristics of effective programs included changing the campus social environment, using…

  3. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  4. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  5. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  6. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  7. Prevention in Action. 1991 Exemplary Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Eight exemplary programs for preventing alcohol and other drug abuse are presented in this document. These programs are summarized: (1) SUPER II Early Intervention Program, Atlanta, Georgia, which serves primarily inner-city youth ages 11-17 and their families through community agencies, juvenile courts, alternative schools, and public housing;…

  8. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  9. The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project: the development of a computer-based alcohol abuse prevention program for employees.

    PubMed

    Matano, R A; Futa, K T; Wanat, S F; Mussman, L M; Leung, C W

    2000-05-01

    The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project (ESAP) developed an interactive computer-based alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention program accessible to employees over the Internet. Behavioral health research recommends that specialists develop and provide comprehensive yet cost-effective approaches to alcohol abuse prevention, early intervention, and treatment within the context of workplace managed care. ESAP is implementing this web site for a diverse 8,567-employee work site. ESAP's web site enables employees to self-assess their stress levels, coping styles, and risk for alcohol-related problems. It provides personalized feedback, recommendations, mini-workshops, a drinking journal, links to other online resources, and an interactive forum for direct participant-to-participant communication. ESAP's web site provides resources for employees who are concerned about another individual's drinking as well as information about adolescent alcohol use. This article discusses the implications of incorporating the ESAP web site into worksite alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention programming. PMID:10795126

  10. A social marketing approach to involving Afghans in community-level alcohol problem prevention.

    PubMed

    Cherry, L; Redmond, S P

    1994-06-01

    A program for preventing alcohol-related problems at the community level using environmentally-focused, public health approaches sought to involve a new segment of the community. That segment consisted of recently-immigrated Afghans from a traditionally abstinent culture. Social marketing research was employed to elicit value-based benefits to be used in promoting the product (involvement with environmental change efforts) to the target audience. While the channels of distribution for promotional messages were easily identified, special attention was required relative to effective spokespersons. Much was also learned about the immigration experience of Afghans in a San Francisco Bay Area community that has significance for other fields. PMID:24258928

  11. Impact of health savings accounts on precautionary savings, demand for health insurance and prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Steinorth, Petra

    2011-03-01

    The paper examines the influence of health savings accounts (HSAs) on optimal savings, insurance demand and prevention effort over the course of a lifetime. This paper adds to the literature by investigating HSAs as both a form of insurance and as saving vehicle in an expected utility framework. Assuming no regulatory constraints on the deductible, we show that individuals voluntarily choose a positive deductible and increase their savings with HSAs. If the government-imposed minimum deductible becomes too great, however, individuals may instead choose to remain in traditional insurance. We determine the effect of HSAs on prevention effort. We find that an increased tax subsidy may worsen moral hazard issues. Assuming partial risk aversion to be less than or equal to one, individuals will either invest less in the health preservation effort and more money in the HSA or vice versa. However, they will never increase both effort and savings simultaneously as was intended when HSAs were introduced. PMID:21349595

  12. Building Xperience: a multilevel alcohol and drug prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah; Schensul, Jean J; Snyder, Leslie B; Bermudez, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Nicole; Morgan, Damion Sincere

    2009-06-01

    "Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age youth by addressing multiple factors at the individual, peer, community and city level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of building the different levels of this intervention during the 3-year formative phase. We will explain: (1) Why we chose to adopt a multilevel and participatory strategy, (2) Formative research leading to the intervention model, (3) The theoretical framework underlying the methodology, (4) Pilot intervention development (Years One and Two), (5) Current program methods and outcome goals, and lastly, (6) Some of the lessons learned, goals achieved, and plans for the future. This descriptive account of building a multilevel intervention aims to serve as a useful guide for others wishing to develop similar approaches, and for theorizing about some of the common challenges involved in this process. PMID:19381797

  13. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  14. Not Schools Alone: Guidelines for Schools and Communities To Prevent the Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs among Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Although schools have the primary responsibility for educating children and adolescents, schools alone cannot prevent the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Preventing youth from smoking, drinking, and using drugs must be a collaborative effort, jointly undertaken by the school, community, and youths themselves. This guide was developed to…

  15. The Role of Social-Emotional Learning in Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian H.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how social emotional learning contributes to bullying prevention efforts in schools. Bullying behavior is impacted by multiple levels of the social-ecology of schools. Social emotional learning (SEL) is a structured way to improve a wide range of students' social and emotional competencies and impact bullying at the…

  16. Effortful Control, Social Information Processing, and the Prevention of Aggression in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Alan Reid

    2012-01-01

    Early aggression is a problem in its own right and a risk factor for further developmental problems. Although both effortful control and social information processing (SIP) skills are negatively associated with aggression and are targeted by aggression prevention programs, little is known about the relation between them or about their joint…

  17. Supporting Gang Violence Prevention Efforts: A Public Health Approach for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Dawn D.; Logan, J.E.; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of gang violence on a youth’s risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence. PMID:26752944

  18. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  19. Alcohol prescription by surgeons in the prevention and treatment of delirium tremens: historic and current practice.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Milton; McCarty, Teresita

    2002-01-01

    Beer, other alcohol beverages, and IV alcohol are still used to prevent or treat alcohol withdrawal delirium on surgical services. The history of the use of alcohol by surgeons may play a role in its continued use for withdrawal. In this policy survey 32 inpatient hospital pharmacies were called and asked if alcohol was available, if it was used to treat alcohol withdrawal, and the medical specialties that requested it. Recommendations about the use of alcohol were examined in recent textbooks and from those published early in the twentieth century. One half of the 32 hospitals surveyed had alcoholic beverages available for patient use and eleven hospitals used either package alcohol or IV alcohol in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Surgeons used alcohol before anesthesia to help patients tolerate procedures, and the use of alcohol for treatment of alcohol withdrawal still appears in the surgical literature. This preliminary survey indicates that some hospitals still provide beverage alcohol for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and that surgeons are the specialty ordering alcohol for their patients. PMID:12100836

  20. Development of a Student Engagement Approach to Alcohol Prevention: The Pragmatics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buettner, Cynthia K.; Andrews, David W.; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. Objective: The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing…

  1. Mobility Limitations: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mobility limitations outlines types of problems with mobility and their incidence. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are examined, emphasizing that this population is generally at higher risk for alcohol and other drug-related problems. Possible solutions to…

  2. Alcohol Problems Prevention/Intervention Programs: Guidelines for College Campuses. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Frances M.; Connor, Leslie S.

    This manual is designed to respond to the growing interest among colleges in technical assistance for dealing with alcohol-related problems. Part One provides an overview of the dimensions of alcohol related problems and delves into the causes and prevention of alcohol problems. It outlines the Public Health Model approach to dealing with alcohol…

  3. Evaluation of an Elementary School-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shope, Jean T.; And Others

    The Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) presented an alcohol education program to fifth and sixth grade students based on social learning theory. The AMPS program introduced students to the concept of social pressure (especially peer pressure) to misuse alcohol and to strategies to effectively counter such pressure. The program was evaluated in…

  4. The Use of a Qualitative Approach in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention among American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace Xuequin; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines American-Indian adolescents' perceptions of risk factors and effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and age-related prevention strategies for fetal alcohol syndrome. Results indicate peer pressure, influences of adult drinking behaviors, stressful family environment, and acceptance of alcohol use in Indian community may be…

  5. Preventing and Responding to Alcohol Overdose on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Ross J.

    Rapid ingestion of alcohol is common and unfortunately an all too frequent cause of alcohol-related death among young people. Drinking a lot of alcohol over a short amount of time may result in an alcohol overdose. This situation is a medical emergency and requires sound decision making. The information the campus community needs to know includes…

  6. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  7. Disability and the Family: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention in individuals with disabilities and the influence of the family. It points out the family's potential negative reactions to a disability and reasons why a person with a disability uses alcohol or other drugs. Prevention guidelines for families are provided, such as expressing concerns…

  8. Can First and Second Grade Students Benefit from an Alcohol Use Prevention Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Padget, Alison; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses

    2007-01-01

    Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM) is a classroombased, alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students from first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). PY/PM is one of the first alcohol prevention programs to target children as early as first grade. The focus of this study is on the…

  9. Communities Creating Change: Exemplary Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This document describes the 10 Exemplary Programs in alcohol and other drug abuse prevention selected in 1990. The programs included provide models of state-of-the-art alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs that may be replicated or adapted by others. Illustrating a wide variety of approaches that are effective in diverse communities, the…

  10. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  11. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  12. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  13. Changing the Focus of College Alcohol Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Two influential formulations concerning college alcohol problems emphasize seemingly conflicting views about the magnitude of college alcohol abuse. One view insists that binge drinking is pervasive and shows no sign of decline. The other is based on the result from the College Alcohol Survey (CAS) which showed that just under half (44%) of…

  14. Informing HIV prevention efforts targeting Liberian youth: a study using the PLACE method in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventing HIV infection among young people is a priority for the Liberian government. Data on the young people in Liberia are scarce but needed to guide HIV programming efforts. Methods We used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method to gather information on risk behaviors that young people (ages 14 to 24) engage in or are exposed to that increase their vulnerability for HIV infection. Community informants identified 240 unique venues of which 150 were visited and verified by research staff. 89 of the 150 venues comprised our sampling frame and 571 females and 548 males were interviewed in 50 venues using a behavioral survey. Results Ninety-one percent of females and 86% of males reported being sexually active. 56% of females and 47% of males reported they initiated sexual activity before the age of 15. Among the sexually active females, 71% reported they had received money or a gift for sex and 56% of males reported they had given money or goods for sex. 20% of females and 6% males reported that their first sexual encounter was forced and 15% of females and 6% of males reported they had been forced to have sex in the past year. Multiple partnerships were common among both sexes with 81% females and 76% males reporting one or more sex partners in the past four weeks. Less than 1% reported having experiences with injecting drugs and only 1% of males reporting have sex with men. While knowledge of HIV/AIDS was high, prevention behaviors including HIV testing and condom use were low. Conclusion Youth-focused HIV efforts in Liberia need to address transactional sex and multiple and concurrent partnerships. HIV prevention interventions should include efforts to meet the economic needs of youth. PMID:24107301

  15. Recruitment for a Diabetes Prevention Program Translation Effort in a Worksite Setting

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J; Kramer, M; Molenaar, D; Arena, V; Vanderwood, K; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention has led to community-based translation efforts in a variety of settings. One community setting which holds promise for delivery of prevention intervention is the worksite; however, information regarding recruitment in this setting is limited. The current effort describes the initial processes surrounding provision of an adapted DPP lifestyle intervention at a corporate worksite. Methods Investigators and key management at the worksite collaborated to develop and implement a recruitment plan for the intervention focusing on 1) in-person onsite activities and 2) implementation of a variety of media recruitment tools and methods. Results Adult, non-diabetic overweight/obese employees and family members with pre-diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome were eligible for the study. Telephone pre-screening was completed for 176 individuals resulting in 171 eligible for onsite screening. Of that number, 160 completed onsite screening, 107 met eligibility criteria, and 89 enrolled in the study. Support from worksite leadership, an invested worksite planning team and a solid recruitment plan consisting of multiple strategies were identified as crucial elements of this effective workplace recruitment effort. Conclusion A worksite team successfully developed and implemented a recruitment plan using existing mechanisms appropriate to that worksite in order to identify and enroll eligible individuals. The results of this effort indicate that employee recruitment in a worksite setting is feasible as the first step in offering onsite behavioral lifestyle intervention programs as part of a widespread dissemination plan to prevent diabetes and lower risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25633207

  16. Current and future efforts toward the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Laura; Schatz, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    Great strides have been made in our understanding of the natural history of 'pre-type 1' diabetes as well as in the post diagnosis period. For now, an inability to successfully prevent the disease limits screening outside of the research setting. While studies of both humans with various levels of risk for type 1 diabetes as well as animal models for the disease have increased our understanding of the disorder, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic intervention capable of reversing or preventing type 1 diabetes remains elusive. Worldwide primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention studies have been undertaken and both past and current studies are extensively reviewed in this manuscript. Intervention studies in new-onset and established type 1 diabetes patients have to date shown fairly limited success with most effects seen within the first 6-12 months post therapy. Long-term outcome remains to be determined. Improved and innovative trial designs, more rapid testing of both antigen specific and combination therapies in different populations (at-risk, new-onset, and established type 1 diabetes), continuing to fill the mechanistic voids in the etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, and the development of validated biomarkers will hasten efforts toward reversing and preventing the disease. For successful prevention, therapy must be safe and must target not only effective control of the autoimmune process culminating in type 1 diabetes but also protection or replacement of lost β-cell function. PMID:27411441

  17. CHOICES: an integrated behavioral intervention to prevent alcohol-exposed pregnancies among high-risk women in community settings.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Parrish, Danielle E

    2013-01-01

    CHOICES is an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. The intervention uses motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and targets adoption of effective contraception and reduction of alcohol use. The CHOICES intervention includes four manual-guided counseling sessions delivered by behavioral health counselors and one contraceptive session with a family planning clinician. CHOICES's efficacy has been established through a series of randomized controlled trials in settings including primary care, university hospital-based obstetrical/gynecology practices, urban jails, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large cities. This article describes the CHOICES line of research including the epidemiology, feasibility, and efficacy studies. It also details the CHOICES intervention and the components of each session. In addition, the authors describe current studies testing modifications of the CHOICES intervention, the dissemination efforts to date, and implications for social work practice. PMID:23731416

  18. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation. PMID:26622915

  19. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  20. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. PMID:21491577

  1. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  2. Disability and Health Implications: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines the impact of alcohol and other drug use in creating an unhealthy lifestyle for individuals with disabilities and placing them at risk for health and medical problems. The negative effects of even moderate amounts of alcohol are noted, and the hindering of rehabilitation efforts when a person with a disability is using…

  3. Sobering Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason; Anderson, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study to identify excellent campus-based initiatives to prevent alcohol abuse by college students. Offers recommendations to colleges which stress that alcohol-abuse prevention programs be long-term, broad-based, and integrated into the institution and community. Offers recommendations to trustees which stress their role in…

  4. Prevention of Mental Disorders, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use in Children and Adolescents. OSAP Prevention Monograph-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    Compiled in this volume are summaries of the knowledge base on prevention of alcohol and other drug use and mental disorders in children and adolescents. The papers address risk factors, preventive interventions, conceptual and methodological issues, epidemiology, identification, service delivery and treatment, research, and professional training.…

  5. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  6. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  7. Effects of Ads from a Drug and Alcohol Prevention Campaign on Willingness to Engage in Alcohol-Related Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether ads from a field-tested drug-and-alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign ads or consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign ads lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  8. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  9. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  10. Promoting Student Support for Alcohol Misuse Prevention on Campus: The Role of Secondhand Consequence Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students participated in a discussion on common secondhand consequences of alcohol use, including concerns about personal safety and impact on living environments. This easy-to implement and brief intervention may strengthen students resolve to be more proactively involved in prevention of alcohol abuse for their campus community.…

  11. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  12. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Science--Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for science/biology and healthful living are presented. The science/biology goal is understanding the biology of humans. Healthful living goals include analyzing drug and alcohol use…

  13. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  14. Brief Nurse Consultations for Preventing Alcohol Use among Urban School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined how brief nurse consultations helped prevent alcohol use among urban youth. Surveys of sixth-eighth graders who did and did not complete the consultations indicated that intervention students reduced and control students increased their heavy drinking following the intervention. There were no differences on other alcohol use…

  15. Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…

  16. Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You: A Comprehensive Program to Prevent Adolescent Drinking, Drug Use, and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Connie

    1991-01-01

    Presents "Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You" (ADDY), a comprehensive program designed to prevent adolescent alcohol- and drug-related crashes and to prepare young people to be more responsible drivers and passengers. Describes program modules, evaluation results, and school and community benefits that may result from adopting this program.…

  17. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  18. Mesolimbic recruitment by nondrug rewards in detoxified alcoholics: effort anticipation, reward anticipation and reward delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant sensitivity of incentive neurocircuitry to nondrug rewards has been suggested as either a risk factor for or consequence of drug addiction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether alcohol-dependent patients (ADP: n = 29) showed altered recruitment of ventral striatal (VS) incentive neurocircuitry compared to controls (n = 23) by: 1) cues to respond for monetary rewards, 2) post-response anticipation of rewards, or 3) delivery of rewards. Using an instrumental task with two-stage presentation of reward-predictive information, subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win $0, $1, or $10 for responding to a target. Following this response, subjects were notified whether their success would be indicated by a lexical notification (“Hit?”) or by delivery of a monetary reward (“Win?”). After a variable interval, subjects then viewed the trial outcome. We found no significant group differences in voxelwise activation by task contrasts, or in signal change extracted from VS. Both ADP and controls showed significant VS and other limbic recruitment by pre-response reward anticipation. In addition, controls also showed VS recruitment by post-response reward-anticipation, and ADP had appreciable subthreshold VS activation. Both groups also showed similar mesolimbic responses to reward deliveries. Across all subjects, a questionnaire measure of “hot” impulsivity correlated with VS recruitment by post-response anticipation of low rewards and with VS recruitment by delivery of low rewards. These findings indicate that incentive-motivational processing of nondrug rewards is substantially maintained in recovering alcoholics, and that reward-elicited VS recruitment correlates more with individual differences in trait impulsivity irrespective of addiction. PMID:22281932

  19. The effectiveness of a multimedia program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2008-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) continues to be the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Because abstaining from alcohol prior to and throughout pregnancy is the only way to prevent FAS, some prevention programs try to target women before they become pregnant. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Teaching and Research Awareness Campaign (FASTRAC) is a multimedia, peer-delivered educational presentation designed to reduce the incidence of FAS. Results from an ethnically diverse sample of high school students indicate that the program increased participants' knowledge regarding FAS but had no significant effect on participants' attitudes, beliefs about the dangers of FAS or intention to use alcohol during pregnancy. The FASTRAC program failed partly because of its didactic approach and the lack of health education principles that have been shown to be effective in changing other substance use behaviors. Suggestions for improving FAS prevention education programs are offered. PMID:16803934

  20. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Morleo, Michela; Tocque, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Allen, Tony; Harrison, Dominic; Fe-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence) and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence) health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271) using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they develop only moderate drinking

  1. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  2. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Methods for Assessing Student Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Wechsler, Henry

    Under the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Act, institutions of higher education are required to review the effectiveness of their alcohol and drug prevention programs biannually. This guide offers a method for gathering and interpreting student survey data on alcohol-related problems based on the methodology of the College Alcohol Survey developed…

  3. American Indian Substance Abuse Prevention Efforts: A Review of Programs, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Margaret L; Baldwin, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to assess substance abuse prevention (SAP) efforts in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities from 2003-2013. In the past, many SAP programs were unable to meet the unique cultural needs of AI/AN communities adequately. It has been suggested that a disconnect may exist between the theories that are used to guide development of prevention programs in AI/AN communities and culturally appropriate theoretical constructs of AI/AN worldviews. To explore this possible disconnect further, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to assess a total of 18 articles (N = 31 programs) on program location and method, participant characteristics, described program cultural elements, use of theory, program outcomes, program measures, and future recommendations. Results indicated that SAP programs in AI/AN communities vary widely in their use of theory, implementation strategies, view and definition of cultural constructs, overall evaluational rigor, and reporting methods. Future research is needed to integrate appropriate theory and cultural elements into SAP programs to tie them to measurable outcomes for AI/AN communities. PMID:26053884

  4. Why Do We Report Suicides and How Can We Facilitate Suicide Prevention Efforts?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824

  5. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  6. Toward Development of Enhanced Preventive Interventions for HIV Sexual Risk among Alcohol-Using Populations: Confronting the 'Mere Pause from Thinking'.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this issue detail state-of-the science knowledge regarding the role of alcohol use in HIV/AIDS risk, as well as offer suggestions for ways forward for behavioral HIV prevention for at-risk alcohol-using populations. In light of recent evidence suggesting that the anticipated uptake of the newer biomedical HIV prevention approaches, prominently including pre-exposure prophylaxis, has been stalled owing to a host of barriers, it has become ever more clear that behavioral prevention avenues must continue to receive due consideration as a viable HIV/AIDS prevention approach. The papers collected here make a valuable contribution to "combination prevention" efforts to curb HIV spread. PMID:26362168

