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Sample records for alcohol problem severity

  1. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  2. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  3. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  4. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  5. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  6. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  7. Modeling behavioral reactivity to losses and rewards on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): moderation by alcohol problem severity.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Bujarski, Spencer; Jentsch, J David; Ray, Lara A

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between risk-taking behavior and substance dependence has proven to be complex, particularly when examining across participants expressing a range of substance use problem severity. While main indices of risk-taking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) positively associate with problematic alcohol use in adolescent populations (e.g., MacPherson, Magidson, Reynolds, Kahler, & Lejuez, 2010), several studies have observed a negative relationship when examining behavior within adult substance using populations (Ashenhurst, Jentsch, & Ray, 2011; Campbell, Samartgis, & Crowe, 2013). To examine potential mechanisms that underlie this negative relationship, we implemented multilevel regression models on trial-by-trial BART data gathered from 295 adult problem drinkers. These models accounted for participant behavior on trials following balloon bursts or cash outs as indices of loss and reward reactivity, respectively, and included control variables including age, IQ, and individual delay discounting rate. Results revealed that individual trial pumping was significantly predicted by trial number, and by whether or not the previous trial was a big burst or a big cash out (i.e., large magnitude of potential gains) in a manner consistent with a "near-miss" effect. Furthermore, severity of alcohol problems moderated the effect of a previous trial big burst, but not of a big cash out, on subsequent trial behavior such that those with greater severity demonstrated relative insensitivity to this "near-miss" effect. These results extend previous studies suggesting that alcohol abusers are less risky on the BART by specifying a mechanism underlying this pattern, namely, diminished reactivity to large magnitude losses. PMID:24840639

  8. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  9. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  10. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  11. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  12. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  13. Community Providers’ Views of Alcohol Problems and Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms of these problems may evade detection. In addition, drug problems were viewed as more harmful than alcohol problems, which may result in providers minimizing alcohol problems. PMID:23565054

  14. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  15. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  16. RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN VICTIMS OF PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Jaquier, Véronique; Tennen, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of alcohol problems and disorders among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV), factors related to current alcohol use are understudied. We examined current risk factors for alcohol problems among 143 substance-using, IPV-exposed women recruited from an urban community from 2007-2010. PTSD symptom severity was associated with alcohol-related problems and a positive alcohol screen; physical IPV severity was related to alcohol dependence. Posthoc analyses revealed that PTSD symptom severity mediated relationships between physical IPV severity and hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking. Focusing on managing PTSD symptoms and physical IPV in community-based interventions may halt the progression from alcohol use to dependence. PMID:22360665

  17. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient ... and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often found together. This pairing can be big trouble for the trauma survivor and his or ...

  18. Alcohol and Kids: Facing Our Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue on alcohol use among children and adolescents. Describes scope of the problem, claiming that alcohol is the most consumed drug among children and youth. Discusses possible progression in alcohol use, parents' reactions to their children using alcohol or other drugs, and effects of the media and advertising on…

  19. Sports Participation and Problem Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; DePadilla, Lara; Thompson, Nancy J.; Kushner, Howard I.; Windle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports participation, though offering numerous developmental benefits for youths, has been associated with adolescent alcohol use. Differences also exist between men/boys and women/girls in both sports participation and patterns of alcohol-related behaviors, but there are few longitudinal investigations of this relationship. Purpose This study investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviors using data from a multiwave national study of adolescent men/boys and women/girls. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected between 1994 and 2001, were analyzed in 2009 (n = 8271). Latent growth modeling, accommodating the complex sampling design, was applied to examine whether participation in school-based sports was associated with initial levels and change in problem alcohol use over three waves of data collection. Results After taking into account time-invariant covariates including demographics and other predictors of alcohol use, greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who took part in only sports. The findings suggest, however, that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities, but it does not differ between men/boys and women/girls. Conclusions Sports may represent an important and efficient context for selective interventions to prevent problem alcohol use and negative consequences of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:20409498

  20. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  1. Managing alcohol problems and risky drinking.

    PubMed

    Babor, T F; Aguirre-Molina, M; Marlatt, G A; Clayton, R

    1999-01-01

    While overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related automobile deaths have declined, rates of alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, and alcohol-related problems remain high among adults, and binge drinking continues as a major health risk for high school and college students. Some individual-level downstream interventions have been evaluated with sufficient rigor to recommend widespread dissemination, and widened availability of new pharmacotherapies could further increase effectiveness. Midstream population-based programs, such as screening and brief interventions in hospitals and managed care organizations, may have greater public health impact than tertiary treatment because of early identification and low cost. Upstream programs and policies that place limits on alcohol availability (e.g., higher legal purchasing age) have the greatest potential to reduce morbidity and mortality at the least cost to society. PMID:10724728

  2. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol Treating Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... offers treatment options The new publication, Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help , complements the information ...

  3. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol.

  4. How Should Alcohol Problems Be Conceptualized? Causal Indicators Within the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Chen, Ting-Huei; Vergés, Alvaro; Bollen, Kenneth A; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-related problems have traditionally been conceptualized and measured by an effect indicator model. That is, it is generally assumed that observed indicators of alcohol problems are caused by a latent variable. However, there are reasons to think that this construct is more accurately conceptualized as including at least some causal indicators, in which observed indicators cause the latent variable. The present study examined the measurement model of a well-known alcohol consequences questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Participants were 703 students from a large public university in the Northeast mandated to an alcohol intervention. We conducted a zero tetrad test to examine a measurement model consisting solely of effect indicators and a model with both causal and effect indicators. Overall, the results suggested the hybrid model fit the data better than a model with only effect indicators. These findings have implications regarding the theoretical underpinnings of alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26589725

  5. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  6. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  7. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  8. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  9. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  10. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  11. Does alcohol involvement increase the severity of intimate partner violence?

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy M.; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A.; Okoro, Ngozi

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods We analyzed data from a 1995 US national population-based survey of couples ≥18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild+severe (‘severe’) IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV. PMID:20102574

  12. Industrial Alcoholism Programs: The Problem, The Program, The Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Lawrence M.

    1976-01-01

    Alcoholism, as a national health problem, is receiving increasingly more attention from private industry as well as from federal and local government. The author addresses himself to the problem of alcoholism in industry and reviews the historical development of industrial alcoholism programs. He concludes with suggestions for the community…

  13. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  14. Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... plans for individuals without health insurance. An Ongoing Process Overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing ... overcoming problem drinking. Relapse Is Part of the Process Relapse is common among people who overcome alcohol ...

  15. Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Severity of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Background The frequency of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including alcoholic steatosis, hepatitis and cirrhosis, varies significantly by ethnicity. Methods With the goal to assess the role of ethnicity in determining the age of onset and severity of ALD and to compare the risk factors for its progression among ethnic groups, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with ALD who were admitted or were followed as outpatients at University of California Davis Medical Center between 2002 and 2010. After excluding HBsAg and HIV positive subjects, we reviewed the charts of 791 ALD patients including 130 with alcoholic fatty liver, 154 with alcoholic hepatitis, and 507 with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results When controlling for all variables in the model, Hispanic patients presented at significantly 4-10 years younger ages than White/Caucasian patients, in each of the three disease severity categories and the results were confirmed after excluding HCV Ab/RNA positive subjects. There were more obese Hispanic patients than White/Caucasian patients, whereas the proportion of patients with hepatitis C was significantly greater in African/American subjects with alcoholic hepatitis and the proportion of patients with diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in White/Caucasian subjects than in Hispanic subjects with cirrhosis. The proportion of subjects with severe alcoholic hepatitis was similar in Hispanic and White/Caucasian patients, but lower in African/American subjects. Conclusion Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the age and severity of presentation of different subtypes of ALD. PMID:25702770

  16. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness. PMID:22852289

  17. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  18. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  19. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  20. Transcription factor AP2 beta involved in severe female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Niklas; Göktürk, Camilla; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W; Oreland, Lars; Hallman, Jarmila

    2009-12-11

    Susceptibility to alcoholism and antisocial behavior exhibits an evident link to monoaminergic neurotransmission. The serotonin system in particular, which is associated with regulation of mood and behavior, has an influence on personality characters that are firmly connected to risk of developing alcoholism and antisocial behavior, such as impulsiveness, and aggression. The transcription factor TFAP2b has repeatedly been shown to be involved in monoaminergic transmission, likely due to a regulatory effect on genes that are fundamental to this system, e.g. monoamine oxidase type A, and the serotonin transporter. Recent research has identified a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding TFAP2B that regulates its level of expression. In the present study we have compared a sample of female alcoholics (n=107), sentenced to institutional care for their severe addiction, contrasted against a control sample of adolescent females (n=875). The results showed that parental alcohol misuse was significantly more common among the alcoholic females, and also that parental alcohol misuse was associated with a reduction in age of alcohol debut. We also addressed the question of whether a functional TFAP2b polymorphism was associated with alcoholism. Results showed that the high-functioning allele was significantly more common among the female alcoholics, compared to the non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, the results also indicated that psychosocial factors, in terms of parental alcohol misuse, depression or psychiatric disorder, had an influence on the association. It was observed that the genetic association was restricted to the subset of cases that had not experienced these negative psychosocial factors.

  1. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  2. Evaluating the problem gambling severity index.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    A large, integrated survey data set provided by the Ontario Problem Gambling Centre was used to investigate psychometric properties of the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). This nine-item self-report instrument was designed to measure a single, problem gambling construct. Unlike its nearest competitor--the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS)--the PGSI was designed specifically for use with a general population rather than in a clinical context. The present analyses demonstrated that the PGSI does assess a single, underlying, factor, but that this is complicated by different, multiple factor structures for respondents with differing levels of problem gambling severity. The PGSI also demonstrated small to moderate correlations with measures of gambling frequency and faulty cognitions. Overall, the PGSI presents a viable alternative to the SOGS for assessing degrees of problem gambling severity in a non-clinical context.

  3. Severe alcoholic hepatitis-current concepts, diagnosis and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Kim, Dong Joon

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic manifestation occurring from heavy alcohol ingestion. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is histologically characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Despite the wide range of severity at presentation, those with severe ASH (Maddrey’s discriminant function ≥ 32) typically present with fever, jaundice, and abdominal tenderness. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for AH and, in the milder forms, is sufficient for clinical recovery. Severe ASH may progress to multi-organ failure including acute kidney injury and infection. Thus, infection and renal failure have a major impact on survival and should be closely monitored in patients with severe ASH. Patients with severe ASH have a reported short-term mortality of up to 40%-50%. Severe ASH at risk of early death should be identified by one of the available prognostic scoring systems before considering specific therapies. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for severe ASH. When corticosteroids are contraindicated, pentoxifylline may be alternatively used. Responsiveness to steroids should be assessed at day 7 and stopping rules based on Lille score should come into action. Strategically, future studies for patients with severe ASH should focus on suppressing inflammation based on cytokine profiles, balancing hepatocellular death and regeneration, limiting activation of the innate immune response, and maintaining gut mucosal integrity. PMID:25349640

  4. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  7. The impact of alcohol use severity on anxiety treatment outcomes in a large effectiveness trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Brown, Lily A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Craske, Michelle G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The presence of anxiety disorders is associated with poorer alcohol use disorder treatment outcomes, but little is known about the impact of alcohol use problems on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes despite their high comorbidity. The current study examined the impact of alcohol use symptom severity on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes in a multi-site primary care effectiveness study of anxiety disorder treatment. Method Data came from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) effectiveness trial. Participants (N = 1004) were randomized to an evidence-based anxiety intervention (including cognitive behavioral therapy and medications) or usual care in primary care. Participants completed measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression a baseline, 6-mo, 12-mo, and 18-mo follow-up periods. Patients with alcohol dependence were excluded. Results There were no significant moderating (Treatment Group x Alcohol Use Severity) interactions. The majority of analyses revealed no predictive effects of alcohol use severity on outcome; however, alcohol problems at baseline were associated with somewhat higher anxiety and depression symptoms at the 18-mo follow-up. Conclusions These data indicate that patients with alcohol problems in primary care can be effectively treated for anxiety disorders. Baseline alcohol problems were associated with some poorer long-term outcomes, but this was evident across CALM and usual care. These findings provide preliminary evidence that there may be no need to postpone treatment of anxiety disorders until alcohol problems are addressed, at least among those who have mild to moderate alcohol problems. Replication with more severe alcohol use disorders is needed. PMID:25615523

  8. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  9. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of…

  10. Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems in a University Student Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Peter F.; Haque, Arshaud; Swisher-McClure, Sam; Helmkamp, James

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether a university student health center (SHC) is a feasible location to introduce a campus-based screening and brief intervention (SBI) program for alcohol and (2) to determine whether the patients seen in the SHC differ in terms of the prevalence and severity of alcohol-related problems compared…

  11. Career, Personal, and Educational Problems of Community College Students: Severity and Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    Gathered information about the severity and frequency of community college student problems, through a survey of 65 public community college counselors. Most reported an increase in severity of personal problems (family, alcohol, self-worth), career (goals, job market), and educational problems (lack of skills, time management). Reports other…

  12. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  13. Severe alcoholic hepatitis: Glucocorticoid saves lives and transplantation is promising

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids have been used as the only treatment for a long time which significantly reduced the mortality of the patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. The efficacy of transplantation has been recently addressed in a pilot study. The result seems promising but needs larger multicenter trials. PMID:21633648

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Several State Initiatives. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); identify several federal-level FASD initiatives that emphasize education; and describe four state-level FASD initiatives that involve state education agencies (SEAs). An appendix at the end of the document provides a list of educational…

  15. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  16. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended.

  17. Characterizing Subjective Responses to Alcohol among Adolescent Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164

  18. PER3 Polymorphism and Insomnia Severity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Armitage, Roseanne; Burmeister, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is common, persistent, and associated with relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unstudied, AD patients have impaired circadian rhythms and sleep drive, which may be genetically influenced. A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER34/4, PER34/5, PER35/5) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep homeostasis, and the PER34/4genotype has been characterized by evening preference and decreased sleep drive. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of this polymorphism on insomnia severity in AD patients. We hypothesized that the PER3 polymorphism would be an independent predictor of insomnia severity with greatest severity observed in those with the PER34/4genotype. Design: Cross-sectional association of patient characteristics, genotype, and insomnia severity. Significant (P < 0.05) bivariate correlates were further analyzed by hierarchical, forced entry multiple linear regression. Setting: Alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland. Patients: Diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 285), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Measurements and Results: Drinking frequency, mental and physical health status, childhood abuse, and PER3 genotype were independent predictors of insomnia severity, as measured by a 7-item subscale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, explaining 28.9% of the variance. Addition of the genotype in the final step significantly increased the amount of variance explained by 1.1% (P = 0.027). Those with the PER34/4genotype had the greatest severity of insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: PER3 genotype contributed unique variance in predicting insomnia severity in AD patients. These results are consistent with genetically influenced impairment in sleep regulation mechanisms in AD patients with insomnia. Citation: Brower KJ; Wojnar M; Sliwerska E; Armitage R; Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and

  19. The morning after: alcohol misuse and employment problems.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Sindelar, Jody L; Fang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich, recent, and nationally representative longitudinal survey specifically designed to examine alcohol use and associated problems, we investigate the effects of alcohol misuse on a series of understudied and perhaps less common employment problems. Such problems include being fired or laid off from a job, sustained unemployment, and conflicts with a supervisor and/or co-worker. After controlling for time-invariant omitted variables via fixed effects estimation, we find evidence that three measures of alcohol misuse are significantly related to employment problems. The results offer new information on the potential adverse labor market effects of alcohol misuse and shed light on potential mechanisms through which alcohol misuse may impact intensive labor supply and/or wages. PMID:22162875

  20. Coexisting Problem Behaviour in Severe Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit

    2011-01-01

    A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…

  1. Treating alcohol problems with couple therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-05-01

    Couple therapy for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs) results in less drinking and greater relationship stability and satisfaction in both men and women with AUDs. The theoretical tenets, treatment methods, and research evidence for Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) are summarized. The application of ABCT is illustrated through the treatment of a 42-year-old woman with an AUD and her 56-year-old husband. During 12 sessions over a 6-month period, the woman attained abstinence from alcohol and learned cognitive and behavioral coping skills to deal with drinking antecedents. Her husband learned to support her abstinence by stopping drinking himself, helping her cope with drinking urges, and reinforcing her successes. The couple increased positive pleasurable activities that did not involve alcohol and improved their communication skills. Challenges in the treatment included her ambivalence about abstaining, their complicated work and travel schedules, and other life stressors. PMID:22504611

  2. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  3. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  4. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  5. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  6. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  7. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  8. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  9. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  10. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  11. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. Second report.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption is significant and, in many countries, public health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol represent a substantial health, social and economic burden. Reduction of the alcohol-attributable burden is becoming a priority area for international public health. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced through the implementation of proven alcohol strategies, including at a global level. This report of a WHO Expert Committee reviews the health and social consequences of alcohol consumption and disease burden attributable to alcohol in the context of alcohol-related harm and recent trends in alcohol consumption worldwide. Based on the reviews of available evidence, including the latest data on the contribution of alcohol consumption to the global disease burden, the Committee makes several recommendations emphasizing WHO's role in coordinating a global response, and the need for global action to reduce alcohol-related harm through effective mechanisms of international action and country support. The Committee recommends a range of strategies and policy options that have a sound evidence base and global relevance for reducing alcohol-related harm, emphasizing that their adaptation and implementation at the national and sub-national levels should take into account specific cultural and legal contexts and the local configuration of alcohol problems. The Committee also recommends that WHO should support governments, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, in developing, implementing and evaluating national and sub-national evidence-based policies, action plans and programmes. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations have significant implications for future developments in this area.

  12. The Incidence and Severity of Hangover the Morning after Moderate Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Greece, Jacey; Almeida, Alissa; Minsky, Sara J; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Arnedt, J Todd; Hermos, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Differential propensity for hangover may play a role in determining individuals’ drinking practices so predictors of incidence and severity are needed. Methods Data were combined from three randomized crossover trials investigating the residual effects of heavy drinking on next-day performance. All 172 participants received either an alcoholic beverage (M=.115 g% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) or placebo matched on type and amount one night and a week later received the other beverage. Alcoholic beverages were vodka, bourbon or high alcohol beer. After each drinking session, following a 9-hour period for sleep and breakfast, participants completed questionnaire a hangover measure. Results No hangover was reported by 24% of participants, mild hangover by 44% and moderate hangover by 32%. Neither alcoholic beverage type nor participant characteristics (sex, age, drinking practices, tobacco use, or family history of alcohol problems) were associated with incidence of hangover. Conclusion The majority of people experienced mild to moderate hangover the morning after this level of intoxication. Further studies are required to investigate other hypothesized causes of variation in the propensity for hangover. PMID:18412754

  13. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  14. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  15. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  16. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  17. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  18. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  19. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  20. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  1. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  2. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  3. Screening for Alcohol Problems Among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that the authors judged to be the most favorable based on prior empirical comparative studies. Results Forty-four percent of colleges reported use of at least 1 formal alcohol screening tool and nearly all of these used a tool appropriate for college students. However, less than half of the 44% of colleges that used a screening tool used 1 of the 4 most favorable tools. Conclusions Continued efforts are needed to encourage colleges to use the most effective available screening tools to identify alcohol-related problems that require intervention among students. PMID:21500052

  4. [Alcohol and drug problems in the Third World].

