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Sample records for alcohol problem severity

  1. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  2. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  3. Pathways to Vulnerability for Alcohol Problem Severity in a Treatment-Seeking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Eddie, David; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cohn, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present investigation examined the role of gender, family history of alcohol and drug use disorders, temperament, childhood behavior problems, and adult psychopathology, on adult alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to examine multiple etiological pathways to adult alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Participants included 335 treatment-seeking males and females with current or lifetime DSM-III-R alcohol dependence (96%) or abuse (4%) enrolled in one of five treatment outcome studies. Extensive assessment at treatment entry used a mixture of retrospective and current self-report. Results Results identified two significant paths associated with a latent factor of adult alcohol use disorder severity at entry to treatment. In Path 1, male gender and family history of drug use disorder predicted greater childhood behavior problems, which predicted antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and anxiety disorders (ADs), with anxiety disorders leading directly to alcohol use disorder severity. In Path 2, family history of alcohol use disorder predicted difficult temperament in childhood, which predicted borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders; both major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders in turn predicted alcohol use disorder severity at treatment entry. Conclusions The present findings build on the literature on heterogeneity in developmental risk processes leading to the expression of adult alcohol use disorder symptomology among patients presenting for alcohol use disorder treatment. PMID:26170766

  4. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  5. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  6. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  7. Screening for Patients with Alcohol Problems: Severity of Patients Identified by the CAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lairson, David R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed CAGE (first letters of keywords in series of 4 questions about drinking: cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener), instrument in routine screening for alcohol problems among 687 patients of 2 primary care physicians. Results showed that CAGE instrument was useful screening device for identifying those with mild to moderate substance abuse…

  8. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  9. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  10. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  11. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  12. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  13. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  14. Treatment of Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Thursz, Mark; Morgan, Timothy R

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a syndrome of jaundice and liver failure that occurs in a minority of heavy consumers of alcohol. The diagnosis usually is based on a history of heavy alcohol use, findings from blood tests, and exclusion of other liver diseases by blood and imaging analyses. Liver biopsy specimens, usually collected via the transjugular route, should be analyzed to confirm a diagnosis of AH in patients with an atypical history or presentation. The optimal treatment for patients with severe AH is prednisolone, possibly in combination with N-acetyl cysteine. At present, only short-term increases in survival can be expected-no treatment has been found to increase patient survival beyond 3 months. Abstinence is essential for long-term survival. New treatment options, including liver transplantation, are being tested in trials and results eagerly are awaited. PMID:26948886

  15. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  16. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  17. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  18. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient ... and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often found together. This pairing can be big trouble for the trauma survivor and his or ...

  19. Alcohol and Kids: Facing Our Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue on alcohol use among children and adolescents. Describes scope of the problem, claiming that alcohol is the most consumed drug among children and youth. Discusses possible progression in alcohol use, parents' reactions to their children using alcohol or other drugs, and effects of the media and advertising on…

  20. Kibbutz Youth Alcohol Use: Patterns and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard E; Anson, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examined kibbutz youth alcohol patterns and problems. Administered questionnaire on consumption and consequences of alcohol use to 54 high school-aged youth from Israeli kibbutz. Found that 69 percent of respondents reported using alcohol, with higher proportion of females than males saying they drank. Comparison with other studies showed that…

  1. [Alcohol-related problems in Cantabria].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pérez, A M; Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E

    1995-01-01

    It is a cross sectorial epidemiological community survey into a random sample of 1,816 adult people. The objetivo of our work is to test the existence of some social-demographic variables that can be accumulated to the existence of alcohol related problems. We found that the men, the young people, with low socioeconomic level, and semiurban style of life have the highest risk of alcohol related problems. 48% of the sample men have recognized any alcohol related problems during the previous year to our study. The highest problem prevalence is associated to increased alcohol consumption. After all, there are many people with low alcohol consumption who have alcohol related problems. PMID:7717148

  2. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  3. Marital and Family Therapy for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    Following a brief review of literature on marital and family treatment for alcohol problems, this paper describes two types of marital therapy frequently used with alcoholics and presents a brief overview of results from a study in progress comparing the two modalities. Behavioral marital therapy uses communication skills training, contracting,…

  4. Extracorporeal liver support in severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parés, Albert; Mas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The severity of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) which may coexist with cirrhosis varies greatly, from asymptomatic forms which are detected in alcoholic patients without any sign of liver disease, except laboratory abnormalities, to severe forms characterised by deep jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and low prothrombin index. In hospitalized patients the mortality could be as high as 75%. The elevated number of therapeutic proposals reported for more than forty years reveals the lack of efficacy of a particular modality. Even in the most favorable trials, the survival is already very poor and in some cases related to the development of renal failure or hepatorenal syndrome. There are some motivating reports concerning albumin dialysis as a support treatment in patients with severe AH, either alone or in combination with other pharmacological therapies. The favorable effects of albumin dialysis in patients with severe AH suggest that the procedure used alone or in combination with other therapies may have a role in this clinical condition. This will be particularly relevant to offer an alternative therapy in these patients, thus being a potential bridge to recovery or to be listed for liver transplantation. PMID:25009371

  5. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol Treating Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... offers treatment options The new publication, Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help , complements the information ...

  6. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  7. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol. PMID:15049741

  8. How Should Alcohol Problems Be Conceptualized? Causal Indicators Within the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Chen, Ting-Huei; Vergés, Alvaro; Bollen, Kenneth A; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-related problems have traditionally been conceptualized and measured by an effect indicator model. That is, it is generally assumed that observed indicators of alcohol problems are caused by a latent variable. However, there are reasons to think that this construct is more accurately conceptualized as including at least some causal indicators, in which observed indicators cause the latent variable. The present study examined the measurement model of a well-known alcohol consequences questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Participants were 703 students from a large public university in the Northeast mandated to an alcohol intervention. We conducted a zero tetrad test to examine a measurement model consisting solely of effect indicators and a model with both causal and effect indicators. Overall, the results suggested the hybrid model fit the data better than a model with only effect indicators. These findings have implications regarding the theoretical underpinnings of alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26589725

  9. Deaf Teenagers and Family Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Raymond P.

    1987-01-01

    Deaf teenagers have more trouble coping with the effects of parental alcohol abuse than do hearing teenagers. Suggestions are made for helping the deaf teenager and other family members deal with these problems, especially in potentially violent situations. Two short case studies are provided to illustrate intervention methods and outcomes.…

  10. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  11. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  12. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  13. Outcomes of Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Current Methods, Problems, and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Peter E.; Skinstad, Anne-Helene

    1987-01-01

    Discusses current methods, problems, and results of psychological treatment for alcohol abuse, including alcoholism. Addresses external and internal validity problems specific to issues regarding who is treated for alcohol problems, and treatment and patient factors that predict response to alcoholism treatment. Reviews current data on…

  14. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing. PMID:16203455

  15. Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Severity of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Background The frequency of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including alcoholic steatosis, hepatitis and cirrhosis, varies significantly by ethnicity. Methods With the goal to assess the role of ethnicity in determining the age of onset and severity of ALD and to compare the risk factors for its progression among ethnic groups, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with ALD who were admitted or were followed as outpatients at University of California Davis Medical Center between 2002 and 2010. After excluding HBsAg and HIV positive subjects, we reviewed the charts of 791 ALD patients including 130 with alcoholic fatty liver, 154 with alcoholic hepatitis, and 507 with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results When controlling for all variables in the model, Hispanic patients presented at significantly 4-10 years younger ages than White/Caucasian patients, in each of the three disease severity categories and the results were confirmed after excluding HCV Ab/RNA positive subjects. There were more obese Hispanic patients than White/Caucasian patients, whereas the proportion of patients with hepatitis C was significantly greater in African/American subjects with alcoholic hepatitis and the proportion of patients with diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in White/Caucasian subjects than in Hispanic subjects with cirrhosis. The proportion of subjects with severe alcoholic hepatitis was similar in Hispanic and White/Caucasian patients, but lower in African/American subjects. Conclusion Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the age and severity of presentation of different subtypes of ALD. PMID:25702770

  16. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  17. Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... plans for individuals without health insurance. An Ongoing Process Overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing ... overcoming problem drinking. Relapse Is Part of the Process Relapse is common among people who overcome alcohol ...

  18. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  19. Intensive Motivational Interviewing for women with concurrent alcohol problems and methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Evans, Kristy; Bond, Jason C.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) for the treatment of alcohol and drug problems is typically conducted over 1 to 3 sessions. The current work evaluates an intensive 9-session version of MI (Intensive MI) compared to a standard single MI session (Standard MI) using 163 methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the unexpected finding that women with co-occurring alcohol problems in the Intensive MI condition reduced the severity of their alcohol problems significantly more than women in the Standard MI condition at the 6-month follow-up. Stronger perceived alliance with the therapist was inversely associated with alcohol problem severity scores. Findings indicate that Intensive MI is a beneficial treatment for alcohol problems among women with MA dependence. PMID:24074649

  20. [Drugs, a current problem. Alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries. PMID:16493852

  1. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  2. Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Kim, Dong Joon

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic manifestation occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH (Maddrey’s discriminant function ≥ 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-organ failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a reported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before considering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for patients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing hepatocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity. PMID:25349640

  3. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    PubMed

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected]. PMID:22963160

  4. PTSD-related alcohol expectancies and impulsivity interact to predict alcohol use severity in a substance dependent sample with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Vinci, Christine; Raiker, Joseph S.; Mota, Natalie; Jackson, Michelle; Whalen, Diana; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problematic alcohol use is highly comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and prior work has demonstrated that individuals with PTSD may self-medicate with alcohol in an effort to reduce their symptoms. The combination of impulsivity and alcohol-related expectancies influences the development of problematic drinking patterns. When examining individuals diagnosed with PTSD, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies may be particularly relevant to the etiology of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have specifically examined PTSD-specific alcohol expectancies as they relate to alcohol use severity in a clinical sample. Methods The current study examined the relationship between impulsivity, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, and severity of alcohol use in a sample of 63 individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders who were receiving treatment in a residential substance use treatment program. Results Results indicated that PTSD-related alcohol expectancies moderated the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use severity. Specifically, at low to moderate levels of positive PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, impulsivity significantly predicted alcohol use severity, while impulsivity had no impact on the prediction of alcohol use severity when such expectancies were high. Additionally, the relationship between impulsivity, expectancies, and alcohol use severity was significant for positive, but not negative, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that impulsivity and PTSD-related alcohol expectancies interact to predict alcohol use severity in a comorbid PTSD and substance dependent sample. PMID:25299460

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  7. Mapping the continuum of alcohol problems in college students: a Rasch model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Strong, David R; Read, Jennifer P; Palfai, Tibor P; Wood, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    The authors conducted Rasch model (G. Rasch, 1960) analyses of items from the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST; S. C. Hurlbut & K. J. Sher, 1992) to examine the relative severity and ordering of alcohol problems in 806 college students. Items appeared to measure a single dimension of alcohol problem severity, covering a broad range of the latent continuum. Items fit the Rasch model well, with less severe symptoms reliably preceding more severe symptoms in a potential progression toward increasing levels of problem severity. However, certain items did not index problem severity consistently across demographic subgroups. A shortened, alternative version of the YAAPST is proposed, and a norm table is provided that allows for a linking of total YAAPST scores to expected symptom expression. PMID:15631604

  8. The impact of alcohol use severity on anxiety treatment outcomes in a large effectiveness trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Brown, Lily A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Craske, Michelle G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The presence of anxiety disorders is associated with poorer alcohol use disorder treatment outcomes, but little is known about the impact of alcohol use problems on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes despite their high comorbidity. The current study examined the impact of alcohol use symptom severity on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes in a multi-site primary care effectiveness study of anxiety disorder treatment. Method Data came from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) effectiveness trial. Participants (N = 1004) were randomized to an evidence-based anxiety intervention (including cognitive behavioral therapy and medications) or usual care in primary care. Participants completed measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression a baseline, 6-mo, 12-mo, and 18-mo follow-up periods. Patients with alcohol dependence were excluded. Results There were no significant moderating (Treatment Group x Alcohol Use Severity) interactions. The majority of analyses revealed no predictive effects of alcohol use severity on outcome; however, alcohol problems at baseline were associated with somewhat higher anxiety and depression symptoms at the 18-mo follow-up. Conclusions These data indicate that patients with alcohol problems in primary care can be effectively treated for anxiety disorders. Baseline alcohol problems were associated with some poorer long-term outcomes, but this was evident across CALM and usual care. These findings provide preliminary evidence that there may be no need to postpone treatment of anxiety disorders until alcohol problems are addressed, at least among those who have mild to moderate alcohol problems. Replication with more severe alcohol use disorders is needed. PMID:25615523

  9. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  10. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of…

  11. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  12. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    PubMed Central

    SU, MAO-SHENG; JIANG, YING; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; ZHAO, QING-HUA; LIU, ZHI-WEI; ZHANG, WEN-ZHI; HE, LEI

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, diagnosis and treatment procedure of each patient were recorded, and the association with rhabdomyolysis was analyzed. Alcohol consumption was the most predominant cause of SAP and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. SAP-related rhabdomyolysis was primarily induced by the toxicity associated with pancreatic necrosis. The laboratory tests revealed that the concentration of serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin increased and acute renal failure symptoms were present, which provided an exact diagnosis for SAP-induced rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis and subsequent hypermyoglobinuria severely impaired kidney function and aggravated hypocalcemia. The therapy of early stage SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis involved liquid resuscitation support. When first stage treatment fails, blood purification should be performed immediately. Both patients developed multiple organ failure (MOF) and succumbed to the disease. Considering the two cases presented, we conclude that alcohol-related SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis may have a poor clinical prognosis. PMID:23251265

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Several State Initiatives. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); identify several federal-level FASD initiatives that emphasize education; and describe four state-level FASD initiatives that involve state education agencies (SEAs). An appendix at the end of the document provides a list of educational…

  14. Career, Personal, and Educational Problems of Community College Students: Severity and Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    Gathered information about the severity and frequency of community college student problems, through a survey of 65 public community college counselors. Most reported an increase in severity of personal problems (family, alcohol, self-worth), career (goals, job market), and educational problems (lack of skills, time management). Reports other…

  15. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. PMID:24051137

  16. Case of alcoholic ketoacidosis accompanied with severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Tadanobu; Shiraishi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-03-01

    We report a 55 year old Japanese man with a history of alcohol abuse, who was in a near fasting state for the previous few days.He was admitted to our hospital with abrupt disturbance of consciousness. He presented disturbance of consciousness with extreme hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis with high β-hydroxybutyric acid concentration. Taking into account his living history, we diagnosed with alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA). Symptoms ameliorated with glucose injection and fluid loading. AKA patients show abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, but they are usually alert and lucid despite the severe acidosis. This case, however, presented comatose status caused by hypoglycemia. Poor oral intake of this patient was assumed to be the cause of hypoglycemia. Alcoholism may cause hypoglycemia accompanying with AKA, due to a low carbohydrate intake, the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, and reduced hepaticglycogen storage as seen in this case. Here, we report a case of AKA that demonstrated hypoglycemia with the literature review. PMID:25787101

  17. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  18. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  19. Alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in adolescents and young adults at varying genetic and environmental risk*

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.E.; Grant, J.D.; Yoon, H.Y.; Bucholz, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorder symptoms frequently occur in adolescents and younger adults who seldom acknowledge a need for help. We identified sociodemographic, clinical, and familial predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in an offspring of twins sample. Method We analyzed longitudinal data from the Children of Alcoholics and Twins as Parents studies, which are combinable longitudinal data sources due to their equivalent design. We analyzed respondents (n=1,073, 56.0% of the total sample) with alcohol use disorder symptoms at the baseline interview. Familial characteristics included perceptions of alcohol problems and help seeking for alcohol problems within the immediate family and a categorical variable indicating genetic and environmental risk. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking. Results Approximately 25.9% recognized their alcohol problems and 26.7% sought help for drinking. In covariate-adjusted analyses, help seeking among family members predicted problem recognition, several clinical characteristics predicted both problem recognition and help seeking, and familial risk predicted help seeking. Alcohol problem recognition mediated the association between alcohol use disorder symptoms and incident help seeking. Conclusions Facilitating the self-recognition of alcohol use disorder symptoms, and perhaps the awareness of family members’ help seeking for alcohol problems, may be potentially promising methods to facilitate help seeking. PMID:26036603

  20. Coexisting Problem Behaviour in Severe Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit

    2011-01-01

    A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…

  1. Treating alcohol problems with couple therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-05-01

    Couple therapy for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs) results in less drinking and greater relationship stability and satisfaction in both men and women with AUDs. The theoretical tenets, treatment methods, and research evidence for Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) are summarized. The application of ABCT is illustrated through the treatment of a 42-year-old woman with an AUD and her 56-year-old husband. During 12 sessions over a 6-month period, the woman attained abstinence from alcohol and learned cognitive and behavioral coping skills to deal with drinking antecedents. Her husband learned to support her abstinence by stopping drinking himself, helping her cope with drinking urges, and reinforcing her successes. The couple increased positive pleasurable activities that did not involve alcohol and improved their communication skills. Challenges in the treatment included her ambivalence about abstaining, their complicated work and travel schedules, and other life stressors. PMID:22504611

  2. Identifying neurobiological phenotypes associated with alcohol use disorder severity.

    PubMed

    Claus, Eric D; Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Filbey, Francesca M; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Hutchison, Kent E

    2011-09-01

    Although numerous studies provide general support for the importance of genetic factors in the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), candidate gene and genome-wide studies have yet to identify a set of genetic variations that explain a significant portion of the variance in AUDs. One reason is that alcohol-related phenotypes used in genetic studies are typically based on highly heterogeneous diagnostic categories. Therefore, identifying neurobiological phenotypes related to neuroadaptations that drive the development of AUDs is critical for the future success of genetic and epigenetic studies. One such neurobiological phenotype is the degree to which exposure to alcohol taste cues recruits the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, and motor areas, all of which have been shown to have a critical role in addictive behaviors in animal studies. To that end, this study was designed to examine whether cue-elicited responses of these structures are associated with AUD severity in a large sample (n=326) using voxelwise and functional connectivity measures. Results suggested that alcohol cues significantly activated dorsal striatum, insula/orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral tegmental area. AUD severity was moderately correlated with regions involved in incentive salience such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, and stronger relationships with precuneus, insula, and dorsal striatum. The findings indicate that AUDs are related to neuroadaptations in these regions and that these measures may represent important neurobiological phenotypes for subsequent genetic studies. PMID:21677649

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  5. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  6. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  7. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  8. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  9. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  10. [The patient with an alcohol abuse problem family doctor practice].

    PubMed

    Szponar, Jarosław; Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Doctors of many specialties, including the family doctors, encounter the problems of alcohol abuse in their patients. Due to the fact that many symptoms of dangerous diseases can be masked by the fact of alcoholism, a brief doctor's visit has to be conducted with watchfulness, caution and care. Family doctors have some brief testes (such as CAGE test, AUDIT test), besides of precise anamnesis and blood chemistry, which make it easier to identify a patient with an alcohol problem. People with disabilities are more exposed to alcohol abuse since they often experience additional factors such as unemployment, social isolation and homelessness. All of the above factors foster the more frequent alcohol usage. In Poland the main treatment method of alcohol addiction is psychotherapy practiced in the rehab centers. The detoxification treatment is voluntary and free of charge even though the patients checking into those facilities are doing it against their will. They are forced to do so by entourage, family, spouse or risk of unemployment. Acamprozate is considered as a drug, run to extend abstaining from alcohol. In the past, therapy with disulfiram substance was common, but now, it is considered as unethical behaviour. In practice of medicine, a patient with alcohol addiction creates not onlya medical but also legal problems. Therefore keeping of detailed medical documentation is very important as it may become significant evidence in the future. PMID:23243928

  11. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  12. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  13. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  14. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  15. [Severity of injury of alcohol intoxicated pedestrians in street traffic].