  7. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or

  8. Building Long-Term Support for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Davidson, Laurie

    This publication describes actions and basic principles that campus-based alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention coordinators can take to develop long-term administrative and financial support for campus AOD programs. The first section covers types of prevention programs that increase the probability of success. These programs include:…

  9. You Can Help Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Secondary School Students. The Fact Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource list on preventing alcohol and other drug use among secondary school students was compiled by the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP). All resources have been reviewed to ensure that they reflect the latest scientific facts and convey a clear no-use message. The list is divided into three major sections: (1) resources for…

  10. School-Based Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs: Guidelines for the Special Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmquist, Donna L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary approaches of programs to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse are discussed, along with general problems of these programs. Key weaknesses of program evaluations are discussed, and suggestions and recommendations are made for special educators to implement prevention programs with their students with disabilities. (JDD)

  11. Designing Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs in Higher Education: Bringing Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This volume contains 6 of the 17 papers written under the auspices of the Approaches to Accountability in Prevention Program sponsored by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (ED) from 1988 through 1991 to foster the development of papers examining theoretical applications of alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention programs at…

  12. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: A Bulletin for Fraternity and Sorority Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Tammy; Pittayathikhun, Tanutda

    This bulletin describes alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention programs specifically designed or customized for fraternities and sororities (Greeks). Approaches to AOD prevention include: (1) peer education programs to help students help themselves; (2) comprehensive health and psychosocial assistance; (3) retreats, to encourage student…

  13. Is There Evidence To Show That Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Can Be Prevented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Brennan, Majella G.; Oei, Tian P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the effectiveness of prevention programs in reducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Results reveal that prevention programs, to date, have been successful in raising awareness of FAS; however this awareness has not been translated into behavioral changes in high-risk drinkers as consumption levels in this group have increased. (Author/MKA)

  14. Native American Adolescents' Views of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of Native-American students in grades six through eight examined their attitudes toward and knowledge of fetal-alcohol-syndrome risk factors and prevention strategies. Results revealed that there were limited prevention programs in middle schools, though students considered it an important topic. Families and peers were the most important…

  15. Annotated Bibliography of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Violence Prevention Resources, 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…

  16. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  17. A Brief Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Pappas, Deborah M.; Edgemon, Patricia; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of athletes suggest that they are at increased risk for using alcohol, smokeless tobacco, steroids, and marijuana. They are also a readily available audience during annual preparticiaption physical examinations. In this article, Dr. Werch and colleagues report on the results from their pilot study, using a modified version of STARS (Start…

  18. Academic Performance, Retention, and Alcohol Use. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Drinking remains a significant part of the college experience for many students across the nation. The 2010 Monitoring the Future survey found that 65 percent of college students reported alcohol use in the past 30 days, 37 percent reported occasions of heavy drinking (five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks), and nearly half (44…

  19. Environmental Strategies To Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Deborah A.

    This document describes strategies that are used to create healthier campus environments in which alcohol is less available, more responsibly promoted and served, and poses less of a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of all students. The strategies described in this document accomplish these objectives by changing conditions on campus…

  20. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  1. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  2. Self Care. Preventing Misuse of Medication and Alcohol in an Aging Society. Pharmacists and Prevention Specialists Working Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This manual, which was originally developed to supplement a corresponding continuing education program offered by the Illinois Pharmacy Foundation and Illinois Pharmacists Association, is intended as a resource for pharmacists and other health care professionals who work to prevent alcohol and drug misuse/abuse in older patients. Discussed in…

  3. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Clavel, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is among the top five causes of mortality in the 15- to 19- year age group. Pediatricians and primary care providers are in a distinctive position to help prevent suicide in adolescents. According to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, all adolescents should have at least an annual preventive services visit, which should address both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of health. Suicide prevention may best be accomplished by detection and management of specific risk factors, rather than by attempting to recognize those youth who are considered most likely to commit suicide. Alcohol use has been regarded as an important risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder indicates an elevated risk for adolescent suicide. Although the causal relationship between alcohol use and suicide remains unknown, a clear and strong relationship exists. Pediatricians and other health care providers should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide, including alcohol and drug misuse, depression, major loss, and recent suicides within a community. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents suffering from alcohol use disorders and its distressing effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies in general pediatric settings. PMID:17458325

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  5. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  6. Predictors of alcohol use during the first year of college: Implications for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Murphy, James G.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2008-01-01

    The first year of college is a unique transition period, in which the student establishes a college identity and social network. Alcohol use is often part of this process, and many first-year college students develop a pattern of heavy drinking that puts them at risk for adverse consequences during their college years and into young adulthood. To better understand the development of risky alcohol use during this transition, we reviewed the literature on influences on college drinking and identified moderators and mediators that were particularly relevant for first-year alcohol use. As the transition from high school to college presents a unique opportunity for intervention, we discuss how these moderators and mediators can inform alcohol abuse prevention programs. We also identify approaches aimed at changing the culture of alcohol use on campus. Limitations of the reviewed research are highlighted in the context of promising directions for future research. PMID:17321059

  7. Six-month outcomes of an alcohol prevention program for inner-city youth.

    PubMed

    Werch, C E; Pappas, D M; Carlson, J M; DiClemente, C C

    1999-01-01

    Six-hundred and fifty 6th grade students were randomly assigned with the intervention group receiving the STARS for Families Program, an alcohol reduction program consisting of standardized health consultations provided by nurses and mailed follow-up information. The control group received minimum information. Students in the study attended either a neighborhood or a bused inner-city middle school. Students receiving the intervention had significantly less intentions to use alcohol in the future and less alcohol quantity. The study suggests that brief, provider-involved interventions may be a viable school based approach to prevention. PMID:10351855

  8. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    PubMed

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  9. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  10. Punishment as a factor in preventing alcohol-related accidents.

    PubMed

    Ross, H L

    1993-07-01

    As a humanitarian and economic 'bad', infliction of punishment requires justification in terms of compensating achievements, as well as moral appropriateness. In the context of road accidents, there is evidence that increasing the certainty and swiftness of threatened punishment may deter risky behavior, although increasing the severity of the threat seems ineffective. These effects may be generalizable to other kinds of accidents, but empirical evidence is lacking. A further possibility for the justifiable use of punishment is in its application to negligent service of alcohol. PMID:8358271

  11. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    PubMed

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention. PMID:25751319

  12. Guilt and Effortful Control: Two Mechanisms that Prevent Disruptive Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Jimenez, Natasha B.; Hollatz, Amanda L.; Woodard, Jarilyn

    2009-01-01

    Children's guilt associated with transgressions and their capacity for effortful control are both powerful forces that inhibit disruptive conduct. We examined how guilt and effortful control, repeatedly observed from toddler to preschool age, jointly predict children's disruptive outcomes in two multi-method multi-trait longitudinal studies (N's 57 and 99). Disruptive outcomes were rated by mothers at 73 months (Study 1) and mothers, fathers, and teachers at 52 and 67 months (Study 2). In both studies, guilt moderated effects of effortful control: For highly guilt-prone children, variations in effortful control were unrelated to future disruptive outcomes, but for children who were less guilt prone, effortful control predicted such outcomes. Guilt may inhibit transgressions through an automatic response due to negative arousal triggered by memories of past wrongdoing, regardless of child capacity for deliberate inhibition. Effortful control that engages a deliberate restraint may offset risk for disruptive conduct conferred by low guilt. PMID:19634978

  13. Regulatory Strategies for Preventing Youth Access to Alcohol: Best Practices. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.; Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    State and local regulations--laws, ordinances, policies--form the framework of any effort to reduce underage drinking. The right regulations, well crafted, can minimize the opportunities for young people to use alcohol and maximize opportunities for effective and efficient enforcement. The absence of an important regulation, or loopholes in the…

  14. Disruption of Alcohol-Related Memories by mTORC1 Inhibition Prevents Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Segev; Liu, Feng; Hamida, Sami Ben; Yowell, Quinn V.; Neasta, Jeremie; Kharazia, Viktor; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Relapse to alcohol abuse is a critical clinical issue, frequently caused by cue-induced drug craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-alcohol association is expected to prevent relapse. It is increasingly accepted that memories become labile and erasable soon after their reactivation through retrieval, during a memory reconsolidation process that depends on protein synthesis. Here, we show that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories triggered by the sensory properties of alcohol itself (odor and taste) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in select amygdalar and cortical regions in rats, resulting in increased levels of several synaptic proteins. Furthermore, systemic or central amygdalar (CeA) inhibition of mTORC1 during reconsolidation disrupts alcohol-cue associated memories, leading to a long-lasting suppression of relapse. Our findings provide evidence that the mTORC1 pathway and its downstream substrates play a crucial role in alcohol-related memory reconsolidation, and highlight this pathway as a therapeutic target to prevent relapse. PMID:23792945

  15. [Parents and children in families with alcohol problems--anthropologic and preventive study].

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Krzysztof Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the proposition of solution of a difficult dilemma concerning the real role of parents in the development of children in families with alcohol problem (alcohol misuse and dependency of parents). From one side drinking parents are the cause of serious destruction of child health and development. From the other side we have the data about positive influence of strong bonds between children and their parents in alcohol use prevention (parenting as protective factor). Original philosophical theory of person structure with additional theory of parenting supplies the possibility of the solution of the dilemma. It is necessary to differentiate the personal relationship and the emotions (and behaviours) as two different levels of bonding. Alcohol dependent parents have influence on both levels, they protect and make the risk at the same time. The proposal is that the protective influence is still more powerful and important, so it is necessary to protect bonds between children and their parents despite the fact of some lateral destruction. It is also necessary to confront parents with the effects of their behaviour (intervention, therapy) to develop their possibilities to renovate their parenting functions, which is necessary for effective prevention. The theory allows to understand the situation of the child in the alcohol family more precisely. It is especially important for social workers, teachers and therapists working with such families. Some rules for working with the children of alcoholics are formulated. PMID:14704491

  16. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program1234

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. Objectives: The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Design: DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8–11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3–7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Results: Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P < 0.01 for trend) and lifestyle modification (P = 0.02 for trend) groups, which remained significant after adjustment for multiple baseline covariates. No similar association was observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: Despite overall low rates of alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion—an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727. PMID

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Women's Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization: Can Reducing Women's Drinking Prevent Rape?

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922

  18. A quarter century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland on an HIV prevention intervention, Focus on Youth. Over the next 25 years the questions being addressed by Focus on Youth, reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved--and if so, how? During its next phase, the Focus on Youth team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including UNAIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an "effective" intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next phase as researchers and public health workers realized that

  19. A quarter-century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland, on an Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention, Focus on Youth (FOY). Over the next 25 years, the questions being addressed by FOY reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only-based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved – and if so, how? During its next phase, the FOY team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next

  20. Brief nurse consultations for preventing alcohol use among urban school youth.

    PubMed

    Werch, C E; Carlson, J M; Pappas, D M; DiClemente, C C

    1996-11-01

    This study examined the effects of brief nurse consultations in preventing alcohol use among inner-city youth. Participants included 138 sixth-eighth grade students attending an inner-city public school in Jacksonville, Florida. Subjects were randomly assigned by computer to either the intervention (STARS program) or a control group. Baseline and three-month post-tests were conducted at the target school site. A significant difference was found on heavy alcohol use with intervention subjects showing a reduction and control subjects an increase in heavy drinking (t = -2.33, 120df, p = .02). No differences were found between groups on other alcohol use measures. This study's findings indicate that a series of brief nurse consultations appear to reduce heavy alcohol consumption among urban school youth. PMID:8959593

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Short- and long-term effects of a pilot prevention program to reduce alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Werch, C E; Pappas, D M; Carlson, J M; DiClemente, C C

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a brief, pilot alcohol prevention intervention for 211 disadvantaged 6th grade school children at posttest and 1-year follow-up. Process data indicated that the intervention was successfully implemented and well received by youth and parent/guardian participants. ANCOVA analyses indicated a significant difference on alcohol use frequency for drinking subjects at 1-month posttest, with less frequent use reported by intervention subjects than subjects receiving the minimal control materials, F(1,22) = 5.37, p = .03. No differences were found between intervention and control subjects on alcohol use measures at 1-year follow-up. Critical issues to be resolved related to the success of future prevention research and practice are discussed. PMID:9758015

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  5. A Systematic Review of School-Based Alcohol and other Drug Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Agabio, Roberta; Trincas, Giuseppina; Floris, Francesca; Mura, Gioia; Sancassiani, Federica; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. Europe is the heaviest drinking region of the world. Several school-based alcohol prevention programs have been developed but it is not clear whether they are really effective. The present study was aimed at identifying the typology with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. Methods: A systematic search of meta-analyses and/or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions school-based prevention programs aimed at preventing alcohol consumption or changing the attitudes to consume alcohol. Results: A meta-analysis published in 2011 and 12 RCTs more recently published were identified. The meta-analysis evaluated 53 RCTs but only 11.3% of them were conducted in Europe. Globally, 23 RCTs (43.4%) showed some evidence of effectiveness, and 30 RCTs (56.6%) did not find significant difference between the groups. According to the conclusions of the meta-analysis, the Unplugged program should be considered as a practice option in Europe. Among the other 12 RCTs, 42% were conducted in Europe. Globally, 7 studies (58.3%) achieved positive results, and 5 studies (41.7%) did not find significant differences or produced a mixed pattern of results. Three of the 5 European trials (60%) used the Unplugged program with positive results. Conclusion: Even if further studies should be conducted to confirm these results, Unplugged appears to be the prevention project with the best evidence of effectiveness in European studies. PMID:25834630

  6. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  7. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Our Communities: Case Studies and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Information Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a project of the Community Information Exchange to identify alcohol and other drug prevention strategies that have been tried and tested by community-based organizations. It contains complete case studies of model projects, the full listing of all technical assistance providers and funders, and abstracts of written…

  8. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  9. Schools and the Community Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Environment: Opportunities for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools have long been central to community-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention programs. Yet research consistently shows that school programs have only a marginal effect on student substance use and community ATOD problems. Schools are only one of the many influences on young people, and even the best curriculum will fail if…

  10. A Social Role Negotiation Approach to Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Thomas W.

    This document presents a social role negotiation model to be used in the prevention of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Section I focuses on theories and theorizing, explaining the fundamental aspects of a theory formulation project. Section II explores the historical and social context of the social role negotiation model. Patterns of…

  11. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  12. The "Social Norms" Approach to Alcohol Misuse Prevention: Testing Transferability in a Scottish Secondary School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinus, Theresa; Melson, Ambrose John; Davies, John Booth; Mclaughlin, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To report baseline findings and discuss their implications for the transferability of the predominantly American "Social Norms" approach to alcohol misuse prevention to a UK (Scottish) secondary school setting. Design, setting, participants and measurement: Baseline data from a 3-year control case study are reported here, and data from the…

  13. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  14. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  15. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  16. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

  18. The Role of Interpersonal Influence as a College Alcohol Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Victoria Orrego; Campbell, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of a social skills prevention program that includes proactive intervention message strategies that students can use when they encounter dangerous alcohol-related situations in social settings is argued to be a valuable tool in reducing current problems associated with high risk drinking. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  19. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  20. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  1. Reducing Alcohol Use in Youth Aged 12-17 Years Using the Strategic Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Jennifer J.; Gideonsen, Mark D.; McClaflin, Richard R.; O'Halloran, Peggy; Peardon, Francie A.; Radcliffe, Pamela L.; Masters, Lynnette A.

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence-based interventions to reduce underage drinking have been identified, dissemination into "real-world" communities remains challenging. The purpose of this community-based translational research is to test SAMHSA's Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) as a model for such dissemination and evaluate its effect on alcohol use by…

  2. Be Vocal, Be Visible, Be Visionary: Recommendations for College and University Presidents on Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report summarizes the recommendations of the Presidents Leadership Group formed in early 1997 by the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Offers the following proposals for effective prevention. College presidents should: (1) work to ensure that school officials routinely collect data on the extent of the alcohol and…

  3. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: 3-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and low-risk…

  4. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1 years.…

  5. Testing demographic differences for alcohol use initiation among adolescents for the decisional balance and situational temptation prevention inventories.

    PubMed

    Sillice, Marie A; Paiva, Andrea L; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Meier, Kathryn S; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were any demographic differences on these measures in a sample of 6th grade middle school students from 20 schools (N=4151) at baseline. Three factorial analysis of variance tests were conducted to explore the impact of race (whites vs. non-whites), ethnicity (Hispanics vs. Non-Hispanics) and gender (males vs. females). A significant two-way interaction effect was found between gender and ethnicity for Pros of Alcohol Use. A significant three-way interaction effect was found between gender, race and ethnicity for Cons of Alcohol Use. Main effects were found for the three demographic factors for Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. However, the effect sizes for the interaction effects and main effects were very small (all below η(2)=.01), suggesting that race/ethnicity and gender alone may not be highly influential factors in the Decisional Balance for the Prevention of Alcohol and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol in adolescence. The implications for these results and alcohol use prevention among this group are discussed. PMID:24916916

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  7. Bullying Prevention: A Call for Collaborative Efforts between School Nurses and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kub, Joan; Feldman, Marissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying among children and adolescents is recognized as a significant global public health problem, as it has serious health consequences. Schools are important sites in which to address violence prevention, specifically bullying prevention, and to promote positive youth development. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion outlines five action…

  8. Preventing Health Care-Associated Infections: Connecting North Carolina's Patients to National Efforts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Zack; Billings, Corrianne; DeRienzo, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With increased federal and state attention to prevention and control of health care-associated infections (HAIs), broad multifacility collaboratives have emerged to guide providers' work at the bedside. This commentary reviews how HAI prevention flows from federal-level guidance through state leadership and into hospitals, connecting governance to its impact on North Carolina's patients. PMID:27621344

  9. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  10. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Leang, Supheap; Chheng, Kannarath; Weissman, Amy; Shaw, Graham; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on "cleaning the streets", has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  11. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  12. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  13. A Closer Look at Drug and Violence Prevention Efforts in American Schools: Report on the Study on School Violence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, David; Crosse, Scott; Hagen, Carol A.; Mason, Michael J.; Siler, Amy J.; von Glatz, Adrienne

    This paper looks at what schools are doing to promote school safety. It is organized in four areas: (1) extent of problem behavior in schools, including the types of victimization experienced by students and teachers, and how students and teachers perceive the safety of their schools; (2) efforts used by schools to prevent problem behavior and the…

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  15. Effects of Sex Composition on Group Processes in Alcohol Prevention Groups for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tracey A.; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Tomlinson, Kristin; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2015-01-01

    Although most alcohol and other drug prevention programs for adolescents are offered in group settings, little is known about the possible effects of sex composition on group processes and mechanisms of change. Using the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework, we examined how the sex constellation of adolescent prevention group members influenced youth satisfaction, engagement, and endorsement of healthy behavior during group. Participants in Project Options (N = 379; 61.8% girls; Mage = 16.1; SD = 1.4), a voluntary school-based alcohol prevention program, completed measures of satisfaction at each prevention session and observers rated engagement and change talk for each group. When analyses were oriented towards girls, their personal satisfaction, group-rated satisfaction, and group-level engagement were positively related to having more girls in the group. Similarly, in boys, personal satisfaction, satisfaction of the group as a whole, and engagement in groups improved when groups were composed of more girls. Statements supportive of healthy alcohol/drug-related decision making were unrelated to group composition. The findings suggest that the composition of girls and boys in groups has differential effects on some group processes. This avenue of research has merit for the understanding the mechanisms associated with satisfaction and engagement in adolescent substance use prevention programs. PMID:26237325

  16. Importance of Social Support in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies with American Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Methods Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Results Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. Conclusions In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  17. Boards of trustees must assume responsibility for making alcohol prevention on campus a top priority.