    PubMed

    Mork, T

    1991-06-10

    The paper reviews recent development in abuse of alcohol, narcotics and psychotropic substances in developing countries. There has been a marked increase in production and sale of alcoholic beverages, and alcohol abuse has spread to new groups of the population. This has led to serious social and health problems in many developing countries. There has also been a substantial increase in abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in some developing countries. The illicit production and traffic in narcotic drugs have resulted in more crime and corruption, and in some countries to terrorism and economic and political destabilization. The paper also summarizes activities undertaken within the UN-system in the field of alcohol and drug abuse.

  5. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  6. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  7. A Profile of Clients Entering Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbiner, Richard

    Large numbers of clients entering publicly-funded substance abuse treatment facilities cite problems with alcohol as one reason for seeking treatment. This report presents the results of a secondary analysis of the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) data set. It profiles the treatment experiences of three study groups that…

  8. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  9. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  10. [Risky alcohol drinking surveyed at a GP unit. Secondary prevention of alcohol problems in primary care patients].

    PubMed

    Eriksson, G; Spak, F; Andersson, C

    2000-03-01

    This article describes an implementation of secondary prevention of alcohol abuse at a GP unit in southern Gothenburg, Sweden. During several periods between 1994 and 1996, screening for alcohol problems was performed using either AUDIT or a 4-item instrument called SWAG. In one part of the study, screening was simultaneously carried out using gamma-GT and MCV. The main object of screening efforts was to stimulate interest for alcohol-related conditions, and this goal was reached. The staff was trained in treatment techniques such as motivational interviewing (MI), bio-feedback using gamma-GT and delivery of concise information. Simple methods to determine level of motivation were used for treatment stratification. Some doctors reported that they had insufficient time for adequate MI treatment, and therefore a condensed model was sometimes used. A nurse-staffed treatment unit was started and successfully promoted work with alcohol problem. Attempts were made to spread these methods to other GP units in the region and this was partially successful, although support from the central primary care administration was not secured.

  11. Screening for Physical Problems in Classrooms for Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Richard; Knapczyk, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    The authors present a screening device with which teachers of severely handicapped students may detect the presence of a physical problem. The screening approach covers vision, auditory problems, seizures, orthopedic problems, and pain. (CL)

  12. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. PMID:24210683

  13. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  14. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  15. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  16. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  17. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  18. [The problems of struggle with alcoholism in works of Pirogov congresses].

    PubMed

    Yegorisheva, I V

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates that the Pirogov Society considered prevalence of alcoholism in Russia as an important social problem. The Pirogov congresses discussed such issues as impact of alcohol on human organism, principles of organization of struggle with alcoholism and its treatment and the role of physicians in the struggle with alcoholism as well.

  19. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  20. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  1. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  2. Gender differences in problem severity at assessment and treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Arfken, C L; Klein, C; di Menza, S; Schuster, C R

    2001-01-01

    Women in treatment for substance abuse have been reported to have more severe problems at assessment than men but not to differ in treatment retention. To examine gender differences in problems at assessment, 30-day retention, and treatment completion, data from Detroit's publicly funded substance abuse treatment system were used. Women had significantly more severe problems at assessment, lower 30-day retention, and lower treatment completion rates than men. These gender differences in retention remained significant even after controlling for problem severity, primary drug of abuse, and referred treatment setting. There was no evidence of improvements in women's problems at assessment or retention over time during this period. Women presented with more severe problems at assessment and were less likely to stay in treatment for 30 days or to complete treatment than men. Monitoring gender differences in problems at presentation and retention outcomes is recommended to assess local need for interventions.

  3. Problem Gambling and the Youth-to-Adulthood Transition: Assessing Problem Gambling Severity Trajectories in a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, Jason D; Melnyk, Timothy S; Roberts, Lance W

    2015-12-01

    In this study, using four wave longitudinal data, we examined problem gambling severity trajectories in a sample of young adults. Using latent growth curve modeling, we examined how initial level of problem gambling severity and the rate of change were affected by 11 time-invariant predictors: gender, age of onset of gambling, experiencing a big win early in gambling career, experiencing a big loss early in gambling career, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety, depression, perceived social support, illusion of control, and impulsiveness. Five of the eleven predictors affected initial levels of problem gambling severity; however only impulsiveness affected the rate of change across time. The mean trajectory was negative (lessening of problem gambling risk severity across time), but there was significant inter-individual variation in trajectories and initial levels of problem gambling severity. The main finding of problem gambling risk diminishing over time challenges the conventional picture of problem gambling as an inevitable "downward spiral," at least among young adults, and suggests that targeted prevention campaigns may be a cost-effective alternative for reaching treatment resistant youth. PMID:25260900

  4. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  5. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  7. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  8. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  9. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  10. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  11. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  12. Problem-solving deficits in alcoholics: evidence from the California Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Nixon, S J; Moreland, V J

    1993-11-01

    In an attempt to clarify the nature of the problem-solving deficits exhibited by chronic alcoholics, the California Card Sorting Test (CCST) and other measures of abstraction and problem solving were administered to 23 alcoholics and 16 nonalcoholic controls, equated for age, education and vocabulary. On the CCST, the alcoholics exhibited three types of deficits which appeared to be relatively independent. First, the alcoholics generated and identified fewer correct concepts than controls, although they executed concepts normally when cued by the examiner. Second, the alcoholics made more perseverative sorting responses and perseverative verbal explanations for their sorting behavior than did controls. Third, alcoholics provided less complete verbal explanations of the concepts that they correctly generated or identified. The differential importance of these factors on various measures of problem solving may help to explain the varied patterns of inefficient problem solving exhibited by alcoholics.

  13. Experimental analysis of precursors to severe problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jennifer N; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals engage in both mild and severe forms of problem behavior. Research has shown that when mild behaviors precede severe behaviors (i.e., the mild behaviors serve as precursors), they can (a) be maintained by the same source of reinforcement as severe behavior and (b) reduce rates of severe behavior observed during assessment. In Study 1, we developed an objective checklist to identify precursors via videotaped trials for 16 subjects who engaged in problem behavior and identified at least 1 precursor for every subject. In Study 2, we conducted separate functional analyses of precursor and severe problem behaviors for 8 subjects, and obtained correspondence between outcomes in 7 cases. In Study 3, we evaluated noncontingent reinforcement schedule thinning plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior to reduce precursors, increase appropriate behavior, and maintain low rates of severe behavior during 3 treatment analyses for 2 subjects. Results showed that this treatment strategy was effective for behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement.

  14. Working with Alcoholic Families in a Child Welfare Agency: The Problem of Underdiagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Social Service agencies have been reluctant to focus on alcoholism as an issue in treating client and family problems, although there are 48 million alcoholics in the U.S., and 7 million of them are under age 18. Reasons for the reluctance to focus on alcoholism include lack of knowledge, poor prognosis, nihilism, denial, social workers' fears of…

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  16. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  17. Contingency Management in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Steven L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three case studies demonstrated excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents could be reduced by self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures. Behavioral interventions resulted in complete abstinence for a male with 10 years of excessive alcohol abuse. However, alcohol abuse increased markedly for two females once intervention procedures…

  18. Summary of results of a comparative study of alcohol problems and solutions: Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Dinis, M C; Lowe, L

    1992-06-01

    This study explores through a mail questionnaire alcohol problems and solutions in Spain and Portugal including: drunk-driving, treatment services and prevention, economic issues, alcohol consumption, cultural aspects, and supply of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol in both countries is lower for men and women with college educations. Marital status has minimal effects on the consumption level of men and women in Spain and of men in Portugal. For Portuguese married women, consumption is higher. Too many bars and feasts are primary cultural adjuncts contributing to alcohol problems. PMID:1612818

  19. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  20. The Inventory of Gambling Situations in problem and pathological gamblers seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or pathological gamblers (N = 283) completed the IGS, and principal component analysis revealed a 4-factor solution best fit the data; the factors represented items related to Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Gambling Cues, and Social Situations. Across the whole scale, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97, ranging from 0.83 to 0.96 for the four factors. IGS total scores correlated with other indices of gambling problems, including number of pathological gambling criteria endorsed and frequency and intensity of gambling. Race, education, and severity of psychiatric, drug and alcohol problems were significantly predictive of some factor scores. Specifically, African Americans were more likely to gamble in response to Negative Affect situations than Caucasians, and education was inversely associated with wagering in response to Gambling Cues. Psychiatric symptoms were predictive of gambling in response to both Positive and Negative Affect situations and Gambling Cues. Severity of drug and alcohol problems were related to gambling in Social Situations. Results from this study indicate that the IGS has good psychometric properties and suggest areas in which intervention efforts may be tailored to prevent or treat gambling problems among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. PMID:21186927

  1. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  2. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11 y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement “I want to work with drinkers,” and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  3. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2.

  4. Differences in Severity and Outcomes Between Hypertriglyceridemia and Alcohol-Induced Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Hemant; Smith, Betsy; Bayer, Chelsey; Rutherford, Carla; Shelnut, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) are among the most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) after gallstones. However, differences in severity at the time of presentation and outcomes have not been well-studied. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the differences between severity at presentation and outcomes of AP of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic origins. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 177 patients who were discharged with diagnosis of AP was performed. Severity at presentation was identified by the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, bedside index for severity in AP (BISAP) score, and Balthazar index. Outcomes were measured by the length of stay, intensive care unit care, surgical intervention, and mortality. Results: We found 147 patients with alcoholic pancreatitis and 30 patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. A larger percentage of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (23.33%) had a BISAP score of ≥2 compared to the alcoholic group (12.24%). Only 32.65% of the patients with alcoholic pancreatitis but 60% of the patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis had the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at admission (P = 0.0067). There were 73.34% hypertriglyceridemic pancreatits patients and only 40.28% alcoholic pancreatitis patients with Balthazar index C or greater, suggesting a higher disease burden at admission for hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis patients (P = 0.0047). There was a statistically significant difference in the relative number of hypertriglyceridemic and alcoholic pancreatitis patients receiving intensive care (P = 0.00030) and in receiving surgical interventions related to pancreatitis (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Our study found that patients with hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis have a greater severity of disease and they experience less favorable outcomes than patients with alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:27042605

  5. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  6. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" Past Issues / ... is Director of the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A renowned expert on how ...

  7. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  8. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  9. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  10. Pentraxin-3 and nitric oxide as indicators of disease severity in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nandeesha, H; Rajappa, M; Manjusha, J; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Kadhiravan, T; Harichandrakumar, K T

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that pentraxin-3 can be used as a marker to assess the severity of hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The present study was designed to assess pentraxin-3, nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in alcoholic cirrhosis and their association with disease severity. We enrolled 47 alcoholic cirrhosis cases and 32 controls. Serum pentraxin-3, nitric oxide (NO) and TNFα levels were estimated in both groups. Serum pentraxin-3, NO and TNFα were significantly increased in alcoholic cirrhosis patients compared to controls. Pentraxin-3 had a significant positive correlation with TNFα (r=0.303, P=0.039), Child-Pugh score (r=0.394, P=0.006) and MELD score (r=0.291, P=0.047) in alcoholic cirrhosis cases. Also we found positive association between NO with Child-Pugh score (r=0.391, P=0.007) and MELD score (r=0.311, P=0.033) in these cases. Linear regression analysis shows significant association of pentraxin-3 and NO (β=0.375, r2=0.141, P=0.009). We conclude that elevated pentraxin-3 and NO levels are associated with severity of alcoholic cirrhosis.

  11. Application of local policy to prevent alcohol problems: experiences from a community trial.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Reynolds, R I

    1997-06-01

    Alcohol policy conventionally has been established at the national or regional, state and provincial levels. Alcohol policy at any level is not actually limited to the regulation and control of alcohol production, wholesale distribution, and retail sales. There are a number of alternatives for setting alcohol policies within a local community. Building upon existing national and state/provincial laws, policy makers at the community level can set priorities for allocating resources and enforcing laws related to drinking and driving, underage alcohol sales, alcohol serving practices of bars and restaurants and geographical density of alcohol outlets in the community. This paper concludes from the Community Trials Project that policies established at the local level can reduce alcohol problems. PMID:9231451

  12. Aquatic acetylene-reduction techniques: solutions to several problems.

    PubMed

    Flett, R J; Hamilton, R D; Campbell, N E

    1976-01-01

    Previous methods of performing aquatic acetylene-reduction assays are described and several problems associated with them are discussed. A refinement of these older techniques is introduced and problems that it overcomes are also discussed. A depth profile of nitrogen fixation (C2H4 production), obtained by the refined technique, is shown for a fertilized Canadian Shield lake in the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario. PMID:814983

  13. Aquatic acetylene-reduction techniques: solutions to several problems.

    PubMed

    Flett, R J; Hamilton, R D; Campbell, N E

    1976-01-01

    Previous methods of performing aquatic acetylene-reduction assays are described and several problems associated with them are discussed. A refinement of these older techniques is introduced and problems that it overcomes are also discussed. A depth profile of nitrogen fixation (C2H4 production), obtained by the refined technique, is shown for a fertilized Canadian Shield lake in the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario.

  14. Temporal Trends and Changing Racial/ethnic Disparities in Alcohol Problems: Results from the 2000 to 2010 National Alcohol Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Mulia, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic conditions and drinking norms have been in considerable flux over the past 10 years. Accordingly, research is needed to evaluate both overall trends in alcohol problems during this period and whether changes within racial/ethnic groups have affected racial/ethnic disparities. Methods We used 3 cross-sectional waves of National Alcohol Survey data (2000, 2005, and 2010) to examine a) temporal trends in alcohol dependence and consequences overall and by race/ethnicity, and b) the effects of temporal changes on racial/ethnic disparities. Analyses involved bivariate tests and multivariate negative binomial regressions testing the effects of race/ethnicity, survey year, and their interaction on problem measures. Results Both women and men overall showed significant increases in dependence symptoms in 2010 (vs. 2000); women also reported increases in alcohol-related consequences in 2010 (vs. 2000). (Problem rates were equivalent across 2005 and 2000.) However, increases in problems were most dramatic among Whites, and dependence symptoms actually decreased among Latinos of both genders in 2010. Consequently, the long-standing disparity in dependence between Latino and White men was substantially reduced in 2010. Post-hoc analyses suggested that changes in drinking norms at least partially drove increased problem rates among Whites. Conclusions Results constitute an important contribution to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol problems. Findings are not inconsistent with the macroeconomic literature suggesting increases in alcohol problems during economic recession, but the pattern of effects across race/ethnicity and findings regarding norms together suggest, at the least, a revised understanding of how recessions affect drinking patterns and problems. PMID:24319623

  15. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  16. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  17. Comprehensive Alcohol Education: A New Approach to an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Kouba, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This is a program model for responsible decision-making on alcohol use. The intent is to encourage a philosophy about alcoholic beverages using a consistent example of moderate use. Moral implications are left to the individual. Drinking is not viewed as proof of adulthood, virility, or social acceptibility. (Author/BEF)

  18. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  19. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families. PMID:26374937

  20. TESTING A LEVEL OF RESPONSE TO ALCOHOL-BASED MODEL OF HEAVY DRINKING AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN 1,905 17-YEAR-OLDS

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Lewis, Glyn; Davis, John M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Brown, Sandra; Zuccolo, Luisa; Miller, Laura L.; Davey-Smith, George

    2011-01-01

    Background The low level of response (LR) to alcohol is one of several genetically-influenced characteristics that increase the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Efforts to understand how LR operates through additional life influences have been carried out primarily in modest sized U.S.-based samples with limited statistical power, raising questions about generalizability and about the importance of components with smaller effects. This study evaluates a full LR-based model of risk in a large sample of adolescents from the U.K. Methods Cross-sectional structural equation models (SEM) were used for the approximate first half of the age 17 subjects assessed by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), generating data on 1,905 adolescents (0 age 17.8 years, 44.2% males). LR was measured with the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) Questionnaire, outcomes were based on drinking quantities and problems, and standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate peer substance use, alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. Results In this young and large U.K. sample, a low LR related to more adverse alcohol outcomes both directly and through partial mediation by all three additional key variables (peer substance use, expectancies, and coping). The models were similar in males and females. Conclusions These results confirm key elements of the hypothesized LR-based model in a large U.K. sample, supporting some generalizability beyond U.S. groups. They also indicate that with enough statistical power multiple elements contribute to how LR relates to alcohol outcomes, and reinforce the applicability of the model to both genders. PMID:21762180

  1. Using Chronotherapy To Treat Severe Sleep Problems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Hughes, Colleen R.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1998-01-01

    Chronotherapy was used to treat severe sleep problems in a girl with mental retardation. Chronotherapy involved systematically delaying the child's bedtime each night while maintaining a regular schedule during waking hours until an age-appropriate bedtime was achieved (in 11 days). Immediate improvements in the child's sleep patterns were…

  2. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  3. Behavioral Assessment of Feeding Problems of Individuals with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munk, Dennis D.; Repp, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    A behavioral assessment procedure was evaluated with five children with severe/profound mental retardation who exhibited feeding problems of limited intake. Subjects were fed various types of foods. Results indicated each subject fit into one of four categories: (1) total food refusal, (2) food type selectivity, (3) food texture selectivity, or…

  4. Residential Treatment of Adolescents with Severe Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, E. M.; van der Ploeg, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    The development of adolescents with severe behavioural problems receiving residential treatment in Holland was empirically studied during 1 year. Treatment methods included a standard program comprising behavioural modification and three specific treatment programs: psychodynamic treatment, structured community living and adventurous learning. The…

  5. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems Across Hispanic National Groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. METHOD: 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis shows no association between acculturation and problems among men or women. Birthplace is a risk factor for social problems among both genders. Among men, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans are more likely to report social problems than Cuban Americans. Other risk factors for men are unemployment, a higher volume of drinking, and a higher frequency of binge drinking. Among women, Mexican American origin and binge drinking are also risk factors for reporting problems. CONCLUSIONS: U.S.-born Hispanics may experience stress and other detrimental effects to health because of their minority status, which may increase the likelihood of more drinking and the development of alcohol-related problems.