    PubMed

    Mittmeyer, H J

    1991-01-01

    The evaluation of 251 autopsy cases of pedestrians who suffered fatal accidents in road traffic documents that the influence of alcohol entails an additional risk of injury for pedestrians in motor car accidents. In particular, severe trauma to the head, thorax and abdomen occur, whilst injuries to the pelvis and limbs are generally not more serious than in sober pedestrians. In the classical collision constellation of the pedestrian at the front end of cars, the upper part of the body is evidently especially endangered in the further movement phase. This phenomenon might be connected above all with the impairment of the voluntary reaction capacity due to alcohol during the sequence of evidents in the accident. PMID:1811504

  16. The Male Role, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol Problems: A Structural Modeling Examination in Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…

  17. Genetic predisposition in alcoholism: association of the D2 dopamine receptor TaqI B1 RFLP with severe alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Blum, K; Noble, E P; Sheridan, P J; Montgomery, A; Ritchie, T; Ozkaragoz, T; Fitch, R J; Wood, R; Finley, O; Sadlack, F

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association of the 3' Taq1 A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene with severe alcoholism. The recent demonstration of a new polymorphism located closer to the regulatory regions of this gene, permits an associational analysis of these 5' Taq1 B alleles with alcoholism and a comparison with the 3' Taq1 A alleles. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology was used to analyze a total of 133 blood samples of nonalcoholics, less severe alcoholics, and severe alcoholics. In white subjects (n = 115), no significant difference in the prevalence of the B1 allele is found between nonalcoholics (n = 30) and less severe alcoholics (n = 36). However, the prevalence of this allele is significantly higher in severe alcoholics (n = 49) when compared to either nonalcoholics (p = 0.008) or less severe alcoholics (p = 0.005). When Taq1 B and Taq1 A alleles of the DRD2 gene are compared in whites, the prevalence of the A1 allele is significantly higher than the B1 allele only in the severe alcoholic group. In conclusion, alleles in both the 5' and 3' region of the DRD2 gene associate with severe alcoholism. This suggests that the DRD2 gene may have an etiological role in some severe alcoholics. PMID:8095394

  18. Alcohol and Other Drugs as Cripplers: A Crucial Problem in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darity, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Drug use and abuse, alcoholism, and addiction are the results of deeper social, economic, and political problems. Thus, the negative effects of these substances are more severe in the Black community. Civil rights and other political and social organizations must band together to plan strategies for solving these problems. (Author/GC)

  19. The Incidence and Severity of Hangover the Morning after Moderate Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Greece, Jacey; Almeida, Alissa; Minsky, Sara J; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Arnedt, J Todd; Hermos, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Differential propensity for hangover may play a role in determining individuals’ drinking practices so predictors of incidence and severity are needed. Methods Data were combined from three randomized crossover trials investigating the residual effects of heavy drinking on next-day performance. All 172 participants received either an alcoholic beverage (M=.115 g% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) or placebo matched on type and amount one night and a week later received the other beverage. Alcoholic beverages were vodka, bourbon or high alcohol beer. After each drinking session, following a 9-hour period for sleep and breakfast, participants completed questionnaire a hangover measure. Results No hangover was reported by 24% of participants, mild hangover by 44% and moderate hangover by 32%. Neither alcoholic beverage type nor participant characteristics (sex, age, drinking practices, tobacco use, or family history of alcohol problems) were associated with incidence of hangover. Conclusion The majority of people experienced mild to moderate hangover the morning after this level of intoxication. Further studies are required to investigate other hypothesized causes of variation in the propensity for hangover. PMID:18412754

  20. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  1. Workforce Disengagement Stressors and Retiree Alcohol Misuse: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Problems and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Belogolovsky, Elena; Bamberger, Peter; Bacharach, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We generate and test a moderated mediation model of the effects of two retirement-related stressors (namely, financial and marital) on the severity of alcohol misuse among retirees. We posit that in addition to using alcohol to cope with stressors in retirement, alcohol may also be used to self-medicate the secondary, sleep-related effects of such stressors, and that gender serves as a key boundary condition, moderating the impact of such stressors on sleep-related problems, and of sleep-related problems on alcohol misuse. Using longitudinal data collected from a sample of 292 retirees, our findings generally support this model, suggesting that both stressors are associated with the severity of alcohol misuse among male retirees. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that -- for male retirees -- the effect of both stressors on the severity of alcohol misuse is to a large extent secondary to the stressors themselves, mediated by the sleep-related problems they may generate. PMID:24532849

  2. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  3. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  4. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  5. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  6. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  7. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  8. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  9. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  10. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077443

  11. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  12. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to...

  13. Community Development Strategies To Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Alert, 1992

    1992-01-01

    How community-based groups are confronting and preventing alcohol and other drug problems and related crime in their communities is the focus of this publication. A wide range of approaches and strategies, used by 10 nonprofit, community-based organizations representative of urban and rural areas, are presented. Case studies describe two community…

  14. A Profile of Clients Entering Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbiner, Richard

    Large numbers of clients entering publicly-funded substance abuse treatment facilities cite problems with alcohol as one reason for seeking treatment. This report presents the results of a secondary analysis of the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) data set. It profiles the treatment experiences of three study groups that…

  15. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability. PMID:26816159

  16. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  17. The influence of individualism and drinking identity on alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Yeung, Nelson; Quist, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the interactive association between individualism and drinking identity predicting alcohol use and problems. Seven hundred and ten undergraduates (Mean age =22.84, SD = 5.31, 83.1% female) completed study materials. We expected that drinking identity and individualism would positively correlate with drinking variables. We further expected that individualism would moderate the association between drinking identity and drinking such that the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol outcomes would be positively associated, particularly among those high in individualism. Our findings supported our hypotheses. These findings better explain the relationship between drinking identity, individualism, and alcohol use. Furthermore, this research encourages the consideration of individual factors and personality characteristics in order to develop culturally tailored materials to maximize intervention efficacy across cultures. PMID:25525420

  18. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. PMID:25119420

  19. Predictors of alcohol problems in college women: the role of depressive symptoms, disordered eating, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Slane, Jennifer D; Klump, Kelly L

    2009-03-01

    Disordered eating and depressive symptoms are established correlates of alcohol use in college women. Family history of alcoholism (FHA) is also related to problematic alcohol use, but there have been limited studies of how it relates to other established cofactors in women. Predictive associations between disordered eating (i.e., overall levels as well as binge eating), depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems were examined in a sample of 295 female twins. The direct and moderating effects of FHA on the relationships between alcohol problems, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms were investigated. Using hierarchical linear modeling depressive symptoms, but not disordered eating or FHA, significantly predicted alcohol problems. However, there was a significant interaction between disordered eating and FHA; disordered eating was associated with alcohol problems in those with a positive FHA. The implications for high-risk subgroups of college women are discussed. PMID:19027241

  20. Towards rational treatment of severe psoriasis in alcoholics: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Peter J; Malick, Farah

    2010-04-01

    Alcoholism is a risk factor in the worsening of psoriasis. The authors present two cases of flared severe psoriasis in alcoholic patients showing dramatic improvement of their skin disease using treatments directed towards correcting abnormalities commonly found as sequelae of alcoholism such as endotoxin production, low serum magnesium levels and elevated plasma homocysteine levels. PMID:20514802

  1. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors. PMID:21988480

  2. [Problems occurring in the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for alcoholics with and without malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Gundy, Sarolta; Székely, Gábor; Farkas, Gyöngyi; Pulay, Attila; Remenár, Eva

    2008-06-01

    Applicability of alcohol- and smoking-related cancer-risk biomarkers might be modified by several factors. Among those, reality of self-reports on alcohol consumption of alcoholic patients with different diseases and extreme high mutagen hypersensitivity of Hungarians, as well as the immunologic role of peripheral lymphocytes as experimental objects of cytogenetic biomarkers seem to be new viewpoints of interest. To clarify these problems, 432 head and neck cancer patients (HNCP), 62 alcoholics with alcoholic hepatitis (ALCL), and 101 disease-free chronic alcoholics (ALC) were examined. Despite clinically confirmed alcohol-related diagnoses (and GGT and MCV values) only about half of HNCPs and ALCLs reported about any alcohol consumption, in contrast to the realistic self-reports of ALCs. In cytogenetic case control investigations no difference between the spontaneous rate of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) of healthy controls and ALCs was found, however, genetic instability expressed as a 40-50% elevation rate of CAs in HNCPs and ALCLs might be associated with systemic inflammatory reaction of lymphocytes. Bleomycin sensitivity assay showed the highest break/cell (b/c) values not in HNCPs (1.06 b/c) as it was reported earlier, but in "healthy" ALCs (1.52 b/c). This phenomenon can be related to the local effect of genotoxins (alcohol, smoking, and in particular the diet), which probably reflects merely a reaction of mucosal immune system. Nearly 50% of mutagen-hypersensitive Hungarian controls, in contrary to the expected 10-20% ones, might also be explained by this. Similarly, HNCPs with oral cancer, where the local mutagen effect was the most intensive, had the highest b/c values. In conclusion, when cytogenetic biomarkers of alcoholism are examined, the subjective character of self-reports at epidemiologic level and immunologic role of lymphocyte subpopulations as genetic confounders must also be taken into consideration. PMID:18640891

  3. Screening for Physical Problems in Classrooms for Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Richard; Knapczyk, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    The authors present a screening device with which teachers of severely handicapped students may detect the presence of a physical problem. The screening approach covers vision, auditory problems, seizures, orthopedic problems, and pain. (CL)

  4. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. PMID:24210683

  5. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

  6. Web-based treatment of alcohol problems among rural women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-09-01

    It is estimated that 6 million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The World Wide Web has the potential to help such individuals overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a Web-based, self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web-based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11 years), and their baseline Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cut-off score for problem drinking. At 3-month follow up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking; however, no significant differences were found between them. PMID:18823000

  7. Alcohol Problems Prevention/Intervention Programs: Guidelines for College Campuses. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Frances M.; Connor, Leslie S.

    This manual is designed to respond to the growing interest among colleges in technical assistance for dealing with alcohol-related problems. Part One provides an overview of the dimensions of alcohol related problems and delves into the causes and prevention of alcohol problems. It outlines the Public Health Model approach to dealing with alcohol…

  8. What You Should Know about Alcohol Problems. Substance Abuse in Brief, April 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse in Brief, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol use is legal for persons age 21 and older, and the majority of people who drink do so without incident. However, there is a continuum of potential problems associated with alcohol consumption. This brief addresses the definition of an "alcohol problem" and problems associated with "risky drinking." It also addresses the diagnoses of…

  9. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  10. Change in Psychiatric Symptomatology after Benfotiamine Treatment in Males is a Function of Lifetime Alcoholism Severity

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Pendleton, Tiffany; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe alcoholism can be associated with significant nutritional and vitamin deficiency, especially vitamin B1 (thiamine) which is associated with serious illness and neurological deficits that influence mood and cognition. We previously reported reduced alcohol consumption among female but not male alcoholics after supplementation with the high potency thiamine analog benfotiamine (BF). As a follow-up, we have examined the relationship between lifetime alcoholism severity and psychiatric symptoms among the alcohol dependent men from this cohort and their response to BF treatment. Methods Eighty-five adult men (mean age = 48 ± 8 yrs) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 600 mg BF vs placebo (PL) for 6 months. Psychometric testing included a derived Lifetime Alcoholism Severity Score (AS), Symptom Checklist 90R (SCL-90R), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) at baseline and at 6 months with data analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA modeling. Results Baseline SCL-90-R scale scores for men with high alcoholism severity (AS ≥ 24; N=46 HAS) were significantly greater than for men with low alcoholism severity (AS < 24; N=39 LAS), but BIS scores did not differ. MANOVA modeling identified a significant treatment effect (F=2.5, df=10, p<0.03) and treatment x alcoholism severity level interaction (F=2.5, dfnum=10, dfden=30, p<0.03) with SCL-90-R scores showing a reduction in symptoms among BF treated, high severity males. Conclustion BF appears to reduce psychiatric distress and may facilitate recovery in severely affected males with lifetime alcohol dependence and should be considered for adjuvant therapy in alcohol rehabilitation. PMID:25908323

  11. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  12. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  13. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  14. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  15. Problem Gambling and the Youth-to-Adulthood Transition: Assessing Problem Gambling Severity Trajectories in a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, Jason D; Melnyk, Timothy S; Roberts, Lance W

    2015-12-01

    In this study, using four wave longitudinal data, we examined problem gambling severity trajectories in a sample of young adults. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined how initial level of problem gambling severity and the rate of change were affected by 11 time-invariant predictors: gender, age of onset of gambling, experiencing a big win early in gambling career, experiencing a big loss early in gambling career, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety, depression, perceived social support, illusion of control, and impulsiveness. Five of the eleven predictors affected initial levels of problem gambling severity; however only impulsiveness affected the rate of change across time. The mean trajectory was negative (lessening of problem gambling risk severity across time), but there was significant inter-individual variation in trajectories and initial levels of problem gambling severity. The main finding of problem gambling risk diminishing over time challenges the conventional picture of problem gambling as an inevitable "downward spiral," at least among young adults, and suggests that targeted prevention campaigns may be a cost-effective alternative for reaching treatment resistant youth. PMID:25260900

  16. Effects of AlcoholEdu for College on Alcohol-Related Problems Among Freshmen: A Randomized Multicampus Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: AlcoholEdu for College is a 2- to 3-hour online course for incoming college freshmen. This study was the first multicampus trial to examine effects of AlcoholEdu for College on alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Method: Thirty universi participated in the study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive AlcoholEdu, and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. AlcoholEdu was implemented by intervention schools during the summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university beginning before the intervention in spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in fall 2008/2009 and spring 2009/2010. The surveys included questions about the past-30-day frequency of 28 alcohol-related problems, from which we created indices for the total number of problems and problems in seven domains: physiological, academic, social, driving under the influence/riding with drinking drivers, aggression, sexual risk taking, and victimization. Multilevel Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine intent-to-treat and dosage effects of AlcoholEdu for College on these outcomes. Results: Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the risk for past-30-day alcohol problems in general and problems in the physiological, social, and victimization domains during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist in the spring semester. Additional analyses suggested stronger AlcoholEdu effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No AlcoholEdu effects were observed for alcohol-related problems in the other four domains. Conclusions: AlcoholEdu for College appears to have beneficial short-term effects on victimization and the most common types of alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Universities may benefit the most by mandating AlcoholEdu for College for all incoming freshmen and

  17. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  18. Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, J; Magnusson, P H

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources, especially in women. PMID:3117173

  19. Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Problems: Evaluating Chained Mediation through Generalized Anxiety, Depression, and Drinking Motives

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Albanese, Brian J.; Norr, Aaron M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To test whether the relations between anxiety sensitivity (AS), a transdiagnostic risk factor, and alcohol problems are explained by chained mediation models, from AS through anxiety or depressive symptoms then drinking motives in an at-risk sample. It was hypothesized that AS would influence alcohol problems through generalized anxiety or depression symptoms and then through negatively-reinforced drinking motives (i.e., drinking to cope with negative affect and drinking to conform). Design Cross-sectional single- and chained-mediation models were tested. Setting Self-report measures were completed in clinics at Florida State University and the University of Vermont, USA. Participants Participants consisted of 523 adult daily cigarette smokers (M age = 37.23, SD = 13.53; 48.6% female). Measurements As part of a larger battery of self-report measures, participants completed self-report measures of AS, generalized anxiety, depression, drinking motives, and alcohol problems. Findings Chained mediation was found from AS to alcohol problems through generalized anxiety then through drinking to cope with negative affect (B = .04, 90% confidence interval [CI; .004, .10]). Chained mediation was also found from AS to alcohol problems through depression then through drinking to cope with negative affect (B = .11, 90% CI [.05, .21]) and, separately, through socially motivated drinking (B = .05, 90% CI [.003, .11]). Conclusions Anxiety sensitivity and alcohol problems are indirectly related through several intervening variables, such as through generalized anxiety or depression and then through drinking to cope with negative affect. PMID:25220033

  20. Disease versus Social-Learning Models of Alcoholism in the Prediction of Alcohol Problem Recognition, Help-Seeking, and Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rather, Bruce C.

    1991-01-01

    Examined college students' (n=254) attitudes after they were presented with either a disease or social learning view of alcoholism. Presentation of a disease view strengthened endorsement of that model, but attitudes toward alcoholics, treatment effectiveness, problem recognition, and help-seeking were not significantly different between the…

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  2. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  3. Severe and enduring mental health problems within an established substance misuse treatment partnership

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kathryn; Copello, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method The study reports findings of an investigation into the presence of severe and enduring mental health problems within the four statutory and non-statutory teams of an established substance misuse treatment partnership. Results Of a total of 772 clients in the four teams surveyed, 69 (8.9%) were identified as having severe and enduring mental health problems and problem substance use in the past 12 months. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance used by this predominantly male group. Different rates were found across the four teams, with higher numbers in the non-statutory teams. The clients displayed significant levels of self-harm and suicide risk and were responsible for 131 acute service contacts over the past 12 months. Clinical implications Clients with severe and enduring mental health problems engaged with substance misuse services display high levels of complex need. It is important to identify the best and most effective service response to this group. PMID:25285219

  4. Oxidative Stress During Alcohol Withdrawal and its Relationship with Withdrawal Severity

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramamourty; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sridhar, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative parameters are altered during alcohol withdrawal and are said to contribute towards withdrawal symptoms in alcoholic patients. Aims: To study levels of five selected oxidative parameters during alcohol withdrawal state and after treatment of the withdrawal state and to assess the association of the oxidative parameters with the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study done in a De-addiction clinic of a tertiary teaching centre, Southern India. 50 persons having alcohol withdrawal symptoms were included. The oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were assessed in during the withdrawal phase and again after the withdrawal had subsided. The same oxidative stress parameters were measured in the control group. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. One way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for finding the association between the oxidative stress parameters levels and the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Multiple linear regression analysis done to predict variables associated with level of oxidative parameters. Results: During alcohol withdrawal the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde was elevated compared to that in the control group. Among the antioxidant enzymes the superoxide dismutase was higher and catalase was lower than the control group levels. After remission of the alcohol withdrawal both malondialdehyde remained higher and superoxide dismutase lower than in the control group. The levels of oxidative stress parameters not correlated with the severity of alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: oxidative stress parameters show changes during alcohol withdrawal and during the remission of withdrawal. However, levels of oxidative stress parameters not correlated with the severity of withdrawal. PMID:25969603

  5. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  6. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  7. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  8. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  9. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among alcoholics in outpatient treatment: Prevalence, severity and correlates.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luana Moraes; Yoshimi, Nicoli Tamie; Simão, Maria Odete; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2015-09-30

    The literature on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in alcoholic patients is scarce and such symptoms can go unnoticed, worsening the prognosis of alcoholism. The objectives were to estimate the prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in alcoholics undergoing outpatient treatment and to assess sociodemographic and clinical correlates, including suicidal behaviors. The instruments used in this cross-sectional study were the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R), the Short Alcohol Dependence Data and the Beck Depression Inventory. After descriptive analyses, bivariate analyses between the categorical ("probable OCD": OCI-R≥27) and dimensional (OCI-R total and subscales scores) outcomes and all explanatory variables were conducted. Eleven (20.4%) of the 54 alcoholic patients (37 men and 17 women) presented "probable OCD", which was associated with lower income, more severe dependence, depression, lifetime suicidal thoughts and plans and suicide attempts. OCI-R severity (mean 16.0) was associated with the same predictors and with psychiatric hospitalization. Suicidal behaviors were mainly associated with the Obsession, Hoarding and Washing subscales. It is essential to investigate and treat OCD symptoms in alcoholics, as they are associated with greater severity of dependence, depression and suicidal behaviors. Longitudinal studies are required to assess the impact of OCD treatment on the clinical course of alcoholism. PMID:26150309

  10. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  11. Intergenerational Influences on Early Alcohol Use: Independence from the Problem Behavior Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct problems are a general risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. However, their role in relation to alcohol-specific risk pathways of intergenerational transmission of alcohol use is not well understood. Further, the roles of alcohol-specific contextual influences on children’s early alcohol use have been little examined. In a 20-year prospective, multimethod study of 83 fathers and their 125 children, we considered predictors of child alcohol use by age 13 years. Predictors included fathers’ adolescent antisocial behavior and alcohol use, both parents’ adult alcohol use, norms about and encouragement of child use, parental monitoring, child-reported exposure to intoxicated adults, and parent-reported child externalizing behaviors. Path models supported an association between fathers’ adolescent alcohol use and children’s use (β = .17) that was not better explained by concurrent indicators of fathers’ and children’s general problem behavior. Fathers’ and mothers’ adult alcohol use uniquely predicted child use, and exposure to intoxicated adults partially mediated the latter path. Other family risk mechanisms were not supported. However, parental alcohol use and child alcohol use were linked in expected ways with family contextual conditions known to set the stage for alcohol use problems later in adolescence. PMID:22781861

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  13. Working with Alcoholic Families in a Child Welfare Agency: The Problem of Underdiagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Social Service agencies have been reluctant to focus on alcoholism as an issue in treating client and family problems, although there are 48 million alcoholics in the U.S., and 7 million of them are under age 18. Reasons for the reluctance to focus on alcoholism include lack of knowledge, poor prognosis, nihilism, denial, social workers' fears of…

  14. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on alcohol and stress, and the neurobiology of alcohol and drug addiction. "There are diverse treatment options of which people may be less aware, many of which can be undertaken with minimal disruption to home and work ... the way we treat alcohol use disorders," adds Robert Huebner, Ph.D., Acting ...

  15. Alcohol problems and the differentiation of partner, stranger, and general violence.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Rosemary; Ballinger, Bud C

    2006-07-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol problems and physical violence with partners and strangers, 457 college men and 958 college women with low, intermediate, or high scores on the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test reported conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale in the past year to and by partners and strangers. More men than women had high alcohol problems scores. Men with alcohol problems were more likely than other men to commit violence toward strangers or to partners and strangers. However, men with alcohol problems were not more likely than other men to commit violence toward partners only. Among women, alcohol problems had little relationship to committing violence or being the victim of violence. PMID:16731992

  16. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  17. A MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER SEVERITY AS DETERMINED BY ITEM RESPONSE THEORY MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The relative severity of the 11 DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria are represented by their severity threshold scores, an item response theory (IRT) model parameter inversely proportional to their prevalence. These scores can be used to create a continuous severity measure comprising the total number of criteria endorsed, each weighted by its relative severity. Methods This paper assesses the validity of the severity ranking of the 11 criteria and the overall severity score with respect to known AUD correlates, including alcohol consumption, psychological functioning, family history, antisociality, and early initiation of drinking, in a representative population sample of U.S. past-year drinkers (n=26,946). Results The unadjusted mean values for all validating measures increased steadily with the severity threshold score, except that legal problems, the criterion with the highest score, was associated with lower values than expected. After adjusting for the total number of criteria endorsed, this direct relationship was no longer evident. The overall severity score was no more highly correlated with the validating measures than a simple count of criteria endorsed, nor did the two measures yield different risk curves. This reflects both within-criterion variation in severity and the fact that the number of criteria endorsed and their severity are so highly correlated that severity is essentially redundant. Conclusions Attempts to formulate a scalar measure of AUD will do as well by relying on simple counts of criteria or symptom items as by using scales weighted by IRT measures of severity. PMID:19782481

  18. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  19. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  20. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  1. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2. PMID:23587660

  2. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate

  3. Differences in Severity and Outcomes Between Hypertriglyceridemia and Alcohol-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Hemant; Smith, Betsy; Bayer, Chelsey; Rutherford, Carla; Shelnut, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) are among the most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) after gallstones. However, differences in severity at the time of presentation and outcomes have not been well-studied. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the differences between severity at presentation and outcomes of AP of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic origins. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 177 patients who were discharged with diagnosis of AP was performed. Severity at presentation was identified by the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, bedside index for severity in AP (BISAP) score, and Balthazar index. Outcomes were measured by the length of stay, intensive care unit care, surgical intervention, and mortality. Results: We found 147 patients with alcoholic pancreatitis and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. A larger percentage of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (23.33%) had a BISAP score of ≥2 compared to the alcoholic group (12.24%). Only 32.65% of the patients with alcoholic pancreatitis but 60% of the patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis had the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at admission (P = 0.0067). There were 73.34% hypertriglyceridemic pancreatits patients and only 40.28% alcoholic pancreatitis patients with Balthazar index C or greater, suggesting a higher disease burden at admission for hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (P = 0.0047). There was a statistically significant difference in the relative number of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic pancreatitis patients receiving intensive care (P = 0.00030) and in receiving surgical interventions related to pancreatitis (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Our study found that patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis have a greater severity of disease and they experience less favorable outcomes than patients with alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:27042605

  4. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11 y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement “I want to work with drinkers,” and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  5. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  6. Treatment needs and experiences of Australian women with alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Swift, W; Copeland, J

    1996-03-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven women were interviewed as part of a national survey examining the treatment needs and experiences of Australian women who had received assistance for their alcohol and other drug problems. The majority of women had previously received assistance for their substance use, and of these most had left alcohol and other drug treatment programs before completion. While the women cited a number of ways in which they were helped by such services, several areas were identified by the women as important and amenable to improvement. Among the service issues raised were access, models of service delivery, service structure and staffing, physical environment, physical and psychological safety and the handling of issues such as health status and sexual assault. PMID:8861399

  7. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  8. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" Past Issues / ... is Director of the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A renowned expert on how ...