    PubMed

    DeJong, William

    2016-01-01

    Few colleges have made the prevention of alcohol-related injuries and deaths an institutional priority, and even fewer have implemented prevention strategies with a solid evidentiary base. We look to presidents to provide leadership on this issue, but those who do are atypical. Boards of trustees should step in by asserting that student wellness be a primary focus in the institution's strategic plan, with specific, measurable goals; holding the president accountable for progress in reducing high-risk drinking and its consequences; and mandating a line item in the annual budget, with adequate staffing and revenues to put evidence-based practices in place. Boards will be more likely to respond when led to focus on the cost implications of the campus alcohol problem; the link between high-risk drinking and mission-critical institutional objectives such as academic performance, student engagement, and retention; and the institution's potential liability if evidence-based prevention strategies are not in place. PMID:26158381

  18. Report on Outreach Efforts and Analysis of Approach: A Pilot Project on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Project of the Indian Health Service was designed to identify existing cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among the American Indian tribes (Navajo, Apache, Ute and 19 Pueblo Tribes) in the Southwest, establish a referral system to identify these children for treatment, estimate the prevalence of the problem, and work…

  19. Home-based alcohol prevention program for parents and children: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mares, S H W; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A; Verdurmen, J; Schulten, I; Engels, R C M E

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M=12.15, SD=0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in the northern part of the Netherlands. They participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial with two conditions; (1) intervention group (5 modules which families received by mail every 4weeks over 5months), (2) control group (a factsheet information brochure). An independent statistician allocated the schools to the conditions (allocation ratio (1:1)). Participants and data-analyst were blind to randomization. The primary outcome was alcohol initiation. Results Of the participants, 680 were randomized to the intervention and 669 to the control condition. In the intervention condition (N=540) 5.4% of the children drank alcohol compared to 7.1% in the control condition (N=601). The difference was not significant (OR=.99, 95% CI=.96-1.02, p=52). Conclusion The present study showed no effects of 'In control: No alcohol!' on alcohol initiation. A critical evaluation of program design and content, and future studies in different target groups, are suggested. The trial is registered at trialregister.nl, number NTR2474. PMID:27143498

  20. Longitudinal Outcomes of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program for Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Fang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Methods Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CDP), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CDP arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CDP arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CDP-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Results Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CDP arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CDP arms. Conclusions Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. PMID:20413081

  1. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  2. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-01-01

    Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that

  3. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  4. Predicting Head Start parent involvement in an alcohol and other drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hahn, E J

    1995-01-01

    This study examined Health Belief Model predictors of parent involvement with preschool children in an alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention program. Over 300 Head Start parents were invited to participate in BABES (Beginning Alcohol and Addictions Basic Education Studies) with their children once a week for 7 weeks. Two hundred parents completed self-report instruments prior to participation in BABES. Previous classroom involvement, barriers, county, and race predicted high attendance (3 to 7 lessons). AOD use severity, benefits, and role modeling predicted low attendance (1 to 2 lessons). Further research involving manipulation of external cues, parent involvement in nonclassroom settings, and race-homogeneous samples is recommended. PMID:7862545

  5. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  6. The Impact of Schoolwide Prevention Efforts: Lessons Learned from Implementing Independent Academic and Behavior Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harn, Beth; Basaraba, Deni; Chard, David; Fritz, Ronda

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made in learning how to provide more responsive instructional and behavioral supports to students through efforts in Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior and Intervention Supports. This article presents information and data on a longitudinal study designed to accelerate first graders at-risk for reading…

  7. Suicide Prevention: Efforts To Increase Research and Education in Palliative Care. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Currently, the extent of palliative care instruction varies considerably across and within the three major phases of the physician education and training process. This analysis of current educational efforts in palliative care is based on information obtained from a survey conducted of all United States medical schools, surveys conducted on United…

  8. Relapse from safer sex: the next challenge for AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Stall, R; Ekstrand, M; Pollack, L; McKusick, L; Coates, T J

    1990-01-01

    Prevention campaigns to reduce sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) typically emphasize the initial adoption of safer sex techniques. We present data from a 5-year prospective study to show that the vast majority of resident gay men in San Francisco have made these initial risk reductions. Rather, relapse from safer sex techniques is now the predominant predominant kind of high-risk sex, accounting for approximately two thirds of all prevalent high-risk sex in the 1988 wave of data collection. Predictors of relapse from safer sex are identified, and these are discussed in terms of their implications for preventing relapse from the exclusive practice of safe sex. In communities that have already manifested widespread behavioral risk reductions and in which HIV infection is highly prevalent, finding ways to prevent relapse of behavioral risk reductions will be the next important challenge in the fight against acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:2243318

  9. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Results Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). Conclusion The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge. PMID:26740839

  10. Community-based approaches for the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Molina, M; Gorman, D M

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about community-based approaches for the prevention of ATOD problems and how the current practices in the field reflect these approaches. The first section of the chapter provides a brief summary of events early in this century when community-based approaches were central to addressing alcohol and other public health problems. The second section contains an overview of current research and empirical findings that yield consensus as to what conceptually and in practice constitutes a comprehensive, community-based prevention program for the prevention of ATOD problems. The third section reviews the literature of existing programs to assess the extent to which they include the salient elements and employ interventions determined to be fundamental to comprehensive community-based prevention programs. The final section discusses some of the challenges that confront researchers and practitioners when developing prevention initiatives and programs in high-risk environments. PMID:8724231

  11. The Impact of Managed Care on Efforts To Prevent Serious Emotional Disturbance in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocutt, Anne; McKinney, James; Montague, Marjorie

    This report explores the impact of managed care on providing preventative mental health services to young children at risk for serious emotional disturbances (SED). The study included a sample of kindergarten and 1st grade children (n=121) at-risk for SED that were identified in two public schools. Results of the study indicated that the move to…

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy in Prevention of HIV and TB: Update on Current Research Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Sutha, Amitabh B; Smyth, Caoimhe; Hoos, David; Vitoria, Marco; Simao, Mariangela; Hankins, Catherine; Schwartlander, Bernard; Ridzon, Renee; Bazin, Brigitte; Williams, Brian; Lo, Ying-Ru; McClure, Craig; Montaner, Julio; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific evidence supporting the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The complex nature of the HIV and TB prevention responses, resource constraints, remaining questions about cost and feasibility, and the need to use a solid evidence base to make policy decisions, and the implementation challenges to translating trial data to operational settings require a well-organised and coordinated response to research in this area. To this end, we aimed to catalogue the ongoing and planned research activities that evaluate the impact of ART plus other interventions on HIV- and/or TB-related morbidity, mortality, risk behaviour, HIV incidence and transmission. Using a limited search methodology, 50 projects were identified examining ART as prevention, representing 5 regions and 52 countries with a global distribution. There are 24 randomised controlled clinical trials with at least 12 large randomised individual or community cluster trials in resource-constrained settings that are in the planning or early implementation stages. There is considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of methodology, interventions and geographical location. While the identified studies will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the efficacy and effectiveness of ART for prevention, some key questions may remain unanswered or only partially answered. The large number and wide variety of research projects emphasise the importance of this research issue and clearly demonstrate the potential for synergies, partnerships and coordination across funding agencies. PMID:21999779

  13. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  14. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  15. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  16. Neuroscience of alcohol for addiction medicine: Neurobiological targets for prevention and intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that heavy alcohol use during adolescence may be neurotoxic to the brain. This chapter reviews the neuroimaging findings in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescent heavy alcohol users. These youth exhibit reductions in prefrontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar brain volume, decreased frontoparietal, and increased frontolimbic white matter integrity, as well as alterations in blood oxygen level-dependent response during working memory, inhibitory control, verbal encoding, decision making, and reward processing-some of which appear to differ between males and females. Although some exist, additional longitudinal studies will significantly advance addiction medicine by aiding prevention scientists and treatment providers to develop neurobiologically informed ways of strengthening neural networks prior to and after the onset of heavy alcohol use, thereby promoting healthy cognitive functioning across the adolescent period. PMID:26806778

  17. Pharmacological relapse prevention in alcohol dependence: from animal models to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Boening, J A; Lesch, O M; Spanagel, R; Wolffgramm, J; Narita, M; Sinclair, D; Mason, B J; Wiesbeck, G A

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Jobst August-Ludwig Boening and Otto Michel Lesch. The presentations were (1) Pharmacological validation of a new animal model of alcoholism, by Rainer Spanagel; (2) Persisting loss of control as main criterion for alcohol addiction in rats and mice, by Jochen Wolffgramm; (3) Role of NMDA receptor subunits associated with protein kinase C in the prevention of alcohol dependence, by Minoru Narita; (4) Long-term follow up of continued naltrexone treatment, by David Sinclair; (5) Pharmacological treatment trials with dopaminergic and serotonergic substances: Myths or facts? by Gerhard A. Wiesbeck; and (6) Methodology and behavioral therapy of the U.S. acamprosate study, by Barbara J. Mason. PMID:11391061

  18. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  19. [Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Chávez, Luz María; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The use of alcohol and drugs is a social issue that constitutes serious problem for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66.6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15.6% have experienced alcohol and the 13.4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems. PMID:16400443

  20. PHS grants for minority group HIV infection education and prevention efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, J; Robinson, W A

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Minority Health (OMH) was established in December 1985 in response to recommendations developed by the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health. Originally, OMH's mission emphasized six health problems identified by the Task Force as priority areas: cancer, cardiovascular disease and stroke; chemical dependency; diabetes; homicide, suicide, and unintentional injuries; and infant mortality and low birth weight. OMH added HIV infection to the six health priority areas after epidemiologic data showed that the representation of blacks and Hispanics was disproportionately high among persons reported with AIDS. Strategies to eliminate or reduce high-risk behaviors associated with HIV infection need to mobilize racial and ethnic minority communities and rebuild social networks in order to foster sustained behavioral changes. OMH created the Minority HIV Education/Prevention Grant Program to demonstrate the effectiveness of strategies to expand the activities of minority community-based and national organizations involved in HIV education and prevention, as well as to encourage innovative approaches to address appropriately the diversities within and among minority populations. In 1988, grants totaling $1.4 million were awarded to four national and 23 community-based minority organizations. Project workers conduct information, education, and prevention interventions directed to specific groups within racial and ethnic minority communities. Interventions include education and prevention training, information activities, developing educational materials, and providing technical assistance. Project innovations include conducting HIV education and prevention training for families at home, presenting a play produced and performed by local teenagers, and developing a workshop and a manual to help minority service organizations to recruit and train volunteer staff members.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2511587

  1. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who sex with men in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM. PMID:23132515

  2. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who have sex with men in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted in a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, Mage = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0% of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3% of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0%), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0%), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0%). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM. PMID:23132515

  3. One-year follow-up results of the STARS for Families alcohol prevention program.

    PubMed

    Werch, C E; Owen, D M; Carlson, J M; DiClemente, C C; Edgemon, P; Moore, M

    2003-02-01

    This study examined the 1-year follow-up effects of the STARS (Start Taking Alcohol Risks Seriously) for Families program, a 2-year preventive intervention based on a stage of acquisition model, and consisting of nurse consultations and parent materials. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, with participants receiving either the intervention or a minimal intervention control. Participants included a cohort of 650 sixth-grade students from two urban middle schools-one magnet (bused) and one neighborhood. Trained project staff administered questionnaires to students following a standardized protocol in the schools. For the magnet school sample, significantly fewer intervention students (5%) were planning to drink in the next 6 months than control students (18%), chi2 = 11.53, 1 d.f., P = 0.001. Magnet school intervention students also had less intentions to drink in the future, greater motivation to avoid drinking and less total alcohol risk than control students, Ps < 0.05. For the neighborhood school, intervention students (m = 7.90, SD = 1.87) had less total alcohol risk than control students (m = 8.42, SD = 1.83), F(1,205) = 4.09, P = 0.04. These findings suggest that a brief, stage and risk/protective factor tailored program holds promise for reducing risk for alcohol use among urban school youth 1 year after intervention, and has the unique advantage of greater 'transportability' over classroom-based prevention programs. PMID:12608685

  4. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  5. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  6. Lessons learned from the tobacco industry's efforts to prevent the passage of a workplace smoking regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Mangurian, C V; Bero, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the implementation of tobacco industry strategies to prevent a workplace smoking regulation. METHODS: Tobacco industry internal documents were identified; hearing transcripts for the affiliations, arguments, and positions regarding the regulation of testifiers were coded; and media coverage was analyzed. RESULTS: Tobacco industry strategies sought to increase business participation and economic discussions at public hearings and to promote unfavorable media coverage of the regulation. The percentage of business representatives opposing the regulation grew from 18% (5 to 28) to 57% (13 of 23) between the hearings. Economic arguments opposing the regulation rose from 25% (7 of 28) to 70% (16 of 23). Press coverage was neutral and did not increase during the period of the regulatory hearings. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco industry was successful in implementing 2 of its 3 strategies but was not able to prevent passage of the comprehensive workplace regulation. PMID:11111269

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Opportunities for prevention of alcohol-related death in primary care: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Margaret; Johnson, David; Morrison, David S

    2012-11-01

    The mortality rate from alcohol-related conditions has risen sharply in the United Kingdom and it is not known whether opportunities for preventive interventions could be improved. The purpose of our study was to identify opportunities to detect, assess, and manage alcohol problems in primary care according to evidence-based guidelines. We carried out a cross-sectional study on patients who died from alcohol-related conditions in the calendar year 2003 within National Health Service Greater Glasgow Health Board area, Scotland (population 920,000). We described patient characteristics and care recorded in health service records, comparing it with best evidence-based practice in Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and Health Technology Board for Scotland recommendations on the management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. 501 deaths occurred from an alcohol-related cause. The mean age at death was 57.5 years and 72% were male. The most common causes of death, recorded by the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10, excluding accidents, were alcoholic liver disease (290, 57.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol (70, 14.0%). Lifetime mean consultations at primary care general practitioner and hospital outpatient departments were 24 in males and 5 in females. All individuals who died from an alcohol-related cause had at least one biochemical or physical indicator suggestive of alcohol misuse. 21% (95% CI 13-33%) had no record of having been advised to abstain from alcohol and 23% (95% CI 15-35%) had received brief interventions. 58% (95% CI 46-70%) had been referred to specialist alcohol services but a third of them did not attend. The majority of patients (83%, 95% CI 72-90%) had no evidence of shared health service and social work care. We concluded that individuals who died from alcohol-related conditions were usually in contact with statutory and voluntary services but further efforts were required to use these

  9. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-09-01

    What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  10. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-01-01

    What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  11. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  12. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  13. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Marlene M.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A.; Hasken, Julie M.; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Snell, Cudore L.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D. H.; May, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  14. Early Intervention for Alcohol Use Prevention and Vehicle Safety Skills: Evaluating the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Thomas M.; Barker, Edward D.; Bell, Mary Lou; Lewis, Carol M.; Holleran, Lori; Pomeroy, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports the evaluation results of the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" (PY/PM) alcohol use prevention and safety curriculum for third, fourth, and fifth graders when taught by high school peer leaders. The primary goal of the PY/PM prevention program, developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), is to prevent injury and death…

  15. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  16. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  17. Preventing Alcohol Problems Through a Student Assistance Program: A Manual for Implementation Based on the Westchester County, New York Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Gerald; And Others

    This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…

  18. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  19. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day. PMID:25300769

  20. Gastric adenocarcinoma: the role of Helicobacter pylori in pathogenesis and prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Laird-Fick, Heather S; Saini, Shivani; Hillard, James Randolph

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the world, prompting high-risk countries like South Korea and Japan to establish nationwide screening programmes. Helicobacter pylori is linked to the majority of gastric adenocarcinoma cases and to the vast majority of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinomas. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of 'test-and-treat' programmes for H. pylori infection to prevent gastric cancer in high-risk populations. While this strategy has gained momentum, providers in low-risk developed countries may be unaware of the risk individual patients face, particularly those who have emigrated from high-risk regions and members of economically disadvantaged minority groups. Rapidly evolving science in recent years has made it difficult for clinicians to keep up with the current best practices. This article reviews the epidemiology of H. pylori and gastric cancer, screening and diagnostic tests and the current treatment regimens for clinicians. PMID:27222587

  1. Context, Challenges, and Tensions in Global Efforts to Engage Men in the Prevention of Violence against Women: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Fraguela-Rios, Cathlyn; Kimball, Ericka; Neugut, Tova B.; Tolman, Richard M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men’s antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into anti-violence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men’s engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men’s identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs’ experiences in community and national contexts. PMID:25568612

  2. Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) Alcohol Prevention Intervention For Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Linakis, James G; Bromberg, Julie; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D; Chun, Thomas H; Mello, Michael J; Jackson, Kristina M; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine feasibility and acceptability of a brief pediatric emergency department (PED) prevention intervention to delay/prevent initiation of alcohol use in 12–14 yrs olds. Methods Medically stable 1 2–14 yr olds presenting to the PED who were accompanied by a parent and who had not initiated alcohol use were eligible. Adolescents-parent dyads completed a computerized assessment and were randomized to either Brief Prevention Intervention (BPI) or Enhanced Standard Care (ESC). BPI families participated in a PED-based motivational interviewing and skill building-based session with a trained counselor. BPI parents had telephone boosters at 1 & 3 months. ESC families received standard care and adolescent substance use pamphlets. All dyads completed 6 month follow up assessments to assess alcohol use-related outcomes. Results 228 families were approached, 122 were eligible and 104 were enrolled (85%). Mean youth age was 13 years (SD =.83), 51% were female, and 90% of parents were females. Of the 104 enrolled, 5 withdrew; 99 (94%) completed the assessment battery in the PED in less than 30 minutes. All BPI dyads completed the counseling session in the PED. However, only 53% of BPI parents completed the booster telephone sessions. BPI acceptability items were rated favorably (82%–100%) by both parents and adolescents. There were no differences between the BPI and ESC on substance-related outcomes, although the study was not adequately powered for this purpose since it was designed as a feasibility study. Conclusions A BPI in the PED is both feasible and acceptable but phone boosters proved less feasible. Larger samples and further study are needed to identify efficacy of the BPI in delaying onset of alcohol use in teens. PMID:24168879

  3. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  4. Development and Predictive Effects of Eating Disorder Risk Factors during Adolescence: Implications for Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Method Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Results Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4 year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. Discussion The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, though eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14 year olds, when risk factors appear to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. PMID:24599841

  5. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  6. Relapse prevention and maintaining abstinence in older adults with alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrick, Christopher; Connors, Gerard J

    2002-01-01

    Although older adults are sometimes believed to have the lowest rates of alcohol abuse as an age cohort, the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse in this group is clearly underestimated. The under-diagnosis of alcohol abuse is due, in part, to the facts that the effects of alcohol use among older adults tend to be less clearly visible than among other age groups and that older adults are less likely to seek treatment than younger age groups. An additional challenge to diagnosis may be a lack of previous alcohol abuse by the patient, as approximately one-third of older adults with alcohol-use problems first develop their drinking problem after the age of 60 years. With a demographic shift that is expected to increase the number of older adults with alcohol problems, the awareness and understanding of this problem becomes increasingly important. Under-diagnosis of problem drinking in older adults is particularly unfortunate because the risks associated with alcohol abuse and relapse for the elderly are significant. Relapse, or the return to drinking following abstinence, may follow situations that are of particularly high risk for older adults. These include situations related to anxiety, interpersonal conflict, depression, loneliness, loss or social isolation. By helping patients to monitor these high-risk situations, to identify strategies that have been successful in promoting abstinence in the past, and to become engaged in treatment, relapse may be avoided and abstinence maintained. Treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, group and family therapies and self-help groups are just as effective for older adults as they are for other age groups. In fact, group and family therapies and self-help groups may be of particular benefit to older adults because of the emphasis on social support. Medicinal adjuncts are also equally effective in the elderly, but strict compliance and careful monitoring of adverse effects are especially important in patients who take

  7. Field Experiences in Effective Prevention: The U.S. Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Models on College Campuses Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    For more than two decades the U.S. Department of Education has supported campus- and community-based prevention programs through a number of programs and activities. For example, in 1987 the Department convened the first annual National Meeting for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention in Higher Education as a forum to disseminate…

  8. Alcohol and drug testing of health professionals following preventable adverse events: a bad idea.

    PubMed

    Banja, John

    2014-01-01

    Various kinds of alcohol and drug testing, such as preemployment, routine, and for-cause testing, are commonly performed by employers. While healthcare organizations usually require preemployment drug testing, they vary on whether personnel will be subjected to further testing. Recently, a call has gone out for postincident testing among physicians who are involved in serious, preventable events, especially ones leading to a patient's death. This article will offer a number of counterarguments to that proposal and discuss an alternate approach: that health institutions can better improve patient safety and employees' well-being by implementing an organizational policy of "speaking up" when system operators notice work behaviors or environmental factors that threaten harm or peril. The article will conclude with a description of various strategies that facilitate speaking up, and why the practice constitutes a superior alternative to mandatory alcohol and drug testing in the wake of serious, harm-causing medical error. PMID:25369412

  9. [Relapse prevention in alcohol dependence: acamprosate and naltrexone as a combined pharmacological strategy].