  6. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. Methods In the present study, we compared healthy 21–35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP−) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP− (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). Results FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. Conclusions These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. PMID:21376480

  7. Why is the Cauchy problem severely ill-posed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Belgacem, Faker

    2007-04-01

    An answer to the ill-posedness degree issue of the Cauchy problem may be found in the theory of kernel operators. The foundation of the proof is the Steklov-Poincaré approach introduced in Ben Belgacem and El Fekih (2005 Inverse Problems 21 1915-36), which consists of reformulating the Cauchy problem as a variational equation, in an appropriate Sobolev scale, and is set on the part of the boundary where data are missing. The linear (Steklov-Poincaré) operator involved in that reduced problem turns out to be compact with a non-closed range; hence the ill-posedness. Conducting an accurate spectral analysis of this operator requires characterization of it as a kernel operator, which is obtained through Green's functions of the (Laplace) differential equation. The severe ill-posedness is then settled for smooth domains after showing a fast decaying towards zero of the eigenvalues of that Steklov-Poincaré operator. This is achieved by applying the Weyl-Courant min-max principle and some polynomial approximation results. Addressing more general smooth domains with corners, we discuss the regularity of Green's function and we explain why there is a room to extend our analysis to this case and why we are optimistic that it will definitely establish the severe ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem.

  8. Effects of acute alcohol withdrawal on nest building in mice selectively bred for alcohol withdrawal severity.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Gian D; Phillips, Tamara J; Crabbe, John C

    2016-10-15

    Nest building has been used to assess thermoregulatory behavior and positive motivational states in mice. There are known genetic influences on ethanol withdrawal severity as well as individual/thermoregulatory nest building. Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP-1, WSP-2) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR-1, WSR-2) mice were selectively bred for high vs low handling-induced convulsion (HIC) severity, respectively, during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. They also differ in HIC severity during withdrawal from an acute, 4g/kg ethanol injection. In our initial study, withdrawal from an acute dose of ethanol dose-dependently impaired nest building over the initial 24h of withdrawal in genetically segregating Withdrawal Seizure Control (WSC) mice. In two further studies, acute ethanol withdrawal suppressed nest building for up to two days in WSP-1 females. Deficits in nest building from ethanol were limited to the initial 10h of withdrawal in WSR-1 females and to the initial 24h of withdrawal in WSP-1 and WSR-1 males. Effects of ethanol on nest building for up to two days were found in WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice of both sexes. Nest building deficits in female mice from the first replicate could not be explained by a general decrease in locomotor behavior. These results suggest that nest building is a novel behavioral phenotype for indexing the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal, and that genes contributing to this trait differ from those affecting acute withdrawal HIC severity. PMID:27503811

  9. Program planning, evaluation, and the problem of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Selig, A L

    1975-01-01

    Rational program planning and evaluation has been suggested as a necessary skill. First, a conceptual framework for planning and evaluation was presented and discussed, using the example of preventing alcoholism and providing services and rehabilitation for alcoholics. Second, a case study was presented, which is similar to that used by many professionals in their efforts to plan programs. Finally, some of the marked limitations of the case study were pointed out, when it was projected upon the conceptual framework. PMID:1109258

  10. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  11. Changes in Alcohol Availability, Price and Alcohol-related Problems and the Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: What Happened in Southern and Northern Sweden?†

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems follow the same pattern of changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and by an increase in Swedish travellers’ import quotas, and to study whether the results obtained for southern and northern Sweden follow the predictions of Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Methods: Analysis was carried out on a sample from the  Swedish general population from southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indices such as impaired self-control/dependent behaviour and extrinsic problems for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed in terms of sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level. Results: Although there were no huge changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various subpopulations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. In the northern site, the increase in alcohol consumption among men also showed an increase in alcohol-related problems. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution. Conclusions: Analysis confirmed that alcohol-related problems, according to the two indices used, followed a similar pattern to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. A version of Skog's theory applied on alcohol-related problems could not confirm that alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population. PMID:20739440

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intra-ethnic Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including black-white, Hispanic-white, and black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intra-ethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analyses showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intra-ethnic white, black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared to male partners in intra-ethnic couples. Past year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intra-ethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples’ age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples, and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions. PMID:22203625

  13. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  14. A Test of the DSM-5 Severity Scale for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Tera L.; Rose, Gail L.; Burt, Keith B.; Helzer, John E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND For the DSM-5-defined alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis, a tricategorized scale that designates mild, moderate, and severe AUD was selected over a fully dimensional scale to represent AUD severity. The purpose of this study was to test whether the DSM-5-defined AUD severity measure was as proficient a predictor of alcohol use following a brief intervention, compared to a fully dimensional scale. METHODS Heavy drinking primary care patients (N=246) received a physician-delivered brief intervention (BI), and then reported daily alcohol consumption for six months using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. The dimensional AUD measure we constructed was a summation of all AUD criteria met at baseline (mean = 6.5; SD = 2.5). A multi-model inference technique was used to determine whether the DSM-5 tri-categorized severity measure or a dimensional approach would provide a more precise prediction of change in weekly alcohol consumption following a BI. RESULTS The Akaike information criterion (AIC) for the dimensional AUD model (AIC=7623.88) was four points lower than the tri-categorized model (AIC=7627.88) and weight of evidence calculations indicated there was 88% likelihood the dimensional model was the better approximating model. The dimensional model significantly predicted change in alcohol consumption (p =.04) whereas the DSM-5 tri-categorized model did not. CONCLUSION A dimensional AUD measure was superior, detecting treatment effects that were not apparent with tri-categorized severity model as defined by the DSM-5. We recommend using a dimensional measure for determining AUD severity. PMID:24893979

  15. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  16. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  17. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-09-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  19. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  20. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  1. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  2. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  3. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  4. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  5. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  6. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  7. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  8. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  9. Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

  10. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  11. Lessons from the Field: Profiling State Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to profiling statewide alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems and policies. Profiles of this sort capture the complexity of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse indicators at the local level, incorporating data from a range of disciplines and making it possible to design data-driven interventions. The…

  12. Brief report: Affluence and college alcohol problems: the relevance of parent- and child-reported indicators of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Huang, Jason L; Kepler, Dawn M

    2013-10-01

    A mediational model predicting alcohol problems was tested in a sample of college students (n = 130) and their parents (n = 115). The indirect effect of substance-use coping and the age of onset of alcohol use were examined in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol problems. Findings indicated that parent-reported SES was associated with increased alcohol problems; the age of onset of alcohol use partially mediated this relationship. Substance-use coping was not a significant mediator in the model. Student-reported SES was not associated with alcohol problems. Implications for examining social status in relation to college drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:24011105

  13. Correlates of depressive symptom severity in problem and pathological gamblers in couple relationships.

    PubMed

    Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

    2014-03-01

    Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG.

  14. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  15. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  16. Drinkers and Bettors: Investigating the Complementarity of Alcohol Consumption and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100 percent increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities. PMID:18430523

  17. Effects of ALDH2∗2 on alcohol problem trajectories of Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Myers, Mark G; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2014-02-01

    The variant aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2∗2, consistently has been associated with protection against alcohol dependence, but the mechanism underlying this process is not known. This study examined growth trajectories of alcohol consumption (frequency, average quantity, binge drinking, maximum drinks) and problems over the college years and then tested whether the ALDH2 genotype mediated or moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Asian American college students (N = 433) reported on their drinking behavior in their first year of college and then annually for 3 consecutive years. Alcohol consumption and problems increased over the college years for both those with and without ALDH2∗2, but having an ALDH2∗2 allele was associated with less of an increase in problems over time. A mediation model was supported, with ALDH2∗2 group differences in problems fully accounted for by differences in frequency of binge drinking. Findings also supported a moderation hypothesis: All four alcohol consumption variables were significant predictors of subsequent alcohol problems, but these relationships were not as strong in those with ALDH2∗2 as in those without ALDH2∗2. Our findings suggest that the interplay between ALDH2∗2 and drinking-related problems is complex, involving both mediation and moderation processes that reduce the likelihood of developing problems via reduction of heavy drinking as well as by altering the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Results of this longitudinal study provide evidence that what seems like a relatively straightforward effect of a diminished ability to metabolize alcohol on drinking behavior is actually dependent on behavior and developmental stage. PMID:24661165

  18. Severe sepsis and septic shock: defining the clinical problem.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M

    2003-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that severe sepsis/septic shock is a major problem in clinical medicine, yet the extent of the problem and its basic immunology remain poorly defined. The generation of accurate statistics about sepsis is confounded by the imprecise and highly variable terminology used to describe sepsis by clinicians around the world. The problem of sepsis is further complicated by the remarkably diverse spectrum of illness encompassed under the term 'sepsis'. Sepsis may range in severity from mild systemic inflammation without significant clinical consequences to multisystem failure in septic shock with an exceedingly high mortality rate. Sepsis connotes a clinical syndrome that may occur in any age group, in markedly different patient populations, and in response to a multitude of microbial pathogens from multiple different anatomical sites within the human body. A concerted effort has been made to standardize definitions of sepsis by the use of international committees and consensus opinions from panels of experts in sepsis research. While consensus definitions of sepsis have proven to be of value, the lack of uniformity in interpretation of these definitions continues to be problematic by clinicians and basic researchers alike. Recently, a new conceptual framework for understanding sepsis has been developed, called the PIRO concept (predisposition, infection, response and organ dysfunction). This has been conceptually modeled from the TNM classification (tumor size, nodal spread, metastases) which has been successfully used in defining treatment and prognostic indicators in clinical oncology. Further refinements in the definitions and predisposing factors of severe sepsis should improve the understanding and management of severe sepsis and septic shock in the near future.

  19. Emotion Differentiation and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Mediating Role of Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Clarke, C. Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems (Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, & Fiore, 2004; Wiers et al., 2007). This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 to 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

  20. Six month abstinence rule for liver transplantation in severe alcoholic liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Obed, Aiman; Stern, Steffen; Jarrad, Anwar; Lorf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The recovery results of patients transplanted for ALD are often at least as good as those of patients transplanted for other diagnoses and better than those suffering from hepatitis C virus, cryptogenic cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the case of medically non-responding patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis or acute-on chronic liver failure, the refusal of LT is often based on the lack of the required alcohol abstinence period of six months. The obligatory abidance of a period of abstinence as a transplant eligibility requirement for medically non-responding patients seems unfair and inhumane, since the majority of these patients will not survive the six-month abstinence period. Data from various studies have challenged the 6-mo rule, while excellent survival results of LT have been observed in selected patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Patients with severe advanced ALD should have legal access to LT. The mere lack of pre-LT abstinence should not be an obstacle for being listed. PMID:25892898

  1. Latino Immigrants’ Biological Parents’ Histories Of Substance Use Problems In Their Country Of Origin Predict Their Pre- And Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Blackson, Timothy C.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Li, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed whether recent young adult (ages 18–34) Latino immigrants’ biological parents’ histories of substance use problems (BPHSUP) in their country of origin predict their alcohol use problems at pre- and post-immigration to the United States (U.S.). Methods BPHSUP in their country of origin was assessed via interviews conducted by bilingual Latino researchers with recent Latino immigrants primarily from Cuba, Central and South America recruited through respondent driven sampling at the time of their immigration to southeastern U.S. Three-waves of data were collected to document Latino immigrants’ severity of alcohol use problems at pre-immigration and two annual post-immigration follow-up assessments. BPHSUP +/− status was used as a predictor of Latinos’ (N=452; 45.8% female, 54.2% male) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores at pre- and post-immigration with age, education and income as covariates as wells as odds ratios for AUDIT classifications of hazardous use, harmful use and dependence. Results BPHSUP+ status predicted Latino immigrants’ higher AUDIT scores pre- and post-immigration by gender (p<.01) compared to Latino immigrants of BPHSUP− status controlling for age, education and income. BPHSUP+ status predicted odds ratios of 3.45 and 2.91 for alcohol dependence AUDIT classification for men and women respectively (T3). Conclusions This study documents that BPHSUP +/− status in their country of origin predict their young adult Latino offspring’s severity of alcohol use problems pre-and post-immigration. These results may inform (1) community-based health care providers to screen recent young adult Latino immigrants for their BPHSUP+/− status and severity of alcohol use problems to redirect trajectories away from alcohol use disorders toward more normative post-immigration outcomes through culturally relevant prevention services and (2) future research advantages of differential

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  3. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler–mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in 4th grade. There was a direct association between fathers' alcohol symptoms and bullying of peers, as well as indirect association via toddler–mother attachment security. Multiple group models indicated that the direct association between parents' alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for boys but not girls. The association between maternal alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for secure but not insecure boys or secure/insecure girls. The association between fathers' alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for insecure boys but not secure boys or secure/insecure girls. PMID:20419575

  4. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  5. Alcohol and Drugs in Schools: Teachers' Reactions to the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Willert, H. Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Although schools are places for learning and growth, they are also places where students engage in alcohol and drug use. This study showed that most teachers were aware of drugs in their schools, but did not regard drug use as an interference in their own classrooms. Many teachers were knowledgeable about their schools' drug policy, but did not…

  6. The management of alcohol-related problems in general practice in north India.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Malhotra, A K

    1988-07-01

    Twenty-seven general medical practitioners (GPs) were administered WHO semi-structured schedule enquiring "The Management of Alcohol-Related Problems in General Practice". Majority of the GPs had some involvement in each one of the specified alcohol-related problems. The involvement in alcohol and health education had been modest. Involvement in the control and regulatory activities was minimal. None of them felt that they had any role in the development of health and alcohol policy. Treatment response lo three typical situations appeared to be quite appropriate. To regulate production, to market less potent drinks at cheaper rates, to organize public health education programme through mass media were the suggestions made by them. It is suggested that GPs can and should be encouraged in leadership roles in policy decisions regarding the delivery of services, control and regulation of alcohol and research.

  7. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  8. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  9. Alcohol and Other Drugs on Campus: The Scope of the Problem. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread health problem on college and university campuses in the United States is high-risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Recent reports confirm that the nation's campuses continue to encounter significant consequences as a result of this problem. This "Infofacts/Resources" offers an overview of the problem and highlights effective…

  10. Classical conditioning in patients with severe memory problems.

    PubMed Central

    Daum, I; Channon, S; Canavan, A G

    1989-01-01

    Classical conditioning is one of the most fundamental forms of learning, and yet little is known regarding the effects of brain injury on conditioning processes in humans. Three patients with temporal lobe lesions and severe memory problems were therefore assessed in terms of eyeblink conditioning, extinction, discrimination and reversal learning, and in one patient electrodermal conditioning was also investigated. The acquisition of conditioned responses was seen to be intact, but the evidence regarding extinction was ambiguous. All of the patients were impaired in discrimination learning and also reversal learning. PMID:2496204

  11. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  12. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  13. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use.

  14. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  15. Attitudes and Descriptive Norms of Alcohol-Related Problems as Predictors of Alcohol Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…

  16. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit.

  17. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  18. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  19. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  20. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  1. Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems among College Students Treated in a University Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, James C.; Hungerford, Daniel W.; Williams, Janet M.; Manley, William G.; Furbee, Paul M.; Horn, Kimberly A.; Pollock, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluated a protocol to screen and provide brief interventions for alcohol problems to college students treated at a university hospital emergency department (ED). Of 2,372 drinkers they approached, 87% gave informed consent. Of those, 54% screened positive for alcohol problems (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score [less…

  2. Drinking Reasons and Alcohol Problems by Work Venue among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. Method In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. Results All identified reasons except for confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol’s sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs’ vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking. PMID:25594829

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  5. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  6. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  7. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  8. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  9. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  10. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls.

  11. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls. PMID:9581431

  12. EXTENT AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL USE AND ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS IN NORTH INDIA*

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Sarbjit; Malhotra, Anil

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY A structured questionnaire was verbally administered individually to a random sample of the general population, 18 years of age and older, of rural and urban Chandigarh and of two villages in Jullundur district, Punjab. Out of a total of 1031 respondents, 23.7 percent were current users, 16.0 percent admitted of alcohol use in the past but were not current users, and 60.3 percent had never had alcoholic beverages. 19.0 percent of Chandigarh urban sample, 31.4 percent of Chandigarh rural sample and 45.9 percent of Jullundur rucal sample were current users. These findings have been discussed in terms of various socio-demographic variables PMID:22058493

  13. Research on alcohol problems from the perspective of changes--1940 to 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, R

    1988-01-01

    The nature of alcohol problems, knowledge about alcohol use and abuse, and public perceptions and responses have all undergone substantial change during the past half-century. This paper traces some interrelationships between changes in alcohol-specific knowledge and behavior and other relevant social forces. The importance of change in the derivation, utilization, and interpretation of this knowledge is emphasized. Special emphasis is also placed on changes that make the integration of research between the biological and behavioral sciences desirable and necessary. PMID:3141968

  14. The impact of clinical experience with alcoholics on Brazilian nursing students' attitudes toward alcoholism and associated problems.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Divane

    2013-01-01

    This quasiexperimental study assessed the impact of a clinical experience involving alcoholics on nursing students' attitudes. The study participants were 195 students at a large university-based nursing school in Brazil. They were divided into experimental and control groups. Individuals in the experimental group (n = 56) participated in 6 weeks of a clinical practicum at a specialized treatment service for addiction, during a course in psychiatric nursing. In the same period, the control group (n = 144) participated in a 6-week clinical practicum at a specialized mental health service that did not treat people with addiction. At the end of the theoretical course and clinical practica, both groups completed an attitude measurement scale. Data analysis, using analysis of variance, indicated a statistically significant difference in the overall score on the attitude scale between the experimental and control groups (p = .04), indicating that the experimental group participants' have more positive attitudes, perceptions, opinions, and feelings toward alcoholic individuals and working and relating to these patients. In conclusion, educational interventions that include clinical experience with alcoholics may be an effective teaching strategy that contributes to better skill preparation and more comfortable feelings for nurses intervening in problems related to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

  15. Parental Monitoring Affects the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, while depressed mood, peer substance use and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Methods Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. Conclusions This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems, and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink. PMID:25023093

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  17. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  18. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  19. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  20. The impact of treatment condition and the lagged effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use on changes in alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; Foa, Edna B

    2016-04-01

    Given the high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), we investigated an integrated treatment for these disorders. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants also received BRENDA (supportive counseling). The naltrexone plus PE group showed a greater decline in alcohol craving symptoms than those in the placebo with no PE group. The PE plus placebo and the naltrexone without PE groups did not differ significantly from the placebo with no PE group in terms of alcohol craving. No treatment group differences were found for percentage of drinking days. Alcohol craving was moderated by PTSD severity, with those with higher PTSD symptoms showing faster decreases in alcohol craving. Both PTSD and alcohol use had a lagged effect on alcohol craving, with changes in PTSD symptoms and percentage of days drinking being associated with subsequent changes in craving. These results support the relationship between greater PTSD symptoms leading to greater alcohol craving and suggest that reducing PTSD symptoms may be beneficial to reducing craving in those with co-occurring PTSD/SUD.