  9. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems in the US through Policy: Media Campaigns, Regulatory Approaches and Environmental Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of research focusing on several general strategies for reducing drinking-related problems, including controls on alcohol advertising and counter advertising; laws and regulations pertaining to minimum legal drinking age, and service to minors and drinking and driving. Concludes with a commentary on the potential effectiveness…

  10. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  11. [Safety problems of occupational activity during alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that work efficiency of persons occupied by machine operating duties degrades markedly under the action of an acute alcoholic intoxication--less on real machines and more on simulators and when operating simple technical devices. Work efficiency degradation is manifested by the task execution time increase (to a lesser degree) and by erroneous action quantity increase after taking alcohol, i.e. by work reliability decease. Most heavily it is manifested during the first 0.7-1.5 hr. After taking alcohol. And direct work efficiency index is usually improved 12-16 hr. after taking alcohol. Increase of erroneous action quantity is caused probably by a series of physiological, psychophysiological and psychological changes in the condition of a man under the action of alcohol. Time of the day when the activity takes place after taking that dose of alcohol is practically non valid for changing work efficiency index. PMID:11965736

  12. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; O’Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger—but not discrimination-specific anger—was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  13. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  14. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  15. Motivation to Change as a Mediator for the Longitudinal Relationships of Gender and Alcohol Severity With One-Year Drinking Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Small, Jeon; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether motivation to change mediated the relationships between gender and baseline alcohol severity with drinking outcome at 12-month follow-up in a longitudinal community sample. Method: Data were from baseline and 12-month interviews from the Rural Alcohol Study, a probability sample of rural and urban at-risk drinkers (N = 733) from six southern states. At-risk drinkers were identified through a telephone-screening interview. Measures of motivation (problem recognition and taking action) were the resultant two factors derived from the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Items on social consequences of drinking measured alcohol severity. Structural equation models examined relationships between baseline alcohol severity and motivation with drinks per drinking day at 12 months. Results: We identified significant, direct paths between drinking at 12 months and alcohol severity and taking action with an unstandardized estimate of 0.116 (p < .05), alcohol severity and problem recognition (0.423, p < .01), and each of the two “motivation” latent constructs—problem recognition (1.846, p < .01) and taking action (-0.660, p < .01). Finally, the combined direct and negative effect of gender on alcohol consumption at 12-month follow-up was statistically significant, with an unstandardized estimate of -0.970 (p < .01). Conclusions: The current study offers evidence for motivation to change as a viable mechanism through which alcohol severity is associated with subsequent drinking outcomes. More research is needed to further explore the persistence of motivation to change on drinking outcomes over time. PMID:22456256

  16. Aquatic acetylene-reduction techniques: solutions to several problems.

    PubMed

    Flett, R J; Hamilton, R D; Campbell, N E

    1976-01-01

    Previous methods of performing aquatic acetylene-reduction assays are described and several problems associated with them are discussed. A refinement of these older techniques is introduced and problems that it overcomes are also discussed. A depth profile of nitrogen fixation (C2H4 production), obtained by the refined technique, is shown for a fertilized Canadian Shield lake in the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario. PMID:814983

  17. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  18. Comprehensive Alcohol Education: A New Approach to an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Kouba, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This is a program model for responsible decision-making on alcohol use. The intent is to encourage a philosophy about alcoholic beverages using a consistent example of moderate use. Moral implications are left to the individual. Drinking is not viewed as proof of adulthood, virility, or social acceptibility. (Author/BEF)

  19. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  20. Change and Stability in Maximum Annual Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems among Aging Males: A 19-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, Ron

    Research has consistently shown that among the non-institutionalized elderly, prevalence rates of heavy alcohol use and problem drinking are relatively small in comparison to younger age groups. This study examines how maximum annual alcohol consumption and problem drinking change as a concomitant of the aging process. This study of alcohol-use…

  1. Baclofen and severe alcohol dependence: an uncertain harm-benefit balance as of early 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severe, chronic illness. Even the best-assessed drugs used to maintain abstinence are poorly effective. Some patients remain dependent after several treatment attempts. Baclofen has been tested for its capacity to reduce craving for alcohol. We reviewed the data available as of early 2013, using the standard Prescrire methodology, in order to assess the harm-benefit balance of baclofen in maintaining abstinence or moderation in alcohol-dependent patients. Two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials conducted by the same team tested baclofen 30 mg/day in 123 alcohol-dependent patients referred to alcohol treatment centres. After 1 or 3 months of followup, more patients remained abstinent in the baclofen group than in the placebo group. In another double-blind, randomised trial, baclofen 30 mg/day was not more effective than placebo in 80 alcohol-dependent patients recruited through advertisements, many of whom were seeking treatment for the first time. Three uncontrolled retrospective series reported the results obtained in 300 alcohol-dependent patients, most of whom were in treatment failure. They were treated with high, escalating doses of baclofen (on average about 150 mg per day, up to 400 mg per day) with the intention of reducing their craving for alcohol. After 3 to 24 months of follow-up, about half of the patients reported moderate or zero alcohol consumption. At moderate doses, baclofen has been used since the 1970s in the treatment of certain forms of muscle spasticity. The main adverse effects reported in this setting were drowsiness (especially early during treatment) and various neuropsychiatric disorders such as dizziness, euphoria, depression, headache, paraesthesias, speech disorders, ataxia and insomnia. The adverse effects of high-dose baclofen are mainly based on monitoring of hundreds of alcohol-dependent patients, 69 reports to French pharmacovigilance centres in 2011, and cases of overdose or accidental

  2. A Systems Approach To Assess Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Brian R.; Meyer, John K.

    1998-01-01

    The systems approach assembles in a single assessment setting four basic instruments to determine the current functioning status of the individual for the purpose of better understanding the dynamics involved in severe behavior problems: (1) the Democratic Maturity Test ; (2) the Life Fulfillment Inventory; (3) the Voluntary Control Test; and (4)…

  3. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  4. Mediators of the relationship between religiousness/spirituality and alcohol problems in an adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Drerup, Michelle L; Johnson, Thomas J; Bindl, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    Johnson et al. (2008b) reported that, in a college student sample, the effect of religiousness on alcohol use was mediated by negative beliefs about alcohol, social influences, and spiritual well-being, and that these variables in turn impacted alcohol use and problems both directly and indirectly via motives for drinking. This study attempted to replicate those findings in a sample of community dwelling adults (N=211). The effect of Religious/Spiritual Involvement was mediated by Negative Beliefs about Alcohol, Social Modeling, and Spiritual-Well-Being. However, Social Modeling had stronger relationships with motives for drinking and alcohol consumption than the other two mediators. The effect of Religious Struggle on Alcohol Problems was mediated by Spiritual Well-Being and coping motives for drinking. Results provide further support for the motivational model of alcohol use and suggest plausible mechanisms by which religiousness could causally impact alcohol use and problems. Religious struggle may be a clinically significant correlate of alcohol problems. PMID:21868169

  5. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents George ... FDA-approved medications that can help curb alcohol problems? It may be because medications are still a ...

  6. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  7. Trends in the treatment of alcohol problems in the US general population, 1979 through 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Weisner, C; Greenfield, T; Room, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of alcohol-treatment service utilization trends in the general population during the 1980s. METHODS. Three national surveys of the US household population (1979, 1984, and 1990) were used for trend analysis of treatment utilization. Trends in demographic characteristics of persons with lifetime treatment rates and particular types of treatment were examined by means of logistic regression analysis, controlling for alcohol problem severity and other variables. RESULTS. Substantial increases in the numbers reporting treatment were found. In all surveys, Alcoholics Anonymous was the treatment used most frequently and its use increased most, especially for women. Men were more likely than women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 5.39) and unmarried persons were twice as likely as married persons to have been treated [corrected]. Social consequences carried more predictive power than dependence symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. From a general population perspective, while overall treatment capacity has increased, the structural changes in the public/private balance of services have not positively affected the representation of women or other characteristics of the treatment population. PMID:7832262

  8. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  9. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  10. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  12. A Test of the DSM-5 Severity Scale for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Tera L.; Rose, Gail L.; Burt, Keith B.; Helzer, John E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND For the DSM-5-defined alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis, a tricategorized scale that designates mild, moderate, and severe AUD was selected over a fully dimensional scale to represent AUD severity. The purpose of this study was to test whether the DSM-5-defined AUD severity measure was as proficient a predictor of alcohol use following a brief intervention, compared to a fully dimensional scale. METHODS Heavy drinking primary care patients (N=246) received a physician-delivered brief intervention (BI), and then reported daily alcohol consumption for six months using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. The dimensional AUD measure we constructed was a summation of all AUD criteria met at baseline (mean = 6.5; SD = 2.5). A multi-model inference technique was used to determine whether the DSM-5 tri-categorized severity measure or a dimensional approach would provide a more precise prediction of change in weekly alcohol consumption following a BI. RESULTS The Akaike information criterion (AIC) for the dimensional AUD model (AIC=7623.88) was four points lower than the tri-categorized model (AIC=7627.88) and weight of evidence calculations indicated there was 88% likelihood the dimensional model was the better approximating model. The dimensional model significantly predicted change in alcohol consumption (p =.04) whereas the DSM-5 tri-categorized model did not. CONCLUSION A dimensional AUD measure was superior, detecting treatment effects that were not apparent with tri-categorized severity model as defined by the DSM-5. We recommend using a dimensional measure for determining AUD severity. PMID:24893979

  13. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  14. Impulsive Action but Not Impulsive Choice Determines Problem Gambling Severity

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Verbruggen, Frederick; Bechara, Antoine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is a hallmark of problem gambling. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct and this study investigated the relationship between problem gambling severity and two facets of impulsivity: impulsive action (impaired ability to withhold a motor response) and impulsive choice (abnormal aversion for the delay of reward). Methods The recruitment includes 65 problem gamblers and 35 normal control participants. On the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, two groups of gamblers were distinguished: problem gamblers (n = 38) and pathological gamblers (n = 27) with similar durations of gambling practice. Impulsive action was assessed using a response inhibition task (the stop-signal task). Impulsive choice was estimated with the delay-discounting task. Possible confounds (e.g., IQ, mood, ADHD symptoms) were recorded. Results Both problem and pathological gamblers discounted reward at a higher rate than their controls, but only pathological gamblers showed abnormally low performance on the most demanding condition of the stop-signal task. None of the potential confounds covaried with these results. Conclusions These results suggest that, whereas abnormal impulsive choice characterizes all problem gamblers, pathological gamblers' impairments in impulsive action may represent an important developmental pathway of pathological gambling. PMID:23209796

  15. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  16. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  17. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  18. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  19. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  20. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  1. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  2. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  3. Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

  4. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  5. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  6. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  7. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-09-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress. PMID:26054697

  8. The Added Risk of Opioid Problem Use among Treatment-Seeking Youth with Marijuana and/or Alcohol Problem Use

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-risk behaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. PMID:20403020

  9. Six month abstinence rule for liver transplantation in severe alcoholic liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Obed, Aiman; Stern, Steffen; Jarrad, Anwar; Lorf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The recovery results of patients transplanted for ALD are often at least as good as those of patients transplanted for other diagnoses and better than those suffering from hepatitis C virus, cryptogenic cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the case of medically non-responding patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis or acute-on chronic liver failure, the refusal of LT is often based on the lack of the required alcohol abstinence period of six months. The obligatory abidance of a period of abstinence as a transplant eligibility requirement for medically non-responding patients seems unfair and inhumane, since the majority of these patients will not survive the six-month abstinence period. Data from various studies have challenged the 6-mo rule, while excellent survival results of LT have been observed in selected patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Patients with severe advanced ALD should have legal access to LT. The mere lack of pre-LT abstinence should not be an obstacle for being listed. PMID:25892898

  10. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  11. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    PubMed

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  12. Examining the role of drinking motives in college student alcohol use and problems.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P; Wood, Mark D; Kahler, Christopher W; Maddock, Jay E; Palfai, Tibor P

    2003-03-01

    A motivational model of alcohol involvement (M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell, & P. Mudar, 1995) was replicated and extended by incorporating social antecedents and motives and by testing this model cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of college students. Participants (N = 388) completed a questionnaire battery assessing alcohol use and problems, alcohol expectancies, sensation seeking, negative affect, social influences, and drinking motives. Associations among psychosocial antecedents, drinking motives, and alcohol involvement differed from those found by M. L. Cooper et al. (1995). These findings point to the importance of social influences and of positive reinforcement motives but not to the centrality of drinking motives in this population. PMID:12665077

  13. Role of impulsivity in the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C

    2011-08-01

    Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. PMID:21480733

  14. Environmental Strategies To Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Deborah A.

    This document describes strategies that are used to create healthier campus environments in which alcohol is less available, more responsibly promoted and served, and poses less of a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of all students. The strategies described in this document accomplish these objectives by changing conditions on campus…

  15. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  16. Pathway from Child Sexual and Physical Abuse to Risky Sex Among Emerging Adults: The Role of Trauma-Related Intrusions and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, emphasizing a need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions following early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn, may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Methods Participants were 1169 racially-diverse college students (72.9% female; 37.6% Black/African-American; 33.6% White) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. Results The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, while for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Implications and Contribution This study provides support for a pathway from childhood abuse to risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood that operates through traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems. Risk reduction programs that employ an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and risky sexual behavior may be

  17. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Methods for Assessing Student Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Wechsler, Henry

    Under the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Act, institutions of higher education are required to review the effectiveness of their alcohol and drug prevention programs biannually. This guide offers a method for gathering and interpreting student survey data on alcohol-related problems based on the methodology of the College Alcohol Survey developed…

  18. Alcohol and Other Drugs on Campus: The Scope of the Problem. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread health problem on college and university campuses in the United States is high-risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Recent reports confirm that the nation's campuses continue to encounter significant consequences as a result of this problem. This "Infofacts/Resources" offers an overview of the problem and highlights effective…

  19. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  20. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers. PMID:20719435

  1. Attitudes and Descriptive Norms of Alcohol-Related Problems as Predictors of Alcohol Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…

  2. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students’ stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students’ patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol-­related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  3. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  4. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  5. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  6. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  7. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  8. Lesbians recovering from alcohol problems: an ethnographic study of health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Hall, J M

    1994-01-01

    The findings of this ethnographic study of 35 San Francisco lesbians in long-term alcohol recovery describe their identification of alcohol problems, help-seeking experiences, and barriers to recovery in health care interactions. Multiple addictions and "core difficulties," such as childhood trauma, were common yet poorly addressed by health care providers. Lesbian clients mistrusted culturally ignorant providers who often inappropriately reversed therapeutic roles. Provider-client conceptual incongruence about alcohol problems often impeded recovery, while providers' persuasive styles (paternalistic, maternalistic, confrontational, and influential) were pivotal to recovery. The confrontational approach caused the most problems. It could precipitate crises, be interpreted by the women as social ostracism, and retraumatize those who had histories of childhood trauma. Consensus favored the influential style, characterized by flexibility, negotiation, support, and avoidance of ultimatums. Conclusions challenge the assumptions that alcoholics are manipulative, "in denial," and require coercion to attain and maintain recovery. PMID:8047429

  9. Drinking norms and alcohol-related problems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Linsky, A S; Colby, J P; Straus, M A

    1986-09-01

    One of Bales's three related hypotheses concerning how cultures or social structures influence the level of alcoholism in a population--that culturally determined attitudes toward drinking and intoxication determine whether alcohol will be used to relieve the stress generated in a society--is examined in the first systematic test of that hypothesis based on American data. A proscriptive norm index was computed for each of the 50 states based on percentage population residing in legally dry areas, the degree of legal restrictions on the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages and the percentage population of Mormons and Fundamentalists. The most proscriptive states are located in the southern region of the United States. Proscriptive norms are significantly correlated with all of the indicators of alcohol-related problems studied. Most of the correlations remain significant when five other variables are controlled. Proscriptive norms are negatively correlated with the indicators of heavy drinking, but positively correlated with the "social disruptiveness" of alcohol (arrest data). Thus driving while intoxicated and other alcohol-related arrests do not appear to arise as a response to the total amount of drinking. Instead, such alcohol-related problems appear to be a response to the strong cultural disapproval of drinking, with the proscriptively oriented states experiencing the highest rates of disruptive behaviors related to alcohol. The findings are consistent with a social control explanation for this link. PMID:3762162

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Dispositions to rash action moderate the associations between concurrent drinking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems during emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin M; Karyadi, Kenny A; Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    "Impulsivity" has been consistently identified as a key personality predictor of alcohol-related problems and subsequent alcohol use disorder. Multiple prior studies have demonstrated impulsivity is an individual difference factor that strengthens the effects of some risk factors, such as alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms, on alcohol problems. However, recent research indicated common measures of impulsivity actually reflect multiple dispositions toward rash action, and that alcohol problems were most consistently related to one of those dispositions, negative urgency. Little research has examined how specific dispositions to rash action may act as putative moderators of other risk factors for alcohol problems. The goal of the current study was to test which dispositions to rash action moderated the effects of concurrent alcohol use or depressive symptoms on alcohol problems. Using a large cross-sectional sample of college students (n = 573), the current study utilized semicontinuous regression models, which allow prediction of both the likelihood and level of alcohol problems. Negative urgency was found to be the main predictor of alcohol problems, above and beyond other dispositions to rash action, which replicates prior research. However, each of the other dispositions exhibited risk-enhancing effects on the relations between either depressive symptoms or alcohol use and concurrent alcohol problems. Specifically, lower levels of premeditation enhanced the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems, while lower perseverance and higher sensation seeking were related to more alcohol problems at higher levels of alcohol use. Results suggest that multiple dispositions to rash action were related to problematic alcohol use both directly and via their interaction with other risk factors. PMID:21553946

  13. Neurotoxic Consequences of Chronic Alcohol Withdrawal: Expression Profiling Reveals Importance of Gender Over Withdrawal Severity

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M

    2011-01-01

    While women are more vulnerable than men to many of the medical consequences of alcohol abuse, the role of sex in the response to ethanol is controversial. Neuroadaptive responses that result in the hyperexcitability associated with withdrawal from chronic ethanol likely reflect gene expression changes. We have examined both genders for the effects of withdrawal on brain gene expression using mice with divergent withdrawal severity that have been selectively bred from a genetically heterogeneous population. A total of 295 genes were identified as ethanol regulated from each gender of each selected line by microarray analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the arrays revealed that the transcriptional response correlated with sex rather than with the selected withdrawal phenotype. Consistent with this, gene ontology category over-representation analysis identified cell death and DNA/RNA binding as targeted classes of genes in females, while in males, protein degradation, and calcium ion binding pathways were more altered by alcohol. Examination of ethanol-regulated genes and these distinct signaling pathways suggested enhanced neurotoxicity in females. Histopathological analysis of brain damage following ethanol withdrawal confirmed elevated cell death in female but not male mice. The sexually dimorphic response was observed irrespective of withdrawal phenotype. Combined, these results indicate a fundamentally distinct neuroadaptive response in females compared to males during chronic ethanol withdrawal and are consistent with observations that female alcoholics may be more vulnerable than males to ethanol-induced brain damage associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:17593928

  14. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  15. High rates of alcohol problems and history of physical and sexual abuse among women inpatients.