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Kölle, M A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C

    2013-05-01

    Acamprosate and naltrexone are established strategies for pharmacologic relapse prevention in patients with alcohol dependence. Regarding pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic considerations the combination of both agents for this indication is a reasonable treatment option that has been described to be safe and effective in clinical studies. However, this combination is uncommon in clinical practice. We report the case of a patient with severe alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence who achieved the longest interval of abstinence under combined treatment with acamprosate and naltrexone since the development of addiction. In addition, the currently available evidence regarding efficacy, safety and tolerability of both agents is discussed. In summary the combined treatment with both agents should be considered in patients who did not achieve abstinence under monotherapy unless contraindications are present. PMID:22892944

  10. Enhanced case management to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Northern Plains communities.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Miller, Joseph H; Goodhart, Karen A; Maestas, Olivia R; Buckley, David; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Gossage, J Phillip

    2008-11-01

    Women proven to be extremely high risk for drinking during pregnancy were provided case management (CM) enhanced with strategies derived from motivational interviewing (MI) as a part of a comprehensive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) epidemiology and prevention program in four American Indian communities in Northern Plains states. Data on the first women enrolled (n=131) revealed that they have extreme issues with alcohol abuse to overcome. Sixty-five percent of these women have experienced extensive alcohol use within their immediate family. At intake, 24% of CM clients reported binge drinking one or more days in the preceding week. Heavy drinking resulted in estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) as high as .576 using the BACCUS methodology. Project staff has attempted to actively engage each of these women in CM. Clients have been in CM an average of 17.2 months (SD=16.6). The mean number of significant contacts (face-to-face or telephone MI sessions) was 19. Thirty-one percent of the women entered some type of formal alcohol or drug treatment while in CM. Data were collected at 6 month intervals from 6 to 72 months after enrollment. Consumption of alcohol, as measured by both quantity and frequency measures, was reduced at 6 months. Thirty-eight percent of enrolled women reported complete abstinence from alcohol use at 6 months, and the number of binges while drinking in CM declined significantly from 15 at baseline to 4.3 at 6 months. However, mean peak BACs for the heavy drinking sessions were still problematic for those who continued to drink. They ranged from .234 to .275 from baseline to 12 month follow-up, but the total number of binges was reduced substantially at 12 months as well. Furthermore, the most important outcomes are the status of the children born while in CM. One hundred and forty nine pregnancies have occurred among these women, and 76% of those pregnancies have resulted in normal deliveries, and only two children born in CM are suspected

  11. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  12. Personalized feedback as a universal prevention approach for college drinking: a randomized trial of an e-mail linked universal web-based alcohol intervention.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  13. Personalized Feedback as a Universal Prevention Approach for College Drinking: A Randomized Trial of an e-Mail Linked Universal Web-Based Alcohol Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first

  14. Contingency-Based Strategies for Preventing Alcohol, Drug, and Tobacco Use: Missing or Unwanted Components of Adolescent Health Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This review of recent studies on prevention of drug and alcohol abuse among adolescents analyzes components of various preventive programs including those emphasizing knowledge, attitude modification, and remediation of skill deficits to improve ability to resist peer pressures. Missing in most programs is direct manipulation of positive or…

  15. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. BETAINE FEEDING PREVENTS THE BLOOD ALCOHOL CYCLE IN RATS FED ALCOHOL CONTINUOUSLY FOR 1 MONTH USING THE RAT INTRAGASTRIC TUBE FEEDING MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Li, XM; Caudill, M; Malysheva, O; Bardag-Gorce, F; Oliva, J; French, BA; Gorce, E; Morgan, K; Kathirvel, E; Morgan, T; French, SW

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood alcohol levels (BAL) cycle up and down over a 7–8 day period when ethanol is fed continuously for one month in the intragastric tube feeding rat model (ITFRM) of alcoholic liver disease. The cycling phenomenon is due to an alternating increase and decrease in the metabolic rate. Recently, we found that S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) fed with alcohol prevented the BAL cycle. Method Using the ITFRM we fed rats betaine (2 g/kg/day) with ethanol for 1 month and recorded the daily 24 h urine ethanol level (UAL) to measure the BAL cycle. UAL is equivalent to BAL because of the constant ethanol infusion. Liver histology, steatosis and BAL were measured terminally after 1 month of treatment. Microarray analysis was done on the mRNA extracted from the liver to determine the effects of betaine and alcohol on changes in gene expression. Results Betaine fed with ethanol completely prevented the BAL cycle similar to SAMe. Betaine also significantly reduced the BAL compared to ethanol fed rats without betaine. This was also observed when SAMe was fed with ethanol. The mechanism involved in both cases is that SAMe is required for the conversion of epinephrine from norepinephrine by phenylethanolamine methyltransferase (PNMT). Epinephrine is 5 to 10 fold more potent than norepinephrine in increasing the metabolic rate. The increase in the metabolic rate generates NAD, permitting ADH to increase the oxidation of alcohol. NAD is the rate limiting factor in oxidation of alcohol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This explains how SAMe and betaine prevented the cycle. Microarray analysis showed that betaine feeding prevented the up regulation of a large number of genes including TLR2/4, Il-1b, Jax3, Sirt3, Fas, Ifngr1, Tgfgr2, Tnfrsf21, Lbp and Stat 3 which could explain how betaine prevented fatty liver. Conclusion Betaine feeding lowers the BAL and prevents the BAL cycle by increasing the metabolic rate. This increases the rate of ethanol elimination by generating NAD

  18. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  19. The Medical Symptom Validity Test Measures Effort Not Ability in Children: A Comparison Between Mild TBI and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Samples.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Flaro, Lloyd; Peterson, Robin L; Connery, Amy K; Baker, David A; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate effort during neuropsychological examination results in inaccurate representations of an individual's true abilities and difficulties. As such, performance validity tests (PVTs) are strongly recommended as standard practice during adult-based evaluations. One concern with using PVTs with children is that failure reflects immature cognitive ability rather than non-credible effort. The current study examined performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) in two large pediatric clinical samples with strikingly different neuropsychological profiles: (1) mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; n = 510) and (2) fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD; n = 120). Despite higher IQ scores and reading ability, the mTBI group performed significantly worse than the FASD group on all effort indices. Sixteen percent of the mTBI group failed the MSVT, whereas only 5% of the FASD group did. Our findings support the idea that the MSVT measures effort, not ability, in most cases and help to justify incorporating PVTs into pediatric neuropsychological batteries. PMID:25787156

  20. An Ecological and Developmental Perspective on Dropout Risk Factors in Early Adolescence: Role of School Social Workers in Dropout Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz-Simbeni; Debra M. Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    The role school social workers play within schools, the training they receive, and whether they are present in junior high schools are all factors that pose barriers and opportunities for school social workers' involvement in dropout prevention efforts during the middle school years. Such efforts are necessary because the unique challenges of…

  1. Schisandra chinensis Prevents Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung Joon; Lee, Soo-Jung; Song, Yuno; Jang, Sun-Hee; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kang, Suk Nam; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Hong-Duck; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Schisandra chinensis (SC), a traditional herbal medicine, has been prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including hepatic cancer, hypercholesterolemia, and CCl4-induced liver injury. We investigated whether SC extract has a protective effect on alcohol-induced fatty liver and studied its underlying mechanisms. Rats were fed with ethanol by intragastric administration every day for 5 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and caused fatty degeneration of liver. Ethanol administration also elevated serum TG and total cholesterol (TC) and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, after administration of ethanol plus SC extracts, the ethanol-induced elevation in liver TC and TG levels was reversed. Elevation in serum TG was not observed after treatment with SC. Moreover, compared with the ethanol-fed group, the rats administered ethanol along with SC extracts for 5 weeks showed attenuated fatty degeneration and an altered lipid profile with decreased serum TC and TG, and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Chronic ethanol consumption did not affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) levels, but it decreased PPARα and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels in the liver. However, SC prevented the ethanol-induced decrease in PPARα expression and induced a significant decrease in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 expression and increase in phospho-AMPK expression in rats with alcoholic fatty liver. SC administration resulted in a significant decrease in intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes along with a decrease in serum TG levels, and it reversed fatty liver to normal conditions, as measured by biochemical and histological analyses. Our results indicate that the protective effect of SC is accompanied by a

  2. Inbound College Students Drink Heavily during the Summer before Their Freshman Year: Implications for Education and Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background: Alcohol misuse among college students remains a pervasive problem. Relatively little is known about alcohol consumption by incoming students during the summer between high school graduation and the start of the freshman year. It is possible that many students bring unhealthy drinking habits with them to college. Purpose: The present…

  3. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  4. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  5. Non-alcohol fatty liver disease in Asia: Prevention and planning

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review all of epidemiological aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and also prevent this disease is examined. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. All searches for writing this review is based on the papers was found in PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane database and Scopus in August and September 2014 for topic of NAFLD in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in worldwide, with an estimated with 20%-30% prevalence in Western countries and 2%-4% worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD in Asia, depending on location (urban vs rural), gender, ethnicity, and age is variable between 15%-20%. According to the many studies in the world, the relationship between NAFLD, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) is quiet obvious. Prevalence of NAFLD in Asian countries seems to be lower than the Western countries but, it has increased recently due to the rise of obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS in this region. One of the main reasons for the increase in obesity, diabetes and MS in Asia is a lifestyle change and industrialization. Today, NAFLD is recognized as a major chronic liver disease in Asia. Therefore, prevention of this disease in Asian countries is very important and the best strategy for prevention and control of NAFLD is lifestyle modifications. Lifestyle modification programs are typically designed to change bad eating habits and increase physical activity that is associated with clinically significant improvements in obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS. CONCLUSION: Prevention of NAFLD is very important in Asian countries particularly in Arab countries because of high prevalence of obesity, diabetes and MS. PMID:26167252

  6. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria T.; Oskrochi, Reza; Foxcroft, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. Methodology Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls). Drinking behaviour measures were (i) alcohol disorders; (ii) frequency; (iii) typical quantity, (iv) weekly consumption; (v) alcohol-related problems; (vi) perceived drinking norms; and (vii) positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. Principal Findings Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467 PMID:22984466

  7. Experiences in Effective Prevention: The U.S. Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Models on College Campuses Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Anderson, Jerry; Colthurst, Tom; Davidson, Laurie; Langford, Linda M.; Mackay-Smith, Virginia L.; Ryan, Barbara; Stubbs, Helen

    2007-01-01

    In response to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of AOD (alcohol and other drug) use on campuses, in 1998 Congress authorized the Department of Education to identify and promote effective prevention through a model grants program. In 1999, OSDFS (Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools) launched an important component of the Department's…

  8. Preventing Alcohol Abuse Through Social Networking Sites: A First Assessment of a Two-Year Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    de Chazeron, Ingrid; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Boudesseul, Jordane; Begue, Laurent; Bouthier, Renaud; Lévrier, Christel; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Brousse, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevention strategies to reduce alcohol use/consumption among young people are crucial to reducing alcohol-related deaths and preventing disease. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS) alcohol prevention program targeted toward young people. Objective We hypothesized that the program would diminish the relation made by participants between alcohol and festive moments, and would result in a reduction of their declared consumption of alcohol at festive moments during the program. We also explored the interaction with the prevention program that was the most efficient. Methods The prevention program took the form of 3 lotteries over 2 years. The participants periodically received prevention messages, particularly on alcohol and festive moments (eg, videos on Facebook and short message service [SMS] text messages on their mobile phones). For the 3 periods, the participants had to answer questions exploring the level of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are highly associated. A control group that did not participate in the prevention program was asked the same questions over the same number of days for the first 2 periods. During the second period, the participants were asked to answer questions about their alcohol consumption during parties. During the third period, we explored the interaction with the prevention program on the reduction of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are associated. Results A total of 651 participants (age: mean 22.24, SD 4.10 years; women: n=430) during the first period, 301 participants (age: mean 21.27, SD 3.07 years; women n=199) during the second period, and 305 (age: mean 22.41, SD 4.65 years; women: n=190) during the third period correctly completed the survey. For the control group, 69 students completed the survey during the first period (age: mean 18.93, SD 1.14 years; women: n=59) and 50 during the second (age: mean 20.78, SD 1.94 years

  9. Prevention of alcohol use in middle school students: psychometric assessment of the decisional balance inventory.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Steven F; Harrington, Magdalena; Burditt, Caitlin; Redding, Colleen; Paiva, Andrea; Meier, Kathryn; Oatley, Karin; McGee, Heather; Velicer, Wayne F

    2011-05-01

    A measurement model should be equivalent across the different subgroups of a target population. The Decisional Balance Inventory for the Prevention of Alcohol Use is a 2-factor correlated model with 3 items for Pros of alcohol use and 3 items for Cons. The measure is part of a tailored intervention for middle school students. This study evaluated the important psychometric assumptions of factorial invariance and scale reliability with a large sample of sixth grade students (N=3565) from 20 schools. A measure is factorially invariant when the model is the same across subgroups. Three levels of invariance were assessed, from least restrictive to most restrictive: 1) Configural Invariance (unconstrained nonzero factor loadings); 2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and 3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Structural equation modeling was used to assess invariance over two levels of gender (male and female), race (white and black), ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic), and school size (large, indicating >200 students per grade, or small). The strongest level of invariance, Strong Factorial Invariance, was a good fit for the model across all of the subgroups: gender (CFI: 0.94), race (CFI: 0.96), ethnicity (CFI: 0.93), and school size (CFI: 0.97). Coefficient alpha was 0.61 for the Pros and 0.67 for Cons. Together, invariance and reliability provide strong empirical support for the validity of the measure. PMID:21316862

  10. Advances in the development of novel antioxidant therapies as an approach for fetal alcohol syndrome prevention.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Pujades, Cristina; Vall, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, and its consumption during pregnancy can produce a wide range of abnormalities in infants known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The major characteristics of FASD can be divided into: (i) growth retardation, (ii) craniofacial abnormalities, and (iii) central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. FASD is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation in Western countries. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, the induction of oxidative stress is believed to be one central process linked to the development of the disease. Currently, there is no known effective strategy for prevention (other than alcohol avoidance) or treatment. In the present review we will provide the state of art in the evidence for the use of antioxidants as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment using whole-embryo and culture cells models of FASD. We conclude that the imbalance of the intracellular redox state contributes to the pathogenesis observed in FASD models, and we suggest that antioxidant therapy can be considered a new efficient strategy to mitigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:25131946

  11. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Alcohol-Misuse and Harm-Prevention Course among High- and Low-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Paschall, Mallie J.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the current study, the authors assessed whether a new online alcohol-misuse prevention course (College Alc) is more effective at reducing alcohol use and related consequences among drinkers and nondrinkers. Participants: The authors compared incoming college freshmen who reported any past 30-day alcohol use before the beginning of…

  12. Development and Implementation of CHOICES Group to Reduce Drinking, Improve Contraception, and Prevent Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Ingersoll, Karen; Pourier, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Public health officials assert that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) should begin before conception, by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk for or planning pregnancy, and/or preventing pregnancy in women who are drinking at risky levels. One such effort is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program. While the OST CHOICES Program has been successfully implemented, a community-based needs assessment determined that the OST CHOICES intervention should expand and be delivered in a group setting using group motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. After extensive group MI and CHOICES group trainings, recruitment for CHOICES Group began and within a ten month period, a total of twelve groups with non-pregnant American Indian women were held for this pilot intervention. Evaluations completed by participants indicated that CHOICES Group sessions positively engaged members, had low levels of anger or tension, and had average levels of avoidance of personal responsibility. An evaluation of the CHOICES Group leaders indicated strengths in certain MI skills, although improvement is needed in some core MI and group leadership skills. This is an important expansion of a successful AEP prevention program (CHOICES), as well as a novel application of MI, and recommendations and future plans for this intervention are outlined. PMID:26265591

  13. Neighborhood Effects on the Efficacy of a Program to Prevent Youth Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lewin, Ben; Nieri, Tanya; Hussaini, Syed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how neighborhood characteristics affect program efficacy. Data come from a randomized trial of a substance use prevention program called keepin’ it REAL, which was administered to a predominantly Mexican American sample of 4,622 middle school students in Phoenix, Arizona, beginning in 1998. Multilevel models and multiple imputation techniques address clustered data and attrition. Among less linguistically acculturated Latinos, living in poorer neighborhoods and those with many single-mother families decreased program effectiveness in combating alcohol use. High neighborhood immigrant composition increased program effectiveness. Unexpectedly, the program was also more effective in neighborhoods with higher rates of crime. There were no significant effects on program efficacy for the more linguistically acculturated Latinos and non-Hispanic White students. Findings are discussed in light of theories of neighborhood social disorganization, immigrant adaptation, and social isolation. PMID:17366126

  14. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  15. Alcohol Prevention on College Campuses: The Moderating Effect of the Alcohol Environment on the Effectiveness of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns*

    PubMed Central

    Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596

  16. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  17. Applying the Attention-Allocation Model to the Explanation of Alcohol-Related Aggression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giancola, Peter R.; Josephs, Robert A.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Gunn, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to apply the attention allocation model (AAM; Steele & Josephs, 1990) to the explanation, as well as the prevention, of alcohol-related violence. The AAM contends that alcohol has a “myopic” effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus on the most salient provocative cues, that are naturally present in hostile situations, rather than less salient inhibitory cues. Data are presented to demonstrate support for the AAM with regard to alcohol-related aggression. The model has also been expanded to suggest some intermediary mechanisms that may account for how distracting attention away from provocative cues might be involved in the reduction of aggression. Finally, a number of practical suggestions are put forth regarding how the AAM can be applied to the prevention of intoxicated aggression. PMID:19938917

  18. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  19. Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Cunningham, John A.; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults. Study Design 2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months. Setting/Participants Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI). The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG) participants completed only an assessment. Main Outcome Measures Alcohol use (number of drinks per week), binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445). At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD) number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2), 2.3(2.6), 2.5(3.0) for IBI, and 2.4(2.3), 2.8(3.7), 2.7(3.9) for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI) and 19.0% (CG) at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI) and 13.0% (CG) at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed at 6 months. Conclusion We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918 PMID:26642329

  20. First-Year Students' Perspectives on Reasons for and Prevention of Their Own Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-six first-year students enrolled at a large, public Midwest university and deemed to require an emergency transport for a potential alcohol overdose completed a brief questionnaire on the student's perceptions of why the event occurred, what might have happened to prevent the overdose situation, and personal assessment of…

  1. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  2. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  3. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  4. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Social Studies--United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for United States history and healthful living are presented. The history goals are understanding that the years since 1945 have been years of great changes, and learning to organize…

  5. A History of Drug and Alcohol Block Grant Funding and Its Effects on Pennsylvania's Prevention Services System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the impact of the U.S. government's block grant fiscal policy on the funding policies and program services in drug and alcohol abuse prevention. Uses a case history of Pennsylvania's experience with block grant funding mandates to document the administrative and programmatic considerations affecting policy implementation at the state…

  6. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  7. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: An Overview for Educators: A Description of the Implementation of a Model Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    In the fall of 1991, the Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and communities published "Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: An Overview for Educators." This model course outline was designed to assist institutes of higher education in offering preservice and continuing education courses for teachers and other educational personnel. This…

  8. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a School Drug and Alcohol Prevention Curriculum: A New Look at "Here's Looking at You, Two."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Justin J.; Kelley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated school drug and alcohol prevention curriculum "Here's Looking at You, Two" using more rigorous methodology than previous studies. Tested school children (N=2,703) in grades l-12 about program content. Found program effective at communicating information to elementary and middle school students but had little impact on attitudes critical…

  10. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  11. Project Application Guidelines for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Funding. Student Services, Prevention, and Wellness Team. Bulletin No. 95202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Pupil Services.

    This publication provides information and application forms for alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) funding. The contents include the following: Framework for Student Services, Prevention and Wellness; Abstracts of AODA Grants; Timetable for Grants; Criteria Applicable to all State AODA Grants; Criteria Specific to Aoda Program Grant; AODA…

  12. Alcohol-Specific Parenting within a Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Swedish Primary Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Anna K.; Bodin, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of an ongoing cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of a parental prevention program, the aim of the present study is to investigate attitudes towards under-age drinking and use of program components, i.e. alcohol-specific parenting behaviors, in parents who did and did not take part in the programme.…

  13. Structuring a Multi-Site Evaluation for Youth Mentoring Programs to Prevent Teen Alcohol and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Nikki D.; Springer, U. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth W.; Espiritu, Rachele C.