  1. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  2. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  3. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  4. Effects of Forced Alcohol Intake Associated with Chronic Stress on the Severity of Periodontitis: An Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Vedove Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Miranda; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando de Oliveira; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca

    2012-01-01

    This study histometrically evaluated the effect of forced alcohol intake by stressed animals on the severity of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided in four groups: group GAL—alcohol and ligature; group GASL—alcohol, chronic physical stress, and ligature; GNC—negative control; GPC—positive control. GAL and GASL received 20% ethanol ad libitum, and GNC received water ad libitum for 60 days. After 24 hours of exposition to alcohol intake—by GAL and GASL—immobilization was applied as a chronic stressor in the GASL group for a two-month period, six times a week, in random hours. The means of the respective groups were statistically compared (Analysis of Variance and Tukey tests, P < 0.05). The most severe periodontal breakdown was observed in nonstressed animals which drank alcohol (GAL), followed by stressed animals exposed to alcohol (GASL). GASL did not differ from the positive control group (GPC). The negative control group showed the lowest values of periodontal breakdown (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Non-stressed alcohol consumer animals showed the most severe pattern of periodontal breakdown. Although stressed animals which were forced to drink alcohol showed poorer periodontal status than the negative controls, their results were similar to those of positive controls. PMID:23209469

  5. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress.

  6. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress. PMID:22244799

  7. Patterns of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Predict Sexual Risk Taking Among Non-Problem Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina; Jaczques-Tiura, Angela J.; Abdallah, Devon Alizsa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although alcohol consumption and sexual risk taking are associated, not everyone who drinks alcohol engages in risky sexual behavior. The purposes of the present study were to identify patterns of alcohol use behaviors and alcohol expectancies among women who are non–problem drinkers and to examine how these patterns are associated with indices of sexual risk. Method: Data from 758 non–problem drinking women who have sex with men and were not in committed relationships were analyzed using latent profile analysis to determine patterns of alcohol use and alcohol-related expectancies. Results: Of the four patterns observed, three classes had similar alcohol-related expectancies but differed with respect to drinking behavior (moderate drinking, regular heavy episodes, and frequent heavy episodes), and the fourth class consisted of moderate drinkers with low expectancies (low expectancies). Results revealed that those in the frequent heavy episodes class had the greatest number of sexual partners in the past year and drank the most alcohol before having sex compared with the other women. Both the regular and frequent heavy episodes classes reported greater likelihood of having unprotected sex in the future, more positive beliefs about casual sex, and greater subjective intoxication before having sex than women in the moderate drinking or low expectancies classes. Women in the low expectancies class reported less positive beliefs about condoms than those in the moderate drinking and regular heavy episodes classes. Conclusions: Results suggest that different patterns of expectancies and drinking behaviors are associated with different indices of sexual risk taking and highlight the importance of individually tailored programs for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23384370

  8. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  9. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  10. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  11. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  12. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  13. Interactions of several genetic polymorphisms and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Long, Xing-Jiang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the interactions of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcohol consumption on blood pressure levels. Genotypes of 10 SNPs in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), endothelial lipase gene (LIPG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP), proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD), and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) genes were determined in 616 nondrinkers and 608 drinkers. The genotypic frequencies of LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs2070895, MTHFR rs1801133, and MYLIP rs3757354 SNPs were significantly different between nondrinkers and drinkers. The levels of systolic blood pressure (ABCA-1 rs2066715 and rs2070895), diastolic blood pressure (rs2070895), and pulse pressure (PP) (rs2066715, ACAT-1 rs1044925, and rs1801133) in nondrinkers, and systolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and SCARB1 rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs1044925 and LIPG rs2000813), and PP (PCSK9 rs505151 and rs5888) in drinkers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.005-0.001). The interactions of several SNPs and alcohol consumption on systolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, PPARD rs2016520, and rs5888), diastolic blood pressure (rs2066715, rs1044925, rs5925, rs2000813, rs3757354, and rs2016520), and PP (rs1044925, rs2070895, rs1801133, rs3757354, rs505151, and rs5888) were observed (P < 0.005-0.001). The differences in blood pressure levels between the nondrinkers and drinkers might be partially attributed to the interactions of these SNPs and alcohol consumption. PMID:26354227

  14. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  15. Several Approaches to a Basic Problem in Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the problem of how to go from three coordinates to two. States that it is not a problem that mathematics students ordinarily encounter. Presents four methods of graphing three-dimensional figures on a two-dimensional computer screen. (PK)

  16. An application of the matching law to severe problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, John C; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated problem behavior and appropriate behavior using the matching equation with 4 individuals with developmental disabilities. Descriptive observations were conducted during interactions between the participants and their primary care providers in either a clinical laboratory environment (3 participants) or the participant's home (1 participant). Data were recorded on potential reinforcers, problem behavior, and appropriate behavior. After identifying the reinforcers that maintained each participant's problem behavior by way of functional analysis, the descriptive data were analyzed retrospectively, based on the matching equation. Results showed that the proportional rate of problem behavior relative to appropriate behavior approximately matched the proportional rate of reinforcement for problem behavior for all participants. The results extend prior research because a functional analysis was conducted and because multiple sources of reinforcement (other than attention) were evaluated. Methodological constraints were identified, which may limit the application of the matching law on both practical and conceptual levels. PMID:11936543

  17. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  18. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  19. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  20. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  1. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  2. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  3. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  4. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  5. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  6. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  7. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  8. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  9. Mindfulness and Alcohol Problems in College Students: The Mediating Effects of Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Noonan, Marleah; Wells, Stephanie Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems in college students, as well as the role of stress as a mediator in this relationship. Participants: Participants were 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale,…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  11. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  12. A trial of the use of psychodrama for women with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, N

    1992-01-01

    Psychodrama is a method of group psychotherapy in which the subject can be helped to explore the psychological dimensions of his or her problems through the enactment of conflict situations. This study aimed to investigate the perceived effectiveness of psychodrama in the treatment of women with alcohol problems. A group of six women undertaking psychodrama in a centre in Northern Ireland were surveyed by questionnaire and participant observation. It was found that psychodrama was perceived as being useful by the four subjects who had a better education and were demonstrably more verbally expressive and extroverted. Alcohol problems need to be understood and treated in the social context in which they develop and thrive; psychodrama enpowers problem drinkers to explore their unique social context.

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Barriers to Entry into Couples Treatment for Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Wetle, Terrie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to evaluate barriers to entry into couples treatment for alcohol problems. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Patients were recruited from (1) treatment for primary substance use disorders, (2) treatment for psychiatric disorders (other than substance use disorders), and (3) court-mandated outpatient domestic violence programs. Mental health experts were recruited based on expertise in (1) couples treatment, (2) alcohol treatment, and (3) couples treatment for alcohol problems. Patients (N=57) met criteria for hazardous drinking, and were in committed romantic relationships. Partners (N=19) and mental health experts (N=12) also completed interviews. Interviews were analyzed using accepted qualitative strategies. Barriers to treatment entry were identified at the patient, partner, and couple level. Barriers identified included psychological barriers, alcohol illness factors, treatment preferences and beliefs, and interpersonal factors. Although many barriers are similar to those previously identified in individual alcohol treatment, barriers unique to couples treatment provide guidance for next directions for dissemination. PMID:21831561

  14. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  15. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  16. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  17. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  18. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  19. Several problems posed by aerothermal calculations in machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutoya, Denis

    Problems encountered in the quantitative prediction of high-temperature aerodynamic flows are discussed, with emphasis placed on problems relating to spatial scale and time scale. It is suggested that the discretization networks employed should be adapted to the configuration under consideration, that special attention be given to the stability of the calculated states, and that the validity of the physical models employed should be verified for each new flow type studied. The MATILDA code is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for the example of a diesel engine cylinder.

  20. African-American women in an alcohol intervention group: addressing personal and political problems.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, C F

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study in which African-American women met in a small group to discuss alcohol and drug problems. The goal was to expand the range of services available by creating an alternative intervention which provided a simultaneous focus on both the personal and the sociopolitical needs of Black women. Results suggest that the dual focus on individual and social issues, and the opportunity to simultaneously address racism, sexism, and classism in an African-American women-only alcohol recovery group was helpful.

  1. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  2. A Unit Price Evaluation of Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, John C.; Francisco, Monica T.; Haberlin, Alayna T.; Ross, Noel A.; Sran, Sandeep K.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated problem behavior exhibited by 6 individuals with developmental disabilities using the behavioral economic conceptualization of unit price. Descriptive observations were conducted during interactions between the participants and their primary care providers in a clinical laboratory, the participants' homes, or school. Data were…

  3. Striatal dysfunction marks preexisting risk and medial prefrontal dysfunction is related to problem drinking in children of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Background Parental alcoholism substantially raises risk for offspring alcoholism, an effect thought to be mediated by a dysregulation in impulse control. Adult alcoholics have alterations in the frontostriatal system involved in regulating impulsive responses. However, it remains controversial whether these alterations reflect pre-existing traits predisposing to problem alcohol use, or are secondary to alcohol involvement. Methods Sixty-one 16 to 22 year olds were tested using a go/no-go task during functional MRI. Forty-one had at least one parent with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD; FH+) and 20 had no parent with AUD (FH−). Two FH+ subgroups were created to disentangle alcohol involvement from preexisting risk: the FH+ control (n=20) group had low alcohol problems, differing from the FH− group only by family history. The FH+ problem group (n=21) had high alcohol problems. Results The ventral caudate deactivated during successful inhibition in the FH− but not the FH+ groups, regardless of problem alcohol involvement. Regression analyses showed that ventral caudate deactivation was related to fewer externalizing problems as well as family history. Orbital and left medial prefrontal regions were deactivated in both the FH− and FH+ control groups but not the FH+ problem group. Activation in these regions was associated with alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in ventral striatal function in youth at risk for AUD, which may lead to inappropriate motivational responding; and suggest that with alcohol use, the prefrontal “control” mechanism loses efficiency, further dysregulating the frontostriatal motivational circuitry. PMID:20416863

  4. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  5. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  6. Alcohol use by urban bicyclists is associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Wall, Stephen; DiMaggio, Charles; Shinseki, Matthew; Slaughter, Dekeya; Frangos, Spiros G

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use is a risk factor for severe injury in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. Our objective was to investigate alcohol use by bicyclists and its effects on riding behaviors, medical management, injury severity, and mortality within a congested urban setting. A hospital-based, observational study of injured bicyclists presenting to a Level I regional trauma center in New York City was conducted. Data were collected prospectively from 2012 to 2014 by interviewing all bicyclists presenting within 24 h of injury and supplemented with medical record review. Variables included demographic characteristics, scene-related data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) scans, and clinical outcomes. Alcohol use at the time of injury was determined by history or blood alcohol level (BAL) >0.01 g/dL. Of 689 bicyclists, 585 (84.9%) were male with a mean age of 35.2. One hundred four (15.1%) bicyclists had consumed alcohol prior to injury. Alcohol use was inversely associated with helmet use (16.5% [9.9-25.1] vs. 43.2% [39.1-47.3]). Alcohol-consuming bicyclists were more likely to fall from their bicycles (42.0% [32.2-52.3] vs. 24.2% [20.8-27.9]) and less likely to be injured by collision with a motor vehicle (52.0% [41.7-62.1] vs. 67.5% [63.5-71.3]). 80% of alcohol-consuming bicyclists underwent CT imaging at presentation compared with 51.5% of non-users. Mortality was higher among injured bicyclists who had used alcohol (2.9% [0.6-8.2] vs. 0.0% [0.0-0.6]). Adjusted multivariable analysis revealed that alcohol use was independently associated with more severe injury (Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.27, p = 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval 1.40-3.68). Within a dense urban environment, alcohol use by bicyclists was associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality. As bicycling continues to increase in popularity internationally, it is important to heighten awareness about the risks and consequences of bicycling while under the

  7. Web Based Treatment of Alcohol Problems Among Rural Women: Results of a Randomized Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that six million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The world wide web has the potential to overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a web based self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision-making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11), and their baseline AUDIT score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cutoff for problem drinking. At 3-month follow-up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking, however, there were no significant differences between them. PMID:18823000

  8. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  9. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  10. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  11. Assessment of Severe Emotional Impairment: Practices and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarizio, Harvey F.; Higgins, Marilyn M.

    1989-01-01

    Findings from 83 school psychologists revealed that a typical battery for assessing severely emotionally disturbed students consisted on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide-Range Achievement Test, Bender-Gestalt, an incomplete sentence test, a behavior-rating scale, classroom observation, and informal interviews. Psychologists…

  12. Alcohol drinking problems among New York City residents after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, D; Galea, S; Ahern, J; Rudenstine, S; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D; Crum, R M

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in alcohol use in New York City in the months after the September 11 terrorist attacks; thus far there have been no studies documenting changes in drinking problems. In 2002, a random digit dial phone survey was conducted of residents of New York City. This study provided us with estimates of the prevalence of alcohol drinking problems among residents of New York City 6 months after September 11 compared with the 6 months before September 11. Among 1,570 adults, the prevalence of drinking problems was 3.7% in the 6 months before September 11 and 4.2% in the 6 months after September 11. The incidence of drinking problems among those without drinking problems before September 11 was 2.2%. Persons with incident drinking problems were more likely than those without to report symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (17.4% vs. 0.4% in those without drinking problems and 1.4% in nondrinkers), and depression (23.5% vs 5.6% vs. 4.9%, respectively) after September 11. After a disaster, a link between drinking problems and posttraumatic stress disorder or depression should be assessed.

  13. Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

  14. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer. PMID:27721531

  15. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  16. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Brown, K A; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an alternative neutral response) to obtain different durations and qualities of reinforcement, was conducted. Finally, treatment packages involving choice making via manding were implemented to decrease inappropriate behavior and to increase mands. The results extended previous applications of choice making to severe behavior disorders and across behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. PMID:8810061

  17. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  18. Self Efficacy, Alcohol Expectancy and Problem-Solving Appraisal as Predictors of Alcohol Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscaro, Michael; Broer, Karen; Taylor, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are cause for concern because the educational process and quality of campus student life are disrupted. Abusive drinking can have serious consequences on all areas of college life, including economic, health, social and educational. Heavy alcohol use may result in personal injury, drunk driving, alcohol overdose, unplanned…

  19. Risk-taking and alcohol use disorders symptomatology in a sample of problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Jentsch, J David; Ray, Lara A

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between risk-taking behavior and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms is poorly understood. This study employed a modified version of a behavioral measure of risk-taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), to examine its relationship to alcohol use and related symptoms in a community sample of individuals with or at risk for AUD. A total of 158 (71.9% male) participants completed a testing battery that included the BART, a structured diagnostic interview for AUD, and measures of alcohol use and related problems. Estimates of IQ and working memory were assessed as covariates. Results indicated that the relationship between risk-taking propensity, as assessed by the BART, and alcohol problems was significant and negative. Individuals with higher symptom count made fewer pumps per trial on the BART, indicating less risk-taking. It is important to note that this relationship was attenuated when controlling for estimated IQ and working memory span. Further examination demonstrated that IQ and age mediated the relationship between risk-taking propensity and symptom count. The main negative relationship observed between risk-taking on the BART and alcohol use and AUD symptomatology in this sample stands in contrast to the positive relationships observed in adolescent and nonclinical samples. Together, these findings highlight the need to consider development and the course of addiction to fully elucidate the effects of risky-decision making on AUD liability. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of inclusion of neurocognitive covariates (IQ), as well as demographic variables (age) when using this task. PMID:21707191

  20. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  1. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  2. Relationships between problematic internet use and problem-gambling severity: findings from a high-school survey.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence.

  3. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the comprehensive drinker profile.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A

    1997-04-01

    Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar. PMID:9075055

  4. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  5. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  6. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  7. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…

  8. Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Poverty and Their Relationship to Binge Drinking and Related Problems among Drinkers in Committed Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…

  9. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse. PMID:18207099

  10. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  11. The Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Alcohol-Related Problems in a Community Sample of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems. Eight factors were found to be associated with experiencing more alcohol problems: being aged 30 or older, having had no recent health insurance, lower levels of educational attainment, self-identifying as lesbian or bisexual, experiencing greater amounts of childhood maltreatment, greater impulsivity, perceiving one's local community or neighborhood to be unsafe, and having a larger number of criminally involved friends. Conclusions. Drinking-related problems were prevalent in this population. Numerous factors underlie the extent to which African American women experienced problems resulting from their alcohol use. There is strong evidence of syndemic-type effects influencing drinking problems in this population, and future efforts to reduce the negative impact of alcohol (ab)use ought to consider the adoption of programs using a syndemics' theory approach. PMID:27752388

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity is Linked to Problem Drinking in Midlife Among Alcohol-Dependent Men: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Burroughs, Thomas; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Prior research on predictors of problem drinking has been limited because of an inability to attribute an unambiguous environmental explanation to observed findings. Using a prospective co-twin control design, we examined the extent to which a history of psychiatric symptoms exerts an environmental influence on problem drinking in midlife that is unconfounded by genetic underpinnings. Method: Participants were 367 complete male twin pairs (208 monozygotic, 159 dizygotic) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were assessed in midlife as part of the Family Twin Study (Mage = 51.4 years, SD = 2.8). Twin pairs who were concordant for a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in 1992 were selected for participation and were reinterviewed in 2001 to measure symptoms of AUD (i.e., problem drinking) since the prior assessment (past 10 years). Results: Within-pair differences in lifetime symptom counts of several psychiatric disorders measured in 1992 (i.e., major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, antisocial personality, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder) were significantly associated with within-pair differences in AUD symptoms in the subsequent 10 years. Conclusions: A history of psychiatric problems, particularly one marked by internalizing symptoms, appears to be linked to problem drinking in midlife above and beyond the confounding influence of genetic effects and underscores the potential value of integrated interventions for comorbidity to address problem drinking among individuals during this period of the life course. PMID:23200159

  13. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome: new perspectives for an ancient and underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Luisa; Memo, Luigi; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi; Vagnarelli, Federica

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of the dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy isn't indeed a new issue, but the recent evidences of ethyl-glucuronide and ethyl-sulfate in meconium as novel biomarkers of prenatal ethanol exposure open new perspectives for the early diagnosis of the alcohol-related birth defects. This is crucial for a better developmental outcome of the affected patients and for preventing additional cases in at risk families. The fetal alcohol syndrome is not a single entity but represents the most severe form of a spectrum of disorders, including distinctive craniofacial alterations, stunted growth and behavioral abnormalities, caused by complex gene-environment interactions. FAS must always be a diagnosis of exclusion and have to be differentiated from many conditions caused by other embryotoxin agents and genetic syndromes that share some phenotypic features. Even if the first trimester is considered the most vulnerable period, nowadays is known that a fetal damage might occur throughout all gestation. Since ethanol consumption is constantly increasing among young women, a substantial amount of work has to be made to implement the knowledge on alcohol fetal effects among women of childbearing age; moreover, awareness and training among professionals in the health care system might play a critical role in the early diagnosis of these serious conditions.