    PubMed

    Swett, C; Halpert, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 88 consecutive new women patients were surveyed on an adult psychiatric inpatient unit which did not have a specific program for the treatment of alcoholics. Those with a self-reported history of physical and/or sexual abuse had significantly higher scores on the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) than those with no such history. Former drinkers and teetotalers were more likely to have been both physically and sexually abused than the others. Thirty-three patients (38%) reported a history of alcohol problems measured by scores of seven or more on the MAST, but only 20 had a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence made by a psychiatrist. PMID:8042607

  16. Quetiapine may reduce hospital admission rates in patients with mental health problems and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Chiu, W; Davies, A; Keating, J

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with 40 years history of chronic alcohol excess. On average, he had six hospital admissions a year with alcohol-related problems for at least a 10-year period. In 2009, he considered reducing his alcohol intake. He was noted to have mood disturbances, was seen by a psychogeriatrician who diagnosed bipolar disorder. He tried various bipolar medications including lithium and sodium valproate which was unsuccessful. He was then started on quetiapine 600 mg a day in divided doses. Subsequently this has not only controlled the bipolar disorder but also resulted in significant reduction in alcohol intake. He now shares a bottle of wine with his wife while in the past he was consuming a bottle of scotch daily. This case illustrates the benefits of quetiapine in assisting with this man's addiction to alcohol. PMID:23925678

  17. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486

  18. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  19. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna; Reinholdt, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur. PMID:18840273

  20. An evaluation of long-term changes in alcohol use and alcohol problems among clients of the Swedish National Alcohol Helpline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish National Alcohol Helpline was developed with the intention to provide an easily available, low threshold service to hazardous and harmful alcohol users in the community. The primary aim of this study was to describe the 12-month outcome of a cohort of clients and to evaluate whether these varied as a function of the intensity of exposure to the intervention. Methods The alcohol use and alcohol problems of a cohort of 191 clients accessing the service between 1 April 2009 and 1 February 2011 were assessed by telephone survey at the time of the first call and after 12 months. Change in AUDIT score between baseline and follow-up was used as primary outcome. Intensity of exposure was defined by number of counselling sessions. Results At 12-month follow-up, respondents had significantly reduced their AUDIT score to half of the baseline values, and one third of the participants were abstinent or consumed alcohol at a low-risk level. Participating in more than one counselling session as compared to one session was associated with a tendency to shift to a lower AUDIT zone at follow-up among women. Conclusions The Alcohol Helpline provides a viable community service for harmful and hazardous alcohol users. Future randomized studies including other treatment or control conditions are warranted in order to strengthen our preliminary conclusion of possible effectiveness of the counselling provided at the helpline, as well as to explore further the role of gender in moderating the treatment’s effect. PMID:24893718

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  2. Analyzing HIV/AIDS and Alcohol and Other Drug Use as a Social Problem

    PubMed Central

    PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver

    2012-01-01

    Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724

  3. Severe alcoholic relapse after liver transplantation: What consequences on the graft? A study based on liver biopsies analysis.

    PubMed

    Erard-Poinsot, Domitille; Guillaud, Olivier; Hervieu, Valérie; Thimonier, Elsa; Vallin, Mélanie; Chambon-Augoyard, Christine; Boillot, Olivier; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Dumortier, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major indication for liver transplantation (LT), but up to 20% of patients experience severe alcoholic relapse. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of severe alcoholic relapse on the graft (based on histological examination) and to identify predictive factors associated with recurrent alcoholic cirrhosis (RAC). From 1990 to 2010, 369 patients underwent LT for ALD at Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France) and survived more than 1 year. All patients who presented severe alcoholic relapse and histological follow-up were included. Liver biopsies were performed at 1 and 5 years and at every 5 years after LT, and when clinically indicated. The median follow-up after LT was 11 years (range, 3-18 years). Severe alcoholic relapse was observed in 73 (20%) of the 369 patients, from whom 56 patients with histological evaluation were included. RAC was diagnosed in 18 (32%) of the 56 patients included, which represents 5% of the 369 patients transplanted for ALD. The median delay between LT and RAC was 6 years (range, 3-10 years) and 4.5 years (range, 2-8 years) after severe alcoholic relapse. The median cumulated years of alcohol use before RAC was 3.5 years (range, 2-7 years). The cumulative risk for F4 fibrosis was 15% at 3 years, 32% at 5 years, and 54% at 10 years after severe alcoholic relapse. A young age at LT (≤50 years old) and an early onset of heavy drinking (within the first 3 years after LT) were associated with RAC. In conclusion, severe alcoholic relapse usually occurs in the first years after LT and is responsible for accelerated severe graft injury. Liver Transplantation 22 773-784 2016 AASLD. PMID:26929100

  4. Parent Relationships, Emotion Regulation, Psychosocial Maturity and College Student Alcohol Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith L.; Forthun, Larry F.; Pidcock, Boyd W.; Dowd, Duane A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested associations between problems in parent-youth relationships and problems with alcohol use among college students (N = 1592) using structural equation modeling. Hypotheses were that relationships between both substance-specific parenting factors (parental drinking) and non-substance-specific parenting factors (parental intrusive…

  5. Twenty-Year Alcohol-Consumption and Drinking-Problem Trajectories of Older Men and Women*

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe older adults' 20-year alcohol-consumption and drinking-problem trajectories, identify baseline predictors of them, and determine whether older men and women differ on late-life drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Method: Two-group simultaneous latent growth modeling was used to describe the characteristics and baseline predictors of older community-residing men's (n = 399) and women's (n = 320) 20-year drinking trajectories. Chi-square difference tests of increment in fit of latent growth models with and without gender invariance constraints were used to determine gender differences in drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Results: Unconditional quadratic growth models best described older individuals' within-individual, 20-year drinking trajectories, with alcohol consumption following an average pattern of delayed decline, and drinking problems an average pattern of decline followed by leveling off. On average, older men declined in alcohol consumption somewhat later than did older women. The best baseline predictors of more rapid decline in alcohol consumption and drinking problems were drinking variables indicative of heavier, more problematic alcohol use at late middle age. Conclusions: The course of alcohol consumption and drinking problems from late middle age onward is one of net decline, but this decline is neither swift nor invariable. Gender differences in the timing of decline in drinking suggest that ongoing monitoring of alcohol consumption may be especially important for older men. Further research is needed to identify factors known at late middle age that prospectively explain long-term change in late-life use of alcohol. PMID:21388604

  6. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  7. Treatment of older women with alcohol problems: meeting the challenge for a special population.

    PubMed

    Blow, F C

    2000-08-01

    As a larger proportion of the U.S. population reaches late life, there are new challenges to providing quality health care services for this group. Record numbers of adults over 60 are seeking health care for acute and chronic conditions. Older women represent the largest single group of health care users in this country. Twelve percent of older women regularly drink in excess of recommended guidelines (no more than one drink per day or seven drinks per week) and can be considered at-risk drinkers. Problems related to alcohol use and misuse can seriously affect many of the health concerns common among older women, including chronic illnesses and depression. Older women have specific risks and vulnerabilities to alcohol use, which include a swifter progression to alcohol-related illness. However, women in later life who have alcohol problems are underscreened and underdiagnosed, have significant barriers in accessing health care, and respond differentially to standard specialized treatment protocols. To date, research on these topics has been limited. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research focused on treatment outcomes for elderly adults with alcohol problems, with almost no emphasis on women. This paper presents the state of knowledge about alcohol health services for older women and provides recommendations for necessary future health services research on this vulnerable population. PMID:10968666

  8. [Problem of sexual pathology in alcoholic delusions of jealousy].

    PubMed

    Terent'ev, E I

    1978-01-01

    The data on sex pathology in alcoholic delusions of jealousy with sado-masochist behaviour are reported. Such behaviour was seen when the patients tried to force their wives to "acknowledge" infidelity. A total amount of 196 patients were studied. Abnormal behaviour was characterized by moral and physical torture of their wives and selftorture. They were mostly expressed at late night hours and were connected with a peculiar satisfaction of the "tormenting voluptuosness" (Lemke-Rennert). There was also a sexual excitation with a dissociation between high necessities and a dropped possibilities in the sexual sphere against the background of lowered potency and other sexual disorders. Moreover, there was a high level of general excitation with a narrowing of consciousness, vegeto-vascular changes, which are described during ciotus and a satisfaction of sexual necessities by perversions. A visualization of images related to jealousy was observed, which lead to an increase of the affective shading in delusions. PMID:726769

  9. An E-Health Solution for People With Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Boyle, Michael G.; Shaw, Bret R.; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  10. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  11. The impact of treatment condition and the lagged effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use on changes in alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; Foa, Edna B

    2016-04-01

    Given the high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), we investigated an integrated treatment for these disorders. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants also received BRENDA (supportive counseling). The naltrexone plus PE group showed a greater decline in alcohol craving symptoms than those in the placebo with no PE group. The PE plus placebo and the naltrexone without PE groups did not differ significantly from the placebo with no PE group in terms of alcohol craving. No treatment group differences were found for percentage of drinking days. Alcohol craving was moderated by PTSD severity, with those with higher PTSD symptoms showing faster decreases in alcohol craving. Both PTSD and alcohol use had a lagged effect on alcohol craving, with changes in PTSD symptoms and percentage of days drinking being associated with subsequent changes in craving. These results support the relationship between greater PTSD symptoms leading to greater alcohol craving and suggest that reducing PTSD symptoms may be beneficial to reducing craving in those with co-occurring PTSD/SUD. PMID:26905901

  12. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  13. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  14. The Roles of Negative Affect and Coping Motives in the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although studies have consistently indicated that among college students alcohol use and the likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems are related it is possible that additional factors strengthen the magnitude of this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effect of two such factors: negative affect and coping drinking motives. Method Data were collected on 316 college students at a midsized public university in the upper Midwest who reported using alcohol. Results Findings indicated that both negative affect and coping drinking motives moderated the alcohol use–alcohol problems relationship. The three-way interaction indicated that the strongest relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related problems existed for individuals high in both negative affect and coping drinking motives. Conclusions This study suggests that college students high in negative affect and coping drinking motives are particularly at risk for experiencing problems as a result of their alcohol use, indicating that clinicians should consider screening for these factors when conducting alcohol-related prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18432384

  15. Broad Social Motives, Alcohol Use, and Related Problems: Mechanisms of Risk From High School through College

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  16. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  17. Psychosocial factors in alcohol use-related problems of working youth.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Inci Ozgur; Demirbas, Hatice; Dogan, Yildirim B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial correlates of alcohol use related problems in a sample of 581 working adolescents (N = 4405), recruited from five vocational schools in Ankara in June 2004 with the CAGE questionnaire, The Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Using a multivariate analysis, the anxiety and hopelessness scores, and the length of stay in Ankara were found to be related to alcohol-use problems of the working youth. The study's limitations were noted and future research was suggested. PMID:17918024

  18. Services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: a survey of U.K. prisons.

    PubMed

    McMurran, M; Baldwin, S

    1989-09-01

    Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research. PMID:2790268

  19. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  20. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary

  1. Correlation Between Partial Pressure of Arterial Carbon Dioxide and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Patients with Severe Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Tariq; Brinton, Taylor; Kramer, Jason; Khan, Basharath; Ziffra, Jeffrey; Villines, Dana; Shah, Poorvi; Hanif, Tabassum

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory depression is a common adverse effect of benzodiazepine administration to patients with severe alcoholic withdrawal. This study was conducted to assess the value of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels compared to partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels in monitoring respiratory depression secondary to benzodiazepine treatment in patients with severe alcohol withdrawal. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 36 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for severe alcohol withdrawal who had been administered sedative agents. Results We observed a statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 at time 1 (r=0.74, P<0.01) and time 3 (r=0.52, P=0.02) but not at time 2 (r=0.22, P=0.31). Conclusion Our study confirms a positive correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 levels in patients experiencing severe alcohol withdrawal. PMID:26730226

  2. Alcohol May Not Cause Partner Violence but It Seems to Make It Worse: A Cross National Comparison of the Relationship between Alcohol and Severity of Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses whether severity of physical partner aggression is associated with alcohol consumption at the time of the incident, and whether the relationship between drinking and aggression severity is the same for men and women and across different countries. National or large regional general population surveys were conducted in 13…

  3. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  4. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  5. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes. PMID:24727307

  6. Interactions of several genetic polymorphisms and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Long, Xing-Jiang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the interactions of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels. Genotypes of 10 SNPs in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), endothelial lipase gene (LIPG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP), proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD), and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) genes were determined in 616 nondrinkers and 608 drinkers. The genotypic frequencies of LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs2070895, MTHFR rs1801133, and MYLIP rs3757354 SNPs were significantly different between nondrinkers and drinkers. The levels of systolic blood pressure (ABCA-1 rs2066715 and rs2070895), diastolic blood pressure (rs2070895), and pulse pressure (PP) (rs2066715, ACAT-1 rs1044925, and rs1801133) in nondrinkers, and systolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and SCARB1 rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and LIPG rs2000813), and PP (PCSK9 rs505151 and rs5888) in drinkers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.005-0.001). The interactions of several SNPs and alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, PPARD rs2016520, and rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2000813, rs3757354, and rs2016520), and PP (rs1044925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, rs505151, and rs5888) were observed (P < 0.005-0.001). The differences in blood pressure levels between the nondrinkers and drinkers might be partially attributed to the interactions of these SNPs and alcohol consumption. PMID:26354227

  7. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders). PMID:17874880

  8. Alcohol-related problems: a critical review of the literature and directions in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D

    1998-08-01

    It is generally accepted the around 2-5% of the adult population show major signs of alcohol dependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption. Nurses are in constant contact with patients who may have an early problem with alcohol but who are admitted for other reasons, and they are in a prime position to comprehensively assess patients (including alcohol screening), develop rapport and provide 'counselling'. Also, university nursing education is propelling nurses toward adoption of independent discipline focused models of care which are increasingly becoming independent of the medical model. Recent trends in the management of problem drinkers suggest that controlled drinking approaches may well offer treatment options to nurses that the traditional abstinence approaches did not. This paper presents a brief overview of the notion of controlled drinking, then critically reviews the nursing research studies and the descriptive literature providing direction for nursing education. Some recent clinical initiatives are discussed which highlight the flaws existing in nursing education, including lack of sufficient curriculum hours and the need for better designed education models and strategies. PMID:9847741

  9. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  10. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  11. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol. PMID:25790020

  12. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:21647354

  13. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  14. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  15. An application of the matching law to severe problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, John C; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated problem behavior and appropriate behavior using the matching equation with 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. Descriptive observations were conducted during interactions between the participants and their primary care providers in either a clinical laboratory environment (3 participants) or the participant's home (1 participant). Data were recorded on potential reinforcers, problem behavior, and appropriate behavior. After identifying the reinforcers that maintained each participant's problem behavior by way of functional analysis, the descriptive data were analyzed retrospectively, based on the matching equation. Results showed that the proportional rate of problem behavior relative to appropriate behavior approximately matched the proportional rate of reinforcement for problem behavior for all participants. The results extend prior research because a functional analysis was conducted and because multiple sources of reinforcement (other than attention) were evaluated. Methodological constraints were identified, which may limit the application of the matching law on both practical and conceptual levels. PMID:11936543

  16. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  18. [Parents and children in families with alcohol problems--anthropologic and preventive study].

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Krzysztof Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the proposition of solution of a difficult dilemma concerning the real role of parents in the development of children in families with alcohol problem (alcohol misuse and dependency of parents). From one side drinking parents are the cause of serious destruction of child health and development. From the other side we have the data about positive influence of strong bonds between children and their parents in alcohol use prevention (parenting as protective factor). Original philosophical theory of person structure with additional theory of parenting supplies the possibility of the solution of the dilemma. It is necessary to differentiate the personal relationship and the emotions (and behaviours) as two different levels of bonding. Alcohol dependent parents have influence on both levels, they protect and make the risk at the same time. The proposal is that the protective influence is still more powerful and important, so it is necessary to protect bonds between children and their parents despite the fact of some lateral destruction. It is also necessary to confront parents with the effects of their behaviour (intervention, therapy) to develop their possibilities to renovate their parenting functions, which is necessary for effective prevention. The theory allows to understand the situation of the child in the alcohol family more precisely. It is especially important for social workers, teachers and therapists working with such families. Some rules for working with the children of alcoholics are formulated. PMID:14704491

  19. Alcohol Problems and Depression in Later Life: Development of Two Knowledge Quizzes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Notes that effective measures of knowledge about mental health in later life are valuable in needs assessments and educational program evaluations. Describes development of two short, true/false quizzes, one on alcohol problems, other on depression and suicide in later life. Discusses usefulness of quizzes in planning and evaluating community…

  20. An Employee Assistance Model of Health Care Management for Employees with Alcohol-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kerry D.; Balkin, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes employee assistance model in which cost-effective, high-quality treatment can be offered for a complex range of alcohol-related problems. Notes that this system of care allows the employee to be treated in the least restrictive therapeutic environment, thus encouraging continued productivity at work. (Author/NB)

  1. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  2. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems through Drug Education. Policy Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Public schools have a responsibility to educate students about drug abuse, and states have a responsibility to assist schools in their efforts. Properly designed and implemented drug education programs are the most cost-effective means of preventing alcohol and other drug problems. Poorly designed and implemented programs, on the other hand, can…

  3. Mindfulness and Alcohol Problems in College Students: The Mediating Effects of Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Noonan, Marleah; Wells, Stephanie Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems in college students, as well as the role of stress as a mediator in this relationship. Participants: Participants were 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale,…

  4. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  5. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  6. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  7. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  8. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  9. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  11. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13–16 year old), young adult (17–18 year old), and adult (35–55 year old) participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7) or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11) drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of “stimulation” and “sedation”. Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age. Conclusion: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults, and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol. PMID:26635680

  12. A Qualitative Investigation of Barriers to Entry into Couples Treatment for Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Wetle, Terrie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to evaluate barriers to entry into couples treatment for alcohol problems. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Patients were recruited from (1) treatment for primary substance use disorders, (2) treatment for psychiatric disorders (other than substance use disorders), and (3) court-mandated outpatient domestic violence programs. Mental health experts were recruited based on expertise in (1) couples treatment, (2) alcohol treatment, and (3) couples treatment for alcohol problems. Patients (N=57) met criteria for hazardous drinking, and were in committed romantic relationships. Partners (N=19) and mental health experts (N=12) also completed interviews. Interviews were analyzed using accepted qualitative strategies. Barriers to treatment entry were identified at the patient, partner, and couple level. Barriers identified included psychological barriers, alcohol illness factors, treatment preferences and beliefs, and interpersonal factors. Although many barriers are similar to those previously identified in individual alcohol treatment, barriers unique to couples treatment provide guidance for next directions for dissemination. PMID:21831561

  13. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  14. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol

  15. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  16. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  17. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  18. Preventing Alcohol Problems Through a Student Assistance Program: A Manual for Implementation Based on the Westchester County, New York Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Gerald; And Others

    This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…

  19. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  20. Striatal dysfunction marks preexisting risk and medial prefrontal dysfunction is related to problem drinking in children of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Background Parental alcoholism substantially raises risk for offspring alcoholism, an effect thought to be mediated by a dysregulation in impulse control. Adult alcoholics have alterations in the frontostriatal system involved in regulating impulsive responses. However, it remains controversial whether these alterations reflect pre-existing traits predisposing to problem alcohol use, or are secondary to alcohol involvement. Methods Sixty-one 16 to 22 year olds were tested using a go/no-go task during functional MRI. Forty-one had at least one parent with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD; FH+) and 20 had no parent with AUD (FH−). Two FH+ subgroups were created to disentangle alcohol involvement from preexisting risk: the FH+ control (n=20) group had low alcohol problems, differing from the FH− group only by family history. The FH+ problem group (n=21) had high alcohol problems. Results The ventral caudate deactivated during successful inhibition in the FH− but not the FH+ groups, regardless of problem alcohol involvement. Regression analyses showed that ventral caudate deactivation was related to fewer externalizing problems as well as family history. Orbital and left medial prefrontal regions were deactivated in both the FH− and FH+ control groups but not the FH+ problem group. Activation in these regions was associated with alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in ventral striatal function in youth at risk for AUD, which may lead to inappropriate motivational responding; and suggest that with alcohol use, the prefrontal “control” mechanism loses efficiency, further dysregulating the frontostriatal motivational circuitry. PMID:20416863

  1. Alcohol use by urban bicyclists is associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Wall, Stephen; DiMaggio, Charles; Shinseki, Matthew; Slaughter, Dekeya; Frangos, Spiros G

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use is a risk factor for severe injury in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. Our objective was to investigate alcohol use by bicyclists and its effects on riding behaviors, medical management, injury severity, and mortality within a congested urban setting. A hospital-based, observational study of injured bicyclists presenting to a Level I regional trauma center in New York City was conducted. Data were collected prospectively from 2012 to 2014 by interviewing all bicyclists presenting within 24 h of injury and supplemented with medical record review. Variables included demographic characteristics, scene-related data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) scans, and clinical outcomes. Alcohol use at the time of injury was determined by history or blood alcohol level (BAL) >0.01 g/dL. Of 689 bicyclists, 585 (84.9%) were male with a mean age of 35.2. One hundred four (15.1%) bicyclists had consumed alcohol prior to injury. Alcohol use was inversely associated with helmet use (16.5% [9.9-25.1] vs. 43.2% [39.1-47.3]). Alcohol-consuming bicyclists were more likely to fall from their bicycles (42.0% [32.2-52.3] vs. 24.2% [20.8-27.9]) and less likely to be injured by collision with a motor vehicle (52.0% [41.7-62.1] vs. 67.5% [63.5-71.3]). 80% of alcohol-consuming bicyclists underwent CT imaging at presentation compared with 51.5% of non-users. Mortality was higher among injured bicyclists who had used alcohol (2.9% [0.6-8.2] vs. 0.0% [0.0-0.6]). Adjusted multivariable analysis revealed that alcohol use was independently associated with more severe injury (Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.27, p = 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval 1.40-3.68). Within a dense urban environment, alcohol use by bicyclists was associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality. As bicycling continues to increase in popularity internationally, it is important to heighten awareness about the risks and consequences of bicycling while under the