    2004-01-01

    Despite mentoring's rapidly increasing popularity as an intervention for the prevention of teen alcohol and drug abuse and associated problems, there is little research consensus on its overall effectiveness or on the core principles and components that define effective mentoring. To advance knowledge concerning this important prevention…

  14. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  15. Prevention of Secondary Conditions in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Identification of Systems-Level Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C.; Chin, Nancy P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) impact 2 to 5 percent of the U.S. population and are associated with life-long cognitive and behavioral impairments. Individuals with FASD have high rates of secondary conditions, including mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. This study focuses on systems-level barriers that contribute to secondary conditions and interfere with prevention and treatment. Methods Using a phenomenological methodology, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with parents of children with FASD and service providers. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Results Participants emphasized the pervasive lack of knowledge of FASD throughout multiple systems. This lack of knowledge contributes to multi-system barriers including delayed diagnosis, unavailability of services, and difficulty qualifying for, implementing, and maintaining services. Conclusions FASD is a major public health problem. Broad system changes using a public health approach are needed to increase awareness and understanding of FASD, improve access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, and create responsive institutional policies to prevent secondary conditions. These changes are essential to improve outcomes for individuals with FASD and their families and facilitate dissemination of empirically supported interventions. PMID:24178158

  16. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model.

    PubMed

    Stefano, J T; Pereira, I V A; Torres, M M; Bida, P M; Coelho, A M M; Xerfan, M P; Cogliati, B; Barbeiro, D F; Mazo, D F C; Kubrusly, M S; D'Albuquerque, L A C; Souza, H P; Carrilho, F J; Oliveira, C P

    2015-05-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  17. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M.; Coelho, A.M.M.; Xerfan, M.P.; Cogliati, B.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Mazo, D.F.C.; Kubrusly, M.S.; D'Albuquerque, L.A.C.; Souza, H.P.; Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  18. The Role of State, Community, and Institutional Policy in the Prevention of College Alcohol Problems. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laurie; DeJong, Christene

    2004-01-01

    The most widespread health and safety problem on college and university campuses in the United States today is high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. The heavy, episodic use of alcohol that 44 percent of college students engage in results in a myriad of consequences for both drinkers and nondrinkers, ranging from disturbed study and…

  19. The opportunities for and obstacles against prevention: the example of Germany in the areas of tobacco and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen a growing research and policy interest in prevention in many developed countries. However, the actual efforts and resources devoted to prevention appear to have lagged well behind the lip service paid to the topic. Discussion We review the evidence on the considerable existing scope for health gains from prevention as well as for greater prevention policy efforts in Germany. We also discuss the barriers to "more and better" prevention and provide modest suggestions about how some of the obstacles could be overcome. Summary In Germany, there are substantial health gains to be reaped from the implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective preventive interventions and policies. Barriers to more prevention include social, historical, political, legal and economic factors. While there is sufficient evidence to scale up prevention efforts in some public health domains in Germany, in general there is a comparative shortage of research on non-clinical preventive interventions. Some of the existing barriers in Germany are at least in principle amenable to change, provided sufficient political will exists. More research on prevention by itself is no panacea, but could help facilitate more policy action. In particular, there is an economic efficiency-based case for public funding and promotion of research on non-clinical preventive interventions, in Germany and beyond, to confront the peculiar challenges that set this research apart from its clinical counterpart. PMID:20718995

  20. [Alcohol and Drug Education Program Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst.

    This group of documents describe the University of Massachusetts/Amherst's (UMA) drug and alcohol prevention program. The Alcohol Education Program sheet describes the program's goal and objectives, lists educational programs, media efforts, community development projects and discusses assistance and referral policy. Another document states the…

  1. Curcumin prevents the non-alcoholic fatty hepatitis via mitochondria protection and apoptosis reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long; lv, Yisong; Yao, Huixiang; Yin, Li; Shang, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty hepatitis (NASH) is highly prevalent, mitochondria damage is the main pathophysiological characteristic of NASH. However, treatment for mitochondria damage is rarely reported. Methods: NASH model was established in rats, the protective effects of curcumin were evaluated by histological observation; structure and function assessments of mitochondria; and apoptotic genes expression. Results: NASH rats treated with curcumin displayed relatively slight liver damage when compared with NASH livers. The average mitochondrial length and width of NASH (12.0 ± 3.2 and 5.1 ± 1.1 micrometers) were significantly longer than that of normal (6.2 ± 2.1 and 2.1 ± 1.5 micrometers) and NASH treated with curcumin (7.4 ± 1.2 and 3.2 ± 1.5 micrometers) rats. The average malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy nonyl alcohol (HNE) levels in liver homogenates of NASH rats (4.23 ± 0.22 and 19.23 ± 2.3 nmol/Ml) were significantly higher than these in normal (1.32 ± 0.12 and 3.52 ± 0.43 nmol/mL) and NASH treated with curcumin (1.74 ± 0.11 and 4.66 ± 0.99 nmol/mL) rats. The expression levels of CytC, Casp3 and Casp8 of the NASH livers were significantly higher than normal and NASH treated with curcumin rats livers. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that curcumin prevents the NASH by mitochondria protection and apoptosis reduction and provided a possible novel treatment for NASH. PMID:26617882

  2. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  3. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents' Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: a Bidirectional Model.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Terese; Koning, Ina M

    2016-04-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents' rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents' alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents' beliefs about their competence in and ability to influence their adolescents' drinking habits (i.e., parental self-efficacy [PSE], Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977). In this study, we examined the direction of influence between parents' rule setting and PSE as outcomes of the program "Prevention of Alcohol use in Students" (PAS), a prevention program aiming to reduce underage drinking by targeting parents and adolescents both separately and in a combined intervention. We tested two mediation processes in which the program would (a) have a direct effect on PSE, which in turn would increase parents' rule setting or (b) have a direct effect on parents' rule setting, which in turn would increase PSE. To examine these processes, we used a sample of 2562 parent-adolescent dyads (age 12 at baseline), followed annually over 3 years. The results showed that the combined intervention increased PSE via an increase in parents' rule setting. No significant effect of the intervention on rules about alcohol via PSE was found. This is the first study to test the mediation processes involving PSE and parental rule setting in an experimental context where parenting practices are being actively changed. The results suggest that giving parents concrete advice on how to deal with alcohol drinking in their adolescents and at the same time helping adolescents to develop healthy attitudes about alcohol drinking have a positive influence on parents' self-efficacy. PMID:26687204

  4. Biomarkers in alcohol misuse: their role in the prevention and detection of thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    In Western countries alcohol misuse is the most frequent cause of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) and consequent neuro-impairment. Studies have demonstrated that between 30 and 80% of alcoholics are thiamine deficient, and this puts them at risk of developing the Wernicke-Korsakoff (WK) syndrome. The relative roles of alcohol and TD in causing brain damage remain controversial and it is important to try to determine the role played by each factor. Animal studies support an additive effect of alcohol exposure and TD, and indicate the potential for interaction between alcohol and TD in human alcohol-related brain damage. Early diagnosis of alcohol-related TD is therefore an important aspect of effective intervention and treatment. Alcohol biomarkers provide a direct and indirect way of estimating the amount of alcohol being consumed, the duration of ingestion and the harmful effects that long-term alcohol use has on body functions. Appropriate use of these markers is very helpful when considering a diagnosis of alcohol-related TD. PMID:19147797

  5. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  6. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans. PMID:22119904

  7. Summit on the National Effort To Prevent Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities. Summit Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 6-7, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    This document reports the proceedings of a summit to assess the adequacy of the U.S. effort to prevent mental retardation and related disabilities and to chart the course for future strategies to reduce the incidence and ameliorate the effects of these disabilities, particularly when caused by socioeconomic conditions. The document contains…

  8. Alcohol research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Hewitt, Brenda G; Li, Ting-Kai; Warren, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    Created forty years ago, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has played a major role in the great strides made in the understanding, treatment, prevention, and public acceptance of alcohol-use disorders. Throughout most of U.S. history "habitual drunkenness" was viewed as a problem of moral degeneracy or character flaw inherent in the individual. However, the wealth of scientific evidence amassed throughout NIAAA's history has established alcoholism as a medical condition, that is, as a disease for which affected individuals should feel no shame or be treated with disdain. We look at the developments in alcohol epidemiology, typology, etiology, prevention, and treatment research over the past 40 years. We also discuss how NIAAA addresses alcohol disorders from a life-course framework, affecting all stages of the lifespan, from fetus through child, adolescent, and young adult, to midlife/senior adult, with each stage involving different risks, consequences, prevention efforts, and treatment strategies. PMID:21182533

  9. The Role of Alcohol Policies in Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Megan C.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Valle, Linda Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article summarizes existing research on the relationship between alcohol policies and intimate partner violence (IPV). Because alcohol represents an important risk factor for IPV, interventions and policies aimed at decreasing problem drinking may also lead to reductions in IPV. Method Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles on alcohol policies and IPV, as well as reference sections of appropriate articles. Only policies that have been studied specifically for impact on IPV were included. Results Three alcohol policy areas (outlet density, hours and days of sale, pricing/taxation) had been studied in relation to IPV outcomes. Research on outlet density had the most consistent findings, with most studies indicating that higher densities of alcohol outlets are associated with higher rates of IPV. Fewer studies had been conducted on pricing policies and policies restricting hours/days of sale, with most studies suggesting no impact on IPV rates. Conclusions Higher density of alcohol outlets appears to be associated with greater rates of IPV. However, there is limited evidence suggesting that alcohol pricing policies and restrictions on hours/days of sale are associated with IPV outcomes. Knowledge about the impact of alcohol-related policies on IPV and violence in general is limited by several significant research gaps. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of alcohol policies on IPV and other forms of violence. PMID:25486390

  10. Making the Grade: A Guide to School Drug Prevention Programs. Preventing Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use. Updated and Expanded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This revision of the 1996 publication is a tool for identifying promising drug prevention programs. This booklet is designed to help teachers, school principals, and concerned citizens determine how to spend scarce prevention dollars. Many parents assume that school prevention programs will protect their children from drugs; the information…

  11. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol: Do We Need Primary Prevention Programs for "Tweens"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2009-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic,…

  12. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  13. College Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide: Environmental Approaches to Prevention. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; Colthurst, Tom; Segars, Lance

    This guide is designed to help identify and modify risks that contribute to alcohol-related problems within college and university communities. The guide describes methods and exercises that can be followed to gather and organize information about alcohol use and associated adverse consequences at institutions of higher education and within…

  14. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  15. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  16. Wide Scope, Questionable Quality: Drug and Violence Prevention Efforts in American Schools. Report on the Study on School Violence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosse, Scott; Burr, Michele; Cantor, David; Hagen, Carol A.; Hantman, Irene

    This paper provides findings from the Study on School Violence and Prevention. During spring 1997, 886 middle-school and high-school principals from across the U.S. provided information about prevention activities in their schools. Information was again provided in 1998 by many of the same principals, as well as by students and teachers. The…

  17. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  18. Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink with Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…

  19. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…

  20. NCADI's 1995 National Directory of Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Programs That Have a Special Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Rebecca, Comp.; Schacht, Robert M., Comp.

    This state-by-state directory lists over 500 alcohol and drug abuse treatment and prevention services that target American Indians and Alaska Natives. The directory was compiled from the website of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Their home page on the Internet is located at http://www.health.org/index.htm. The…

  1. Efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Sears, P M; Bartlett, P C; Gage, C R

    1998-01-01

    Five Michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating cows. Three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. The teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. Once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip throughout the trial. Total new IMI numbered 254 and 201 for cows treated with benzyl alcohol and iodophor germicidal teat dip, respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (52.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), and Corynebacterium bovis (12.2%) were the predominant pathogens that caused new IMI in cows treated with benzyl alcohol. Staphylococcus spp., Staph. aureus, and C. bovis, respectively, were the pathogens responsible for 69.7, 12.4, and 4.5% of the new IMI in cows treated with iodophor. The incidences of new IMI caused by Staph. aureus (0.66 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), C. bovis (0.38 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), and all pathogens (3.15 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo) were higher in cows treated with benzyl alcohol than in cows treated with iodophor (0.29, 0.11, and 2.35 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo, respectively). Incidence of new IMI did not differ between groups for other pathogens. One percent iodophor prevented new IMI caused by contagious pathogens more effectively than did benzyl alcohol. PMID:9493086

  2. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  3. Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Military Cohort: Are there Critical Periods for Prevention of Alcohol Use Disorders?

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Liberzon, Israel; Chan, Philip; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Shirley, Edwin; Goto, Toyomi; D'Arcangelo, Nicole; Fine, Thomas; Reed, Philip L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are commonly comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders; however, a strategy for AUD prevention remains unclear in the presence of three competing etiological models that each recommends different high-risk groups. Therefore, the investigation of the three hypotheses in a characteristically unique cohort is critical to identifying pervasive characteristics of AUD that can inform a universal prevention strategy. The current study evaluated the temporality and onset of comorbid AUD and psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of 528 Ohio Army National Guard soldiers using structured clinical interviews from 2009 to 2012. We examined temporality both statistically and graphically to identify patterns that could inform prevention. General estimating equations with dichotomous predictor variables were used to estimate odds ratios between comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUDs. An annualized rate of 13.5 % persons per year was diagnosed with any AUD between 2010 and 2012. About an equal proportion of participants with comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUD initiated the psychiatric disorder prior to the AUD and half initiated the psychiatric disorder after the AUD. Regardless of onset, however, the majority (80 %) AUD initiated during a short interval between the ages of 16 and 23. Focused primary prevention during this narrow age range (16-23 years) may have the greatest potential to reduce population mental health burden of AUD, irrespective of the sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorder. PMID:26687202

  4. Reducing asthma disparities by addressing environmental inequities: a case study of regional asthma management and prevention's advocacy efforts.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Anne Kelsey; Ervice, Joel; Lorenzen, Kathryn; Prentice, Bob; White, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes its collaborative approach to address a social determinant of health--air quality--and the associated inequities that have led to asthma disparities impacting African American and Latino communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. The strategies, aimed at decreasing diesel pollution in disproportionately impacted communities, span the levels of the socioecological model, with an emphasis on policy outcomes. Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes how this work fits within a larger comprehensive approach to address asthma disparities encompassing several components, ranging from clinical management to environmental protection. PMID:21160331

  5. Do Parents Know Best? Examining the Relationship Between Parenting Profiles, Prevention Efforts, and Peak Drinking in College Students1

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E.; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students (n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles. PMID:24109150

  6. Do Parents Know Best? Examining the Relationship Between Parenting Profiles, Prevention Efforts, and Peak Drinking in College Students.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E

    2011-12-01

    The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students (n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles. PMID:24109150

  7. Training nurses and nursing students about prevention, diagnoses, and treatment of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, Roger J; Durkin, Kristy M; Gonzalez, Sandra J; Adams, Susie

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in birth defects known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This study examined whether 1-h training sessions on alcohol screening, brief intervention, diagnoses, and treatment of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders could increase practical knowledge and confidence in nurses and student nurses. Data were collected from 420 nurses (n = 95) and student nurses (n = 325) in the southeastern United States, from 2009 to 2011. Pre- and post-test data were analyzed using chi-square tests and t-tests. The post-training response rate was 84%. Nurses were more likely to know what constitutes binge drinking, facial abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and criteria for diagnosis. Nurses were also more confident in educating about effects of prenatal alcohol use, identifying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and utilizing resources. Training materials may need to be improved and/or longer training programs developed for student nurses, and nursing school programs should place more emphasis on educating and preparing student nurses regarding this topic area. PMID:24393607

  8. Using Systematic Screening Procedures to Identify Students Who Are Nonresponsive to Primary Prevention Efforts: Integrating Academic and Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Menzies, Holly Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Many school systems are adopting three-tiered models of prevention (e.g., Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Support) to support an increasingly diverse student population (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002). A central feature of these models is that data are monitored to determine responsiveness. We offer this paper as a guide for…

  9. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  10. The Challenge of Improving Urban High School Graduation Outcomes: Findings from a Randomized Study of Dropout Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele

    2011-01-01

    This 5-year longitudinal randomized study focused on the effects of a dropout prevention program implemented at two urban high schools. The program incorporated the characteristics of personalization found in previous research to have some positive effects, and typical of the type of programs implemented in many high schools nationwide. The…

  11. Safe Communities--Safe Schools: Guide to Effective Program Selection. A Tool for Community Violence Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Delbert S.; Grady, Jane M.; Heys, Landa; Bell, Holly; Woodward, Bill; Williams, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Schools, agencies and individuals seeking to implement a violence prevention program have many options from which to choose--they also have a responsibility to choose wisely. This program guide has been developed to assist Safe Communities--Safe Schools (SCSS) sites, as well as other organizations and individuals interested in selecting and…

  12. Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts To Identify Effective Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanof, Marjorie E.

    The most widely used school-based substance abuse prevention program in the United States is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program, which is funded by a variety of sources, including private, federal, and other public entities. DAREs primary mission is to provide children with the information and skills they need to live drug- and…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Acculturation and Diabetes Risk among Urban, Immigrant Latinas: Implications for Diabetes Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Shuman, Sara J.; Barrios, Dulce M.; Alos, Victor A.; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how acculturation influences diabetes risk among urban, immigrant Latinas (Hispanic women). Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 26 urban, immigrant Latinas who were at high clinical risk for developing diabetes. The focus group sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The authors independently analyzed transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among authors. Results All of the participants were foreign-born and had low levels of acculturation. During the acculturation process, they noted changes in their lifestyle behaviors and the family context in which those behaviors are shaped. They reported that since living in the U.S., their improved economic circumstances led to increased consumption of less healthy foods and beverages and a more sedentary lifestyle. They also described changing family roles and responsibilities, including working outside the home, which constrained healthy food choices. However, they perceived that their position of influence within the family offered opportunities to help family members prevent diabetes. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in Latinas should address their acculturation experiences, which impact family functioning and health behaviors related to diabetes risk. For example, given the perceived link between Latinas’ improved economic circumstances and their diabetes risk, prevention programs should incorporate strategies to help Latinas avoid adopting less healthy lifestyle behaviors that become affordable during the acculturation process. PMID:24872386

  14. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: a joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans.