  15. Adipokines levels are associated with the severity of liver disease in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalafateli, Maria; Triantos, Christos; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Michalaki, Marina; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsanea; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Burroughs, Andrew; Lambropoulou-Karatza, Chryssoula; Nikolopoulou, Vasiliki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the adipokine levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), apelin in alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). METHODS: Forty non-diabetic ALC patients [median age: 59 years, males: 35 (87.5%), Child-Pugh (CP) score: median 7 (5-12), CP A/B/C: 18/10/12, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD): median 10 (6-25), follow-up: median 32.5 mo (10-43)] were prospectively included. The serum adipokine levels were estimated in duplicate by ELISA. Somatometric characteristics were assessed with tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient was used to assess possible associations with adipokine levels. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors for overall survival. RESULTS: Body mass index: median 25.9 (range: 20.1-39.3), fat: 23.4% (7.6-42.1), fat mass: 17.8 (5.49-45.4), free fat mass: 56.1 (39.6-74.4), total body water (TBW): 40.6 (29.8-58.8). Leptin and visfatin levels were positively associated with fat mass (P < 0.001/P = 0.027, respectively) and RBP4 with TBW (P = 0.025). Median adiponectin levels were significantly higher in CPC compared to CPA (CPA: 7.99 ± 14.07, CPB: 7.66 ± 3.48, CPC: 25.73 ± 26.8, P = 0.04), whereas median RBP4 and apelin levels decreased across the spectrum of disease severity (P = 0.006/P = 0.034, respectively). Following adjustment for fat mass, visfatin and adiponectin levels were significantly increased from CPA to CPC (both P < 0.001), whereas an inverse correlation was observed for both RBP4 and apelin (both P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, only MELD had an independent association with overall survival (HR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.32; P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Adipokines are associated with deteriorating liver function in a complex manner in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:25780301

  16. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Childhood Cognitive Measures as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Problems by Mid-Adulthood in a Non-Western Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (n = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample is from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily Caucasian samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A non-linear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were non-drinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. PMID:25621419

  18. ['Nothing' or 'just a bit'? 'Much' or 'too much'? Impulsivity traits as markers of severity transitions within non-problematic and problematic ranges of alcohol and Internet use].

    PubMed

    J F, Navas; A, Torres; A, Cándido; J C, Perales

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between impulsivity traits and perceived negative consequences of alcohol consumption and Internet use. More specifically, impulsivity traits - positive and negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance - in (1) the occurrence of initial negative consequences linked to use, and (2) the transition from consequences possibly indicating a problematic behavior to consequences very likely indicating a clinical problem. For this, 709 first-year college students were assessed using the UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale, and the Multicage CAD-4 scale for addictive behaviors. Logistic regressions were used to discriminate (a) between individuals with a 0-score and individuals with a 1-score in the Multicage scales (low severity range), and (b) between individuals with a 2-score and individuals with 3/4-score (high severity range), separately for alcohol and Internet use. For alcohol use, positive urgency and lack of premeditation marked the transition from 0 to 1 scores, whereas negative urgency marked the transition from 2 to 3/4 scores. For Internet use, however, none of the UPPS-P dimensions significantly marked the transition from 0 to 1 (occurrence of initial negative consequences), and positive urgency marked the transition from 2 to 3/4 (from possible to very likely problematic behavior). Negative urgency arises as a pathologization marker for alcohol abuse, whereas changes in non-clinical levels are linked to impulsivity elicited by appetitive emotions. Impulsivity does not seem to play any role in low severity levels of Internet use, and positive urgency marks the transition between high severity scores. These differential patterns are indicative of different etiological paths for excessive Internet use and substance abuse. PMID:25225732

  19. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  20. Housing instability and alcohol problems during the 2007-2009 US recession: the moderating role of perceived family support.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan D; Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina

    2014-02-01

    The 2007-2009 US economic recession was marked by unprecedented rates of housing instability and relatively little is known about how this instability impacted alcohol problems. While previous studies have linked homelessness to increased rates of alcohol use and abuse, housing instability during a recession impacts a much larger segment of the population and usually does not result in homelessness. Using a nationally representative sample of US adults, this study examines the association between housing instability during the recession and alcohol outcomes. Additionally, we assess whether this association is moderated by perceived family support. In multivariate negative binomial regressions, both trouble paying the rent/mortgage (vs. stable housing) and lost (vs. stable) housing were associated with experiencing more negative drinking consequences and alcohol dependence symptoms. However, these associations were moderated by perceived family support. In contrast to those with low perceived family support, participants with high perceived family support reported relatively few alcohol problems, irrespective of housing instability. Furthermore, while job loss was strongly associated with alcohol problems in univariate models, no significant associations between job loss and alcohol outcomes were observed in multivariate models that included indicators of housing instability. Findings point to the importance of the informal safety net and suggest that alcohol screening and abuse prevention efforts should be intensified during periods of recession, particularly among those who experience housing instability.

  1. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. PMID:26075735

  2. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems.

  3. The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in University undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Andretta, James R; McKay, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Time perspective is an individual difference variable which assesses the extent to which orientation to the past, present and future affects current behaviors. The present study investigated the viability of temporal profiles and the degree (if any) to which these predict meaningful differences in alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduates recruited from a University in the North West of England. Full survey data were available for 455 individuals (aged 18-25; 49.7% male) on (a) time perspective, and (b) alcohol-related problems. Four profiles emerged and were labeled Future-Positive, Present, Past Negative-Future, and Ambivalent. As hypothesized, the Future-Positive profile was associated with the best alcohol-related outcomes. The Present profile was associated with the worst outcomes. This study demonstrates that temporal profiles are associated with alcohol-related problems.

  4. Decoding of nonverbal language in alcoholism: A perception or a labeling problem?

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Petit, Géraldine; Rolin, Heidi; Ermer, Elsa; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Maurage, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients have difficulty recognizing social cues such as emotional facial expressions, prosody, and postures. However, most researchers describing these difficulties rely on labeling tasks. It therefore remains difficult to disentangle genuine emotion-decoding problems from emotion-labeling impairments. In the present study, 35 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were compared with 35 matched controls on four emotion-pairing tasks to explore the distinction between labeling and perceptual abilities. First, 2 tasks were used to assess emotion-labeling ability (labeling task) and working memory (necessary to process emotional stimuli; control matching task). Next, 2 experimental pairing tasks were used to explore unimodal, Face-face or voice-voice) and cross-modal, Face-voice or voice-face) matching abilities in the absence of any labeling requirement. Patients had difficulty accurately processing voices in unimodal tasks and correctly matching emotional stimuli in cross-modal tasks. Specifically, they did not correctly identify neutral stimuli in unimodal or cross-modal tasks and did not correctly identify fear in cross-modal tasks. Reaction times were also slower in these patients. However, accuracy and reaction time (RT) differences between patients and controls were accounted for by including anxiety and depression scores as covariates in the model. These results suggest that emotion-decoding difficulties observed in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients are not due to a specific emotion-labeling impairment, but rather involve perceptual difficulties or later integrative processing steps in the brain. Future studies should directly compare depressed or nondepressed alcohol-dependent patients with depressive patients to disentangle the influences of these highly comorbid disorders on nonverbal language perception. PMID:26820495

  5. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  6. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18715745

  7. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Problem Gambling Severity Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Steinberg, Lynne; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Hofmeyr, Andre; Dellis, Andrew; Ross, Don; Kincaid, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Increases in the availability of gambling heighten the need for a short screening measure of problem gambling. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a brief measure that allows for the assessment of characteristics of gambling behavior and severity and its consequences. The authors evaluate the psychometric properties of the PGSI using…

  8. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients’ experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care. Methods This qualitative study recruited problem drug users (N = 28) from primary care based methadone programmes in the Ireland’s Eastern region, using a stratified sampling matrix to include size of general practice and geographical area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis, and audited by a third reviewer. Results We identified three overarching themes relevant to the purpose of this paper: (1) patients’ experience of, and (2) attitude towards, screening and treatment for problem alcohol use in primary care, as well as their (3) views on service improvement. While most patients reported being screened for problem alcohol use at initial assessment, few recalled routine screening or treatment. Among the barriers and enablers to screening and treatment, patients highlighted the importance of the practitioner-patient relationship in helping them address the issue. Nevertheless, patients felt that healthcare professionals should be more proactive in the management of problem alcohol use at a primary care level and that primary care can play an important role in their treatment. Conclusions Problem alcohol use is an important challenge in the care of problem drug users. While primary care is well placed to address this issue, little data has reported on this topic. The development of interventions which promote screening and brief interventions in practice are likely to benefit this at-risk group and further research and education, that help achieve this goal, are a priority. Strategies such as dissemination of clinical guidelines, educational videos, academic

  9. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  10. Social Environmental Influences on the Development and Resolution of Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Zucker, Robert A.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M.; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25–30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  11. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…

  12. The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Keith F.; Blackston, Amber; Dowd, Sabrina; Franz, Shalleigh; Eagle, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories…

  13. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  14. Disentangling the complex association between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol-related problems: a review of methodological issues and approaches.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Carolyn E; Agrawal, Arpana; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    This review describes and evaluates methodological approaches aimed at unraveling the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later misuse of alcohol, which is complicated by the significant overlap between factors that elevate risk for CSA exposure and those that increase risk for problem alcohol use. We critique methods used to distinguish direct effects of CSA events on alcohol-related outcomes from the effects of risk factors frequently present in families in which CSA exposure occurs (e.g., parental alcohol-related problems). These methods include measurement and adjustment for potentially confounding factors and the use of co-twin designs. The findings across methodological approaches provide support for a CSA-specific risk for alcohol misuse, despite the significant contribution of family background factors to overall risk, but much work remains to be done before a comprehensive model for this association can be proposed. Additional directions for research, including the incorporation of measured genes and the use of longitudinal designs, are proposed to further efforts to model the pathways from CSA to alcohol-related problems.

  15. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 allele on attention and behavior problems in adolescents exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode.

  16. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  17. Web-based Treatment for Rural Women with Alcohol Problems: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among women in rural areas is a concern, particularly since treatment is not readily accessible, and women are highly susceptible to the ill affects of alcohol misuse. The Internet may offer a treatment delivery alternative for women who cannot easily take part in gender-focused programs that are located in urban centers. The purpose of this randomized study was to evaluate a 90-day web-based treatment program for women in rural areas of Missouri with problem drinking habits. The online treatment program consisted of reference and decision-making modules, synchronous and asynchronous communication features, and the option to interact privately with the researcher. Preliminary findings relating to participant demographics, website use, and satisfaction are reported in this article. The enrolled participants (n = 46) averaged 50 (SD = 11) years of age, were relatively well educated and, to a large extent, financially secure. Based on their website usage, participants appeared to prefer reading communiqués over actively posting messages to the asynchronous bulletin board. In general, participants indicated satisfaction with the program, and 83% noted that they would recommend it to a friend. PMID:19901570

  18. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those con-texts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes.

  19. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes.

  20. Military Sexual Trauma, Combat Exposure, and Negative Urgency as Independent Predictors of PTSD and Subsequent Alcohol Problems among OEF/OIF Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Christine K.; Simons, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 OEF/OIF veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, as well as combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  1. Metacognitions as a predictor of drinking status and level of alcohol use following CBT in problem drinkers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Wells, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the role of negative emotions and metacognitions in predicting problem drinkers' drinking status (absence or presence of drinking) and level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months after a course of treatment. A total of 70 problem drinkers with a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and symptoms of anxiety were measured with the state anxiety sub-scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Metacognitions were measured with the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire. Results indicated that beliefs about need to control thoughts predicted: (1) drinking status at 3 and 6 months; and (2) level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months. The contribution of metacognition was independent of negative emotions and initial level of weekly alcohol use. The results support the role of metacognition in problem drinking. Given that metacognitions are a possible risk factor for drinking status and level of weekly alcohol use it is suggested that treatment for problem drinking could target this variable.

  2. The Impact of an Educational Program in Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems on Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Brazilian Context.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.

  3. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings.

  4. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms. PMID:25602606

  5. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms.

  6. Callous-Unemotional Traits in Predicting the Severity and Stability of Conduct Problems and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Paul J.; Stickle, Timothy R.; Dandreaux, Danielle M.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2005-01-01

    The current study tests whether the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a group of children with conduct problems who show an especially severe and chronic pattern of conduct problems and delinquency. Ninety-eight children who were selected from a large community screening of school children in grades 3, 4, 6 and 7 were followed…

  7. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Severe Problem Behavior: Some Procedural Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of three children (ages 3-9) with severe problem behavior investigated alternatives to the typical application of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) for problem behavior. Instead of using continuous access to reinforcers and extinction, the study found that an NCR schedule based on latency and NCR without extinction were more effective for…

  8. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet. PMID:23396051

  9. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet.

  10. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) show a substantial decrease in alcohol use by youth during the past decade. Yet despite these trends, an estimated 1 in 5 teenagers were current alcohol drinkers and 1 in 13 were binge alcohol drinkers. This report provides data showing the relationship between emotional state,…

  11. Generalized Compliance Training: A Direct Instruction Program for Managing Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Geoffrey; And Others

    Five case studies illustrate the use of generalized compliance training with students who have severe behavior problems. Based on extinction and generalization processes, the approach consists of five phases: (1) assessment to determine the nature and severity of noncompliance; (2)initial instruction demonstrating the consequences of compliance…

  12. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project.

  13. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  14. Inhibition of Anthracycline Alcohol Metabolite Formation in Human Heart Cytosol: A Potential Role for Several Promising Drugs.

    PubMed

    Mordente, Alvaro; Silvestrini, Andrea; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore; Tavian, Daniela; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2015-11-01

    The clinical efficacy of anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin and daunorubicin) in cancer therapy is limited by their severe cardiotoxicity, the etiology of which is still not fully understood. The development of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy has been found to correlate with myocardial formation and accumulation of anthracycline secondary alcohol metabolites (e.g., doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol) that are produced by distinct cytosolic NADPH-dependent reductases. The aim of the current study is to identify chemical compounds capable of inhibiting myocardial reductases implied in anthracycline reductive metabolism in an attempt to decrease the production of cardiotoxic C-13 alcohol metabolites. Among the variety of tested compounds (metal chelators, radical scavengers, antioxidants, β-blockers, nitrone spin traps, and lipid-lowering drugs), ebselen, cyclopentenone prostaglandins, nitric oxide donors, and short-chain coenzyme Q analogs resulted in being effective inhibitors of both doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol formation. In particular, ebselen (as well as ebselen diselenide, its storage form in the cells) was the most potent inhibitor of cardiotoxic anthracycline alcohol metabolites with 50% inhibition of doxorubicinol formation at 0.2 mol Eq of ebselen with respect to doxorubicin concentration. The high efficacy, together with its favorable pharmacological profile (low toxicity, lack of adverse effects, and metabolic stability) portends ebselen as a promising cardioprotective agent against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:26265744

  15. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative.

  16. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative. PMID:21599504

  17. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  18. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  19. The Needs of Pregnant and Parenting American Indian Women at Risk for Problem Alcohol or Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Elaine; Klein, Dorie

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 171 American Indian women in California who were pregnant or parenting and were considered at risk for problem substance abuse covered demographic information; personal and family history; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; HIV risk; and a needs assessment regarding health care, economic needs, and parenting and children's needs. (LP)

  20. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  1. Performance of screening instruments for alcohol problems in the ER: a comparison of Mexican-Americans and Mexicans in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J; Borges, G

    2000-11-01

    The performance of standard screening instruments and alternate measures against ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th revision) criteria for alcohol dependence and separately for harmful drinking/abuse were compared between probability samples of 1511 emergency room (ER) patients from three hospitals in Pachuca, Mexico, and 586 Mexican-American ER patients in Santa Clara County, California. Sensitivity was highest for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), TWEAK, and Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS) for alcohol dependence; sensitivity was highest for holding five or more drinks for harmful drinking/abuse in both samples. All instruments performed better for alcohol dependence than for abuse/harmful drinking. Arrests for drinking and driving performed better in Santa Clara than in Pachuca, while a positive Breathalyzer reading and reporting drinking prior to the event performed better in Pachuca; both were significantly more sensitive among the injured compared to the noninjured in Pachuca. The data suggest that instrument performance may be similar between those in Pachuca and those in the low acculturation group in Santa Clara, relative to those scoring higher on acculturation. While standard screening instruments appear to work reasonably well in both samples for alcohol dependence, variation across gender, injury, and acculturation subgroups suggests attention should be given to choosing the "best" instrument. PMID:11097199

  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  4. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers In Peru.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G; Reese, R Matthew; Richman, David M; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current paper presents a method of mass screening for early signs of severe behavior problems among infants and toddlers in Peru. METHODS: A Parental Concerns Questionnaire (PCQ) which asks 15 questions, each related to a risk factor for severe behavior problems, based on past research on IDD, was used by veteran parents to interview 341 new parents who had been solicited by TV, radio, and public service announcements across the country. Of these, 262 were recruited and enrolled in a longitudinal study in which they will be followed for 12 months, to see if at-risk children actually will develop severe behavior problems. An extensive initial interdisciplinary evaluation was given to each child. Consumer satisfaction questionnaires were given to the parents as to their attitude toward the screening method. RESULTS: Data from the Interdisciplinary Evaluations of the sample suggest a very high hit rate (96%) by the screening instrument (PCQ). Consumer satisfaction was 98%, suggesting that the method was tolerated well by parents. DISCUSSION: The PCQ is a brief and efficient method to screen infants and toddlers at risk for severe behavior problems. The data also suggest that parents suspect these problems at a very early age. Early intervention thus seems a feasible strategy to intervene before these problems become deeply ingrained as children develop.

  5. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  6. Problem severity, technology adoption, and intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers.

    PubMed

    Hechanova, Ma Regina M; Tuliao, Antover P; Teh, Lota A; Alianan, Arsenio S; Acosta, Avegale

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the factors that influence the intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). A survey among 365 OFWs revealed that problem severity and technology adoption predict intent to use online counseling. Among the three factors of technology adoption, perceived ease in the use of technology and perceived presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use predicted intent to use online counseling. Our hypothesis about the presence of interaction between problem severity and facilitating conditions was supported. Among individuals with low problem severity, those who perceive the presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use have a higher intent to use online counseling. However, at higher levels of problem severity, the effect of facilitating conditions seems to disappear. These findings highlight the crucial role of preventive online mental health services. The study contributes to theory by integrating the stage model of help-seeking behaviors and technology adoption theory in predicting intent to use online counseling. Specifically, that intent to seek online counseling is affected by the existence and perceived gravity of a problem, moderated by technology adoption factors, particularly facilitating conditions. These have implications on the need to educate potential users on the advantages of counseling and ensure that migrant workers have access to technology and that the technology is easy to use.