  2. Mental disorders in suicide and undetermined death in the Lundby Study. The contribution of severe depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brådvik, Louise; Mattisson, Cecilia; Bogren, Mats; Nettelbladt, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of severe depression, i.e., depression with melancholic and/or psychotic features and alcohol dependence in suicide and undetermined death. The Lundby Study is a prospective, longitudinal study of a population consisting of 3563 subjects. In a long-term follow up 1947-2006 there were 66 suicide cases, including 19 undetermined deaths. Depression and alcoholism were as expected the major contributors to suicide (44% and 23% respectively). Severe depression with psychotic and/or melancholic features was diagnosed in 66% of all depressions and in 29% of all suicide cases, as compared to 15% for major depression only. Alcohol dependence was related to undetermined death. Major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features appears to be an important contributor to accomplished suicide in the depression group, and alcohol dependence appears to be related to undetermined death. PMID:20658380

  3. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  4. A Unit Price Evaluation of Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, John C.; Francisco, Monica T.; Haberlin, Alayna T.; Ross, Noel A.; Sran, Sandeep K.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated problem behavior exhibited by 6 individuals with developmental disabilities using the behavioral economic conceptualization of unit price. Descriptive observations were conducted during interactions between the participants and their primary care providers in a clinical laboratory, the participants' homes, or school. Data were…

  5. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  6. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  7. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  8. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  9. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  10. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems in college students: correlates and preferred resources.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R

    2010-12-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students' history of help-seeking for alcohol problems, as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  11. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  12. Identification and brief treatment of alcohol problems with medical patients: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Bendtsen, Preben; Borges, Guilherme; Colby, Suzanne M; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Johansson, Kjell

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA meeting in San Francisco, California. The chair was Peter Monti and co-chair was Nancy Barnett. The aim of the symposium was to bring together researchers from the United States, Sweden, and Mexico to present current findings on the development and implementation of screening and intervention research in Emergency Departments (ED). Cheryl Cherpitel presented findings on the performance of the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4), a 4-item instrument used for screening for alcohol dependence and harmful drinking in the ED. Dr. Cherpitel also presented for her collaborator, Guilherme Borges, their research on the performance of a number of screening measures including the RAPS among Mexicans and Mexican-Americans with alcohol-related disorders in the ED. Preben Bendtsen described the implementation of an alcohol screening and intervention procedure delivered by ordinary ED staff in Sweden. Nancy Barnett presented data on characteristics related to readiness to change alcohol use in a sample of young adults who were treated in an ED for injury or intoxication. PMID:12605075

  13. Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

  14. Epidemiologic problems associated with exposure to several agents.

    PubMed Central

    Waxweiler, R J

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous exposure to many potentially hazardous agents in the environment is the rule, yet there have been few studies that have addressed the issue of interactions of these agents in modifying disease outcomes, even though such interactions may potentially be important in terms of policy-making. Epidemiological methods may be an important way to identify interaction effects, especially for chronic disease outcomes. Some examples of epidemiologic investigations of this problem are given, and a matrix method used to evaluate the contribution of nineteen chemicals to the risk of liver angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride workers is discussed. PMID:7199433

  15. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. PMID:26046402

  16. Self Efficacy, Alcohol Expectancy and Problem-Solving Appraisal as Predictors of Alcohol Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscaro, Michael; Broer, Karen; Taylor, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are cause for concern because the educational process and quality of campus student life are disrupted. Abusive drinking can have serious consequences on all areas of college life, including economic, health, social and educational. Heavy alcohol use may result in personal injury, drunk driving, alcohol overdose, unplanned…

  17. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  18. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  19. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Brown, K A; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an alternative neutral response) to obtain different durations and qualities of reinforcement, was conducted. Finally, treatment packages involving choice making via manding were implemented to decrease inappropriate behavior and to increase mands. The results extended previous applications of choice making to severe behavior disorders and across behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. PMID:8810061

  20. Parallel algorithm research on several important open problems in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Niu, Bei-Fang; Lang, Xian-Yu; Lu, Zhong-Hua; Chi, Xue-Bin

    2009-09-01

    High performance computing has opened the door to using bioinformatics and systems biology to explore complex relationships among data, and created the opportunity to tackle very large and involved simulations of biological systems. Many supercomputing centers have jumped on the bandwagon because the opportunities for significant impact in this field is infinite. Development of new algorithms, especially parallel algorithms and software to mine new biological information and to assess different relationships among the members of a large biological data set, is becoming very important. This article presents our work on the design and development of parallel algorithms and software to solve some important open problems arising from bioinformatics, such as structure alignment of RNA sequences, finding new genes, alternative splicing, gene expression clustering and so on. In order to make these parallel software available to a wide audience, the grid computing service interfaces to these software have been deployed in China National Grid (CNGrid). Finally, conclusions and some future research directions are presented. PMID:20640837

  1. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  2. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-10-21

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  3. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  4. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the comprehensive drinker profile.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A

    1997-04-01

    Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar. PMID:9075055

  5. [Alcohol and drugs in Central Europe--problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Cs emy, L

    1994-08-22

    The high alcohol consumption and increasing abuse of other addictive inducing substances in Central Europe calls for broadley conceived preventive programmes and cheap and widely applicable therapeutic strategies (early treatment at the first contact level, self-help manuals, self-aid organizations). Social instability along with greater availability of alcohol and drugs create a dangerous combination. In addition to strategies of stress prevention at the societal level also strategy at the individual level is important (e.g. relaxation training, yoga, psychotherapy). It is also important to change the "image" of western society and commercial interests of those who make profits on alcohol and drugs should be under control and advertising should be greatly restricted if not prohibited. Prevention of problems caused by alcohol and drugs in particular in youths must be combined and really effective strategies should be used such as peer programmes. The authors mention also their own preventive programme FIT IN and print materials oriented specifically on certain population groups. PMID:7923324

  6. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  7. Relationships between problematic internet use and problem-gambling severity: findings from a high-school survey.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  8. Early Liver Transplantation for Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis in the United States-A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Im, G Y; Kim-Schluger, L; Shenoy, A; Schubert, E; Goel, A; Friedman, S L; Florman, S; Schiano, T D

    2016-03-01

    Early liver transplantation (LT) in European centers reportedly improved survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) not responding to medical therapy. Our aim was to determine if a strategy of early LT for severe AH could be applied successfully in the United States. We reviewed 111 patients with severe AH at our center from January 2012 to January 2015. The primary end point was mortality at 6 months or early LT, with a secondary end point of alcohol relapse after LT. Survival was compared between those receiving early LT and matched patients who did not. Using a process similar to the European trial, 94 patients with severe AH not responding to medical therapy were evaluated for early LT. Overall, 9 (9.6%) candidates with favorable psychosocial profiles underwent early LT, comprising 3% of all adult LT during the study period. The 6-month survival rate was higher among those receiving early LT compared with matched controls (89% vs 11%, p<0.001). Eight recipients are alive at a median of 735 days with 1 alcohol relapse. Early LT for severe AH can achieve excellent clinical outcomes with low impact on the donor pool and low rates of alcohol relapse in highly selected patients in the United States. PMID:26710309

  9. The Role of State, Community, and Institutional Policy in the Prevention of College Alcohol Problems. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laurie; DeJong, Christene

    2004-01-01

    The most widespread health and safety problem on college and university campuses in the United States today is high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. The heavy, episodic use of alcohol that 44 percent of college students engage in results in a myriad of consequences for both drinkers and nondrinkers, ranging from disturbed study and…

  10. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…

  11. Research, Action, and the Community: Experiences in the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. OSAP Prevention Monograph-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents modified and updated papers from a symposium held to examine alcohol and drug abuse prevention efforts worldwide. It contains 32 papers from 11 countries; papers include: (1) "Community Action on Alcohol Problems: The Demonstration Project as an Unstable Mixture" (Robin Room); (2) "Perspectives on the Community in Action…

  12. Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Poverty and Their Relationship to Binge Drinking and Related Problems among Drinkers in Committed Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…

  13. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  14. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  15. Psychiatric Morbidity is Linked to Problem Drinking in Midlife Among Alcohol-Dependent Men: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Burroughs, Thomas; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Prior research on predictors of problem drinking has been limited because of an inability to attribute an unambiguous environmental explanation to observed findings. Using a prospective co-twin control design, we examined the extent to which a history of psychiatric symptoms exerts an environmental influence on problem drinking in midlife that is unconfounded by genetic underpinnings. Method: Participants were 367 complete male twin pairs (208 monozygotic, 159 dizygotic) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were assessed in midlife as part of the Family Twin Study (Mage = 51.4 years, SD = 2.8). Twin pairs who were concordant for a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in 1992 were selected for participation and were reinterviewed in 2001 to measure symptoms of AUD (i.e., problem drinking) since the prior assessment (past 10 years). Results: Within-pair differences in lifetime symptom counts of several psychiatric disorders measured in 1992 (i.e., major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, antisocial personality, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder) were significantly associated with within-pair differences in AUD symptoms in the subsequent 10 years. Conclusions: A history of psychiatric problems, particularly one marked by internalizing symptoms, appears to be linked to problem drinking in midlife above and beyond the confounding influence of genetic effects and underscores the potential value of integrated interventions for comorbidity to address problem drinking among individuals during this period of the life course. PMID:23200159

  16. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  17. ['Nothing' or 'just a bit'? 'Much' or 'too much'? Impulsivity traits as markers of severity transitions within non-problematic and problematic ranges of alcohol and Internet use].

    PubMed

    J F, Navas; A, Torres; A, Cándido; J C, Perales

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between impulsivity traits and perceived negative consequences of alcohol consumption and Internet use. More specifically, impulsivity traits - positive and negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance - in (1) the occurrence of initial negative consequences linked to use, and (2) the transition from consequences possibly indicating a problematic behavior to consequences very likely indicating a clinical problem. For this, 709 first-year college students were assessed using the UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale, and the Multicage CAD-4 scale for addictive behaviors. Logistic regressions were used to discriminate (a) between individuals with a 0-score and individuals with a 1-score in the Multicage scales (low severity range), and (b) between individuals with a 2-score and individuals with 3/4-score (high severity range), separately for alcohol and Internet use. For alcohol use, positive urgency and lack of premeditation marked the transition from 0 to 1 scores, whereas negative urgency marked the transition from 2 to 3/4 scores. For Internet use, however, none of the UPPS-P dimensions significantly marked the transition from 0 to 1 (occurrence of initial negative consequences), and positive urgency marked the transition from 2 to 3/4 (from possible to very likely problematic behavior). Negative urgency arises as a pathologization marker for alcohol abuse, whereas changes in non-clinical levels are linked to impulsivity elicited by appetitive emotions. Impulsivity does not seem to play any role in low severity levels of Internet use, and positive urgency marks the transition between high severity scores. These differential patterns are indicative of different etiological paths for excessive Internet use and substance abuse. PMID:25225732

  18. Childhood Cognitive Measures as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Problems by Mid-Adulthood in a Non-Western Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (n = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample is from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily Caucasian samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A non-linear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were non-drinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. PMID:25621419

  19. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621419

  20. Willingness to Seek Help as a Function of Self-Disclosure and Problem Severity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Janise A.; Swanson, Jane L.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of problem severity, amount of self-disclosure, and self-disclosure flexibility on willingness to seek help for problem. Findings from 101 college students indicated that factors that predicted greatest amount of variance in willingness to seek help were interaction of problem severity with willingness to self-disclose to…

  1. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  2. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  3. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... addressing alcohol problems is increasing our understanding of underage drinking, particularly how high risk drinking by college students and other underage populations can be prevented. What's a "standard" drink? ...

  4. Twenty years of applied behavior analysis in treating the most severe problem behavior: Lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, Richard M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the author's experiences during the past 20 years of treating severe problem behavior. Factors that represent barriers to success are identified and discussed, as are factors that contribute to the development of successful treatment programs. Barriers to success include the inherent reactive nature of human services and educational systems, expertise problems, systems problems, information gaps, programming problems, characteristics of problem behavior, and maintenance problems. Some new programmatic directions are suggested for overcoming the various treatment barriers. The paper concludes with strategies and factors to consider that will ensure long-term success in the treatment of severe problem behavior. PMID:22478260

  5. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. PMID:26075735

  6. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  7. The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in University undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Andretta, James R; McKay, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Time perspective is an individual difference variable which assesses the extent to which orientation to the past, present and future affects current behaviors. The present study investigated the viability of temporal profiles and the degree (if any) to which these predict meaningful differences in alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduates recruited from a University in the North West of England. Full survey data were available for 455 individuals (aged 18-25; 49.7% male) on (a) time perspective, and (b) alcohol-related problems. Four profiles emerged and were labeled Future-Positive, Present, Past Negative-Future, and Ambivalent. As hypothesized, the Future-Positive profile was associated with the best alcohol-related outcomes. The Present profile was associated with the worst outcomes. This study demonstrates that temporal profiles are associated with alcohol-related problems. PMID:26735914

  8. A social marketing approach to involving Afghans in community-level alcohol problem prevention.

    PubMed

    Cherry, L; Redmond, S P

    1994-06-01

    A program for preventing alcohol-related problems at the community level using environmentally-focused, public health approaches sought to involve a new segment of the community. That segment consisted of recently-immigrated Afghans from a traditionally abstinent culture. Social marketing research was employed to elicit value-based benefits to be used in promoting the product (involvement with environmental change efforts) to the target audience. While the channels of distribution for promotional messages were easily identified, special attention was required relative to effective spokespersons. Much was also learned about the immigration experience of Afghans in a San Francisco Bay Area community that has significance for other fields. PMID:24258928

  9. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  10. Assessment of alcohol problems using AUDIT in a prison setting: more than an 'aye or no' question

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol problems are a major UK and international public health issue. The prevalence of alcohol problems is markedly higher among prisoners than the general population. However, studies suggest alcohol problems among prisoners are under-detected, under-recorded and under-treated. Identifying offenders with alcohol problems is fundamental to providing high quality healthcare. This paper reports use of the AUDIT screening tool to assess alcohol problems among prisoners. Methods Universal screening was undertaken over ten weeks with all entrants to one male Scottish prison using the AUDIT standardised screening tool and supplementary contextual questions. The questionnaire was administered by trained prison officers during routine admission procedures. Overall 259 anonymised completed questionnaires were analysed. Results AUDIT scores showed a high prevalence of alcohol problems with 73% of prisoner scores indicating an alcohol use disorder (8+), including 36% having scores indicating 'possible dependence' (20-40). AUDIT scores indicating 'possible dependence' were most apparent among 18-24 and 40-64 year-olds (40% and 56% respectively). However, individual questions showed important differences, with younger drinkers less likely to demonstrate habitual and addictive behaviours than the older age group. Disparity between high levels of harmful/hazardous/dependent drinking and low levels of 'treatment' emerged (only 27% of prisoners with scores indicating 'possible dependence' reported being 'in treatment'). Self-reported associations between drinking alcohol and the index crime were identified among two-fifths of respondents, rising to half of those reporting violent crimes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify differing behaviours and needs among prisoners with high AUDIT score ranges, through additional analysis of individual questions. The study has identified high prevalence of alcohol use, varied problem behaviours, and

  11. Decoding of nonverbal language in alcoholism: A perception or a labeling problem?

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Petit, Géraldine; Rolin, Heidi; Ermer, Elsa; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Maurage, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients have difficulty recognizing social cues such as emotional facial expressions, prosody, and postures. However, most researchers describing these difficulties rely on labeling tasks. It therefore remains difficult to disentangle genuine emotion-decoding problems from emotion-labeling impairments. In the present study, 35 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were compared with 35 matched controls on four emotion-pairing tasks to explore the distinction between labeling and perceptual abilities. First, 2 tasks were used to assess emotion-labeling ability (labeling task) and working memory (necessary to process emotional stimuli; control matching task). Next, 2 experimental pairing tasks were used to explore unimodal, Face-face or voice-voice) and cross-modal, Face-voice or voice-face) matching abilities in the absence of any labeling requirement. Patients had difficulty accurately processing voices in unimodal tasks and correctly matching emotional stimuli in cross-modal tasks. Specifically, they did not correctly identify neutral stimuli in unimodal or cross-modal tasks and did not correctly identify fear in cross-modal tasks. Reaction times were also slower in these patients. However, accuracy and reaction time (RT) differences between patients and controls were accounted for by including anxiety and depression scores as covariates in the model. These results suggest that emotion-decoding difficulties observed in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients are not due to a specific emotion-labeling impairment, but rather involve perceptual difficulties or later integrative processing steps in the brain. Future studies should directly compare depressed or nondepressed alcohol-dependent patients with depressive patients to disentangle the influences of these highly comorbid disorders on nonverbal language perception. PMID:26820495

  12. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  13. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18715745

  14. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients’ experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care. Methods This qualitative study recruited problem drug users (N = 28) from primary care based methadone programmes in the Ireland’s Eastern region, using a stratified sampling matrix to include size of general practice and geographical area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis, and audited by a third reviewer. Results We identified three overarching themes relevant to the purpose of this paper: (1) patients’ experience of, and (2) attitude towards, screening and treatment for problem alcohol use in primary care, as well as their (3) views on service improvement. While most patients reported being screened for problem alcohol use at initial assessment, few recalled routine screening or treatment. Among the barriers and enablers to screening and treatment, patients highlighted the importance of the practitioner-patient relationship in helping them address the issue. Nevertheless, patients felt that healthcare professionals should be more proactive in the management of problem alcohol use at a primary care level and that primary care can play an important role in their treatment. Conclusions Problem alcohol use is an important challenge in the care of problem drug users. While primary care is well placed to address this issue, little data has reported on this topic. The development of interventions which promote screening and brief interventions in practice are likely to benefit this at-risk group and further research and education, that help achieve this goal, are a priority. Strategies such as dissemination of clinical guidelines, educational videos, academic

  15. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Problem Gambling Severity Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Steinberg, Lynne; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Hofmeyr, Andre; Dellis, Andrew; Ross, Don; Kincaid, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Increases in the availability of gambling heighten the need for a short screening measure of problem gambling. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a brief measure that allows for the assessment of characteristics of gambling behavior and severity and its consequences. The authors evaluate the psychometric properties of the PGSI using…

  16. Social environmental influences on the development and resolution of alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Zucker, Robert A; Molina, Brooke S G; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25-30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  17. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  18. Severe dysphagia as the presenting symptom of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a non-alcoholic man.

    PubMed

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2008-02-01

    We present the case of a non-alcoholic man, who, following severe malnutrition, presented with dysphagia that necessitated gastrostomy tube placement. The patient subsequently developed encephalopathy, at which point thiamine deficiency was suspected and thiamine supplementation initiated. The encephalopathy and the dysphagia resolved, but the patient was left with a dense amnestic deficit consistent with Korsakoff syndrome. MRI at the time of the encephalopathy revealed lesions consistent with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This case represents a remarkable example of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome that for a prolonged time period had as its sole manifestation severe dysphagia. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case reported in the literature. This case serves to alert neurologists that isolated dysphagia may be the presenting symptom of this classic neurological syndrome even in the absence of alcoholism. PMID:18379741

  19. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…

  20. Parental Aggression Related to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; And Others

    Findings from a study of the etiology of alcoholism and conduct disorders that involved 3-year-old sons of alcoholic fathers are reported. The study focused on intact nuclear families with a son who was 3 years old at the time of initial data collection and a father who was diagnosed as definitely or probably alcoholic. Alcoholic families were…

  1. Evaluating Age Differences in Coping Motives as a Mediator of the Link between Social Anxiety Symptoms and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Werntz, Alexandra J.; Magee, Joshua C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building upon previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (age 18–25; n = 148), young adults (age 26–39; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (age 40–65; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  2. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  3. Alcohol and mortality after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rahul; Mikkonen, Era D; Siironen, Jari; Hernesniemi, Juha; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Skrifvars, Markus B

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Experimental studies have shown numerous neuroprotective properties of alcohol ("ethanol") after TBI, but clinical studies have provided conflicting results. The authors aimed to assess the relationship between positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on hospital admission and mortality after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors searched 8 databases for observational studies reported between January 1, 1990, and October 7, 2013, and investigated the effect of BAC on mortality after moderate to severe TBI. Reviews of each study were conducted, and data were extracted according to the MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect methodology was used to generate pooled estimates. Heterogeneity was dealt with by multiple sensitivity analyses. RESULTS Eleven studies with a total of 95,941 patients (42% BAC positive and 58% BAC negative) were identified for the primary analysis (overall mortality 12%). Primary analysis showed a significantly lower risk of death for BAC-positive patients compared with BAC-negative patients (crude mortality 11.0% vs 12.3%, pooled OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.81-0.88]), although flawed by heterogeneity (I(2) = 68%). Multiple sensitivity analyses, including 55,949 and 51,772 patients, yielded similar results to the primary analysis (crude mortality 12.2% vs 14.0%, pooled OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.83-0.92] and crude mortality 8.7% vs 10.7%, pooled OR 0.78 [95% CI 0.74-0.83]) but with good study homogeneity (I(2) = 36% and 14%). CONCLUSIONS Positive BAC was significantly associated with lower mortality rates in moderate to severe TBI. Whether this observation is due to selection bias or neuroprotective effects of alcohol remains unknown. Future prospective studies adjusting for TBI heterogeneity is advocated to establish the potential favorable effects of alcohol on outcome after TBI. PMID:26495950

  4. "Man-ing" up and getting drunk: the role of masculine norms, alcohol intoxication and alcohol-related problems among college men.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-09-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a "playboy", risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a "playboy", risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  5. “Man-ing” up and Getting Drunk: The Role of Masculine Norms, Alcohol Intoxication and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Men

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S.; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  6. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those con-texts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes. PMID:26258998