    PubMed

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. PMID:24714026

  15. Preventive strategies in chronic liver disease: part I. Alcohol, vaccines, toxic medications and supplements, diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Riley, T R; Bhatti, A M

    2001-11-01

    Chronic liver disease is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Hepatitis C virus infection is the most frequent cause of chronic liver disease and the most common indication for liver transplantation. Preventive care can significantly reduce the progression of liver disease. Alcohol and hepatitis C virus are synergistic in hastening the development of cirrhosis; therefore, patients with hepatitis C infection should abstain from alcohol use. Because superinfection with hepatitis A or B virus can lead to liver failure, vaccination is recommended. Potentially hepatotoxic medications should be used with caution in patients with chronic liver disease. In general, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided; acetaminophen in a dosage below 2 g per day is the safest choice. Many herbal remedies are potentially hepatotoxic, and only milk thistle can be used safely in patients who have chronic liver disease. Weight reduction and exercise can improve liver function in patients with fatty liver. PMID:11730310

  16. Prevention of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Health Problems among American Indians and Alaska Natives: An Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.; Beauvais, Fred

    This chapter reviews the literature on substance abuse and prevention efforts in Native communities. The first section describes demographic characteristics of America's indigenous people, including tribal and government definitions, interaction and validation styles, and rural-urban differences. It concludes by warning that use of broad ethnic…

  17. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  18. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793

  19. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  20. Alcohol-related injury among Greek-letter college students: Defining a target population for secondary prevention

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Mary Claire; McNamara, Robert S; McCoy, Thomas P; Sutfin, Erin L; Wolfson, Mark; Rhodes, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Members of Greek-letter societies are the heaviest drinkers on college campuses, and experience more alcohol-related problems than their peers. This study reports the results of a web-based survey administered to stratified random samples of college students from ten North Carolina universities. Greek-letter status was a significant independent risk factor for increased injury (both experienced and caused to others), even after adjusting for drinking behaviors. Prevention, screening, and intervention strategies are discussed in the context of these results. PMID:22689586

  1. Locating the Places People Meet New Sexual Partners in a Southern US City to Inform HIV/STI Prevention and Testing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria R.; Tisdale, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaplan, Andrew M.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Places where people meet new sex partners can be venues for the delivery of individual and environmental interventions that aim to reduce transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) methodology we identified and characterized venues where people in a southeastern US city with high prevalence of both HIV and STI go to meet new sexual partners. A total of 123 community informants identified 143 public, private and commercial venues where people meet sex partners. Condoms were available at 14% of the venues, although 48% of venue representatives expressed a willingness to host HIV prevention efforts. Interviews with 373 people (229 men, 144 women) socializing at a random sample of 54 venues found high rates of HIV risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, transactional sex and illicit substance abuse. Risk behaviors were more common among those at certain venue types including those that may be overlooked by public health outreach efforts. The systematic methodology used was successful in locating venues where risky encounters are established and reveal opportunities for targeted HIV prevention and testing programs as well as research. PMID:20614175

  2. Making the Link: Faculty and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; DeJong, William

    The guide presents concepts and approaches to prevention of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse among college students, focusing on the role of faculty in prevention efforts. Sections discuss why faculty should get involved, the impact of AOD abuse on academic performance, the rationale for taking an environmental approach to prevention, helping…

  3. Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Practitioners Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities. OSAP Cultural Competence Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlandi, Mario A., Ed.; And Others

    As an introduction to a series on the array of issues in the implementation and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs, this volume attempts to integrate two types of competence for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention program practitioners: program evaluation competence and cultural competence. The chapters in this document provide…

  4. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  5. Effective Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Intervention and Prevention Using Online Game-Based, E-Learning: An Evidence-Informed Program That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Heidi; Hayslett, Carrianne; Bansal, Naveen; Ronco, Sharron; Schafer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The host of costly individual and societal consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) use underscores the importance of ATOD prevention education. "It's Up 2U" is an evidence-informed, game-based, e-learning ATOD prevention program developed by Children's Health Education Center (CHEC) targeting middle…

  6. Policies and Programs for the 1990's: A Team Approach to the Prevention of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Traffic Safety Problems in Higher Education. 1989 Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelden Services, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This is a workshop training manual designed to help higher education institutional teams develop policies and programs aimed at preventing the abuse of alcohol and use of illegal drugs on their campuses. Three circular diagrams display the community groups that can be involved in drug abuse prevention, higher education institutions that play a…

  7. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  8. A Family Focused Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Moderating Roles of Positive Parenting and Adolescent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…

  9. An examination of participants who develop an eating disorder despite completing an eating disorder prevention program: implications for improving the yield of prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Horney, Audra C; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n = 20) to those who did not (n = 216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.08), negative affect (η (2) = 0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η (2) = 0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η (2) = 0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre-post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026

  10. An Examination of Participants Who Develop an Eating Disorder Despite Completing an Eating Disorder Prevention Program: Implications for Improving the Yield of Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026

  11. Efficacy of a Web-based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Three-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over nine weeks. Non- and low-risk drinking participants received risk prevention, while high-risk drinking participants received a risk-reduction intervention. Both intervention and control groups were surveyed at baseline and at a three-month follow-up. Analysis showed positive effects for both men and women on stage of change, drinking behavior, drinking motivation and attitudes, and use of risk-reduction strategies. These results provided evidence of efficacy, and found that M-PASS had both intervention and prevention effects, making it unique among currently developed brief alcohol interventions for college students. PMID:22455103

  12. Development and Acceptability of a Co-Produced Online Intervention to Prevent Alcohol Misuse in Adolescents: A Think Aloud Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background The prototype willingness model (PWM) may offer an appropriate basis for explaining and preventing adolescent alcohol misuse. An intervention was developed using a co-production approach, and consisted of an online quiz featuring 10 questions linked to the PWM. Objective This study sought to determine the acceptability and relevance of the intervention content to young people, to incorporate their feedback into a final version. Methods A qualitative think aloud study with follow-up semistructured interviews was undertaken with 16 young people aged 11-15 (50%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The following 3 main themes relating the acceptability of the intervention were identified: “challenging expectations of alcohol education”; “motivations for drinking or not drinking,” and “the inevitability of drinking.” Participants found the intervention appealing because it was counter to their expectations. The content appeared to reflect their experiences of social pressure and drinking encounters. There was evidence that a focus on drinker/nondrinker prototypes was too narrow and that because adolescents perceived drinking as inevitable, it would be challenging to enact any plans to resist pressure to drink. Conclusions An online intervention based on the PWM has the potential to engage and interest adolescents. A wide range of alcohol prototypes should be targeted and a focus on short-term harms should ensure that the intervention is credible to young people. PMID:27025403

  13. Findings and lessons learned from a multi-partner collaboration to increase cervical cancer prevention efforts in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Analia R; Espey, David; Glenn, Jeffrey; Lara-Prieto, Elisa; Moreno, Amanda; Nuñez, Fernando; Padilla, Haydee; Waxman, Alan; Flowers, Lisa; Santos, Carlos; Soria, Milton; Luciani, Silvana; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Bolivia, where cytology based screening has not performed well due to health-systems constraints. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pan American Health Organization partnered with the Bolivian Ministry of Health and the Peruvian Cancer Institute (INEN) to build capacity in Bolivia for the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Four 5-day courses on basic clinical skills to perform these procedures, provide related counseling, and manage side effects and infections were conducted from September 2010 to December 2012 for 61 Bolivian nurses and physicians. Of these courses, two were conducted by Bolivian trainers that were certified through a Training-of-Trainers course taught by the INEN. Classroom didactic sessions included lectures and practice with anatomic models followed by clinical practice sessions to provide trainees with practical experience in VIA and cryotherapy. Pre- and post-training evaluations were administered to ascertain knowledge gained. Evaluation of competency was conducted during simulation exercises in the classroom and during supervised performances of procedures in clinical settings. This report summarizes findings and lessons learned that will be useful for planning the supervision and monitoring phase of this project as well as for future partnerships in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. PMID:24245564

  14. Osteopontin deficiency does not prevent but promotes alcoholic neutrophilic hepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Raul; Wu, Raymond; Lee, Sunyoung; Zhu, Nian-Ling; Chen, Chia-Lin; French, Samuel W.; Xu, Jun; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a distinct spectrum of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) with intense neutrophilic (PMN) inflammation and high mortality. Although a recent study implicates osteopontin (SPP1) in AH, SPP1 is also shown to have protective effects on experimental ALD. To address this unsettled question, we examined the effects of SPP1 deficiency in male mice given 40% calories derived from ad libitum consumption of the Western diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat (HCFD) and the rest from intragastric feeding (iG) of alcohol diet without or with weekly alcohol binge. Weekly binge in this new hybrid feeding model shifts chronic ASH with macrophage inflammation and perisinusoidal and pericelluar fibrosis to AH in 57% (15/26) of the mice, accompanied by inductions of chemokines (Spp1, Cxcl1, Il-17a), progenitor genes (Cd133, Cd24, Nanog, Epcam), PMN infiltration, and clinical features of AH such as hypoalbuminemia, bilirubinemia, and splenomegaly. SPP1 deficiency does not reduce the AH incidence and inductions of progenitor and fibrogenic genes but rather enhances the Il-17a induction and PMN infiltration in some mice. Further, in the absence of SPP1, chronic ASH mice without weekly binge begin to develop AH. In conclusion, these results suggest SPP1 has a protective rather than causal role for experimental AH reproduced in our model. PMID:25132354

  15. CHOICES: An Empirically Supported Intervention for Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shannon K.; Velasquez, Mary M.; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Examples of behavioral interventions that are efficacious in the research setting as well as practical and translatable to the "real-world" are critically needed as models for social work researchers and clinicians. This article presents the Changing High-Risk Alcohol Use and Improving Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES)…

  16. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  17. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  18. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  19. Implementation Fidelity in a Teacher-Led Alcohol Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Melinda M.; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Bliss, Kappie; Bell, Mary Lou

    2006-01-01

    There is now ample evidence that teachers tend to make substantial modifications to both the prescribed content and methods of the curricula they administer, and that such modifications are likely to attenuate curricula effects. We examine the fidelity with which teachers implement "Protecting You, Protecting Me," an underage alcohol use…

  20. The Natural Mentors of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics (COAs): Implications for Preventive Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Meehan, Barbara T.; Heffer, Robert W.; Holladay, Janice J.

    2002-01-01

    Late adolescent children of alcoholics (COAs) were interviewed about their relationship with a natural mentor. Results showed that a typical mentor was a same-sex relative who had been responsible for initiating the mentor-like relationship. Differences in the reported adjustment of COAs with and without natural mentors are considered in light of…

  1. Depression, Anxiety, and Alcohol or Other Drug Use among College Students. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Community studies and reports from clinicians reveal that significant numbers of students on U.S. college campuses suffer from depression and/or anxiety and use alcohol or other drugs (AOD). Counselors in both the drug abuse and mental health fields confirm that students who seek mental health treatment often report symptoms of substance abuse,…

  2. Wellness Factors as Predictors of Alcohol Use among Undergraduates: Implications for Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A pilot study examining holistic wellness factors and drinking behaviors among undergraduate students revealed several significant relationships. Two second-order wellness factors of the Indivisible Self model of wellness--Coping Self and Essential Self--were negatively associated with both alcohol use intensity and drinking consequences.…

  3. An Overview of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide examines how the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 has focused attention on the issue of the relationship between disabilities and the increased risk for alcohol and other drug problems. A number of reasons for increased risk of drug use in individuals with disabilities are discussed, such as medication use, health concerns or…

  4. L-Carnitine Prevents Progression of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Mouse Model with Upregulation of Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hisashi; Takaki, Akinobu; Tsuzaki, Ryuichiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Kazuko; Shimomura, Yasuyuki; Seki, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Fusao; Shiraha, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis with an inherent risk for progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the progression from simple steatosis to NASH. L-carnitine (L-b-hydroxy-g-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid), an essential nutrient that converts fat into energy in mitochondria, has been shown to ameliorate liver damage. The aim of the present study was to explore the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in NASH model mice. Eight-week-old male STAM mice, a NASH-cirrhosis-hepatocarcinogenic model, were divided into 3 experimental groups and fed as follows: 1) high-fat diet (HFD) (control group); 2) HFD mixed with 0.28% L-carnitine (L-carnitine group); and 3) HFD mixed with 0.01% α-tocopherol (α-tocopherol group). After 4 or 8 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Blood samples and livers were collected, and hepatic tumors were counted and measured. Livers were subjected to histological study, immunohistochemical staining of 4-hydroxynonenal and ferritin, determination of 8-OHdG levels, mRNA and protein expressions for multiple genes, and metabolomic analysis. The intestinal microbiome was also analyzed. L-carnitine increased hepatic expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid transport, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes following suppression of hepatic oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in NASH, and mice treated with L-carnitine developed fewer liver tumors. Although α-tocopherol resulted in NASH improvement in the same manner as L-carnitine, it increased periodontitis-related microbiotic changes and hepatic iron transport-related gene expression and led to less effective for anti-hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model by upregulating the

  5. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  6. Engaging Communities to Prevent Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based efforts offer broad potential for achieving population-level reductions in alcohol misuse among youth and young adults. A common feature of successful community strategies is reliance on local coalitions to select and fully implement preventive interventions that have been shown to be effective in changing factors that influence risk of youth engaging in alcohol use, including both proximal influences and structural and/or environmental factors related to alcohol use. Inclusion of a universal, school-based prevention curriculum in the larger community-based effort is associated with the reduction of alcohol use by youth younger than 18 years of age and can help reach large numbers of youth with effective alcohol misuse prevention. PMID:22330215

  7. Evaluation of an Internet-Based Alcohol Misuse Prevention Course for College Freshmen Findings of a Randomized Multi-Campus Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention programs are now used by many universities. One popular 2- to 3-hour online course known as AlcoholEdu for College is typically required for all incoming freshmen and thus constitutes a campus-level strategy to reduce student alcohol misuse. Purpose This is the first multi-campus study to evaluate the effectiveness of an Internet-based alcohol misuse prevention course. Design RCT with 30 universities: 21 entered the study in Fall 2007, nine in Fall 2008. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive the online course and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. The course was implemented by intervention schools during the late summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university, beginning prior to the intervention in Spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in Fall 2008/09 and Spring 2009/2010. Setting/participants Public and private universities of varying sizes across the U.S. Random samples of 200 freshmen per campus were invited to participate in online surveys for the evaluation. Overall survey response rates ranged from 44% to 48% (M ≈ 90 participants per campus). Intervention The online course includes five modules; the first four (Part I) are typically offered in the late summer before matriculation, and the fifth (Part II) in early fall. Course content includes defining a standard drink, physiologic effects of alcohol, the need to monitor blood alcohol level, social influences on alcohol use, alcohol laws, personalized normative feedback, and alcohol harm-reduction strategies. Students must pass an exam after Part I to advance to Part II. Main outcome measures Past-30-day alcohol use, average number of drinks per occasion, and binge drinking. Results Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use (beta = –0.64, p<0.05) and binge drinking (beta = –0.26, p<0

  8. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  9. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  10. [Acamprosate and psychosocial intervention. An integrative treatment approach for prevention of alcohol dependent patients in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, W J; Riebenfeld, D

    2002-04-24

    105 patients with severe alcohol dependence, who were treated in 13 centers in Switzerland, took part in this open study. The abstinence rate achieved under treatment with Acamprosat, which was used within the framework of established psychotherapeutic intervention programmes in which the doctors could choose between five different procedures, was determined over a period of 24 weeks. In addition, a sociodemographic profile was drawn up, a physical examination was carried out and data were collected on the safety aspect of Acamprosat. It was also of interest to ascertain whether, and if so how, the patients' quality of life changed under the treatment, and in what form they received psychosocial support. As supportive therapy almost two-thirds of the patients (63%) received individual psychotherapy, in 28% the doctor decided on cognitive behavioural therapy, in 4% a short intervention was carried out, in 4% group therapy and in 2% family therapy. In 85.7% of the patients the doctor continued with the initial form of psychotherapy, while in the remaining patients it was changed once. Due to the very uneven distribution a comparison of the outcome in regard to the concomitant therapy was rather problematical. Psychiatric problems (21%), polyneuritis (12%) and liver damage (10.6%)--all known complications of chronic alcohol abuse--were the most frequent concomitant diagnoses. Of the 91 patients who had remained abstinent for the first two weeks after the start of the study, 12.9% had a recurrence at the end of the study, 56% did not have a recurrence (they were abstinent, but did have a binge or a lapse) and 31.8% did not return for the control visits. When a recurrence did occur, however, significantly less alcohol was consumed than before the treatment. As a result of the combined intervention all the parameters relating to the quality of life that were documented in connection with the SF 36 showed improvement. With this study carried out in Switzerland, which is

  11. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing. PMID:15015859

  12. Gender-specific HIV prevention interventions for women who use alcohol and other drugs: The evolution of the science and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Deren, Sherry; Myers, Bronwyn; Kirtadze, Irma; Zule, William A.; Howard, Brittni; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    The use of alcohol and other drugs (AODs) is an important driver of gender disparities in HIV prevalence. Consequently, there is a need for women-specific HIV interventions that are conceptualized to address (1) women’s risk behavior, their roles in sexual relationships, and gender power dynamics, and (2) other issues commonly faced by women who use AODs, such as gender-based violence and victimization. This article presents the evolution of HIV prevention intervention research with women who use AODs. It looks at three generations of women-focused HIV research interventions, including first-generation projects that started in the 1990s, second-generation efforts where projects expanded in scope and included adaptions of evidence-based interventions for global relevance, and finally third-generation projects currently underway that combine biobehavioral methods and are being implemented in real-world settings. Because women who use AODs continue to report risk behaviors related to HIV, emphasis should be placed on training scientists to conduct gender-specific studies, increasing funding for new studies, and advocating to ensure that stigma-free services are available for these at-risk women. PMID:25978479

  13. A novel peptide, colivelin, prevents alcohol-induced apoptosis in fetal brain of C57BL/6 mice: signaling pathway investigations

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef; Chiba, Tomohiro; Yamada, Marina; Rebec, George V.; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2009-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure is known to induce cell death through apoptosis. We found that colivelin (CLN), a novel peptide with the sequence SALLRSIPAPAGASRLLLLTGEIDLP, prevents this apoptosis. Our initial experiment revealed that CLN enhanced the viability of primary cortical neurons exposed to alcohol. We then used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to identify the intracellular mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched pregnant females were assigned to the following groups: (1) ethanol liquid diet (ALC) 25% (4.49%, v/v) ethanol derived calories; (2) pair-fed control; (3) normal chow; (4) ALC combined with administration (i.p.) of CLN (20 μg/20 g body weight); and (5) pair-fed combined with administration (i.p.) of CLN (20 μg/20 g body weight). On E13, fetal brains were collected and assayed for TUNEL staining, caspase-3 colorimetric assay, ELISA, and MSD electrochemiluminescence. CLN blocked the alcohol-induced decline in brain weight and prevented alcohol-induced: apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and increases of cytosolic cytochrome c, and decreases of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Analysis of proteins in the upstream signaling pathway revealed that CLN down-regulated the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Moreover, CLN prevented alcohol-induced reduction in phosphorylation of BAD protein. Thus, CLN appears to act directly on upstream signaling proteins to prevent alcohol-induced apoptosis. Further assessment of these proteins and their signaling mechanisms is likely to enhance development of neuroprotective therapies. PMID:19782727

  14. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob; Stuckler, David; Monteiro, Carlos; Sheron, Nick; Neal, Bruce; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Lincoln, Paul; Casswell, Sally

    2013-02-23

    The 2011 UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) called for multisectoral action including with the private sector and industry. However, through the sale and promotion of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink (unhealthy commodities), transnational corporations are major drivers of global epidemics of NCDs. What role then should these industries have in NCD prevention and control? We emphasise the rise in sales of these unhealthy commodities in low-income and middle-income countries, and consider the common strategies that the transnational corporations use to undermine NCD prevention and control. We assess the effectiveness of self-regulation, public-private partnerships, and public regulation models of interaction with these industries and conclude that unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD policy. Despite the common reliance on industry self-regulation and public-private partnerships, there is no evidence of their effectiveness or safety. Public regulation and market intervention are the only evidence-based mechanisms to prevent harm caused by the unhealthy commodity industries. PMID:23410611

  15. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  16. TRAINING COMMUNITY VOLUTEERS IN PREVENTING ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG ADDICTION : A BASIC PROGRAMME AND ITS IMPACT ON CERTAIN VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted on 19 community volunteers and the training module they underwent is presented. The subjects were given 7 days in-training with the objectives of imparting knowledge ana skill to identify and motivate alcohol and drug dependent person, to motivate them and their family to seek treatment to provide social support to them and to organise prevention programmes in the community. Their knowledge, skills and attitudes have shown significant improvement and change as a result to training. Extraversion was found to be significantly related to change in all the above variables, psychoticism was related to attitude and self-esteem was related to improvement in skills. Need for under taking further research in this area is also emphasized. PMID:21584078

  17. Training community voluteers in preventing alcoholism and drug addiction : a basic programme and its impact on certain variables.

    PubMed

    Manickam, L S

    1997-07-01

    A study was conducted on 19 community volunteers and the training module they underwent is presented. The subjects were given 7 days in-training with the objectives of imparting knowledge ana skill to identify and motivate alcohol and drug dependent person, to motivate them and their family to seek treatment to provide social support to them and to organise prevention programmes in the community. Their knowledge, skills and attitudes have shown significant improvement and change as a result to training. Extraversion was found to be significantly related to change in all the above variables, psychoticism was related to attitude and self-esteem was related to improvement in skills. Need for under taking further research in this area is also emphasized. PMID:21584078

  18. Health communication in the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, B G; Donohew, L; Crump, A D

    1997-10-01

    Research on substance abuse prevention programs indicates that effectiveness is greater when multiple intervention approaches that address the specific vocabulary, perceptions, and values of the target population are employed. The field of health communication provides unique perspectives on media that can be applied to increase the salience and effectiveness of substance abuse prevention programs. Well-designed and well-delivered health communications have the capacity for reaching remote audiences, changing health attitudes and behavior, shaping social norms, changing the way health issues are portrayed by the popular media, and influencing decisions about legislation and policies. Health communication approaches are generally employed within the broad context of health promotion programs, along with education, community development, empowerment, and social change approaches. This article describes the role of health communication in substance abuse prevention, reviews major conceptualizations of health communication, and introduces the unique features of the four articles included in this special section of Health Education & Behavior. PMID:9307892

  19. Preparing towards Preventing and Containing an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak: What Socio-cultural Practices May Affect Containment Efforts in Ghana?