  7. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  8. PNPLA3 as a Genetic Determinant of Risk for and Severity of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Habeeb; Hanayneh, Muhannad Al; Masadeh, Maen; Naseemuddin, Mohammed; Matin, Tasnia; Erwin, Angelika; Singal, Ashwani K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms (rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 393 potentially relevant studies, 35 on NAFLD were included in the analysis. Compared to healthy controls, the pooled ORs for rs738409 CG and GG compared to CC among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) were 1.46 (1.16–1.85) and 2.76 (2.30–3.13), and were 1.75 (1.24–2.46) and 4.44 (2.92–6.76) among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis respectively. The respective ORs for CG and GG compared to the CC genotype were 2.35 (0.90–6.13) and 5.05 (1.47–17.29) when comparing non-alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma to NAFL patients. Among the NAFLD patients, the ORs for G allele frequency when comparing steatosis grade 2–3 to grade 0–1 NAFL, when comparing the NAFLD activity score of ≥ 4 to score ≤ 3, when comparing NASH to NAFLD, when comparing the presence of lobular inflammation to absence, and when comparing the presence of hepatocyte ballooning to absence were 2.33 (1.43–3.80), 1.80 (1.36–2.37), 1.66 (1.42–1.94), 1.58 (1.19–2.10), and 2.63 (1.87–3.69) respectively. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions: PNPLA3 polymorphisms have strong association with the risk for and severity of NAFLDs. PNPLA3 polymorphism plays an evolving role in diagnosis and treatment decisions in patients with NAFLD. PMID:27777887

  9. Identifying and managing problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

  10. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  11. The salience and severity of relationship problems among low-income couples.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Grace L; Trail, Thomas E; Kennedy, David P; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-02-01

    Developing programs to support low-income married couples requires an accurate understanding of the challenges they face. To address this question, we assessed the salience and severity of relationship problems by asking 862 Black, White, and Latino newlywed spouses (N = 431 couples) living in low-income neighborhoods to (a) free list their 3 biggest sources of disagreement in the marriage, and (b) rate the severity of the problems appearing on a standard relationship problem inventory. Comparing the 2 sources of information revealed that, although relational problems (e.g., communication and moods) were rated as severe on the inventory, challenges external to the relationship (e.g., children) were more salient in the free listing task. The pattern of results is robust across couples of varying race/ethnicity, parental status, and income levels. We conclude that efforts to strengthen marriages among low-income couples may be more effective if they address not only relational problems, but also couples' external stresses by providing assistance with child care, finances, or job training.

  12. Victimization and traumatic injuries among the homeless: associations with alcohol, drug, and mental problems.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D K; Struening, E L

    1992-10-01

    Data from a 1987 survey of 1,260 homeless adults in New York City show that mental problems and substance dependence were significantly linked to beating and sexual assault among women and to several types of injury and victimization among men. The extremely high rates of victimization and injury underscore a need for greater attention to the safety and welfare of homeless people. PMID:1443061

  13. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): Development, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helene; Berghout, Caspar C.; Dolan, Conor; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; van der Kroft, Petra J. A.; Bateman, Anthony W.; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets constituted homogeneous item clusters (i.e.,…

  14. Factors Associated with the Risk of Behaviour Problems in Adolescents with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, O.; Kusel, Y.; Cuddy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the factors affecting the risk of behavioural and emotional problems in young people with severe intellectual disability (ID), although such evidence as there is suggests that there may be differences between the pattern of risk factors in this group and those that operate in general population samples of the same…

  15. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current article…

  16. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  17. Assessment-Based Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems in a Natural Family Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    1997-01-01

    Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…

  18. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118) in Adolescents: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenstra, Dine J.; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) is a self-report questionnaire focusing on core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. The SIPP-118 was developed and validated in an adult population. In adult populations, the 16 facets of the SIPP-118 fit into 5 higher order domains: self-control,…

  19. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  20. Severity of gambling problems modulates autonomic reactions to near outcomes in gambling.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Natalie; Ambach, Wolfgang; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes in gambling games cannot only be classified based on their valence (wins and misses) but also based on their closeness (near and full outcomes). The present study investigated autonomic responses (phasic heart period changes and skin conductance responses) to near and full outcomes on a wheel of fortune in a sample of males with different degrees of gambling problems. Near relative to full outcomes elicited increased interbeat intervals shortly after outcome presentation. Furthermore, participants with more severe gambling problems showed increased skin conductance responses following near relative to full outcomes as well as relatively smaller interbeat interval responses to near relative to full misses. The findings confirm different processing of near compared to full outcomes and altered processing of gambling outcomes with increasing severity of gambling problems. PMID:27353386

  1. Severity of gambling problems modulates autonomic reactions to near outcomes in gambling.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Natalie; Ambach, Wolfgang; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes in gambling games cannot only be classified based on their valence (wins and misses) but also based on their closeness (near and full outcomes). The present study investigated autonomic responses (phasic heart period changes and skin conductance responses) to near and full outcomes on a wheel of fortune in a sample of males with different degrees of gambling problems. Near relative to full outcomes elicited increased interbeat intervals shortly after outcome presentation. Furthermore, participants with more severe gambling problems showed increased skin conductance responses following near relative to full outcomes as well as relatively smaller interbeat interval responses to near relative to full misses. The findings confirm different processing of near compared to full outcomes and altered processing of gambling outcomes with increasing severity of gambling problems.

  2. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  3. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  4. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  5. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent. PMID:25559698

  6. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent.

  7. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  8. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  9. Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment: Oxford Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B; Lambert, B; Rose, M; Ford-Adams, M; Johnson, A; Griffiths, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment within a defined geographical area. In a cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to 377 parents of children (aged 4 to 13 years) on the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairments with oromotor dysfunction. The return rate was 72%. Of these, 93% had cerebral palsy; 47% were unable to walk; 78% had speech difficulty; and 28% continuous drooling of saliva. Gastrointestinal problems were commonly encountered: 59% were constipated; 22% had significant problems with vomiting, and 31% had suffered at least one chest infection in the previous 6 months. Feeding problems were prevalent: 89% needed help with feeding and 56% choked with food; 20% of parents described feeding as stressful and unenjoyable. Prolonged feeding times (3h/day) were reported by 28%. Only 8% of participants received caloric supplements and 8% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Even though 38% of respondents considered their child to be underweight, 64% of children had never had their feeding and nutrition assessed. The results highlight that feeding problems in children with neurological impairment are common and severe, causing parental concern. Many of these children would benefit from nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  10. Co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Andrea; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P.; Xie, Haiyi; An, Melissa; McLeman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Background Prescription opioids are the most rapidly growing category of abused substances, and result in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Co-occurring with psychiatric disorders, persons with prescription opioid problems have negative treatment outcomes. Data are needed on the prevalence of co-occurring prescription opioid abuse and specific disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to better inform clinical practice. Objective: To determine prevalence rates of current co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and PTSD symptom severity among patients in community addiction treatment settings. Methods We abstracted administrative and chart information on 573 new admissions to three addictive treatment agencies during 2011. Systematic data were collected on PTSD symptoms, substance use, and patient demographics. Results Prescription opioid use was significantly associated with co-occurring PTSD symptom severity (OR: 1.42, p < 0.05). Use of prescription opioids in combination with sedatives (OR: 3.81, p < 0.01) or cocaine (OR: 2.24, p < 0.001) also were associated with PTSD severity. The odds of having co-occurring PTSD symptoms and prescription opioid use problem were nearly three times greater among females versus males (OR: 2.63, p < 0.001). Younger patients (18–34 years old) also were at higher risk (OR: 1.86, p < 0.01). Conclusions Prescription opioid use problems are a risk factor for co-occurring PTSD symptom severity. Being female or younger increase the likelihood of this co-morbidity. Further research is needed to confirm these finding, particularly using more rigorous diagnostic procedures. These data suggest that patients with prescription opioid use problems should be carefully evaluated for PTSD symptoms. PMID:24809229

  11. Confronting the obstacles to screening and interventions for alcohol problems in trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Gentilello, Larry M

    2005-09-01

    Despite the demonstrated clinical benefits and decreased risks of injury recurrence, brief alcohol interventions are still not routine practice in trauma centers. Although alcohol and drugs play a significant role in trauma, few trauma specialists are aware of the potential benefits of interventions because alcohol treatment specialists have not widely disseminated their findings to other specialties. This article addresses some key obstacles that must be overcome to facilitate brief interventions as routine trauma practice. Included are discussions on training, cost and reimbursement factors, responsibility of the trauma surgeon, patient privacy and confidentiality issues, insurance laws and regulations, needed collaboration with partners, and research priorities and funding.

  12. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  13. Validation of differential GDAP1 DNA methylation in alcohol dependence and its potential function as a biomarker for disease severity and therapy outcome.

    PubMed

    Brückmann, Christof; Di Santo, Adriana; Karle, Kathrin Nora; Batra, Anil; Nieratschker, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severe disorder contributing substantially to the global burden of disease. Despite the detrimental consequences of chronic alcohol abuse and dependence, effective prevention strategies as well as treatment options are largely missing to date. Accumulating evidence suggests that gene-environment interactions, including epigenetic mechanisms, play a role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. A recent epigenome-wide study reported widespread alterations of DNA methylation patterns in alcohol dependent patients compared to control individuals. In the present study, we validate and replicate one of the top findings from this previous investigation in an independent cohort: the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients. To our knowledge, this is the first independent replication of an epigenome-wide finding in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, the AUDIT as well as the GSI score were negatively associated with GDAP1 methylation and we found a trend toward a negative association between GDAP1 methylation and the years of alcohol dependency, pointing toward a potential role of GDAP1 hypomethylation as biomarker for disease severity. In addition, we show that the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients reverses during a short-term alcohol treatment program, suggesting that GDAP1 DNA methylation could also serve as a potential biomarker for treatment outcome. Our data add to the growing body of knowledge on epigenetic effects in alcohol dependence and support GDAP1 as a novel candidate gene implicated in this disorder. As the role of GDAP1 in alcohol dependence is unknown, this novel candidate gene should be followed up in future studies.

  14. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women.

  15. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  16. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  17. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  18. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  19. Drinking problems and self-reported criminal behavior, arrests and convictions: 1990 US alcohol and 1989 county surveys.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, T K; Weisner, C

    1995-03-01

    Use of general population surveys in addition to institutional samples is critical to disentangling the relationship between criminal behavior and alcohol problems or use of illicit drugs. Local area studies can be useful but generalizability of their results is seldom studied. Data from recent US national (n = 2058) and county (n = 3069) general population surveys are used to examine the role of alcohol problem and drug use history in predicting self-reported criminal behavior, arrest and conviction within a logistic regression framework. In the national and county surveys controlling for age, gender, income, marital status, employment, education, race and drug use, lifetime drinking problems significantly predicted current criminal behavior (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.5, respectively) with slightly stronger relationships noted in equivalent models predicting arrest (odds ratios 1.7 and 1.8) and conviction (odds ratios 1.7 and 1.6). Relationships between alcohol, drugs and criminal behavior/justice variables are discussed. Parallels between US and county results suggest that findings from intensive, articulated analyses of community-level population and institutional surveys may be cautiously generalized beyond their geographic locus.

  20. The relationship of alcohol problems to the risk for unidirectional and bidirectional intimate partner violence among a sample of blue-collar couples.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Duke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how each partner's alcohol problems may contribute to the risk of male-to-female only, female-to-male only, or bidirectional partner violence is important for the prevention and treatment of these problems. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted using data from 848 blue-collar couples. Findings suggest that male alcohol problems are linked to male-to-female and bidirectional partner violence but not with female-to-male partner violence. Female alcohol problems do not appear to be related to any type of partner aggression. Each partner's level of impulsivity was associated with bidirectional partner violence. Male impulsivity was associated with male-to-female violence, and female impulsivity was associated with female-to-male violence. Prevention of male alcohol problems and promotion of nonconfrontational conflict-solving techniques may help reduce partner aggression among couples in the general household population.

  1. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  2. Sex hormone affects the severity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through the MyD88-dependent IL-6 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Guangda; Qin, Shaoyou; Wang, Song; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yonggui

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the occurrence of gender disparity in liver cancer associated with sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production, but the role of this signaling pathway in sex differences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unknown. To investigate the effects of sex hormone-specific intervention on pathology and progression of NASH, and on the inflammatory TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway NASH was modeled in C57/BL6 mice by feeding a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Male mice were subjected to sex hormone-related interventions such as orchidectomy, and orchidectomy combined with administration of either testosterone propionate or estradiol benzoate. Next, the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6, were compared between these groups. Males developed more serious inflammatory problems and had a higher NAS than the females. Sex-specific intervention in male mice by orchidectomy reduced NAS, ALT, and AST, and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6. But administration of exogenous androgen had no influence on either NAS or the expression of ALT, AST, MyD88, and IL-6. On the other hand, exogenous estrogen could alleviate the pathological damage caused by NASH, as well as reduce NAS, ALT and AST, and the expression of MyD88 and IL-6. The result show different sex hormone-related interventions affected the severity of NASH, possibly by modulating the level of sex hormones and regulating the TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25790822

  3. [Characteristics of the pharmacological treatment of toxic liver damage in patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and an acute severe ethanol poison].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Shikalova, I A; Vasil'ev, S A; Loladze, A T; Batotsyrenov, B V

    2012-01-01

    The examination of 130 patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and a severe ethanol poison have revealed that ethanol action are accompanied by significant metabolic disturbances. The comparative evaluation of the inclusion of heptral and remaxol in the treatment has shown that remaxol improves the clinical course of mentioned disorders decreasing the frequency and duration of alcohol delirium. Patients treated with this drug spent less time in acute care and their treatment duration was shorter. Remaxol reduces more effectively the severity of metabolic disorders.

  4. The relationship between social skill and family problem-solving following very severe closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, H P; Knight, R G; Bishara, S N

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of social skill and family problem-solving behaviour in a group of 18, community dwelling, very severe closed head injury (CHI) patients who had suffered their injury at least 18 months previously, and who were still in contact with rehabilitation services. The main findings of this study were a positive relationship between CHI patients' level of social skill and their rate of positive effect, and an inverse relationship between the CHI patients' level of social skill and the rate of facilitative behaviour displayed by relatives during problem-solving interactions. It is suggested that socially unskilled CHI patients may be more demanding to interact with, and that this may cause a significant burden for their relatives.

  5. An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Harding, J W; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Asmus, J; Mlela, K; Muller, J

    1999-01-01

    We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm.

  6. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Background Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. Method From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. Findings The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Conclusion Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family. PMID:27104341

  7. Associations between Expectancies of Alcohol and Drug Use, Severity of Partner Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Erica N.; Khondkaryan, Enna; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2012-01-01

    Women who experience recurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) may use alcohol or drugs because they expect that these substances will help them cope with the negative physical and psychological sequelae of IPV. However, expectancies for alcohol and drug use have not been explored among this population of women. We used the Relaxation and…

  8. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use.

  9. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. PMID:22832324

  10. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines.

  11. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  12. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  13. A Social Role Negotiation Approach to Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Thomas W.

    This document presents a social role negotiation model to be used in the prevention of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Section I focuses on theories and theorizing, explaining the fundamental aspects of a theory formulation project. Section II explores the historical and social context of the social role negotiation model. Patterns of…

  14. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  15. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... he drank a lot of alcohol. He dropped out of school in his senior year. Now Eric has a ... his life, Don was able to finish high school and find a good ... touched drugs in 10 years. He likes to work out at the gym, and he has made a ...

  16. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  17. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  18. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  19. Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognised and growing health problem.

    PubMed

    Bass, Rosara; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious and urgent public health problem. In the last 10 years, there has been a concerted effort in the USA and globally to develop and implement educational, medical and public health interventions designed to attenuate its growth. The success of these efforts was probably responsible for the plateau in the prevalence rate of childhood obesity noted in the last two years. While the attenuation of the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is promising, data from the same cohort reveal a concerning upward trend in the number of children with severe obesity. The consequences of severe childhood obesity can be devastating. When compared to their moderately obese peers, children with severe obesity are at greater risk for adult obesity, early atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease and premature death. The determinants for severe obesity include the same lifestyle, environmental, familial and societal risk factors reported for overweight or obesity. While all these risk factors must be screened for, genetic influences are distinct considerations that may have greater bearing especially with early-onset obesity. Treatments for severe childhood obesity include lifestyle intervention, specialised low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery. Outcomes of these treatments vary, with bariatric surgery clearly the most successful of the three for both short-term and long-term weight loss. Severe obesity in children and adolescents remains a challenging health condition. The enormous medical, emotional and financial burden these children and their families endure signals an urgent need to further investigate and standardise treatment modalities and improve outcomes.

  20. Severe childhood obesity: an under-recognised and growing health problem.

    PubMed

    Bass, Rosara; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2015-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious and urgent public health problem. In the last 10 years, there has been a concerted effort in the USA and globally to develop and implement educational, medical and public health interventions designed to attenuate its growth. The success of these efforts was probably responsible for the plateau in the prevalence rate of childhood obesity noted in the last two years. While the attenuation of the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is promising, data from the same cohort reveal a concerning upward trend in the number of children with severe obesity. The consequences of severe childhood obesity can be devastating. When compared to their moderately obese peers, children with severe obesity are at greater risk for adult obesity, early atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease and premature death. The determinants for severe obesity include the same lifestyle, environmental, familial and societal risk factors reported for overweight or obesity. While all these risk factors must be screened for, genetic influences are distinct considerations that may have greater bearing especially with early-onset obesity. Treatments for severe childhood obesity include lifestyle intervention, specialised low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery. Outcomes of these treatments vary, with bariatric surgery clearly the most successful of the three for both short-term and long-term weight loss. Severe obesity in children and adolescents remains a challenging health condition. The enormous medical, emotional and financial burden these children and their families endure signals an urgent need to further investigate and standardise treatment modalities and improve outcomes. PMID:26338983

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Gambling Severity Index-Chinese version (PGSI-C).

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Oei, Tian P S; Raylu, Namrata

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese 9-item Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) derived from the 31-item Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) originally developed by Ferris and Wynne (2001). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 386; Group A data) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 387; Group B data) on the Chinese student and community data (Mean age = 25.36 years) showed that a unifactorial model fitted the data with good reliability score (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). The concurrent validity of the PGSI-C was good in terms of the Chinese data matching the expected correlation between PGSI-C and other variables or scales such as SOGS, gambling frequency, gambling urge, gambling cognitions, depression, anxiety, and stress. The scale also reported good discriminant and predictive validity. In sum, the PGSI-C has good psychometric properties and can be used among Chinese communities to identify at-risk problem gamblers. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Stacey L; Andrews, Jane M; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. Methods Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed using the Treatment Perception Questionnaire (range: 0–40). Patients were stratified according to their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Forty patients scored in the extremely severe range of depression (score >14) and/or anxiety (score >10) (indicating SMHS) and 49 patients did not. An inductive content analysis was also conducted on qualitative data relating to areas of service improvement. Results Patients with SMHS were found to be equally satisfied with treatment (mean =25.10, standard deviation =8.12) as patients with an AUD alone (mean =25.43, standard deviation =6.91). Analysis revealed that being an inpatient in hospital was associated with reduced treatment satisfaction. Patients with SMHS were found to be significantly less satisfied with staffs’ understanding of the type of help they wanted in treatment, when compared to patients with AUDs alone. Five areas for service improvement were identified, including staff qualities, informed care, treatment access and continuity, issues relating to inpatient stay, and addressing patients’ mental health needs. Conclusion While findings suggest that AUD treatment services adequately meet the needs of patients with SMHS in treatment, patients with SMHS do feel that staff lack understanding of their treatment needs. Findings have

  3. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Yegorova, L.; Brockmeier, U.