  7. Alcohol Craving in Patients Diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorder: Bi-Directional Relationships between Approach and Avoidance Inclinations and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Levitt, Ash; Bradizza, Clara M.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Lucke, Joseph F.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Zhuo, Yue; Connors, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study was undertaken to better understand the craving-drinking relationship among individuals dually diagnosed with a severe mental illness (SMI) and an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Using an ambivalence conceptualization of craving (Breiner et al., 1999), we investigated the bi-directional relationships between desires and behavioral intentions to use (approach inclinations) and not use (avoidance inclinations) alcohol and drinking outcomes in patients diagnosed with a SMI-AUD. Method Patients (N = 278) seeking outpatient dual diagnosis treatment from a community mental health center were followed longitudinally over the course of 6 months. Assessments at baseline, 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month intervals included approach and avoidance inclinations, alcohol urges, readiness to change, and drinking outcomes. Results Time-lagged multilevel growth curve modeling found that avoidance inclinations moderated the effect of approach inclinations on subsequent drinking outcomes differentially over time. Specifically, avoidance inclinations attenuated the effect of approach on subsequent heavier drinking levels, and high avoidance/low approach demonstrated significant decreases on levels of drinking over time. Results also indicated that number of drinks consumed and heavy drinking days predicted subsequent approach inclinations differentially over time, such that lower levels of drinking predicted decreases in approach inclinations. Decreases in drinking also predicted higher subsequent avoidance inclinations, which were maintained over time. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of subjective craving responses and the importance of measuring both approach and avoidance inclinations. Among those diagnosed with SMI-AUDs, treatment strategies that increase avoidance inclinations may increase abstinence rates in this difficult-to-treat population. PMID:23895085

  8. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  9. Prospective Effects of Family Cohesion on Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescence: Similarities and Differences by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities. PMID:25563233

  10. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    campaigns and attention to the five major elements of the communications process. Mass media campaigns based on the communication-behavior change concept address the steps required to move a target population from initial awareness of interest in a problem to the adoption and maintenance of advocated attitudes or behaviors.Among public policy models, researchers have concluded that higher real prices on alcohol and restricted availability have the effect of lowering alcoholic beverage consumption among young people and the incidence of heavy and frequent drinking.Raising the minimum age for purchase has been found to reduce the rate of automobile accidents involving young persons. Essential components of prevention strategies and approaches are presented. PMID:3141950

  11. Reactions to alcohol-related marital violence. Effects of one's own abuse experience and alcohol problems on causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, B

    1983-07-01

    Differences in the amount of responsibility attributed to fictional abusing and abused spouses who were either intoxicated or sober by alcoholics with differences in spouse-abuse histories and other characteristics are discussed in terms of attribution theory and the just-world hypothesis. PMID:6632884

  12. History of Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk of Severe Cognitive Impairment: A 19-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuźma, Elżbieta; Llewellyn, David J.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Wallace, Robert B.; Lang, Iain A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a history of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on risk of severe cognitive and memory impairment in later life. Methods We studied the association between history of AUDs and the onset of severe cognitive and memory impairment in 6,542 middle-aged adults born 1931 through 1941 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective nationally representative U.S. cohort. Participants were assessed at 1992 baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted biannually from 1996 through 2010. History of AUDs was identified using the three-item modified CAGE questionnaire. Cognitive outcomes were assessed using the 35-item modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status at last follow-up with incident severe cognitive impairment defined as a score ≤8, and incident severe memory impairment defined as a score ≤1 on a 20-item memory subscale. Results During up to 19 years of follow-up (mean: 16.7 years, standard deviation: 3.0, range: 3.5–19.1 years), 90 participants experienced severe cognitive impairment and 74 participants experienced severe memory impairment. History of AUDs more than doubled the odds of severe memory impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27–3.85, t = 2.88, df = 52, p = 0.01). The association with severe cognitive impairment was statistically non-significant but in the same direction (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.97–3.33, t = 1.92, df = 52, p = 0.06). Conclusion Middle-aged adults with a history of AUDs have increased odds of developing severe memory impairment later in life. These results reinforce the need to consider the relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition from a multifactorial lifespan perspective. PMID:25091517

  13. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. PMID:22930540

  14. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms. PMID:25602606

  15. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are... of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient...

  16. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet. PMID:23396051

  17. Effects of childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and family violence on adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Jennifer; Stewart, Michael; Bernet, Christine; Coe, Michael; Brown, Sandra A

    2002-04-01

    Exposure to familial alcoholism has been associated with many behavioral and emotional difficulties among offspring. However, few studies have examined environmental risks that often coexist with familial alcoholism, and which may influence the development of offspring psychosocial problems. This study examined potential additive and interactive effects of childhood exposure to family violence and childhood exposure to familial alcoholism on adolescent functioning. Three domains of adolescent functioning were examined in a high-risk community sample of 109 families: lifetime levels of substance use, conduct disorder behaviors, and self-esteem. Results indicated that both childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and childhood exposure to family violence were associated with psychosocial functioning of offspring during adolescence, although the relations differ according to domain of functioning and gender. PMID:12013062

  18. Preference-Based Teaching: Helping Students with Severe Disabilities Enjoy Learning without Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2006-01-01

    An impediment to teaching that occurs with many students who have severe disabilities is problem behavior during teaching sessions. This paper describes "preference-based teaching", a recently developed means of reducing problem behavior by making teaching programs enjoyable for students. Preference-based teaching begins with actions taken prior…

  19. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) show a substantial decrease in alcohol use by youth during the past decade. Yet despite these trends, an estimated 1 in 5 teenagers were current alcohol drinkers and 1 in 13 were binge alcohol drinkers. This report provides data showing the relationship between emotional state,…

  20. A controlled examination of two coping skills for daily alcohol use and PTSD symptom severity among dually diagnosed individuals.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-03-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  1. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  2. Overt behavior problems and serotonergic function in middle childhood among male and female offspring of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Twitchell, G R; Hanna, G L; Cook, E H; Fitzgerald, H E; Little, K Y; Zucker, R A

    1998-09-01

    A large body of literature indicates that the serotonergic system is involved in behavioral regulation, as evidenced by the inverse relationship between impulsive aggression and serotonergic function found in adult alcoholics and nonalcoholics. However, studies of this relationship among child and adolescent offspring of alcoholics (COAs) have not previously been done. This study examines the potentially parallel relationship between behavioral dysregulation and low serotonergic function in young COAs. The relationship is of potential interest as a phenotypic marker of biological vulnerability to aggressiveness, which itself has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for later antisocial alcoholism. The present work is part of an ongoing prospective study of the development of risk for alcohol abuse/dependence and other problematic outcomes in a sample of families subtyped by the fathers' alcoholism classification. We examined the relationship between overt behavior problems in middle childhood (mean age = 10.5 +/- 1.7 years) and whole blood serotonin (5-HT) in a subsample of the offspring (N = 32 boys and 12 girls). Using a Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) index of behavioral undercontrol, we obtained results indicating that high total behavior problem (TBP) children had lower levels of whole blood 5-HT than did low-TBP children (p < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between whole blood serotonin levels and behavior problems in young male and female COAs. A father's alcoholism status was not significantly related to his child's 5-HT level, i.e., the child's phenotypic expression of behavioral dysregulation was more reliably connected to serotonergic function than was paternal alcoholism. PMID:9756051

  3. Preventing Severe Problem Behavior in Young Children: The Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Johnston, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    Best practice in preventing severe problem behavior in schools involves implementing a continuum of effective behavior support. This continuum includes primary prevention strategies implemented with all students, secondary prevention strategies for students at-risk, and tertiary interventions for students who engage in the most severe problem…

  4. In Vivo Evidence for Alcohol-Induced Neurochemical Changes in Rat Brain Without Protracted Withdrawal, Pronounced Thiamine Deficiency, or Severe Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M; Mayer, Dirk; Vinco, Shara; Orduna, Juan; Luong, Richard; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in human alcoholics report decreases in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing (Cho) compounds. Whether alterations in brain metabolite levels are attributable to alcohol per se or to physiological effects of protracted withdrawal or impaired nutritional or liver status remains unclear. Longitudinal effects of alcohol on brain metabolites measured in basal ganglia with single-voxel MRS were investigated in sibling pairs of wild-type Wistar rats, with one rat per pair exposed to escalating doses of vaporized alcohol, the other to vapor chamber air. MRS was conducted before alcohol exposure and twice during exposure. After 16 weeks of alcohol exposure, rats achieved average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of ~ 293 mg per 100 ml and had higher Cho and a trend for higher glutamine + glutamate (Glx) than controls. After 24 weeks of alcohol exposure, BALs rose to ~ 445 mg per 100 ml, and alcohol-exposed rats had higher Cho, Glx, and glutamate than controls. Thiamine and thiamine monophosphate levels were significantly lower in the alcohol than the control group but did not reach levels low enough to be considered clinically relevant. Histologically, livers of alcohol-exposed rats exhibited greater steatosis and lower glycogenosis than controls, but were not cirrhotic. This study demonstrates a specific pattern of neurobiochemical changes suggesting excessive membrane turnover or inflammation, indicated by high Cho, and alterations to glutamate homeostasis in the rat brain in response to extended vaporized alcohol exposure. Thus, we provide novel in vivo evidence for alcohol exposure as causing changes in brain chemistry in the absence of protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage. PMID:18704091

  5. Severe physical punishment: risk of mental health problems for poor urban children in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S; Peres, Clovis A; Nascimento, Rosimeire; Curto, Bartira M; Paula, Cristiane S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between specific types of child mental health problems and severe physical punishment, in combination with other important known risk factors. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Embu, São Paulo, Brazil, as the Brazilian component of a multicountry survey on abuse in the family environment. From a probabilistic sample of clusters that included all eligible households (women aged 15–49 years with a son or daughter < 18 years of age), we randomly selected one mother–child pair per household (n = 813; attrition rate: 17.6%). This study focused on children aged 6–17 years (n = 480). Child Behaviour Checklist CBCL/6–18 was used to identify children with internalizing problems only, externalizing problems only, and both internalizing and externalizing problems (comorbidity). Severe physical punishment was defined as being hit with an object, being kicked, choked, smothered, burnt, scalded, branded, beaten or threatened with a weapon. We examined other potential correlates from four domains: child (gender, age, ever witnessing marital violence); mother (education, unemployment, anxiety or depression, marital violence); father (absence, drunkenness); and family (socioeconomic status). The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to identify maternal anxiety or depression (score > 7). Backward logistic regression analysis identified independent correlates and significant interactions. Findings Multivariate modelling showed that severe punishment was an independent correlate of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems but was not associated with internalizing problems only. It increased the risk of externalizing problems alone only for children and adolescents not exposed to maternal anxiety or depression. Maternal anxiety or depression increased the risk only for children or adolescents not exposed to severe punishment. Conclusion Severe punishment may be related to child mental

  6. Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Problems in Missouri Parolees and Probationers.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Lundy, Christie; Stringer, Mark; Gallop, Robert; Gastfriend, David R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the naturalistic outcomes of parolees and probationers with alcohol and/or opioid problems who were treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to those treated with other medication-assisted therapies or psychosocial treatment only. Methods consisted of using intake and discharge data collected as part of SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) assessments, controlling for group differences using propensity scores that were based on a range of intake variables. Results showed that patients receiving XR-NTX had longer durations of care (compared to oral naltrexone and psychosocial treatment only) and were more likely to become abstinent (compared to oral naltrexone, buprenorphine/naloxone, and psychosocial treatment only). Findings were similar for the total sample and those with opioid problems. These XR-NTX results were found in the absence of significant differences in rates of self-help participation. No differences were found in employment or arrests in this relatively short time frame. This study documents the real-world effectiveness study of current FDA-approved addiction medications in parolees/probationers and encourages the use of XR-NTX in such a criminal justice population. PMID:25841704

  7. Selection of Treatment Type of Alcoholic Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshai, Nabila

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the referral of subjects (N=7,335) to alcohol treatment. Variables were demographics, drinking pattern, alcohol-related behavior, and pathology. The most important factor in referring to outpatient therapy was employment. Inpatient subjects had heavier prior involvement with alcohol and more severe physical problems. (JAC)

  8. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  9. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  10. A longitudinal examination of the link between parent alcohol problems and youth drinking: the moderating roles of parent and child gender.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Nicole L; Forehand, Rex; Olson, Ardis L; Jones, Deborah J; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Zens, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    The unique and interactive effects of paternal and maternal alcohol problems on the drinking behavior of adolescent girls and boys were investigated. A prospective design was employed to examine changes in youth drinking behavior over a 3-year period in a community-based sample of 695 families. Results revealed that, as maternal alcohol problems increased, the likelihood of adolescent alcohol use increased. Paternal alcohol problems were associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol use for girls only. Findings point to the need for future research to investigate both maternal and paternal alcohol problems in community samples and with a sample size large enough to examine both parent and adolescent gender. Implications for preventive and interventive efforts are considered. PMID:15970394

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  12. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  13. The association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related problems: An examination of race and gender differences among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; Ray, Anne E; White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students. PMID:26114577

  14. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  15. Difficulties with emotion regulation mediate the relationship between borderline personality disorder symptom severity and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation. PMID:24343962

  16. A comparison of several computational techniques for solving some common aeronomic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Several numerical integration techniques for solving common aeronomic problems involving species rate equations are compared for speed and accuracy. A newer technique that defines families of species that are nearly conserved is found to be superior to an iterative technique when both methods are applied to simple test problems. The 'conservation' technique is also found to be more economical than the more complex Gear (1969) integration scheme for comparable accuracy.

  17. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  18. Problem severity, technology adoption, and intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers.

    PubMed

    Hechanova, Ma Regina M; Tuliao, Antover P; Teh, Lota A; Alianan, Arsenio S; Acosta, Avegale

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the factors that influence the intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). A survey among 365 OFWs revealed that problem severity and technology adoption predict intent to use online counseling. Among the three factors of technology adoption, perceived ease in the use of technology and perceived presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use predicted intent to use online counseling. Our hypothesis about the presence of interaction between problem severity and facilitating conditions was supported. Among individuals with low problem severity, those who perceive the presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use have a higher intent to use online counseling. However, at higher levels of problem severity, the effect of facilitating conditions seems to disappear. These findings highlight the crucial role of preventive online mental health services. The study contributes to theory by integrating the stage model of help-seeking behaviors and technology adoption theory in predicting intent to use online counseling. Specifically, that intent to seek online counseling is affected by the existence and perceived gravity of a problem, moderated by technology adoption factors, particularly facilitating conditions. These have implications on the need to educate potential users on the advantages of counseling and ensure that migrant workers have access to technology and that the technology is easy to use. PMID:23738983

  19. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  20. Identifying and managing problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

  1. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  2. The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Grace L; Trail, Thomas E; Kennedy, David P; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-02-01

    Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory. Comparing the 2 sources of information revealed that, although relational problems (e.g., communication and moods) were rated as severe on the inventory, challenges external to the relationship (e.g., children) were more salient in the free listing task. The pattern of results is robust across couples of varying race/ethnicity, parental status, and income levels. We conclude that efforts to strengthen marriages among low-income couples may be more effective if they address not only relational problems, but also couples' external stresses by providing assistance with child care, finances, or job training. PMID:26571196

  3. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  4. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  5. Assessment-Based Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems in a Natural Family Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    1997-01-01

    Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…

  6. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current article…

  7. Using Computers to Initiate Active Learning for Students with Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a desktop publishing project that uses computer-assisted instruction to engage students with severe behavioral problems in a more active learning environment. Topics discussed include the reinforcement from computers; benefits of computer-assisted instruction; hardware and software selection; staff training; evaluation; and future…

  8. Treatment Outcomes for Severe Feeding Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laud, Rinita B.; Girolami, Peter A.; Boscoe, James H.; Gulotta, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    There is abundant research to support that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit challenging feeding behaviors. Despite increase in empirical evidence supporting the role of behavior analysis in treating severe feeding problems, evaluation of the short- and long-term effects of these treatments for a large group of children with ASD…

  9. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118) in Adolescents: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenstra, Dine J.; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) is a self-report questionnaire focusing on core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. The SIPP-118 was developed and validated in an adult population. In adult populations, the 16 facets of the SIPP-118 fit into 5 higher order domains: self-control,…

  10. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  11. Severity of gambling problems modulates autonomic reactions to near outcomes in gambling.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Natalie; Ambach, Wolfgang; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes in gambling games cannot only be classified based on their valence (wins and misses) but also based on their closeness (near and full outcomes). The present study investigated autonomic responses (phasic heart period changes and skin conductance responses) to near and full outcomes on a wheel of fortune in a sample of males with different degrees of gambling problems. Near relative to full outcomes elicited increased interbeat intervals shortly after outcome presentation. Furthermore, participants with more severe gambling problems showed increased skin conductance responses following near relative to full outcomes as well as relatively smaller interbeat interval responses to near relative to full misses. The findings confirm different processing of near compared to full outcomes and altered processing of gambling outcomes with increasing severity of gambling problems. PMID:27353386

  12. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent. PMID:25559698

  13. Self-resolution of alcohol problems as a process of investing and re-investing in self.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld, D L

    1999-08-01

    Resolution of alcohol problems without formal treatment or participation in support groups was studied using a grounded theory approach. Thirteen former problem drinkers and their close associates were interviewed, and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. The core of self-resolving alcohol problems involves investing and/or reinvesting in self to gain or regain the essence of who or what one wants to be. Self-resolvers tend to independently change for their own benefit rather than the benefit of others, and personal resources may promote or delay the process. The effort required to self-resolve drinking problems varies, and close associates tend to be minority investors in the process. Input from health-care providers regarding the health-related hazards of drinking are largely ignored because threats to who or what one wants to be are perceived as more significant. As such, clinical interventions should emphasize personally relevant threats to self versus focusing solely on the physical consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:10478499

  14. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  15. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. PMID:27373614

  17. Biopsy-proven drug-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with acute kidney injury and alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Wakako; Mori, Takayasu; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Teiichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 49-year-old man with alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated by drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (DI-AIN). Oliguria persisted and became anuric again on day 17 despite improvement of pancreatitis. He presented rash, fever and eosinophilia from day 20. Renal biopsy was performed for dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI), DI-AIN was revealed, and prompt use of corticosteroids fully restored his renal function. This diagnosis might be missed because it is difficult to perform renal biopsy in such a clinical situation. If the patient's general condition allows, renal biopsy should be performed and reversible AKI must be distinguished from many cases of irreversible AKI complicated by SAP. This is the first report of biopsy-proven DI-AIN associated with SAP, suggesting the importance of biopsy for distinguishing DI-AIN in persisting AKI of SAP. PMID:23645698

  18. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: impact on student drinking and drinking problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated. PMID:18482416

  19. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  20. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  1. Co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Andrea; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P.; Xie, Haiyi; An, Melissa; McLeman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Background Prescription opioids are the most rapidly growing category of abused substances, and result in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Co-occurring with psychiatric disorders, persons with prescription opioid problems have negative treatment outcomes. Data are needed on the prevalence of co-occurring prescription opioid abuse and specific disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to better inform clinical practice. Objective: To determine prevalence rates of current co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and PTSD symptom severity among patients in community addiction treatment settings. Methods We abstracted administrative and chart information on 573 new admissions to three addictive treatment agencies during 2011. Systematic data were collected on PTSD symptoms, substance use, and patient demographics. Results Prescription opioid use was significantly associated with co-occurring PTSD symptom severity (OR: 1.42, p < 0.05). Use of prescription opioids in combination with sedatives (OR: 3.81, p < 0.01) or cocaine (OR: 2.24, p < 0.001) also were associated with PTSD severity. The odds of having co-occurring PTSD symptoms and prescription opioid use problem were nearly three times greater among females versus males (OR: 2.63, p < 0.001). Younger patients (18–34 years old) also were at higher risk (OR: 1.86, p < 0.01). Conclusions Prescription opioid use problems are a risk factor for co-occurring PTSD symptom severity. Being female or younger increase the likelihood of this co-morbidity. Further research is needed to confirm these finding, particularly using more rigorous diagnostic procedures. These data suggest that patients with prescription opioid use problems should be carefully evaluated for PTSD symptoms. PMID:24809229

  2. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  3. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  4. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  5. Sleep mediates the link between resiliency and behavioural problems in children at high and low risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Hairston, Ilana S; Conroy, Deirdre A; Heitzeg, Mary M; Akbar, Nasreen Z; Brower, Kirk J; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk for developing substance use problems. Having a parent with any mental illness increases the risk for sleep disorders in children. Using actigraphy, this study characterized sleep in children of alcoholics and community controls over a period of 1 week. This study further examined whether sleep characteristics of the children mediated the relationship between self-regulation indices (i.e. undercontrol and resiliency) and outcome measures of function (e.g. problem behaviours and perceived conflict at home). Eighty-two children (53 boys, 29 girls, 7.2-13.0 years old) were recruited from the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study. Seventeen participants had no parental history of alcohol abuse or dependence family history negative (FH-), 43 had at least one parent who was a recovered alcoholic, and 22 had at least one parent who met diagnostic criteria within the past 3 years. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 1 week, and combined with secondary analysis of data collected for the longitudinal study. FH- children had more objectively measured total sleep time. More total sleep time was associated with greater resiliency and behavioural control, fewer teacher-reported behavioural problems, and less child-reported conflict at home. Further, total sleep time partially mediated the relationship between resiliency and perceived conflict, and between resiliency and externalizing problems. These findings suggest that in high-risk homes, the opportunity to obtain sufficient sleep is reduced, and that insufficient sleep further exacerbates the effects of impaired dispositional self-regulatory capacity on behavioural and emotional regulation. PMID:26853891

  6. Problems with surveillance methods for alcoholism: differences in coding systems among federal, state, and private agencies.