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices. Methods We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region) with community members (4 in each region) and nurses (1 in each region) were conducted. In addition, forty (40) in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis. Results We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications) was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health. Conclusion The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social

  20. ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT NEUROPROTECTIVE PROTEIN–DERIVED PEPTIDE, NAP, PREVENTING ALCOHOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN FETAL BRAIN OF C57BL/6 MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    SARI, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Possible prevention of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure has been investigated using peptides that were previously shown to be involved in neuroprotection both in vitro and in vivo. I focused in this study on investigating the neuro-protective effects of one of these peptides with regard to the determination of the downstream signaling pathways involved in neuroprotection. This peptide with the sequence NAPVSIPQ, known as NAP, a fragment of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein, demonstrated a potent protective effect against oxidative stress associated with alcohol exposure. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched C57BL/6 pregnant females were assigned the following groups: (1) Ethanol liquid diet group (ALC) 25% (4.49%, v/v) ethano-derived calories, (2) Pair-fed (PF) control group (3) Chow control group, (4) treatment groups with alcohol alongside i.p. injections of d-NAP (ALC/d-NAP, 20 or 30 μg/20 g body weight), (5) PF/d-NAP control group. On E13, fetal brains were collected and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, caspase-3 colorimetric assay and ELISA for cytochrome c detection. My results show that NAP significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of the fetal brain. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP administration significantly prevented alcohol-induced increases in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium cingulate cortex and basal ganglia eminence. The investigation of downstream signaling pathways involving NAP neuroprotection revealed that this peptide significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in the concentrations of caspase-3 in E13 fetal brains. Moreover, ELISA for cytochrome c shows that NAP significantly prevented both alcohol-induced increases in the level of cytosolic cytochrome c and alcohol-induced decreases in the level of mitochondrial cytochrome c. These data provide an understanding of NAP intracellular target, and the downstream mechanisms of action that will pave a path

  1. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Miscellaneous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven developed by the "Infusion Project," offers information and miscellaneous lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade middle school curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning contains seven lessons each providing objectives, a list…

  2. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven in the "Infusion Project," offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade middle school geography curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning, contains 13 lessons each providing objectives, a list of resource…

  3. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Exceptional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven developed by the "Infusion Project," offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade exceptional education middle school curriculum for social skills, mathematics, science and language arts. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion…

  4. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven in "Infusion Project", offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade middle school mathematics curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning, contains eight lessons each providing objectives, a list of resource…

  5. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven in Infusion Project, offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade middle school language arts curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning, contains 18 lessons each providing objectives, a list of resource…

  6. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven in Infusion Project, offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh grade middle school health curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning, contains 10 lessons each providing objectives, a list of resource materials,…

  7. Parents' Reported Needs in Preventing Their Children from Engaging in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Wagner, Donald I.; Hedrick, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed parents regarding their perceived needs in preventing their adolescents from engaging in substance use. The main needs were in learning how to teach their children to resist peer pressure to use substances and to communicate effectively with them concerning substance use. The most common resources parents used to obtain information were…

  8. Infusing Alcohol and Drug Prevention with Existing Classroom Study Units: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    This curriculum module, one of seven developed by the "Infusion Project," offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade middle school science curriculum. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called infusion learning, contains 12 lessons, each providing objectives, a list of…

  9. Using Parents in a Defined Role in Alcohol Education: Parents as Prevention Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Wendy Neifeld; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of today's college students bring unique experiences to the academic journey. They support extended parenting into the college years, demonstrate commitment and knowledge as prevention specialists with regards to their son or daughter's safety, and value the opportunity for partnerships to be developed with the institution of their child's…

  10. Teaching for the Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Grades 1-12. A Resource for Teachers of Health and Life Skills, and Career and Life Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource supports a comprehensive school health approach to preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, addressing various aspects of the health and life skills and the career and life management programs of study through an approach that focuses on the development of a healthy self-concept and healthy relationships as fundamental to…

  11. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  12. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  13. Longitudinal Retention of Families in the Assessment of a Prevention Program Targeting Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Utility of an Ecological Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Foster, Sarah E.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex L.; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between ecological context (extrafamilial, familial, child factors) at baseline and longitudinal retention of families in the 36-month assessment of an adolescent alcohol and tobacco use prevention program that was conducted within a pediatric primary care setting. A total of 1,780 families were enrolled at…

  14. Keep Kids Alcohol Free: Strategies for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendehack, Mary, Ed.; Green, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide was produced by the Leadership To Keep Children Alcohol Free, a coalition of governors' spouses, federal agencies, and public and private organizations which aims to alert the nation of and mobilize action to prevent this critical public health problem. It is the only national effort that focuses on this age group. The guide is an…

  15. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms

    PubMed Central

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. Methods 6-year (2004–2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Results Over the 6-year period, there were 242 796 ED injury attendances, including 21 683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18–34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. Conclusions The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence. PMID:22210640

  16. Molecular mechanism of poly(vinyl alcohol) mediated prevention of aggregation and stabilization of insulin in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Sanjay; Gupta, Pawan; Kumar, Anil; Garg, Prabha; Suri, C Raman; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2015-04-01

    It is a challenge to formulate polymer based nanoparticles of therapeutic proteins as excipients and process conditions affect stability and structural integrity of the protein. Hence, understanding the protein stability and complex aggregation phenomena is an important area of research in therapeutic protein delivery. Herein we investigated the comparative role of three kinds of surfactant systems (Tween 20:Tween 80), small molecular weight poly(vinyl alcohol) (SMW-PVA), and high molecular weight PVA (HMW-PVA) in prevention of aggregation and stabilization of hexameric insulin in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticle formulation. The nanoparticles were prepared using solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsification method with one of the said surfactant system in inner aqueous phase. The thermal unfolding analysis of released insulin using circular dichroism (CD) indicated thermal stability of the hexameric form. Insulin aggregation monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) suggested the importance of nuclei formation for aggregation and its prevention by HMW-PVA. Additional guanidinium hydrochloride based equilibrium unfolding and in silico (molecular docking) studies suggested maximum stability of released insulin from formulation containing HMW-PVA (F3). Furthermore, in vivo studies of insulin loaded nanoparticle formulation (F3) in diabetic rats showed its bioactivity. In conclusion, our studies highlight the importance of C-terminal residues of insulin in structural integrity and suggest that the released insulin from formulation containing HMW-PVA in inner aqueous phase was conformationally and thermodynamically stable and bioactive in vivo. PMID:25644480

  17. l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilan; Ye, Yin; Kang, Jingjing; Yao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yizhou; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Min; Dai, Yudong; Xin, Yinqiang; Wang, Qi; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan

    2012-02-01

    l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea. We here evaluated the protective effects of l-theanine on ethanol-induced liver injury in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that l-theanine significantly protected hepatocytes against ethanol-induced cell cytotoxicity which displayed by decrease of viability and increase of LDH and AST. Furthermore, the experiments of DAPI staining, pro-caspase3 level and PARP cleavage determination indicated that l-theanine inhibited ethanol-induced L02 cell apoptosis. Mechanically, l-theanine inhibited loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria in ethanol-treated L02 cells. l-Theanine also prevented ethanol-triggered ROS and MDA generation in L02 cells. l-Theanine restored the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes including GSH content and SOD activity which were reduced by ethanol. In vivo experiments showed that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-stimulated the increase of ALT, AST, TG and MDA in mice. Histopathological examination demonstrated that l-theanine pretreated to mice apparently diminished ethanol-induced fat droplets. In accordance with the in vitro study, l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities. PMID:22019691

  18. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Treatment Response to Brief Intervention for Prevention of Alcohol Exposed Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Hook, Joshua; Hettema, Jennifer; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) plus Feedback condition against a Video Information (VI) condition and an Informational Brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the 3 brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus Feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus Feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials. PMID:23810264

  19. Fabrication of reactive poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes for prevention of bone cement leakage.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Sakane, Masataka; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2014-11-01

    Leakage of bone cement into the spinal canal has been reported to cause many adverse effects. In this study, we designed an implantable balloon kyphoplasty material that avoids cement leakage through the formation of covalent bonds with the bone cement. For this purpose, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was used as a reactive functional group attached to the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane. The prepared membrane adhered to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cements within 10 min, which is the time required for PMMA polymerization in the bone cement. The bonding strength between the GMA-PVA membrane and the PMMA-based bone cement was higher than that for the original PVA membrane, likely because vinyl bonds form between the surface of the GMA-PVA membrane and the bone cement. Since the GMA-PVA membrane adhered firmly to the PMMA-based bone cement, the membrane was able to completely cover the PMMA-based bone cement. PMID:24700680

  20. Alcohol themes within country-western songs.

    PubMed

    Connors, G J; Alpher, V S

    1989-05-01

    Cultural norms regarding alcohol use and drinking behavior can be communicated through the lyrics of songs. An analysis of alcohol themes in country-western lyrics was undertaken. Seven categories emerged from a rational clustering procedure used with 58 alcohol-related lyrics. Almost two-thirds of the lyrics were placed in three of the categories, labeled Existential Dilemmas and Lessons Learned, Loneliness and Lost Love, and Negative Consequences. There were few references to drinking for positive, celebratory reasons. Implications for prevention efforts and for further research on drinkers' perceptions and the relationship between popular culture and drinking behavior are discussed. PMID:2793292

  1. Using formative research to lay the foundation for community level HIV prevention efforts: an example from the AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D L; O'Reilly, K; Tashima, N; Crain, C; Beeker, C; Goldbaum, G; Elifson, C S; Galavotti, C; Guenther-Grey, C

    1996-01-01

    The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects provided community-level HIV prevention interventions to historically hard-to-reach groups at high risk for HIV infection. The projects operated under a common research protocol which encompassed formative research, intervention delivery, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation. A formative research process specifically focusing on intervention development was devised to assist project staff in identifying, prioritizing, accessing, and understanding the intervention target groups. This process was central to the creation of interventions that were acceptable and unique to the target populations. Intended to be rapid, the process took 6 months to complete. Drawn from the disciplines of anthropology, community psychology, sociology, and public health, the formative research process followed distinct steps which included (a) defining the populations at high-risk for HIV; (b) gathering information about these populations through interviews with persons who were outside of, but who had contact with, the target groups (such as staff from the health department and alcohol and drug treatment facilities, as well as persons who interacted in an informal manner with the target groups, such as clerks in neighborhood grocery stores and bartenders); (c) interviewing people with access to the target populations (gatekeepers), and conducting observations in areas where these high-risk groups were reported to gather (from previous interviews); (d) interviewing members of these groups at high risk for HIV infection or transmission; and (e) systematically integrating information throughout the process. Semistructured interview schedules were used for all data collection in this process. This standardized systematic method yielded valuable information about the focal groups in each demonstration project site. The method, if adopted by others, would assist community intervention specialists in developing interventions that are culturally

  2. The Risks Associated With Alcohol Use and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use. PMID:22330211

  3. Chronic cytoprotection: pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol prevent, attenuate and reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronic alcohol drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, I; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Separovic, J; Gjurasin, M; Lovric-Bencic, M; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Staresinic, M; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Jagic, V; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Marovic, A; Sjekavica, I; Sebecic, B; Boban-Blagaic, A; Ivasovic, Z

    2001-01-01

    Unlike severe gastric damage acutely induced by ethanol administration in rat, the ulcerogenic effect of chronic alcohol administration (3.03 g/kg b.w. or 7.28 g/kg b.w.) given in drinking water, producing liver lesions and portal hypertension, is far less investigated. Therefore, focus was on the antiulcer effect of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, known to have a beneficial effect in variety of gastrointestinal lesions models (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. i.p. or i.g.), ranitidine (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) and propranol (10 mg/kg b.w. i.g.) or saline (5 ml/kg b.w. i.p./i.g.; control). They were given once daily (1) throughout 10 days preceding alcohol consumption, (2) since beginning of alcohol drinking till the end of the study, (3) throughout the last month of alcohol consumption, 2 months after alcohol drinking had been initiated. Gastric lesions were assessed, at the end of 3 months drinking [(1), (2)] or with respect to therapeutic effect of medication before medication or at the end of therapy. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranolol may prevent gastric lesion development if given prophylactically, before alcohol drinking. Likewise, they attenuate the lesion appearance given once daily throughout the drinking period. Importantly, when given therapeutically, they may antagonize otherwise pertinent lesion presence in stomach mucosa of the drinking rats. Thus, these results demonstrate that pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine and propranol may prevent, attenuate or reverse the gastric lesions appearance in chronically alcohol drinking rats, and may be used for further therapy, while the other studies showed that their effect (except to ranitidine) is parallel with their beneficial effect on liver lesion and portal hypertension. PMID:11595453

  4. Inhibitory effects of alcohol on glucose transport across the blood–brain barrier leads to neurodegeneration: preventive role of acetyl-L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, P. M. Abdul; Alikunju, Saleena; Szlachetka, Adam M.; Haorah, James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Evidence shows that alcohol intake causes oxidative neuronal injury and neurocognitive deficits that are distinct from the classical Wernicke-Korsakoff neuropathy. Our previous findings indicated that alcohol-elicited blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage leads to neuroinflammation and neuronal loss. The dynamic function of the BBB requires a constant supply and utilization of glucose. Here we examined whether interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium by alcohol leads to BBB dysfunction and neuronal degeneration. Material and methods We tested the hypothesis in cell culture of human brain endothelial cells, neurons and alcohol intake in animal by immunofluorescence, Western blotting and glucose uptake assay methods. Results We found that decrease in glucose uptake correlates the reduction of glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1) in cell culture after 50 mM ethanol exposure. Decrease in GLUT1 protein levels was regulated at the translation process. In animal, chronic alcohol intake suppresses the transport of glucose into the frontal and occipital regions of the brain. This finding is validated by a marked decrease in GLUT1 protein expression in brain microvessel (the BBB). In parallel, alcohol intake impairs the BBB tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-5 in the brain microvessel. Permeability of sodium fluorescein and Evans Blue confirms the leakiness of the BBB. Further, depletion of trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayer supports the disruption of BBB integrity. Administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (a neuroprotective agent) significantly prevents the adverse effects of alcohol on glucose uptake, BBB damage and neuronal degeneration. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol-elicited inhibition of glucose transport at the blood-brain interface leads to BBB malfunction and neurological complications. PMID:21079922

  5. Using the Science of Psychology to Target Perpetrators of Racism and Race-Based Discrimination For Intervention Efforts: Preventing Another Trayvon Martin Tragedy

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Johnson, Denise; Coles, Courtney N.; Gellene, Denise; Cochran, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological science offers a variety of methods to both understand and intervene when acts of potential racial or ethnic racism, bias or prejudice occur. The Trayvon Martin killing is a reminder of how vulnerable African American men and boys, especially young African American men, are to becoming victims of social inequities in our society. We examine several historical events of racial bias (the Los Angeles civil disturbance after the Rodney King verdict, the federal government’s launch of a “War on Drugs” and the killing of Trayvon Martin) to illustrate the ways in which behaviors of racism and race-based discrimination can be viewed from a psychological science lens in the hopes of eliminating and preventing these behaviors. If society is to help end the genocide of African American men and boys then we must broaden our focus from simply understanding instances of victimization to a larger concern with determining how policies, laws, and societal norms serve as the foundation for maintaining implicit biases that are at the root of race-based discrimination, prejudice, bias and inequity. In our call to action, we highlight the contributions that psychologists, particularly racial and ethnic minority professionals, can make to reduce the negative impact of racial and ethnic bias through their volunteer/pro bono clinical efforts. PMID:23885310

  6. Using the Science of Psychology to Target Perpetrators of Racism and Race-Based Discrimination For Intervention Efforts: Preventing Another Trayvon Martin Tragedy.

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Johnson, Denise; Coles, Courtney N; Gellene, Denise; Cochran, Susan D

    2013-03-22

    Psychological science offers a variety of methods to both understand and intervene when acts of potential racial or ethnic racism, bias or prejudice occur. The Trayvon Martin killing is a reminder of how vulnerable African American men and boys, especially young African American men, are to becoming victims of social inequities in our society. We examine several historical events of racial bias (the Los Angeles civil disturbance after the Rodney King verdict, the federal government's launch of a "War on Drugs" and the killing of Trayvon Martin) to illustrate the ways in which behaviors of racism and race-based discrimination can be viewed from a psychological science lens in the hopes of eliminating and preventing these behaviors. If society is to help end the genocide of African American men and boys then we must broaden our focus from simply understanding instances of victimization to a larger concern with determining how policies, laws, and societal norms serve as the foundation for maintaining implicit biases that are at the root of race-based discrimination, prejudice, bias and inequity. In our call to action, we highlight the contributions that psychologists, particularly racial and ethnic minority professionals, can make to reduce the negative impact of racial and ethnic bias through their volunteer/pro bono clinical efforts. PMID:23885310

  7. Alcohol and liver disease in Europe--Simple measures have the potential to prevent tens of thousands of premature deaths.

    PubMed

    Sheron, Nick

    2016-04-01

    In the World Health Organisation European Region, more than 2,370,000 years of life are lost from liver disease before the age of 50; more than lung cancer, trachea, bronchus, oesophageal, stomach, colon, rectum and pancreatic cancer combined. Between 60-80% of these deaths are alcohol related, a disease for which no pharmaceutical therapy has yet been shown to improve long-term survival. The toxicity of alcohol is dose related at an individual level, and is dose related at a population level; overall liver mortality is largely determined by population alcohol consumption. Trends in alcohol consumption correlate closely with trends in overall liver mortality, with 3-5-fold decreases or increases in liver mortality in different European countries over the last few decades. The evidence base for alcohol control measures aimed at reducing population alcohol consumption has been subjected to rigorous evaluation; most recently by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Effective alcohol policy measures reduce alcohol mortality, including mortality from liver disease. The most effective and cost effective measures have been summarised by the OECD and the World Health Organisation: regular incremental above inflation tax increases, a minimum price for alcohol, effective protection of children from alcohol marketing and low level interventions from clinicians. Simple, cheap and effective changes to alcohol policy by European Institutions and member states have the potential to dramatically reduce liver mortality in Europe. PMID:26592352

  8. Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

  9. Parent-Child Communication to Reduce Heavy Alcohol Use among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremeens, Jennifer L.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Brock-Martin, Amy; Martin, Ryan J.; Watkins, Ken

    2008-01-01

    With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. Most universities are attempting to change the alcohol environment by implementing a variety of strategies to reduce heavy drinking among college students. With the exception of parental notification…

  10. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  11. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of a home-based program for alcohol use prevention among urban youth: the "Slick Tracy Home Team Program".