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  4. Saami and Norwegian clients' use of a treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1992-04-01

    Saami people ("Lapps") and Norwegians make different use of primary health care services, and Larsen and Nergård (1) reported an under-representation of Saami clients at a treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems in Northern Norway in the years 1986-1988. However, Saami and Norwegian groups did not differ in number of days in treatment, number of treatment incidents, mean age or self-reported years of problem drinking. Since it is believed that Saami clients are under-represented in Norwegian treatment facilities because of cultural differences, the location of treatment facilities within a Saami municipality was expected to increase the incidence of Saami clients. The present study investigated the incidence of Saami clients at Karasjok treatment facility during 1988 and 1989, 8 and 9 years after the opening of this treatment centre. All clients registered at Finnmark County's treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems during 1988-89 were categorized as either Saami or Norwegian by their language preference. Unfortunately, the Saami group was still under-represented among clients at this treatment facility. In addition, a significant difference in the sex-ratio between the two groups was found, indicating that Saami women do not use the institution at all. Results are discussed in terms of availability of health services for minority groups.

  5. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  6. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  7. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.

  8. An altered neural response to reward may contribute to alcohol problems among late adolescents with an evening chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2013-01-01

    Evening chronotypes not only differ from morning-types in their sleep and circadian timing, but they are prone to problematic outcomes involving reward function, including affective disturbance, sensation seeking, and substance involvement. We explored the neural mechanisms underlying these chronotype differences by comparing the neural response to reward in morning- and evening-types. Using a monetary reward fMRI paradigm, we compared the neural response to reward in 13 morning-types and 21 evening-types (all 20 y/o males). Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS), comparing the chronotype groups in these ROIs during anticipation and outcome conditions, and adjusting for time of scan. Chronotype groups were also compared on measures of sensation-seeking, substance involvement, and sleep quality. Evening-types reported significantly greater levels of alcohol dependence and worse sleep quality. Furthermore, evening-types showed an altered neural response to reward relative to morning-types, specifically, reduced mPFC reactivity during reward anticipation and increased VS reactivity during win outcome. In turn, less activation in the mPFC region in response to reward was associated with greater alcohol consumption, while increased activation in the VS in response to reward was associated with more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Increased reward-related problems among evening-types may be accompanied by altered neural responses to reward. PMID:24144507

  9. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  10. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  11. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  12. Carer-Reported Contemporary Health Problems in People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Katy; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Identifying health problems in people with severe and profound disabilities and genetic syndromes can be problematic, and unidentified or unmanaged health problems may adversely impact an individual's quality of life. The authors studied carer-reported contemporary health problems in three genetic syndromes (Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Cri du…

  13. Neural Correlates of the Severity of Cocaine, Heroin, Alcohol, MDMA and Cannabis Use in Polysubstance Abusers: A Resting-PET Brain Metabolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Laura; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Fernández-Serrano, Maria José; Gómez-Río, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. Methods Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM) (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB) whole-brain analyses). In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. Results The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. Conclusions Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:22768136

  14. Repeated Diagnoses of Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders in a Prospective Study: Insights into the Extent and Nature of the Reliability and Validity Problem

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research indicates that assessments of lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show low sensitivity and are unreliable when assessed by a single, retrospective interview. This study sought to replicate and extend previous research by calculating the lifetime prevalence rate of AUDs using both single retrospective assessments of lifetime diagnosis and repeated assessments of both lifetime and past-year diagnoses over a 16-year period within the same high-risk sample. In addition, this study examined factors that contributed to the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Methods Using prospective data, the reliability and validity of lifetime estimates of alcohol dependence and AUD were examined in several ways. Data were drawn from a cohort of young adults at high and low risk for alcoholism, originally ascertained as first-time college freshmen (N = 489 at baseline) at a large, public university and assessed over 16 years. Results Compared with using a single, lifetime retrospective assessment of DSM-III disorders assessed at approximately age 34, lifetime estimates derived from using multiple, prospective assessments of both past-year and lifetime AUD were substantially higher (25% single lifetime vs. 41% cumulative past-year vs. 46% cumulative lifetime). This pattern of findings was also found when conducting these comparisons at the symptom level. Further, these results suggest that some factors (e.g., symptoms endorsed, prior consistency in reporting of a lifetime AUD, and family history status) are associated with the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Conclusions Based on these findings, lifetime diagnoses using a single measurement occasion should be interpreted with considerable caution given they appear to produce potentially large prevalence underestimates. These results provide further insight into the extent and nature of the reliability and validity problem with lifetime AUDs. PMID:24033811

  15. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  16. Alcoholism and the Family. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. C.

    Alcoholism, and particularly alcoholism in the family, is an unsolved medical and social problem. Addictive drinking results in several social and psychological problems, most of which are caused by a change in brain function. Excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages operates as a stressor and produces alkaloids at the base of the brain that are…

  17. Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood--where is the problem?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-07-25

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) is more common in late adolescence and early adulthood (approximately between the ages of 16 and 30) than in any other period in life. This is also the age when young people in Switzerland and many other European countries are legally allowed to buy and drink alcohol, but they usually do not yet have adult responsibilities. This paper reviews evidence from the international literature and provides examples of studies conducted in Switzerland demonstrating that (a) RSOD is by far most prevalent on Saturday evenings followed by Friday evenings, usually because young people go out and do not have any work or study responsibilities the next day; (b) RSOD results from drinking in private before going out ("predrinking") and accelerating the pace of drinking (i.e. increasing the number of drinks consumed per hour); (c) RSOD is often not accidental but purposeful,. to seek excitement, to have fun and to feel the effects of alcohol; (d) RSOD occurs predominantly outside the home, mostly in bars, pubs, discos or at special events and festivals; (e) RSOD often results in intended and unintended injuries and other acute consequences, which are leading risk factors for mortality and morbidity in this age group. Effective prevention strategies should include attempts to reduce opportunities to engage in heavy drinking as well as strategies to reduce its harmful consequences.

  18. Criminal and alcohol problems among Swedish drunk drivers--predictors of DUI relapse.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence and types of crime offences, as well as predictors of relapse, among drivers suspected of driving under influence (DUI) were investigated. A total of 1830 Swedish DUI drivers responded to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--AUDIT. Information about previous DUI offences, other traffic offences along with other types of criminal offences was taken from a crime register. A total criminality (including all traffic offences) of 64% in the period of five years before investigation was analyzed. 40% of the sample had other criminality besides traffic violations during that period. 14.3% of the drivers relapsed to DUI in the two-year period after the investigation. In terms of DUI relapse, the following factors were the main predictors: previous traffic violations, previous DUI offences, previous other criminality (frauds or other acts of dishonesty) and detection hours between 12.00 and 19.00. Detection in general traffic controls and high BAC (blood alcohol concentration) when detected were the strongest factors with negative correlation to DUI re-offence.

  19. The effectiveness of brief personalized normative feedback in reducing alcohol-related problems amongst University students: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Teresa; Foxcroft, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that university/college students tend to have an exaggerated view of the quantities of alcohol being consumed by their peers. Making students aware of this misperception may help change behaviour and reduce problem drinking. Methods/Design A Solomon Three Group Design will be used. There is one intervention group and two control groups, controlling separately for measurement and for intervention effects. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcomes are AUDIT Score, weekly consumption, perceived social norms, and alcohol related problems; secondary outcomes include alcohol expectancies and other health behaviours. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of an on-line personalized normative feedback intervention for alcohol misuse in university students. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN30784467 PMID:18402657

  20. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented. PMID:24693359

  1. Endorsement of Interpersonal Strategies for Dealing with Hypothetical Everyday Arthritis Problems as a Function of Marital Status, Gender, and Problem Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strough, Jonell; McFall, Joseph P.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    We used hypothetical vignettes to examine whether older adults' endorsement of interpersonal strategies for dealing with health-related (arthritis) everyday problems varied as a function of marital status, gender, and the severity of the problem. Adults 60 years and older (N= 127, M= 71.40 years, SD = 7.21) rated interpersonal (i.e., discuss with…

  2. Discussion topic and observed behavior in couples' problem-solving conversations: do problem severity and topic choice matter?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hannah C; Hanna, Mariam A; Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2013-04-01

    Communication behavior is an integral part of relationship functioning and, therefore, a common target of relationship interventions. Between-couple variability in observed behaviors is commonly interpreted as reflecting their underlying skill in communication, but other factors, including perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic being discussed, may also covary with communication behavior. The current study examined this possibility by testing whether these two aspects of discussion topics were associated with communication behavior. Ethnically diverse newlywed couples (N = 402 couples) were observed in their homes as they engaged in conflict resolution tasks. Resulting behavioral codes were examined in relation to perceived difficulty of the problem and the topic of the discussion. Higher levels of husband-reported problem difficulty were associated with higher levels of husband and wife negativity, independent of relationship satisfaction. After controlling for problem difficulty and relationship satisfaction, the topic of the discussion was associated with husband and wife positivity, husband and wife negativity, and wife effectiveness, indicating that some topics elicited better or worse communication than others. The substantive focus of couples' conflicts may play an important role in how they communicate, suggesting that the topic of discussion merits close attention in studies of couples and in relationship interventions.

  3. Adolescent Brain Development and the Risk for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in regions known to support complex cognition and behavior. Though fronto-subcortical circuitry development is notable during adolescence, asynchronous maturation of prefrontal and limbic systems may render youth more vulnerable to risky behaviors such as substance use. Indeed, binge-pattern alcohol consumption and comorbid marijuana use are common among adolescents, and are associated with neural consequences. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of adolescent brain development, particularly aspects that predispose individuals to reward seeking and risky choices during this phase of life, and discusses the influence of substance use on neuromaturation. Together, findings in this arena underscore the importance of refined research and programming efforts in adolescent health and interventional needs. PMID:20953990

  4. Alcohol Craving and Demand Mediate the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Teeters, Jenni B.; Pickover, Alison; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. Method We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol problems. Results Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI = .01 – .10), demand intensity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .0009 – .17), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .006 – .03) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 – .19). Conclusions Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  5. The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems.

    PubMed

    Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.

  6. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950

  7. Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Victoria N; Powell, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs.

  8. The Prevalence and Severity of Joint Problems and Disability in Patients with Poliomyelitis in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, S; Mcmillan, T; Sutherland, A; Sharan, D

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus infection of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. Up to 40% of survivors recover full muscle strength, however 60–90% are left with varying degrees of residual paralysis, where the patient suffers from cramping myalgia and lower motor neuron pattern weakness. This study aimed to identify and quantify, in terms of prevalence and severity of the types of joint deformities encountered in polio sufferers. It also aimed to assess the disability caused by such problems. Finally we documented the provision and use of mobility aids, orthotics and surgery in the patient group. Impairment was confined to one lower limb, and this is consistent, as the majority of patients were infected in infancy. The study found that pes cavus, scoliosis, flexion deformity of the knee and true lower-limb shortening accounted for over half of the deformities found. The mean Barthel Disability score was 19 and over 80% of patients used at least one aid, usually in the form of a Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFO). Surgery also plays a large in role in the management of polio patients, however necessity needs to be assessed on an individual basis taking into account many aspects of the patient’s life. PMID:26161158

  9. The Prevalence and Severity of Joint Problems and Disability in Patients with Poliomyelitis in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Baliga, S; Mcmillan, T; Sutherland, A; Sharan, D

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus infection of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. Up to 40% of survivors recover full muscle strength, however 60-90% are left with varying degrees of residual paralysis, where the patient suffers from cramping myalgia and lower motor neuron pattern weakness. This study aimed to identify and quantify, in terms of prevalence and severity of the types of joint deformities encountered in polio sufferers. It also aimed to assess the disability caused by such problems. Finally we documented the provision and use of mobility aids, orthotics and surgery in the patient group. Impairment was confined to one lower limb, and this is consistent, as the majority of patients were infected in infancy. The study found that pes cavus, scoliosis, flexion deformity of the knee and true lower-limb shortening accounted for over half of the deformities found. The mean Barthel Disability score was 19 and over 80% of patients used at least one aid, usually in the form of a Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFO). Surgery also plays a large in role in the management of polio patients, however necessity needs to be assessed on an individual basis taking into account many aspects of the patient's life. PMID:26161158

  10. The Prevalence and Severity of Joint Problems and Disability in Patients with Poliomyelitis in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Baliga, S; Mcmillan, T; Sutherland, A; Sharan, D

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus infection of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. Up to 40% of survivors recover full muscle strength, however 60-90% are left with varying degrees of residual paralysis, where the patient suffers from cramping myalgia and lower motor neuron pattern weakness. This study aimed to identify and quantify, in terms of prevalence and severity of the types of joint deformities encountered in polio sufferers. It also aimed to assess the disability caused by such problems. Finally we documented the provision and use of mobility aids, orthotics and surgery in the patient group. Impairment was confined to one lower limb, and this is consistent, as the majority of patients were infected in infancy. The study found that pes cavus, scoliosis, flexion deformity of the knee and true lower-limb shortening accounted for over half of the deformities found. The mean Barthel Disability score was 19 and over 80% of patients used at least one aid, usually in the form of a Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis (KAFO). Surgery also plays a large in role in the management of polio patients, however necessity needs to be assessed on an individual basis taking into account many aspects of the patient's life.

  11. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  12. State intervention in pregnancy: Should the law respond thus to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy poses a serious threat to the life and health of unborn children. A submission to the Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry proposed that the State's Child Protection Act be extended to allow intervention to protect unborn children, with a court empowered to order that the mother be taken into care pending birth, or otherwise impose conditions upon conduct. This article considers whether or not the law in Australia should respond to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder by allowing the involuntary treatment and detention of pregnant women. The focus, is upon intervention in response to existing pregnancies. Using a utilitarian critical framework, this article evaluates the merits of creating powers to compel treatment and detain in light of current legal principles relating to maternal autonomy and the legal position of the foetus. The common law position is considered, as well as current legislation allowing intervention in autonomous decision-making and whether or not these statutes may be enlivened to prevent foetal harm. This article suggests that permitting involuntary treatment and detention would be a significant policy change. It weighs up benefits and potential harms in considering whether or not such action would result in the most "good". PMID:26554205

  13. State intervention in pregnancy: Should the law respond thus to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy poses a serious threat to the life and health of unborn children. A submission to the Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry proposed that the State's Child Protection Act be extended to allow intervention to protect unborn children, with a court empowered to order that the mother be taken into care pending birth, or otherwise impose conditions upon conduct. This article considers whether or not the law in Australia should respond to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder by allowing the involuntary treatment and detention of pregnant women. The focus, is upon intervention in response to existing pregnancies. Using a utilitarian critical framework, this article evaluates the merits of creating powers to compel treatment and detain in light of current legal principles relating to maternal autonomy and the legal position of the foetus. The common law position is considered, as well as current legislation allowing intervention in autonomous decision-making and whether or not these statutes may be enlivened to prevent foetal harm. This article suggests that permitting involuntary treatment and detention would be a significant policy change. It weighs up benefits and potential harms in considering whether or not such action would result in the most "good".

  14. Procedures for Teachers of the Severely Handicapped to Follow In Controlling Serious Behavior Problems Within the Classroom. Change Episode Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James R.

    The report documents a problem solving approach to the adoption of procedures for dealing with serious behavior problems of severely emotionally disturbed and autistic students in California public schools. Summarized are a review of the literature, an analysis of general techniques of student control, and a list of advantages and disadvantages of…

  15. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  16. Treatment engagement in adolescents with severe psychiatric problems: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Roedelof, A J M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2013-08-01

    Motivation is considered a pivotal factor in treatment, but a better understanding of this topic is needed. Drieschner et al. (Clin Psychol Rev 23:1115-1137, 2004) proposed to distinguish treatment motivation and treatment engagement. This study aimed to discover whether it is possible to identify classes of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems having comparable profiles of treatment engagement. To this end, professionals filled out the Treatment Engagement Rating Scale 5 times for 49 adolescents (mean age 18.3 years; SD = 1.6) during the first year of case management treatment. Using a longitudinal latent class analysis, the number of profiles of treatment engagement was investigated and described. Results identified three profiles: high (19 clients, 39%), medium (20 clients, 41%) and low (10 clients, 20%). Adolescents with a high engagement profile were at first equally, and later on more engaged in treatment than clients with a medium engagement profile. Adolescents with a low engagement profile made the least effort to engage, except after 30 weeks. Adolescents with a low engagement profile were often substance-dependent males with the lowest scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale after a year. Only adolescents with a high engagement profile improved on global functioning. In conclusion, it is possible to identify different treatment engagement profiles by asking one question about level of global treatment engagement. Frequent assessment of engagement of the individual client as well as including a behavioural component into assessment and treatment may help to improve case management treatment for adolescents with medium and low engagement profiles.

  17. Cleanroom airborne particulate limits and 70% isopropyl alcohol: a lingering problem for pharmaceutical manufacturing?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Seventy percent isopropyl alcohol (70% IPA) in water for injection is extensively utilised within pharmaceutical cleanrooms for glove and surface disinfection. When supplied in pressurised containers and delivered as an aerosol, it has been demonstrated that large quantities of 70% IPA particles are generated that remain airborne for substantial periods of time. Within non-unidirectional airflow cleanroom areas, such particles are likely to be recorded by the particle monitoring system. Consequently, the derived operational limits for particles will almost certainly be at "artificially high" levels and any particle generating activities with contamination potential may be masked. These high particle levels may not comply with the requirements of Annex 1 of the European Unions Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices (EU GGMP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Aseptic Processing Guideline. This is the case predominantly for the larger particles (> or =5 microm), the monitoring of which is exclusively required by the Annex 1 guide. However, by using canisters that deliver the 70% IPA as a stream, large quantities of particles are not generated and more meaningful and compliant operational levels can be obtained. Additionally, the EU GGMP's Annex 1 continuing requirement to monitor particles > or =5 microm appears to have little value or scientific justification and restricts further harmonisation of the European guide with the US FDA Aseptic Processing Guideline.