    PubMed Central

    Westermeyer, J

    1988-01-01

    Social indicator systems can serve as a social accounting method to guide public policy on alcoholism, utilizing data which are routinely collected at public expense. An attempt to develop an alcoholism social indicator system for Minnesota demonstrated many differences in the coding schemes used by various state agencies and institutions. These findings have relevance to other social indicator systems being developed to assess public policies regarding the people's health. PMID:3337325

  7. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  8. ADHD as risk factor for early onset and heightened adult problem severity of illicit substance use: An Accelerated Gateway Model

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Hearn, Lauren E.; Rose, Jonathan; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of the present study were to assess ADHD history as a risk factor for earlier initiation and current use of licit and illicit substances among a sample of drug using adults. It was hypothesized that ADHD history would accelerate the Gateway Theory of drug use. Participants included 941 drug-using African American and Caucasian individuals in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample consisted of 124 (13.2%) participants who reported a history of ADHD and 817 (86.8%) who reported no history of ADHD. The accelerated gateway hypothesis was supported, as a history of self-reported ADHD was significantly associated with younger ages of initiation for alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine use. Participants with a history of ADHD were also more likely to engage in recent HIV-risk behavior, such as injection drug use and needle sharing. This study provides compelling data in support of an accelerated gateway model for substance use related to ADHD history and increased problem severity in adulthood. Targeted substance use prevention and intervention may be beneficial for those with ADHD. PMID:25123341

  9. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management. PMID:26403982

  10. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  11. Links between alcohol and other drug problems and maltreatment among adolescent girls: Perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation as moderators

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample of 168 Black and Hispanic adolescent girls who participated in a school-based substance use intervention. Results The results revealed that maltreatment was linked to AOD problems, but only through its relation with posttraumatic stress symptoms; maltreatment was positively related to posttraumatic stress symptoms, which were positively related to AOD problems. Both perceived discrimination and ethnic orientation were significant moderators. Specifically, greater perceived discrimination was associated with an increased effect of maltreatment on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Ethnic orientation demonstrated protective properties in the relation between maltreatment and AOD problem severity, such that the effect of maltreatment on AOD problem severity was less for girls with average to high ethnic orientation compared to girls with low ethnic orientation. Conclusions The findings of this study underscore the importance of developing interventions for Black and Hispanic girls that target maltreatment and AOD use concurrently and address ethnicity-specific factors. PMID:22608406

  12. A Conceptual Model for the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems among Kindergarten Children of Alcoholic Families: Role of Parenting and Children's Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model predicting children's externalizing behavior problems in kindergarten in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 130) and nonalcoholic (n = 97) parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12-18 months of child age in predicting…

  13. A Personality-Based Description of Maturing Out of Alcohol Problems: Extension with a Five-Factor Model and Robustness to Modeling Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine the relation of changes in Five-Factor personality traits (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience; Costa & McCrae, 1985), drinking motives, and problematic alcohol involvement in a cohort of college students (N=467) at varying risk for alcohol use disorders from ages 21–35. Method Parallel process latent growth models were estimated to determine the extent that prospective changes in personality and alcohol problems covaried as well as the extent to which drinking motives appeared to mediate these relations. Results Changes in neuroticism and conscientiousness covaried with changes in problematic alcohol involvement. Specifically, increases in conscientiousness and decreases in neuroticism were related to decreases in alcohol from ages 21–35, even after accounting for marriage and/or parenthood. Change in coping (but not enhancement) motives specifically mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and alcohol problems in addition to the relation between changes in neuroticism and alcohol problems. Discussion Personality changes, as assessed by a Five-Factor model of personality, are associated with “maturing out” of alcohol problems. Of equal importance, change in coping motives may be an important mediator of the relation between personality change and the “maturing out.” PMID:20598445

  14. Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Workman-Daniels, K L; Hesselbrock, V M

    1987-05-01

    The relationship of childhood hyperkinetic and minimal brain dysfunction (Hk-MBD) to neuropsychological functioning was examined in three groups of young adults. Nonalcoholic offspring of an alcoholic parent (N = 21) and of nonalcoholic parents (N = 21) were examined. A comparison group of similar age alcoholic patients (N = 21) was also studied. Each subject completed a battery of neuropsychological test measures and was administered a checklist on the presence of Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Offspring of an alcoholic parent and offspring of nonalcoholic parents could not be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive abilities or their frequency of reported Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Alcoholic subjects performed more poorly on measures of verbal and performance intelligence and reported a higher frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms. Further, it was found that the frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms was related to poor performance on certain types of cognitive tasks, regardless of group membership. These findings do not support the suggestion that certain cognitive deficits distinguish persons with a family history for alcoholism. However, poor neuropsychological performance in adulthood, at least on certain types of tasks, appears to be associated with the presence of childhood Hk-MBD. PMID:3657159

  15. Associations between Expectancies of Alcohol and Drug Use, Severity of Partner Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Erica N.; Khondkaryan, Enna; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2012-01-01

    Women who experience recurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) may use alcohol or drugs because they expect that these substances will help them cope with the negative physical and psychological sequelae of IPV. However, expectancies for alcohol and drug use have not been explored among this population of women. We used the Relaxation and…

  16. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Background Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. Method From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. Findings The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Conclusion Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family. PMID:27104341

  17. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines. PMID:23254212

  18. Vectorization on the star computer of several numerical methods for a fluid flow problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A reexamination of some numerical methods is considered in light of the new class of computers which use vector streaming to achieve high computation rates. A study has been made of the effect on the relative efficiency of several numerical methods applied to a particular fluid flow problem when they are implemented on a vector computer. The method of Brailovskaya, the alternating direction implicit method, a fully implicit method, and a new method called partial implicitization have been applied to the problem of determining the steady state solution of the two-dimensional flow of a viscous imcompressible fluid in a square cavity driven by a sliding wall. Results are obtained for three mesh sizes and a comparison is made of the methods for serial computation.

  19. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Our Communities: Case Studies and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Information Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a project of the Community Information Exchange to identify alcohol and other drug prevention strategies that have been tried and tested by community-based organizations. It contains complete case studies of model projects, the full listing of all technical assistance providers and funders, and abstracts of written…

  20. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  1. A Social Role Negotiation Approach to Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Thomas W.

    This document presents a social role negotiation model to be used in the prevention of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Section I focuses on theories and theorizing, explaining the fundamental aspects of a theory formulation project. Section II explores the historical and social context of the social role negotiation model. Patterns of…

  2. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  3. Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Gwen

    This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

  4. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  5. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  6. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  7. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... he drank a lot of alcohol. He dropped out of school in his senior year. Now Eric has a ... his life, Don was able to finish high school and find a good ... touched drugs in 10 years. He likes to work out at the gym, and he has made a ...

  8. State Resources and Services for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Problems. Fiscal Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butynski, William; And Others

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Profile data for the states' 1985 fiscal year (FY). Included is information from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Highlights, an executive summary, an introduction, and a section on the study purpose and methodology…

  9. Interactions between self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies and cognitive functioning in the prediction of alcohol use and associated problems: a further examination.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Vergés, Alvaro; McCarthy, Denis M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2011-09-01

    A recent debate regarding the theoretical distinction between explicit and implicit cognitive processes relevant to alcohol-related behaviors was strongly shaped by empirical findings from dual-process models (Moss & Albery, 2009; Wiers & Stacy, 2010; Moss & Albery, 2010). Specifically, as part of a broader discussion, Wiers & Stacy (2010) contended that alcohol-related behaviors are better predicted by self-reported alcohol expectancies for individuals with good executive control and verbal abilities relative to those without such abilities. The purpose of the current paper is to further test whether self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies are moderated by measures of cognitive functioning. Using multiple indices of alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies, and cognitive functioning, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted in a prospective sample of 489 individuals at varying risk for alcohol use disorders. Results from a series of regression analyses testing interactions between self-reported alcohol expectancies and cognitive functioning showed minimal support for the hypothesized pattern discussed by Wiers and Stacy, 2010 regarding self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies. The overall rates of significance were consistent with Type I error rates and a substantial proportion of the significant interactions were inconsistent with previous findings. Thus, the conclusion that cognitive measures consistently moderate the relation between self-reported alcohol expectancies and alcohol use and outcomes should be tempered. PMID:21443299

  10. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Stacey L; Andrews, Jane M; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. Methods Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed using the Treatment Perception Questionnaire (range: 0–40). Patients were stratified according to their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Forty patients scored in the extremely severe range of depression (score >14) and/or anxiety (score >10) (indicating SMHS) and 49 patients did not. An inductive content analysis was also conducted on qualitative data relating to areas of service improvement. Results Patients with SMHS were found to be equally satisfied with treatment (mean =25.10, standard deviation =8.12) as patients with an AUD alone (mean =25.43, standard deviation =6.91). Analysis revealed that being an inpatient in hospital was associated with reduced treatment satisfaction. Patients with SMHS were found to be significantly less satisfied with staffs’ understanding of the type of help they wanted in treatment, when compared to patients with AUDs alone. Five areas for service improvement were identified, including staff qualities, informed care, treatment access and continuity, issues relating to inpatient stay, and addressing patients’ mental health needs. Conclusion While findings suggest that AUD treatment services adequately meet the needs of patients with SMHS in treatment, patients with SMHS do feel that staff lack understanding of their treatment needs. Findings have

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Relation to Risk and Severity of Chronic Widespread Pain: Results From a UK Population‐Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Marcus; Prescott, Gordon J.; McNamee, Paul; Hannaford, Philip C.; McBeth, John; Lovell, Karina; Keeley, Phil; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; Woby, Steve; Norrie, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the reported level of alcohol consumption is associated with the likelihood of reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) and, among persons with CWP, the associated disability. Methods In a population‐based study in 2 areas of the UK, participants self‐completed a postal questionnaire. They were classified according to whether they met the American College of Rheumatology definition of CWP and whether the pain was disabling (Chronic Pain Grade III or IV). They reported their usual level of alcohol consumption. Potential confounding factors on which information was available included age, sex, cigarette smoking, employment status, self‐reported weight and height, and level of deprivation. Results A total of 13,574 persons participated (mean age 55 years, 57% women) of whom 2,239 (16.5%) had CWP; 28% reported never regularly consuming alcohol, 28% reported consuming up to 5 units/week, 20% reported 6–10 units/week, and 24% reported >10 units/week. Among persons with CWP, disability was strongly linked to level of alcohol consumption. Prevalence of disability decreased with increasing alcohol consumption up to 35 units/week (odds ratio [OR]21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.19–0.58]) adjusted for confounders. A similar relationship was found between reporting CWP and level of alcohol consumption (adjusted OR21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.76 [95% CI 0.61–0.94]). Conclusion This study has demonstrated strong associations between level of alcohol consumption and both CWP and related disabilities. However, the available evidence does not allow us to conclude that the association is causal. The strength of the associations means that specific studies to examine this potential relationship are warranted. PMID:26212017

  12. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    PubMed Central

    Simino, Jeannette; Sung, Yun Ju; Kume, Rezart; Schwander, Karen; Rao, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We used 6882 (predominantly) Caucasian participants aged 20–80 years from the Framingham SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures (ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week) on four BP traits [systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df) score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9) on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively). Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week vs. a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value ≤ 1E-06) associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2 df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B, ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A, FBXO15, and IGSF5. SNP-alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can be

  13. The Interaction of SES, Race/Ethnicity and Family Organization (Living Arrangements) of Adolescents, in Relation to Severity of Use of Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Ali, Asad

    1997-01-01

    A multi-city study compared black and white adolescent substance abusers (N=487). Variables investigated included socioeconomic status (SES), welfare, types of family organization, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. Severity of abuse was less for blacks than for whites except for crack and heroin. (EMK)

  14. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  15. Local anesthesia and minilaparotomy: a safe procedure for tubal occlusion in women with severe health problems.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, V; Bonilla, C; Reyes, A; Valero, A; Domenzáin, M; Pérez-Palacios, G

    1987-08-01

    From 1982 to 1986, 79 women with severe health problems underwent tubal occlusion by minilaparotomy using local anesthesia and intravenous sedation as a permanent method of fertility regulation. All the patients reported herein were classified as "high risk" population for a surgical procedure due to the following medical reasons: cardiovascular (30.2%); diabetes mellitus (25.3%); thyroid disease (18.9%); adrenal dysfunction (11.3%); kidney transplantation (6.3%); severe hypertension (3.7%); and pulmonary problems (3.7%). The procedure morbidity was 3.7% and the mortality 0%. The follow-up rate at 1 year was 86% and no pregnancies or complications of the primary disease due to the surgical procedure have been reported. It was concluded that tubal ligation by minilaparotomy performed by well-trained staff and with back-up hospital services on an out-patient basis is a safe and effective method of family planning in patients considered as a "high risk" population. Post-doctoral research fellows in Reproductive Biology. PMID:3427966

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Gambling Severity Index-Chinese version (PGSI-C).

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Oei, Tian P S; Raylu, Namrata

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese 9-item Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) derived from the 31-item Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) originally developed by Ferris and Wynne (2001). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 386; Group A data) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 387; Group B data) on the Chinese student and community data (Mean age = 25.36 years) showed that a unifactorial model fitted the data with good reliability score (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). The concurrent validity of the PGSI-C was good in terms of the Chinese data matching the expected correlation between PGSI-C and other variables or scales such as SOGS, gambling frequency, gambling urge, gambling cognitions, depression, anxiety, and stress. The scale also reported good discriminant and predictive validity. In sum, the PGSI-C has good psychometric properties and can be used among Chinese communities to identify at-risk problem gamblers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20924655

  17. Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Population-based Department of Defense health behavior surveys were examined for binge and heavy drinking among U.S. active duty personnel. From 1998-2008, personnel showed significant increases in heavy drinking (15% to 20%) and binge drinking (35% to 47%). The rate of alcohol-related serious consequences was 4% for nonbinge drinkers, 9% for binge drinkers, and 19% for heavy drinkers. Personnel with high combat exposure had significantly higher rates of heavy (26.8%) and binge (54.8%) drinking than their counterparts (17% and 45%, respectively). Heavy and binge drinking put service members at high risk for problems that diminish force readiness and psychological fitness. PMID:23869454

  18. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  19. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Yegorova, L.; Brockmeier, U.

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  20. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways. PMID:19000941

  1. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  2. Carer-Reported Contemporary Health Problems in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Katy; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Identifying health problems in people with severe and profound disabilities and genetic syndromes can be problematic, and unidentified or unmanaged health problems may adversely impact an individual's quality of life. The authors studied carer-reported contemporary health problems in three genetic syndromes (Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Cri du…

  3. Repeated Diagnoses of Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders in a Prospective Study: Insights into the Extent and Nature of the Reliability and Validity Problem

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research indicates that assessments of lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show low sensitivity and are unreliable when assessed by a single, retrospective interview. This study sought to replicate and extend previous research by calculating the lifetime prevalence rate of AUDs using both single retrospective assessments of lifetime diagnosis and repeated assessments of both lifetime and past-year diagnoses over a 16-year period within the same high-risk sample. In addition, this study examined factors that contributed to the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Methods Using prospective data, the reliability and validity of lifetime estimates of alcohol dependence and AUD were examined in several ways. Data were drawn from a cohort of young adults at high and low risk for alcoholism, originally ascertained as first-time college freshmen (N = 489 at baseline) at a large, public university and assessed over 16 years. Results Compared with using a single, lifetime retrospective assessment of DSM-III disorders assessed at approximately age 34, lifetime estimates derived from using multiple, prospective assessments of both past-year and lifetime AUD were substantially higher (25% single lifetime vs. 41% cumulative past-year vs. 46% cumulative lifetime). This pattern of findings was also found when conducting these comparisons at the symptom level. Further, these results suggest that some factors (e.g., symptoms endorsed, prior consistency in reporting of a lifetime AUD, and family history status) are associated with the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Conclusions Based on these findings, lifetime diagnoses using a single measurement occasion should be interpreted with considerable caution given they appear to produce potentially large prevalence underestimates. These results provide further insight into the extent and nature of the reliability and validity problem with lifetime AUDs. PMID:24033811

  4. Alcoholism and the Family. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. C.

    Alcoholism, and particularly alcoholism in the family, is an unsolved medical and social problem. Addictive drinking results in several social and psychological problems, most of which are caused by a change in brain function. Excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages operates as a stressor and produces alkaloids at the base of the brain that are…

  5. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented. PMID:24693359

  6. The Offspring of Alcoholics: Outcome Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    el-Guebaly, Nady

    1982-01-01

    Reviews risk of psychosocial problems related to drinking among "grown-up" children of alcoholics. Argues that genetic predisposition is best predictor available; this may be more influential near severe end of alcoholism spectrum, may be less influential in females, and may lead to differences in symptomatology and management. (Author/CMG)

  7. Validating a Five-Factor Marijuana Motives Measure: Relations with Use, Problems, and Alcohol Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffrey; Correia, Christopher J.; Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    Marijuana motives were studied in relationship to drinking motives among college students. Internal consistency and concurrent validity of the measure, gender, and interpersonal correlates of problem use patterns were examined. Analyses supported a five-factor marijuana motives model, prediction of use-related problems, and discriminant validity…

  8. Endorsement of Interpersonal Strategies for Dealing with Hypothetical Everyday Arthritis Problems as a Function of Marital Status, Gender, and Problem Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strough, Jonell; McFall, Joseph P.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    We used hypothetical vignettes to examine whether older adults' endorsement of interpersonal strategies for dealing with health-related (arthritis) everyday problems varied as a function of marital status, gender, and the severity of the problem. Adults 60 years and older (N= 127, M= 71.40 years, SD = 7.21) rated interpersonal (i.e., discuss with…

  9. Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Bava, Sunita; Tapert, Susan F

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in regions known to support complex cognition and behavior. Though fronto-subcortical circuitry development is notable during adolescence, asynchronous maturation of prefrontal and limbic systems may render youth more vulnerable to risky behaviors such as substance use. Indeed, binge-pattern alcohol consumption and comorbid marijuana use are common among adolescents, and are associated with neural consequences. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of adolescent brain development, particularly aspects that predispose individuals to reward seeking and risky choices during this phase of life, and discusses the influence of substance use on neuromaturation. Together, findings in this arena underscore the importance of refined research and programming efforts in adolescent health and interventional needs. PMID:20953990

  10. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950

  11. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  12. The Prevalence and Severity of Joint Problems and Disability in Patients with Poliomyelitis in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, S; Mcmillan, T; Sutherland, A; Sharan, D

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus infection of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. Up to 40% of survivors recover full muscle strength, however 60–90% are left with varying degrees of residual paralysis, where the patient suffers from cramping myalgia and lower motor neuron pattern weakness. This study aimed to identify and quantify, in terms of prevalence and severity of the types of joint deformities encountered in polio sufferers. It also aimed to assess the disability caused by such problems. Finally we documented the provision and use of mobility aids, orthotics and surgery in the patient group. Impairment was confined to one lower limb, and this is consistent, as the majority of patients were infected in infancy. The study found that pes cavus, scoliosis, flexion deformity of the knee and true lower-limb shortening accounted for over half of the deformities found. The mean Barthel Disability score was 19 and over 80% of patients used at least one aid, usually in the form of a Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFO). Surgery also plays a large in role in the management of polio patients, however necessity needs to be assessed on an individual basis taking into account many aspects of the patient’s life. PMID:26161158

  13. The Prevalence and Severity of Joint Problems and Disability in Patients with Poliomyelitis in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Baliga, S; Mcmillan, T; Sutherland, A; Sharan, D

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus infection of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. Up to 40% of survivors recover full muscle strength, however 60-90% are left with varying degrees of residual paralysis, where the patient suffers from cramping myalgia and lower motor neuron pattern weakness. This study aimed to identify and quantify, in terms of prevalence and severity of the types of joint deformities encountered in polio sufferers. It also aimed to assess the disability caused by such problems. Finally we documented the provision and use of mobility aids, orthotics and surgery in the patient group. Impairment was confined to one lower limb, and this is consistent, as the majority of patients were infected in infancy. The study found that pes cavus, scoliosis, flexion deformity of the knee and true lower-limb shortening accounted for over half of the deformities found. The mean Barthel Disability score was 19 and over 80% of patients used at least one aid, usually in the form of a Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFO). Surgery also plays a large in role in the management of polio patients, however necessity needs to be assessed on an individual basis taking into account many aspects of the patient's life. PMID:26161158

  14. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18–34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969–1982. Beginning from the year of each subject’s 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7–16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers. PMID:25938764

  15. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  16. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  17. Personality and alcohol-related outcomes among mandated college students: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs as mediators.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined three alcohol-perception variables (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs) as mediators of the predictive effects of four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of mandated college students (n=875). Our findings replicated several findings of a previous study of incoming freshman college students (Hustad et al., in press) in that impulsivity and hopelessness had direct effects on alcohol-related problems, sensation seeking and impulsivity had indirect effects on alcohol-related outcomes via college-related alcohol beliefs, and college-related alcohol beliefs predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We discuss the implications of our findings for global college student interventions as well as personality-targeted interventions. PMID:24589869

  18. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... who need them. Is the historical stigma of addiction diminishing as alcohol research teaches us more about ... well as medicines that can help fight alcohol addiction. Ideally in the future, health professionals would be ...