    PubMed

    Komro, Kelli A; Perry, Cheryl L; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kugler, Kari C; Alfano, Karen A; Dudovitz, Bonnie S; Williams, Carolyn L; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2006-03-01

    The current study describes the extensive cross-cultural adaptation of a brief home-based alcohol prevention program for racially and ethnically diverse sixth grade students and their families, using a randomized controlled trial design involving 60 public schools in the city of Chicago (N = 3,623 students). The adapted program achieved high participation levels (73%) overall, as well as in single parent families, non-English homes, and low-income students, among other at risk groups. Lower levels of factors associated with the onset of alcohol use (i.e., normative expectations and outcome expectations) were achieved in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, no differences were observed for several other protective factors or alcohol use. PMID:16502143

  14. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  15. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed health and other service needs

  16. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    PubMed

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  19. The neurotoxicity of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Harper, Clive

    2007-03-01

    Patterns of drinking are changing throughout the world and in many countries this will be detrimental to the health and welfare of the local population. Even uncomplicated alcoholics who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Many of these changes are exaggerated and other brain regions damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative neuropathology techniques and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood. A human brain bank targeting alcohol cases has been established in Sydney, Australia and provides fresh and frozen tissue for alcohol researchers. The tissues can be used to test hypotheses developed from structural neuropathological studies or from animal models and in vitro studies. Identification of reversible pathological changes and preventative medical approaches in alcoholism should enhance rehabilitation and treatment efforts, thereby mitigating debilitating morbidities and reducing mortality associated with this universal public health problem. PMID:17439928

  20. Drug Abuse Prevention Research Needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…

  1. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  2. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  3. Partnering with Parents and Students in Alcohol Education: How The College of Saint Rose Harnesses the Influence of Prevention Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Wendy Neifeld

    2011-01-01

    Day in and day out the author invests her energy in keeping students safe by reducing alcohol consumption on campus, developing innovative alcohol and drug educational programming, collecting and analyzing data to better understand the drinking culture of the campus, and scouring the literature for best practices and evidence-based success. Day in…

  4. A Practical Guide to Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Campus Case Study in Implementing Social Norms and Environmental Management Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn; Glider, Peggy; Mills-Novoa, Beverly

    Despite increased attention given to alcohol use and its negative consequences on college campuses, national data indicates that there have been only small decreases in levels of alcohol consumption for over two decades. This guide describes how one university was able to decrease heavy drinking on campus by 29.2% during a four-year period. Their…

  5. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  6. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  7. Sodium alginate prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in obese and diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Shirakami, Yohei; Kubota, Masaya; Ideta, Takayasu; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities play a key role in liver carcinogenesis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is often complicated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sodium alginate (SA), which is extracted from brown seaweeds, is marketed as a weight loss supplement because of its high viscosity and gelling properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of SA on the progression of NASH and related liver carcinogenesis in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice, which show obesity, diabetes mellitus, and NASH-like histopathological changes. Male MSG-mice were intraperitoneally injected with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age, and, thereafter, they received a basal diet containing high- or low-molecular-weight SA throughout the experiment (16 weeks). At sacrifice, control MSG-treated mice fed the basal-diet showed significant obesity, hyperinsulinemia, steatosis and hepatic tumor development. SA administration suppressed body weight gain; improved insulin sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia; attenuated inflammation in the liver and white adipose tissue; and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis and progression of NASH. SA also reduced oxidative stress and increased anti-oxidant enzyme levels in the liver. Development of hepatic tumors, including liver cell adenoma and HCC, and hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions was significantly inhibited by SA supplementation. In conclusion, oral SA supplementation improves liver steatosis, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, preventing the development of liver tumorigenesis in obese and diabetic mice. SA may have ability to suppress steatosis-related liver carcinogenesis in obese and diabetic subjects. PMID:26871288

  8. Sodium alginate prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver carcinogenesis in obese and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Shirakami, Yohei; Kubota, Masaya; Ideta, Takayasu; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and related metabolic abnormalities play a key role in liver carcinogenesis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is often complicated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sodium alginate (SA), which is extracted from brown seaweeds, is marketed as a weight loss supplement because of its high viscosity and gelling properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of SA on the progression of NASH and related liver carcinogenesis in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice, which show obesity, diabetes mellitus, and NASH-like histopathological changes. Male MSG-mice were intraperitoneally injected with diethylnitrosamine at 2 weeks of age, and, thereafter, they received a basal diet containing high- or low-molecular-weight SA throughout the experiment (16 weeks). At sacrifice, control MSG-treated mice fed the basal-diet showed significant obesity, hyperinsulinemia, steatosis and hepatic tumor development. SA administration suppressed body weight gain; improved insulin sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia; attenuated inflammation in the liver and white adipose tissue; and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis and progression of NASH. SA also reduced oxidative stress and increased anti-oxidant enzyme levels in the liver. Development of hepatic tumors, including liver cell adenoma and HCC, and hepatic pre-neoplastic lesions was significantly inhibited by SA supplementation. In conclusion, oral SA supplementation improves liver steatosis, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, preventing the development of liver tumorigenesis in obese and diabetic mice. SA may have ability to suppress steatosis-related liver carcinogenesis in obese and diabetic subjects. PMID:26871288

  9. Lack of Knowledge of HIV Status a Major Barrier to HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Efforts in Kenya: Results from a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherutich, Peter; Kaiser, Reinhard; Galbraith, Jennifer; Williamson, John; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Ngare, Carol; Mermin, Jonathan; Marum, Elizabeth; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. Methods KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15–64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. Results Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5–7.7). Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6–29.2) of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5–46.0) of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2–91.0) were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15–49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8–50.6) had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC). In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15–19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.3; p<0.0001). Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0; p = 0.0005, women only), highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3–2.5; p = 0.0006, men only), and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. Conclusions The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men

  10. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  11. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, NR; Ashley, MJ; Carruthers, SG; Lacourciere, Y; McKay, DW

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: There are 2 main options for those at risk for hypertension: avert the condition by limiting alcohol consumption or by using other nonpharmacologic methods, or maintain or increase the risk of hypertension by making no change in alcohol consumption. The options for those who already have hypertension include decreasing alcohol consumption or using another nonpharmacologic method to reduce hypertension; commencing, continuing or intensifying antihypertensive medication; or taking no action and remaining at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. OUTCOMES: The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period 1966-1996 with the terms ethyl alcohol and hypertension. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design, and graded according to the level of evidence. VALUES: A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: A reduction in alcohol consumption from more than 2 standard drinks per day reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The lowest overall mortality rates in observational studies were associated with drinking habits that were within these guidelines. Side effects and costs were not measured in any of the studies. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine how much alcohol their patients consume. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the

  12. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23046273

  13. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  14. Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970--Extension. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session. January 19 and 26, 1976. Serial No. 94-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    This document reports the hearings on bills H.R. 11317 and H.R. 11472, bills to extend for three fiscal years the programs of assistance under the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970. The programs include grants to the states, special grants for the implementation of the Uniform…

  15. Responsible decision making regarding alcohol: a re-emerging prevention/education strategy for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Milgram, G G

    1996-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use and strategies to deal with drinking and related problems in this population have been the focus of many programs. The concept of responsible decision making regarding the use of alcohol evolved in the late 1970s/early 1980s; it was disregarded as a viable approach by the mid-1980s due to incorrect definitions of the term and misrepresentation that it condoned adolescent drinking/intoxication. However, statistics on youthful drinking indicate that young people have continued to consume alcohol, and many are experiencing problems related to their drinking. Grounded in the reality of the adolescent experience, responsible decision making regarding the use of alcohol provides information, motivates discussion of adolescent activities, and promotes responsible decisions. PMID:9071058

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

    PubMed

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  17. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B; Brenner, David A; Hooper, Lora V; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-02-10

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  18. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  19. Presidential Leadership for Prevention. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Most of the colleges and universities that have received U.S. Department of Education Models of Exemplary, Effective, and Promising Alcohol or Other Drug Abuse Prevention Programs on College Campuses grants credit strong presidential leadership for the success of their prevention efforts. With many colleges and universities currently facing budget…

  20. Models for effective prevention.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390786

  1. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  2. Effects of Alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration Limb on Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although there have been numerous investigations of alcohol's relationship to sexual risk taking, the vast majority of these studies have not examined whether the biphasic nature of alcohol intoxication differentially influences risky sexual decisions. Thus, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb on sexual risk-taking intentions. Method: Participants (N = 150; 51.3% male) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic drinks (target peak BAC = .08%) or nonalcoholic drinks and then completed a hypothetical sexual risk assessment involving an opposite-gender new partner while on either the ascending BAC limb or descending BAC limb. Results: Alcohol intoxication resulted in increased sexual risk-taking intentions indirectly through its influence on perceived intoxication and, subsequently, sexual arousal. An interaction of beverage condition and BAC limb condition indicated that alcohol's effects on perceived intoxication varied significantly by limb, with those on the ascending limb reporting greater perceived intoxication than those on the descending limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts would be better informed through a more comprehensive consideration of BAC limb effects on sexual risk behaviors. Moreover, results indicate that prevention programs should address in-the-moment states, such as perceived intoxication and sexual arousal, in interventions targeting risky sexual decision-making processes. PMID:19515289

  3. ‘Klar bleiben’: a school-based alcohol prevention programme for German adolescents—study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Samuel; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a noticeable increase in hazardous alcohol use during adolescence, which is significantly associated with adverse consequences. In Germany, up to 30% of adolescents report regular heavy episodic drinking. However, only a few German prevention programmes target adolescents of legal drinking age (16 years and above); thus, this trial aims to develop, implement and evaluate ‘Klar bleiben’ (‘Stay clearheaded’), a school-based prevention programme for grade 10 students. Methods and analysis ‘Klar bleiben’ consists of a class commitment to drink responsibly and refrain from hazardous consumption patterns for 9 weeks. The commitment is accompanied by educational lessons on alcohol-related cognitions and consequences. It will be evaluated in a sample of approximately 3000 students (150 classes) from two German federal states (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) via a two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with baseline and postassessment 6 months apart. The intervention group (75 classes) will participate in ‘Klar bleiben’, whereas the control group (75 classes) will receive education as usual. ‘Klar bleiben’ addresses classes, individuals, teachers and parents. It is based on a social norms approach and aims to reduce hazardous drinking and drinking-related consequences in adolescents. Secondary outcomes include general drinking behaviour, use of other substances, alcohol-related cognitions and social factors. Covariates include sociodemographic characteristics, environmental and individual (vulnerability) factors. Ethics and dissemination ‘Klar bleiben’ provides a multicomponent school-based programme that bridges a gap in alcohol prevention. Similar class-level and social norms-based prevention programmes have already been proven to be successful for other substances among adolescents. Thus, dissemination to other federal states as well as longer term follow-up testing of the robustness of effects is to be

  4. Teen Pregnancy. State and Federal Efforts To Implement Prevention Programs and Measure Their Effectiveness. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…

  5. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel and the Subcommittee on Preparedness of the Committee on Armed Services. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Armed Services.

    This document presents prepared statements and witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs in the armed services. An opening statement by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (chairman) highlights the importance of drug abuse prevention in the military. Witness testimony is given by the Assistant Secretary…

  6. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Phase IV: Revised Curriculum. Final Report. July 1981 to June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of West Florida, Pensacola.

    This revised curriculum, developed for use in Florida middle schools, is a comprehensive family life education course. The content of the course was determined (1) through a "Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention," which was sent to more than 1,200 home economics teachers in Florida (and returned by the majority of them), and…

  7. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  8. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  9. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  10. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems in the US through Policy: Media Campaigns, Regulatory Approaches and Environmental Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of research focusing on several general strategies for reducing drinking-related problems, including controls on alcohol advertising and counter advertising; laws and regulations pertaining to minimum legal drinking age, and service to minors and drinking and driving. Concludes with a commentary on the potential effectiveness…

  11. Contrasts between the Perceptions of Parents and Their Adolescent Children Regarding Drug and Alcohol Use and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Bernt, Francis M.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 212 parent-adolescent pairs to examine their perceptions of adolescent drug use. Compared to adolescents, parents were more likely to list reasons for drug use with negative connotations. Parents underestimated use of alcohol and marijuana and frequency with which teenagers' friends became drunk or high relative to adolescents' estimates.…

  12. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  13. A Comparative Study of Male and Female Bartenders: Their Potential for Assisting in the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Mary L.; Sperr, Inez

    1982-01-01

    Interviewed 20 female and 44 male bartenders. Findings indicated that both male and female bartenders are reliable reporters of their own and their customers' drinking behaviors and are aware of causes of problem drinking. Both male and female bartenders were positive about taking courses in alcoholism. (Author/RC)

  14. The School Team Approach: Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse by Creating Positive Environments for Learning and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizza, Joan; Resnick, Henry S.

    Alcohol and drug abuse continue to have serious and negative effects on the nation's youth. One response to this problem is described in this monograph on the School Team Program, a national network of training and resource centers set up to train teams of school and community representatives in problem solving techniques that would help them…

  15. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  16. Venue-based Network Analysis to Inform HIV Prevention Efforts Among Young Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Rice, Eric; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates continue to increase among young gay, bisexual and other men have sexual intercourse with men. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) indicate interest in HIV prevention programming that is implemented in the social venues that they frequent when they want to socialize with other men. We sought to understand YMSM venues as a networked space to provide insights into venue-based HIV prevention intervention delivery. Methods The present study used survey data reported by 526 YMSM (ages 18–24) in 2005 to conduct a venue-based social network analysis. The latter sought to determine if the structure and composition of the networks in Los Angeles could be used to facilitate the delivery of HIV prevention messages to YMSM. Degree of person sharing between venues was used to demonstrate interconnectivity between venues classified as low-risk (e.g., coffee shops) and high-risk (e.g., bars, clubs) by a Community Advisory Board. Results Sixty-five percent of the 110 venues nominated were bars and clubs. Nearly all YMSM were connected by a single venue and over 87% were connected by the 6 most central venues. A handful of highly connected low-risk venues were central to the venue network and connected to popular high-risk venues. Conclusions Venue-based network analysis can inform tailored HIV prevention messaging for YMSM. Targeted delivery of prevention messaging at low-risk centralized venues may lead to widespread diffusion among venue-attending YMSM. PMID:24464324

  17. Effectiveness of brief school-based interventions for adolescents: A meta-analysis of alcohol use prevention programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of school-based brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) among adolescents, and to examine possible iatrogenic effects due to deviancy training in group-delivered interventions. Method A systematic search for eligible studies was undertaken, current through December 31, 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they used an experimental/quasi-experimental design; focused on school-based BAIs; enrolled adolescent participants; and reported an alcohol-related outcome measure. Studies were coded for key variables, and outcome effect sizes were analyzed as standardized mean differences adjusted for small samples (Hedges’ g). Analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted mixed effects meta-regression models. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results Across all 17 studies eligible for inclusion, school-based BAIs were associated with significant improvements among adolescents, whereby adolescents in the BAI groups reduced their alcohol consumption relative to the control groups (ḡ = 0.34, 95% CI [0.11, 0.56]). Subgroup analyses indicated that whereas individually-delivered BAIs were effective (ḡ = 0.58, 95% CI [0.23, 0.92]), there was no evidence that group-delivered BAIs were associated with reductions in alcohol use (ḡ = −0.02, 95% CI [−0.17, 0.14]). Delivery format was confounded with program modality, however, such that motivational enhancement therapy was the most effective modality, but was rarely implemented in group-delivered interventions. Conclusions Some school-based BAIs are effective in reducing adolescent alcohol consumption, but may be ineffective if delivered in group settings. Future research should explore whether group-delivered BAIs that use motivational enhancement therapy components may yield beneficial outcomes like those observed in individually-delivered programs. PMID:25294110

  18. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  19. Portal hypertension and liver lesions in chronically alcohol drinking rats prevented and reversed by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116), and propranolol, but not ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Aralicia, G; Perovic, D; Gjurasin, M; Lovric-Bencic, M; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Staresinic, M; Anic, T; Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Jagic, V; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Marovic, A; Sebecic, B; Boban-Blagaic, A; Kokic, N

    2001-01-01

    markedly attenuated (values less than in drinking controls, still higher than in healthy rats, i.e. circumference and area of hepatocytes nucleus). On the other hand, ranitidine application attenuated only steatosis development. In summary, despite continuous chronic alcohol drinking, pentadecapeptide BPC 157, and propranolol may prevent portal hypertension as well as reverse already established portal hypertension along with related liver disturbances. PMID:11595456

  20. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This paper fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative interviews (n=47) were conducted with teens to collect information about where and how they obtain alcohol and the contexts within which they drink. Respondents were knowledgeable about commercial and social sources and used this knowledge in their decision making regarding where to obtain alcohol. Teens used their social relationships to circumvent existing policies designed to limit underage access to alcohol. Findings indicate that the majority of teens’ drinking occasions occur in their own or someone else’s home. PMID:25445811

  1. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  2. LESSONS LEARNED FROM MORE THAN Two DECADES OF HIV/AIDS PREVENTION EFFORTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF OR HARD OF HEARING

    PubMed Central

    Winningham, April; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Galletly, Carol; Seal, David; Thornton, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    In Contrast with the nearly 30 years of HIV/AIDS research with the hearing community, data on HIV infection among persons who are deaf and hard of hearing is primarily anecdotal. Although the few available estimates suggest that deaf and hard of hearing persons are disproportionately affected by HIV infection, no surveillance systems are in place to Identify either frequency or mode of HIV infection within this population. Moreover, to date, all empirically validated HIV prevention interventions have relied on communication strategies developed for persons who hear. Therefore, understanding and developing-effective prevention methods is crucial for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors explore (a) factors among this population that may contribute to HIV-related behaviors, (b) four key concepts consistently included in successful interventions, and (c) practical ways in which to use this information to tailor effective intervention strategies for this population. PMID:18619068

  3. A comparison of maternal outcomes from an alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention program for mothers choosing an intervention versus being randomized.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Laborde, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Self-determination theory and substantial research findings suggest that more desirable outcomes may occur when participants are able to choose their prevention or treatment interventions, as having a choice may lead to greater motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. The present study examined the influence of having a choice of family-based prevention programs for youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use on mothers' communication outcomes. Families (N = 496) were those with an 11- to 12-year-old enrolled in Kaiser Permanente medical centers at one of four locations. Results from multivariate repeated measures analyses supported the importance of having a choice for improved communication outcomes. As compared with families who were randomly assigned to a program, those allowed to choose showed improved tobacco-specific and peer pressure communication, with marginally improved alcohol communication. No differences were found between the groups for general communication. Results suggest that allowing mothers to participate in decisions about health-related interventions for their teens may lead to better outcomes. PMID:22505572

  4. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874

  5. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. Results At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. Conclusions The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers. PMID:20470435

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol and Pregnancy Why take the risk? Language: English ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are completely preventable. Problem Alcohol can harm a developing baby before a woman ...

  7. Extent to Which Selected Factors Contribute to Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Public Day Secondary Schools Male Students: A Case of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oteyo, John; Kariuki, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The increase in alcohol and cigarettes use among young people than any population strata is of great concern. The use of alcohol that began in African traditional society as an activity for political, religious, cultural and social relations has evolved over time into a problem of dependence and addiction. Despite concerted prevention efforts,…

  8. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression. PMID:23589667

  9. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  10. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Baumgardner, January N; Sharma, Neha; Vantrease, Jamie; Ferguson, Matthew; Tong, Yudong; Wu, Xianli; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been shown to protect against steatosis and alcoholic liver injury. The current study was designed to determine if a similar beneficial effect of MCT occurs in a rat model of NAFLD. Groups of male rats were isocalorically overfed diets containing 10%, 35% or 70% total energy as corn oil or a 70% fat diet in which corn oil was replaced with increasing concentrations of saturated fat (18:82, beef tallow:MCT oil) from 20% to 65% for 21 days using total enteral nutrition (TEN). As dietary content of corn oil increased, hepatic steatosis and serum alanine amino transferases were elevated (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by greater expression of cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) and higher concentrations of polyunsaturated 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (FA) in the hepatic lipid fractions (P < 0.05). Keeping the total dietary fat at 70%, but increasing the proportion of MCT-enriched saturated fat resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steatosis and necrosis without affecting CYP2E1 induction. There was no incorporation of C8-C10 FAs into liver lipids, but increasing the ratio of MCT to corn oil: reduced liver lipid 18:2 and 20:4 concentrations; reduced membrane susceptibility to radical attack; stimulated FA β- and ω-oxidation as a result of activation of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α, and appeared to increase mitochondrial respiration through complex III. These data suggest that replacing unsaturated fats like corn oil with MCT oil in the diet could be utilized as a potential treatment for NAFLD. PMID:23576797

  11. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those contexts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes. PMID:26258998

  12. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States. PMID:22367668

  13. Prevention Research Findings: 1988. Proceedings of the Meeting of the National Conference on Prevention Research Findings (1st, Kansas City, Missouri, March 1988): Implications for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Planning. OSAP Prevention Monograph-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Sixteen papers from a conference on findings from prevention research are presented in this document. The papers are categorized into these six areas: (1) state and federal roles in prevention; (2) prevention research perspectives, including prevention research, school-based drug education research findings, and drug abuse prevention research…

  14. Building an Infrastructure for AODV Prevention: Coalitions and Statewide Initiatives. A Prevention 101 Series Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    The environmental management approach to alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) prevention is based on the principle that college students' conduct can be shaped through concerted efforts to reengineer the environment that shapes their behavior. Constructing a campus, community, and state-level environment that will protect students and…

  15. The Effectiveness of Adapted Versions of an Evidence-Based Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use among Alternative School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youths, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real-world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin' it REAL (kiR), with alternative…

  16. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  17. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: a review of empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today's teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today's youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  18. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R.G.; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-κB protein and TNF-α expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-α expression, NF-κB activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats. PMID:23543859

  19. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R G; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-κB protein and TNF-α expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-α expression, NF-κB activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats. PMID:23543859

  20. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)