  18. On Several Fundamental Problems of Optimization, Estimation, and Scheduling in Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qian

    For both the conventional radio frequency and the comparably recent optical wireless communication systems, extensive effort from the academia had been made in improving the network spectrum efficiency and/or reducing the error rate. To achieve these goals, many fundamental challenges such as power efficient constellation design, nonlinear distortion mitigation, channel training design, network scheduling and etc. need to be properly addressed. In this dissertation, novel schemes are proposed accordingly to deal with specific problems falling in category of these challenges. Rigorous proofs and analyses are provided for each of our work to make a fair comparison with the corresponding peer works to clearly demonstrate the advantages. The first part of this dissertation considers a multi-carrier optical wireless system employing intensity modulation (IM) and direct detection (DD). A block-wise constellation design is presented, which treats the DC-bias that conventionally used solely for biasing purpose as an information basis. Our scheme, we term it MSM-JDCM, takes advantage of the compactness of sphere packing in a higher dimensional space, and in turn power efficient constellations are obtained by solving an advanced convex optimization problem. Besides the significant power gains, the MSM-JDCM has many other merits such as being capable of mitigating nonlinear distortion by including a peak-to-power ratio (PAPR) constraint, minimizing inter-symbol-interference (ISI) caused by frequency-selective fading with a novel precoder designed and embedded, and further reducing the bit-error-rate (BER) by combining with an optimized labeling scheme. The second part addresses several optimization problems in a multi-color visible light communication system, including power efficient constellation design, joint pre-equalizer and constellation design, and modeling of different structured channels with cross-talks. Our novel constellation design scheme, termed CSK-Advanced, is

  19. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... who need them. Is the historical stigma of addiction diminishing as alcohol research teaches us more about ... well as medicines that can help fight alcohol addiction. Ideally in the future, health professionals would be ...

  20. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  1. Identification of Countermeasures for the Youth Crash Problem Related to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    Past research relevant to the problem and possible countermeasures are discussed as the basis for the survey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with male New York State drivers. These groups, each containing young and middle aged drivers were sampled as follows: (1) random sample of the general population of licensed drivers, (2) drivers…

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Severe Problem Behavior: Determining the Role of High Intensity Behaviors within Functional Response Classes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Jeffrey

    This final report describes a 3-year federally funded project designed to conduct an analysis of the factors that contribute to the performance of high intensity problem behaviors by students with severe disabilities. The project utilized a series of five integrated studies, which involved students with severe intellectual disabilities and the…

  3. The Chinese version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C): reliability, validity, and responsiveness in Chinese patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen; Chen, Hanhui; Su, Zhonghua; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Sheng; Hao, Wei; Zhang, Ruiling

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the 5th edition Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C-5) in Chinese male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Three hundred and fifty-four inpatients with alcohol dependence from five regions of China were interviewed in person by five trained interviewers using the ASI-C-5. Responses were then analyzed for internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness. Forty subjects were re-interviewed 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. The ASI-C-5 had good internal consistency, with an overall standardized Cronbach's alpha of 0.79. The Cronbach's alpha values for internal consistency of domain CSs ranged from 0.48 to 0.95, and were above 0.60 for six domains. The 7 day test-retest reliability was acceptable as evidenced by high Pearson correlation coefficients (0.75-0.92, p < 0.01) for 6 of 7 domain CSs. Correlation coefficients between the seven domain CSs ranged from 0.007 to 0.390 (p < 0.05 or 0.01 two-sided), indicating strong discriminant validity. The correlation coefficient between the alcohol dependence composite score of ASI-C-5 and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was 0.69 (p < 0.01), indicating good criterion validity. The frequency of extreme scores was low, except for significant floor effects in the "Drugs" and "Legal Status" domains. Collectively, these findings suggest that the ASI-C-5 exhibited strong reliability, validity, and responsiveness in Chinese male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

  4. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  5. The Relationship between the Severity of Eating Problems and Intellectual Developmental Deficit Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Eynat; Hardal-Nasser, Reem; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition, essential in the daily living functions promoting life quality of persons with intellectual developmental deficits (IDD), is adversely affected by the highly prevalent eating problems in these persons. The current study explores the characteristics of eating problems in population of children with intellectual developmental disorders.…

  6. Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, E G; Carlson, J I

    1993-01-01

    Problem behavior often prevents community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated a multicomponent approach for remediating problem behavior in public community settings (specifically, supermarkets). We selected treatments based on hypotheses about the variables controlling the problem behavior (hypothesis-driven model). The multicomponent intervention included choice making, embedding, functional communication training, building tolerance for delay of reinforcement, and presenting discriminative stimuli for nonproblem behavior. Treatment progress was monitored using measures of latency and task completion rather than traditional measures of frequency and time sampling. Results showed substantial increases in task completion and duration of time spent in supermarkets without problem behavior. Outcomes were socially validated by group-home staff and cashiers. We discuss how the intervention approach taken can resolve some of the issues involved in assessing, measuring, and treating problem behavior in the community. PMID:8331013

  7. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  8. Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27428756

  9. Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  11. Prediction of treatment outcome in a clinical sample of problem drinkers: self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Ralf; Beck, Beate; Lammers, André

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive processes related to client motivation are important mediators of alcoholism treatment outcome. The present study aimed to expand previous research on client motivation and treatment outcome by establishing the predictive utility of self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change in a sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 83). Treatment outcome was assessed three months following discharge. According to self-reported alcohol use, 22 clients were classified as abstainers and 41 clients as relapsers. Twenty participants were lost to follow-up. Readiness to change and anticipated reinforcement from alcohol predicted abstinence at follow-up. Client motivation was unrelated to both frequency and quantity of alcohol use. In accordance with social learning theory, self-efficacy was inversely correlated with alcohol expectancies. The results of the present study suggest that once abstinence has been violated factors other than pretreatment motivation determine drinking behavior.

  12. A comparison of several methods of solving nonlinear regression groundwater flow problems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Computational efficiency and computer memory requirements for four methods of minimizing functions were compared for four test nonlinear-regression steady state groundwater flow problems. The fastest methods were the Marquardt and quasi-linearization methods, which required almost identical computer times and numbers of iterations; the next fastest was the quasi-Newton method, and last was the Fletcher-Reeves method, which did not converge in 100 iterations for two of the problems.-from Author

  13. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  14. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the development of adolescent alcohol problems: A prospective, population-based study of Swedish twins.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Pettersson, Erik; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of problematic alcohol and other substance use in adolescence. This study used data from an ongoing, prospective, population-based twin study of Swedish children and adolescents to evaluate the extent to which the association between ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems reflects a unique source of genetic or environmental risk related to ADHD versus a broader predisposition to youth externalizing behavior. We used all available data from same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins on ADHD symptoms in childhood (age 9/12; N = 15,549) and alcohol problems in late adolescence (age 18; N = 2,564). Consistent with prior longitudinal studies, the phenotypic association between hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems was small in magnitude, whereas the association for inattentive symptoms was even weaker. Additive genetic influences explained 99.8% of the association between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and alcohol problems. Furthermore, we found that the genetic risk specifically associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms was attenuated when estimated in the context of externalizing behavior liability during childhood, of which ADHD symptoms were specific expressions. In sensitivity analyses exploring hyperactivity in mid-adolescence, we found a similar pattern of genetic associations. These results are consistent with previous findings of genetically driven overlap in the etiology of ADHD and problematic alcohol use. At least some of this co-occurrence may result from a general predisposition to externalizing behaviors in youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  16. Design of a Web-based individual coping and alcohol-intervention program (web-ICAIP) for children of parents with alcohol problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program) for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to measure the efficacy of this intervention. Methods/Design The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old) who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Additional outcomes include the "Ladder of life

  17. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  18. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  19. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  20. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  1. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  2. Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…

  3. Projects to Measure the Effects of Computers on Campuses Make Major Advances, Leave Several Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1989-01-01

    The most important results of computer networking experiments on campus may be increased use of technology, but the projects did not always take the directions anticipated. The projects also highlighted problems in social and educational systems that must be solved before computing can be comfortably integrated into higher education. (MSE)

  4. Psychological Maltreatment in Relation to Substance Use Problem Severity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…

  5. Idiosyncratic Functions: Severe Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Ritualistic Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Nicole; Kahng, SungWoo; Farrell, Ellen; Mongeon, Camille

    2009-01-01

    The development of functional analysis technology has been an important tool in the assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors among individuals with developmental disabilities. In some cases, the function of problem behavior may be idiosyncratic in nature, making modifications to functional analyses necessary. In the current study, a…

  6. Early Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems: The Use of Judgment-Based Assessment Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Early Intervention Program of the Department of Behavioral Psychology at the Kennedy Institute and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is a demonstration, research, and training program focused on the primary and secondary prevention of serious childhood behavior problems. Four assessment and intervention protocols are described…

  7. Local policies to tackle a national problem: Comparative qualitative case studies of an English local authority alcohol availability intervention.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Brennan, Alan; Buykx, Penny; De Vocht, Frank; Gavens, Lucy; Grace, Daniel; Halliday, Emma; Hickman, Matthew; Holt, Vivien; Mooney, John D; Lock, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlets and high rates of alcohol related harms. CIPs have been advocated as a means of protecting health by controlling or limiting alcohol availability. We use a comparative qualitative case study approach (n=5 English local government authorities, 48 participants) to assess how CIPs vary across different localities, what they are intended to achieve, and the implications for local-level alcohol availability. We found that the case study CIPs varied greatly in terms of aims, health focus and scale of implementation. However, they shared some common functions around influencing the types and managerial practices of alcohol outlets in specific neighbourhoods without reducing outlet density. The assumption that this will lead to alcohol harm-reduction needs to be quantitatively tested.

  8. Family Behavior Therapy for Use in Child Welfare: Results of a Case Study Involving an Abused Woman Formally Diagnosed With Alcohol Dependence, Bipolar Disorder, and Several Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Donohue, Brad C.; Hill, Heather H.; Powell, Suzanne; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The results of a multiple-baseline case study of family behavior therapy (FBT) is described in a woman formally diagnosed with alcohol dependence, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. She was referred to treatment from the local Department of Family Services for child neglect and domestic violence. After baseline measures were administered, the first phase of treatment involved home safety tours aimed at reducing home hazards and cleanliness. A second phase of treatment additionally targeted family relationships through communication skills training exercises, and a third phase involved administration of the remaining FBT components to assist in comprehensively addressing other problem areas. Results indicated most problem areas were substantially improved, but only after they were comprehensively targeted in therapy. PMID:23136557

  9. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  10. Rewarding results: Improving the quality of treatment for people with alcohol and drug problems.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Substance use disorders are the nation's number one health problem, and lie at the root of many public safety and workplace issues. Improving quality of treatment is as important as improving access to treatment. Leadership for improvement must come from many sources: Congress, SAMHSA, state legislatures, state and local treatment agencies, criminal justice, welfare and other public agencies, employers and managed care organizations, providers, and community leaders. We hope that our report helps leaders see ways to improve treatment quality. Our recommendations can be summed up in a single phrase: reward results. We recognize that there are many avenues for treatment quality improvement, including training, credentialing, best practice dissemination, work force development, facility licensing standards, improvement and implementation of new models for treatment of dual diagnosis patients. We believe, however, that rewarding results is essential to motivating action for improvement. We also believe that if providers receive rewards for improved results, they will creatively open new avenues for improvement--a focus on results gives greater freedom than more detailed mandates for change. Finally, we believe that rewards for result may lead to a restructured treatment system with greater stability and correspondingly greater capacity to improve. While we have placed central emphasis on the role of institutional buyers and managers of care, we believe that the voices of patients and families must be heard. People who have progressed to the stage of recovery, and their families, often have essential insight into what did and did not work for them--their personal stories are frequently compelling and persuasive. We also believe that providers of treatment for substance use disorders are profoundly committed to serving their patients, and often have great understanding of what works. Wise managers will listen very carefully and systematically to the voices of consumers

  11. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  12. Problem Severity Profiles of Substance Abusing Women in Therapeutic Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine specific substance use profiles among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrant and native-born women in Israeli therapeutic treatment facilities. Individuals were sampled at drug treatment facilities and assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. ASI scores suggest differences between the two groups. Among the findings…

  13. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  14. A Study of the Experiences of Parents with Home-Schooled Pre-Adolescent Children with Severe Multiple Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties encountered by parents caring for pre-adolescent children who have severe multiple health problems. Working within the frameworks of narrative psychotherapy (Spence, 1982; Viederman & Perry, 1980; Vitz, 1992; Benjamin, 1998), the researcher examined parents' discourses and identified the strategies they…

  15. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Gregory L.; Huber, Heartley B.; Carter, Erik W.; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137…

  16. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  17. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research. PMID:27351700

  18. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  19. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  20. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  1. Review of Strategies for Treating Sleep Problems in Persons with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation or Multiple Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Basili, Gabriella

    1999-01-01

    A review of 14 studies on treatment strategies for sleep problems in individuals with severe mental retardation found the following treatments had been used: sleep scheduling, bedtime routine plus gradual distancing of parents, extinction, bedtime fading with or without response cost, chronotherapy, and melatonin. Results of treatments are…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  3. Children's appraisals of conflict, beliefs about aggression, and externalizing problems in families characterized by severe intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Vu, Nicole L; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2014-12-01

    This research examined whether children's threat and self-blame appraisals regarding interparental conflict and their beliefs about the justifiability of aggression predicted children's externalizing problems in families in which there had been recent severe intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls) aged 7 to 10 and their mothers. Families in which there had been recent severe IPV were recruited during their stay at a domestic violence shelter. Children completed measures of threat, self-blame, beliefs about the justifiability of aggression, and externalizing problems. Mothers completed a measure of children's externalizing problems. Measures were completed at 3 time points, spaced 6 months apart. In multilevel modeling analyses, threat appraisals and beliefs about the justifiability of aggression were positively associated with children's reports of externalizing problems concurrently, and self-blame appraisals were positively associated with mothers' reports of externalizing problems concurrently. In prospective analyses, beliefs about the justifiability of aggression at 1 time point were positively associated with children's reports of externalizing problems 6 months later. The results provide partial support for the modified cognitive-contextual framework. PMID:25221973

  4. Agreement between Self-Report and Archival Public Service Utilization Data among Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Collins, Susan E.; Tanzer, Kenneth; Burlingham, Bonnie; Hoang, Sara E.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Public service utilization data are often used as key outcomes in studies on homelessness. Although self-report data on these outcomes are accessible and cost-effective, various factors may affect retrospective recall in homeless populations. It is therefore necessary to establish validity of self-report to ensure the integrity of studies…

  5. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Edward F; Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Raviv, Tali

    2011-10-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9-11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:21966081

  6. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  8. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507), unemployment (effect size = 0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect

  9. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  10. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-01-01

    A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC) and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.

  11. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  12. Variability of "optimal" cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain: neglected problems when comparing groups.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Defining cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain intensity on the basis of differences in functional interference has an intuitive appeal. The statistical procedure to derive them proposed in 1995 by Serlin et al. has been widely used. Contrasting cut points between populations have been interpreted as meaningful differences between different chronic pain populations. We explore the variability associated with optimally defined cut points in a large sample of chronic pain patients and in homogeneous subsamples. Ratings of maximal pain intensity (0-10 numeric rating scale, NRS) and pain-related disability were collected in a sample of 2249 children with chronic pain managed in a tertiary pain clinic. First, the "optimal" cut points for the whole sample were determined. Second, the variability of these cut points was quantified by the bootstrap technique. Third, this variability was also assessed in homogeneous subsamples of 650 children with constant pain, 430 children with chronic daily headache, and 295 children with musculoskeletal pain. Our study revealed 3 main findings: (1) The optimal cut points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in the whole sample were 4 and 8 (0-10 NRS). (2) The variability of these cut points within the whole sample was very high, identifying the optimal cut points in only 40% of the time. (3) Similarly large variability was also found in subsamples of patients with a homogeneous pain etiology. Optimal cut points are strongly influenced by random fluctuations within a sample. Differences in optimal cut points between study groups may be explained by chance variation; no other substantial explanation is required. Future studies that aim to interpret differences between groups need to include measures of variability for optimal cut points.

  13. Mediators of the Association between Parental Severe Mental Illness and Offspring Neurodevelopmental Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Brittany M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Parental severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increased risk of offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We conducted a study to examine the extent to which risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) mediated this association. Methods We obtained data on offspring born 1992-2001 in Sweden (n = 870,017) through the linkage of multiple population-based registers. We used logistic and Cox regression to assess the associations between parental SMI, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and offspring ASD and ADHD, as well as tested whether adverse pregnancy outcomes served as mediators. Results After controlling for measured covariates, maternal and paternal SMI were associated with an increased risk for PTB, LBW, and SGA, as well as for offspring ASD and ADHD. These pregnancy outcomes were also associated with an increased risk of ASD and ADHD. We found that pregnancy outcomes did not mediate the association between parental SMI and offspring ASD and ADHD, as there was no substantial change in magnitude of the risk estimates after controlling for pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Parental SMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes appear to be independent risk factors for offspring ASD and ADHD. PMID:25037304

  14. The relationship of alcohol outlet density to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems among college students at eight universities.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Folkman, Alison; Folkman, M P H Kerry Lemieux; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether alcohol outlet density was correlated with heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems, we compared ecological measures of outlet density with survey measures of drinking using a geographic information system and the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (n=3,421, site n=8). We identified 966 outlets within 8 2-mile study areas. Densities/site ranged from 32 to 185. Density was correlated with heavy drinking (r=0.82, p=0.01), frequent drinking (r=0.73, p=0.04) and drinking-related problems (r=0.79, p=0.02). Women, underage students and students who picked up binge drinking in college were affected. Implications for prevention and research are discussed.

  15. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  16. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    PubMed

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  17. Validation of AshTest as a Non-Invasive Alternative to Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Severe Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudler, Marika; Mouri, Sarah; Charlotte, Frederic; Cluzel, Philippe; Ngo, Yen; Munteanu, Mona; Lebray, Pascal; Ratziu, Vlad; Thabut, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims According to guidelines, the histological diagnosis of severe alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) can require liver biopsy if a specific treatment is needed. The blood test AshTest (BioPredictive, Paris, France) has been initially validated for the non-invasive diagnosis of ASH in a large population of heavy drinkers. The aim was to validate the AshTest accuracy in the specific context of use of patients with suspected severe ASH, in order to reduce the need for transjugular biopsy before deciding treatment. Methods The reference was liver biopsy, performed using the transjugular route, classified according to its histological severity as none, minimal, moderate or severe. Biopsies were assessed by the same experienced pathologist, blinded to simultaneous AshTest results. Results A total of 123 patients with severe clinical ASH (recent jaundice and Maddrey function greater or equal to 32) were included, all had cirrhosis and 80% had EASL histological definition of ASH. 95% of patients received prednisolone; and the 2-year mortality was 63%. The high AshTest performance was confirmed both for the binary outcome [AUROC = 0.803 (95%CI 0.684–0.881)] significantly higher than the AST/ALT AUROC [0.603 (0.462–0.714); P<0.001], and for the severity of ASH-score system by the Obuchowski measures for [mean (SE) 0.902 (0.017) vs. AST/ALT 0.833 (0.023); P = 0.01], as well as for the diagnosis and severity of ballooning, PMN and Mallory bodies. According to attributability of discordances, AshTest had a 2–7% risk of 2 grades misclassification. Conclusion These results confirmed the diagnostic performance of AshTest in cirrhotic patients with severe clinical ASH, in the specific context of use of corticosteroid treatment. AshTest is an appropriate non-invasive alternative to transjugular liver biopsy. PMID:26252713

  18. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  19. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  20. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...