  19. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  20. On Several Fundamental Problems of Optimization, Estimation, and Scheduling in Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qian

    For both the conventional radio frequency and the comparably recent optical wireless communication systems, extensive effort from the academia had been made in improving the network spectrum efficiency and/or reducing the error rate. To achieve these goals, many fundamental challenges such as power efficient constellation design, nonlinear distortion mitigation, channel training design, network scheduling and etc. need to be properly addressed. In this dissertation, novel schemes are proposed accordingly to deal with specific problems falling in category of these challenges. Rigorous proofs and analyses are provided for each of our work to make a fair comparison with the corresponding peer works to clearly demonstrate the advantages. The first part of this dissertation considers a multi-carrier optical wireless system employing intensity modulation (IM) and direct detection (DD). A block-wise constellation design is presented, which treats the DC-bias that conventionally used solely for biasing purpose as an information basis. Our scheme, we term it MSM-JDCM, takes advantage of the compactness of sphere packing in a higher dimensional space, and in turn power efficient constellations are obtained by solving an advanced convex optimization problem. Besides the significant power gains, the MSM-JDCM has many other merits such as being capable of mitigating nonlinear distortion by including a peak-to-power ratio (PAPR) constraint, minimizing inter-symbol-interference (ISI) caused by frequency-selective fading with a novel precoder designed and embedded, and further reducing the bit-error-rate (BER) by combining with an optimized labeling scheme. The second part addresses several optimization problems in a multi-color visible light communication system, including power efficient constellation design, joint pre-equalizer and constellation design, and modeling of different structured channels with cross-talks. Our novel constellation design scheme, termed CSK-Advanced, is

  1. Alcohol and the College Freshman: "Binge" Drinking and Associated Problems. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Isaac, Nancy

    This study concerning the continued heavy drinking rate among Massachusetts college students sought to: (1) determine the specific changes in college drinking since a similar study on the topic was done in 1977; (2) determine the types of problems experienced by heavy drinkers; and (3) search for factors which might account for the continuation of…

  2. The Off-Campus Environment: Approaches for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Vehige, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    The presence of a college or university in a community can greatly enrich the lives of long-term residents, intellectually, culturally, and financially. But students who live, work, and play in nearby neighborhoods can sometimes create enormous problems, putting a strain on campus and community relations and compromising the health and safety of…

  3. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  4. Identification of Countermeasures for the Youth Crash Problem Related to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    Past research relevant to the problem and possible countermeasures are discussed as the basis for the survey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with male New York State drivers. These groups, each containing young and middle aged drivers were sampled as follows: (1) random sample of the general population of licensed drivers, (2) drivers…

  5. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Male Mexican and Central American Im/migrant Laborers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Paula A.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses a growing concern regarding alcohol use in adult male Latino im/migrant laborers in the United States. The review draws from alcohol studies focusing on "Hispanic" populations, and from health behavior studies of Latino im/migrant laborers, research that includes alcohol use. Specifically, this review addresses (a) alcohol…

  6. Job Training and Employment Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. A Technical Assistance Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gerald; And Others

    This report summarizes the relevant research that connects homelessness, alcohol and other drug abuse, and employment and job training services. It draws on the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Department of Labor demonstration projects as well as other programs to provide examples of various innovative programs across…

  7. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  8. [Psychiatric complications of alcoholism: alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Cláudia; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence

    2004-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute condition secondary to total or partial reduction of alcohol consumption, characterized by self limited signs and symptoms and different degrees of severity. It can be complicated by several clinical and/or other psychiatric related problems. The objective of this article is to review the most important psychiatric complications to alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as other psychiatric disorders associated with alcohol dependence as Wernicke Korsakoff and Marchiava Bignami syndromes. We aim to promote early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, minimizing morbidity and mortality associated with them. PMID:15729445

  9. The Relationship between the Severity of Eating Problems and Intellectual Developmental Deficit Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Eynat; Hardal-Nasser, Reem; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition, essential in the daily living functions promoting life quality of persons with intellectual developmental deficits (IDD), is adversely affected by the highly prevalent eating problems in these persons. The current study explores the characteristics of eating problems in population of children with intellectual developmental disorders.…

  10. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  11. Determinants of Alcohol Use, Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Health Problems Among Men in Low Income Communities of Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Schensul, Jean J.; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18–29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men’s search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking

  12. Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, E G; Carlson, J I

    1993-01-01

    Problem behavior often prevents community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated a multicomponent approach for remediating problem behavior in public community settings (specifically, supermarkets). We selected treatments based on hypotheses about the variables controlling the problem behavior (hypothesis-driven model). The multicomponent intervention included choice making, embedding, functional communication training, building tolerance for delay of reinforcement, and presenting discriminative stimuli for nonproblem behavior. Treatment progress was monitored using measures of latency and task completion rather than traditional measures of frequency and time sampling. Results showed substantial increases in task completion and duration of time spent in supermarkets without problem behavior. Outcomes were socially validated by group-home staff and cashiers. We discuss how the intervention approach taken can resolve some of the issues involved in assessing, measuring, and treating problem behavior in the community. PMID:8331013

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  14. Changes in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Heat Shock Protein 70, Malondialdehyde, and Superoxide Dismutase in Patients With Different Severities of Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Bao-Ge; Wang, Hui; Jia, Yi-Guo; Su, Ji-Liang; Wang, Zhong-Dong; Wang, Ya-Fei; Han, Xing-Hai; Liu, Yuan-Xun; Pan, Jin-Dun; Ren, Guang-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationships among inflammation, oxidative balance, and the severity of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the severity of AFLD. From January 2012 to December 2013, 162 participants were enrolled in this study and divided into 4 groups: 44 cases of mild AFLD (group A), 55 cases of moderate-to-severe AFLD (group B), 44 cases of alcohol consumption without AFLD (group C), and 20 cases of no alcohol consumption without AFLD (group D). A cross-sectional study was conducted by detecting the serum levels of TNF-α, HSP70, MDA, and SOD by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median serum levels of TNF-α and HSP70 among the 4 groups were statistically significant (P = 0.000 and 0.001, respectively). The median serum levels of TNF-α in groups A and B were significantly lower than in group C (P = 0.002 and 0.000, respectively), and the median serum level of TNF-α in group B was significantly lower than in group D (P = 0.023). In addition, the median serum level of HSP70 in group B was significantly lower than in groups A and C (P = 0.002 and 0.000, respectively), and the median serum level of HSP70 in group C was significantly higher than in group D (P = 0.044). However, the median serum level of MDA in group B was significantly lower than only group C (P = 0.008). Chronic alcohol ingestion without AFLD may result in a significant increase in the circulation of certain inflammatory markers; the severity of AFLD is associated with circulating inflammatory markers, and moderate-to-severe AFLD may result in a more significant reduction of these markers. However, moderate-to-severe AFLD may also result in a significant downregulation of oxidative stress products. PMID:25789959

  15. Comments on integrating person-centered and variable-centered research on problems associated with the use of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Horn, J L

    2000-06-01

    level it was possible to see that the results of the three studies agreed in indicating that there is a type of adolescent and young adult that, by and large, does not have-or at least does not report having-problems associated with the use of alcohol. This type is in the majority, accounting for approximately 60% of the youth sampled in the reviewed studies. The studies agree also in suggesting that types may emerge along a continuum of maladjustment characterized by increasing use of alcohol and other drugs, failures in school, problems at home, interpersonal difficulties, delinquency, and legal problems. Variable-centered dynamic analyses might further describe phenomena of this kind. PMID:10888083

  16. Mediating role of childhood emotional abuse on the relationship between severity of ADHD and PTSD symptoms in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Bilge; Agachanli, Ruken

    2016-05-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of PTSD symptom severity with severity of ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood trauma in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 190 male inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C). PTSD and ADHD scores were mildly correlated with severity of childhood trauma and types of traumas, the only exception was emotional neglect, which was not correlated with PTSD and ADHD. Severity of ADHD symptoms was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, together with the severity of childhood trauma in a linear regression model. In another linear regression model where dimensions of ADHD and childhood trauma were considered as independent variables, emotional abuse and both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive dimensions of ADHD were associated with the severity of PTSD. These findings suggest that the severity of adult ADHD symptoms is related with the severity of PTSD symptoms, while severity of childhood trauma, particularly emotional abuse may have an mediating role on this relationship among male inpatients with AUD. PMID:27058158

  17. A comparison of several methods of solving nonlinear regression groundwater flow problems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Computational efficiency and computer memory requirements for four methods of minimizing functions were compared for four test nonlinear-regression steady state groundwater flow problems. The fastest methods were the Marquardt and quasi-linearization methods, which required almost identical computer times and numbers of iterations; the next fastest was the quasi-Newton method, and last was the Fletcher-Reeves method, which did not converge in 100 iterations for two of the problems.-from Author

  18. Effect of Family Structure and Behavioral and Eyesight Problems on Caries Severity in Pupils by Using an Ordinal Logistic Model

    PubMed Central

    JAHANI, Yunes; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi FOROUSHANI, Abbas; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; SHAHRAVAN, Arash; ALAM, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most preventable yet prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of family structure and behavioral and eyesight problems as they relate to caries severity in schoolchildren. Methods: This research was carried out on 845 primary schoolchildren aged 9 yr in Kerman, Iran, in 2012. Ten variables, including health records, family structure information and a dmft/DMFT index, were collected. Children were categorized into three groups based on the WHO caries severity classification. Low caries level was defined as dmft/DMFT<2.6, moderate as dmft/DMFT of 2.7–4.4 and high as dmft/DMFT>4.4. The Cochran–Armitage test and ordinal logistic regression were employed for data analysis. Results: Almost half of pupils had moderate or high caries severity. The odds of being in a higher caries severity category in pupils with behavioral problems (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.29–4.38) and girls (OR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.22–2.06) were higher than in other categories. In addition, pupils with eyesight problems (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37–0.90) and overweight pupils (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.31–0.71) had lower caries severity than others. The effects of parents’ education, birth rank, living with parents and consanguineous relationship between parents were not significant on caries severity (P>0.05). Conclusions: Female pupils with behavioral problems were at a higher risk of caries severity than other pupils. These pupils need to be educated and coached on proper dental care. In addition, overweight pupils and those with eyesight problems had less caries severity than others. Family structure in this study did not have an effect on the severity of dental caries. PMID:26056644

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  20. Impact of age at first drink on vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: testing the marker hypothesis in a prospective study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Becker, Katja; Treutlein, Jens; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Laucht, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    There is ample evidence that the early initiation of alcohol use is a risk factor for the development of later alcohol-related problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether this association can be explained by indicators of a common underlying susceptibility or whether age at drinking onset may be considered as an independent predictor of later drinking behavior, suggesting a potential causal relationship. Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study of the long-term outcomes of early risk factors followed up from birth onwards. Structured interviews were administered to 304 participants to assess age at first drink and current drinking behavior. Data on risk factors, including early family adversity, parental alcohol use, childhood psychopathology and stressful life events, were repeatedly collected during childhood using standardized parent interviews. In addition, information on genotype was considered. Results confirmed previous work demonstrating that hazardous alcohol consumption is related to early-adolescent drinking onset. A younger age of first drink was significantly predicted by 5-HTTLPR genotype and the degree of preceding externalizing symptoms, and both factors were related to increased consumption or harmful alcohol use at age 19. However, even after controlling for these potential explanatory factors, earlier age at drinking onset remained a strong predictor of heavy alcohol consumption in young adulthood. The present longitudinal study adds to the current literature indicating that the early onset - adult hazardous drinking association cannot solely be attributed to shared genetic and psychopathologic risk factors as examined in this study. PMID:19332346

  1. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  2. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  3. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  4. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  5. Uterus neuroendocrine tumor - a severe prognostic factor in a female patient with alcoholic cirrhosis undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Niculae, Andrei; Peride, Ileana; Vasilescu, Florina; Bratu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Mischianu, Dan Liviu Dorel; Jinga, Mariana; Checheriţă, Ionel Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    There is increased evidence that end-stage renal disease patients, especially the hemodialyzed population, may present various unexpected forms of complications, contributing to a poor prognosis. Furthermore, neuroendocrine tumors, rarely encountered in daily practice, present in dialyzed individuals can significantly exacerbate the inflammatory condition with negative impact on patients' quality of life. We present an unusual case of uterus neuroendocrine tumor with multiple metastases in a 49-year-old female hemodialyzed patient with a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis and uterus fibromatous. Multiple endoscopic techniques (e.g., upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, upper and lower echoendoscopy), histological evaluation of biopsy samples from involved areas (the operatory piece) were performed in order to complete and refine the diagnosis. PMID:26193237

  6. Family Behavior Therapy for Use in Child Welfare: Results of a Case Study Involving an Abused Woman Formally Diagnosed With Alcohol Dependence, Bipolar Disorder, and Several Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Donohue, Brad C.; Hill, Heather H.; Powell, Suzanne; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The results of a multiple-baseline case study of family behavior therapy (FBT) is described in a woman formally diagnosed with alcohol dependence, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. She was referred to treatment from the local Department of Family Services for child neglect and domestic violence. After baseline measures were administered, the first phase of treatment involved home safety tours aimed at reducing home hazards and cleanliness. A second phase of treatment additionally targeted family relationships through communication skills training exercises, and a third phase involved administration of the remaining FBT components to assist in comprehensively addressing other problem areas. Results indicated most problem areas were substantially improved, but only after they were comprehensively targeted in therapy. PMID:23136557

  7. Interleukin-6 Is Associated with Noninvasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis in HIV-Infected Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Judith I.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Armah, Kaku A.; Nunes, David; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause chronic inflammation and alterations in serum inflammatory cytokines. The impact of inflammatory cytokines on liver fibrosis is not well understood. We studied the association between interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients with current or past alcohol problems (CAGE ≥2 or physician investigator diagnosis). Liver fibrosis was estimated with FIB-4 (FIB-4 <1.45 defined the absence of liver fibrosis and FIB-4 >3.25 defined advanced fibrosis). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between cytokines and fibrosis, adjusting for age, sex, CD4, HIV RNA, current antiretroviral therapy, body mass index, and HCV. Secondary analyses explored whether the association between HCV and liver fibrosis was mediated by these cytokines. Participants (n=308) were all HIV-infected; 73% were male with a mean age of 42 years; half had detectable HCV-RNA, 60.7% had an absence of liver fibrosis, and 10.1% had advanced fibrosis. In models that adjusted for each cytokine separately, higher levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with an absence of fibrosis [adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.19, 0.98), p=0.05] and were borderline significant for advanced fibrosis [adjusted OR (95% CI): 8.16 (0.96, 69.54), p=0.055]. In the final model, only higher levels of IL-6 remained significantly associated with advanced liver fibrosis [adjusted OR (95% CI): 11.78 (1.17, 118.19), p=0.036]. Adjustment for inflammatory cytokines attenuated the adjusted OR for the association between HCV and fibrosis in the case of IL-6 [for the absence of fibrosis from 0.32 (0.17, 0.57) p<0.01 to 0.47 (0.23, 0.96) p=0.04; and for advanced fibrosis from 7.22 (2.01, 25.96) p<0.01 to 6.62 (1.20, 36.62) p=0.03], suggesting IL-6 may be a partial mediator of the association between HCV and liver fibrosis. IL-6 was strongly and significantly associated with liver fibrosis in a cohort of HIV

  8. Prevalence, Severity, and Co-occurrence of Chronic Physical Health Problems of Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson R.; Macias, Cathaleene; Barreira, Paul J.; Fisher, William H.; Hargreaves, William A.; Harding, Courtenay M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Medicaid claims forms to determine the prevalence, severity, and co-occurrence of physical illness within a representative sample of persons with serious mental illness (N=147). Methods: Representativeness of health problems in the study sample was established through comparison with a larger sample of persons with serious mental illness enrolled in Medicaid within the same state. Standardized annual costs were then assigned to Medicaid claims diagnoses, and individual health problem severity was measured as the sum of estimated treatment costs for diagnosed conditions. Results: Seventy-four percent of the study sample (N=109) had been given a diagnosis of at least one chronic health problem, and 50 percent (N=73) had been given a diagnosis of two or more chronic health problems. Of the 14 chronic health conditions surveyed, chronic pulmonary illness was the most prevalent (31 percent incidence) and the most comorbid. Persons with chronic pulmonary illness were second only to those with infectious diseases in average annual cost of treatment ($8,277). Also, 50 percent or more of participants in eight other diagnostic categories had chronic pulmonary illness. A regression analysis identified age, obesity, and substance use disorders as significant predictors of individual health problem severity. Conclusions: Risk adjustment for physical health is essential when setting performance standards or cost expectations for mental health treatment. Excluding persons with chronic health problems from mental health service evaluations restricts generalizability of research findings and may promote interventions that are inappropriate for many persons with serious mental illness. PMID:15534013

  9. Psychological Maltreatment in Relation to Substance Use Problem Severity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…

  10. Projects to Measure the Effects of Computers on Campuses Make Major Advances, Leave Several Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1989-01-01

    The most important results of computer networking experiments on campus may be increased use of technology, but the projects did not always take the directions anticipated. The projects also highlighted problems in social and educational systems that must be solved before computing can be comfortably integrated into higher education. (MSE)

  11. Results of the international standard problem No. 31 CORA-13 experiment on severe fuel damage

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Trambauer, K. ); Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P. )

    1993-01-01

    The definition of an international standard problem (ISP) exercise is a comparative exercise in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of the ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools that are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve competence. The related calculation can be performed with or without previous knowledge of the experimental results; therefore two approaches to performing a standard problem exercise can be defined, [open quotes]open[close quotes] or [open quotes]blind.[close quotes] Following a proposal by the Federal Republic of Germany, principal working group (PWG) No. 2 of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations offered the CORA-13 experiment as ISP No. 31 to its member countries. The ISP, which was sponsored by the German Minister of Research and Technology, was conducted as a [open quotes]blind[close quotes] standard problem; i.e., only the initial and boundary conditions of the experiment were given to the participants for performing their calculations.

  12. Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…

  13. The Relationship between 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Calculated Using the Pooled Cohort Equation and the Severity of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong In; Kim, Min Chul; Moon, Byung Sub; Song, Young Seok; Han, Eun Na; Lee, Hyo Sun; Son, Yoonjeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the estimated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) calculated by Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and Framingham risk score (FRS). Methods A total of 15,913 participants (mean age, 46.3 years) in a health screening program were selected for analysis. The presence and severity of fatty liver was assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram. Subjects who drank alcohol more than three times a week were excluded from the study. Results Among the participants, 57.6% had no NAFLD, 35.4% had grade I, 6.5% had grade II, and 0.5% had grade III NAFLD. Mean estimated 10-year CVD risk was 2.59%, 3.93%, 4.68%, and 5.23% calculated using the PCE (P for trend <0.01) and 4.55%, 6.39%, 7.33%, and 7.13% calculated using FRS, according to NAFLD severity from none to severe (P for trend <0.01). The odds ratio for ≥7.5% estimated CVD risk calculated using the PCE showed a higher correlation with increasing severity of NAFLD even after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors (1.52, 2.56, 3.35 vs. the no NAFLD group as a reference, P<0.01) compared with calculated risk using FRS (1.65, 1.62, 1.72 vs. no NAFLD group as a reference, P<0.01). Conclusion In our study of apparently healthy Korean adults, increasing severity of NAFLD showed a higher correlation with estimated 10-year CVD risk when calculated using the PCE than when calculated using FRS. PMID:26754585

  14. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  15. Genetic Moderators and Psychiatric Mediators of the link between Sexual Abuse and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Magnusson, Åsa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that that might affect treatment planning. Methods A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. Results The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. PMID:21193270

  16. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  17. [Alcoholism and aging. 1. Epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira

    2003-09-01

    Demographic trends reveal the elderly to be the fastest growing segment of the population. Physicians can therefore anticipate to be faced with a growing number of older patients with alcohol-related problems. It is now being increasingly recognized that alcoholism does not only concern the young population, but can appear for the first time late in life. One third of older alcoholic people develop a problem with alcohol in later life, while the other two thirds grow older with the medical and psychosocial sequelae of early-onset alcoholism. In addition, as the number of the elderly increases, clinicians are more faced with patients who began drinking earlier in life and who continue to do so late on life. Furthermore, increasing age is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease and use of medication that may interact to amplify the effects of alcohol. Alcohol may cause or worsen chronic illnesses or symptoms such as insomnia, depression, and hypertension. On the other hand, older drinkers are therefore more likely to have adverse consequences of drinking at lower levels of alcohol consumption, and these consequences are likely to be more severe. In this paper, we review the prevalence of geriatric alcoholism, the drinking pattern seen in the elderly i.e., early vs. late onset alcoholism, and we expose the danger of alcohol problems underdiagnosis. In addition, we review the comorbidities associated with alcohol use and finally we discuss treatment options. PMID:15683955

  18. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  19. Self-Reevaluation as a Critical Component in Sustained Viral Load Change for HIV+ Adults with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Golub, Sarit A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-reevaluation is one of the ten processes of change in the transtheoretical model and involves cognitive reappraisal of how behavior change is part of one’s identity. Although self-reevaluation is a critical motivator for individuals in the contemplation stage of change, few studies have examined its impact on disease progression associated with sustained behavior change. This study investigated the contribution of self-reevaluation on sustained viral load improvement among 143 participants in a randomized controlled trial testing an eight-session intervention (Project Positive Living through Understanding and Support) designed to improve treatment adherence among HIV+ adults with alcohol problems. Participants’ self-reevaluation scores at 3 months emerged as significant and independent predictors of sustained improvement in viral load at 6 months, over and above self-reported HAART dose adherence (p<0.05). Results underscore the role of self-reevaluation as a critical factor in behavioral interventions and highlight its role in sustained change necessary to slow disease progression. PMID:20668976

  20. Inhibitory effects of several saturated fatty acids and their related fatty alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Yui, Satoru; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of 5 saturated fatty acids and their related alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans. The inhibitory effects of these compounds against the yeast and hyphal growth forms of C. albicans were examined using the modified NCCLS method and crystal violet staining, respectively. Among these compounds, capric acid inhibited both types of growth at the lowest concentration. The IC(80), i.e., the concentration at which the compounds reduced the growth of C. albicans by 80% in comparison with the growth of control cells, of capric acid for the hyphal growth of this fungus, which is indispensable for its mucosal invasion, was 16.7 μM. These fatty acids, including capric acid, have an unpleasant smell, which may limit their therapeutic use. To test them at reduced concentrations, the combined effect of these fatty acids and oligonol, a depolymerized polyphenol, was evaluated in vitro. These combinations showed potent synergistic inhibition of hyphal growth [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index = 0.319]. Our results demonstrated that capric acid combined with oligonol could be used as an effective anti-Candida compound. It may be a candidate prophylactic or therapeutic tool against mucosal Candida infection. PMID:26781922